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Sample records for ground-water surveillance project

  1. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  2. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  3. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility.

  5. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  6. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  8. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  9. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  10. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in the Wichita River basin includes the construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of the North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to: (1) Define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow fresh-water system of the project area; and (2) project the post-construction effects of the proposed lake on the fresh-water aquifer, especially in relation to hydraulic-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  12. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  13. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  14. Feasibility of ground-water features of the alternate plan for the Mountain Home project, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.; West, S.W.; Mowder, R.W.

    1957-01-01

    An early plan of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation proposed to irrigate 183,000 acres on the arid Snake River Plain south of Boise, Idaho (Mountain Home project) with Boise River water. That water would have been replaced to the Boise Valley with water imported from the Payette River. An alternate plan, proposed in 1953, would divert water from the Boise River to the plain; part of the water would be replaced by pumping ground water in the Boise valley and by importing water from the Snake River. Pumping of ground water in the Boise Valley also would help to drain waterlogged land. The present report evaluates the feasibility of the alternate plan in relation to geology and the occurrence and quality of ground water. The mean annual temperature at Boise is 50.8 ? F and there is an average of 172 days between killing frosts. The annual evaporation rate from open-water surfaces in the area is about 33 inches. Runoff in the Boise River is chiefly from precipitation on mountain slopes at altitudes above 3,000 feet, east of Boise Diversion Dam. The surface-water supply of the Boise Valley is more Than ample for the valley, owing to large upstream storage and regulatory dams and reservoirs. The valley also contains a large volume of ground water in storage, and the perennial rate of recharge is large. The computed consumptive depletion of surface water in the valley is nearly 600,000 acre-feet a year. Apparent depletion, computed from adjusted runoff at Notus, is 1,070,000 acre-feet. The difference of 470,000 acre-feet represents ground-water underflow and ungaged surface outflow from the area east of Notus. After the beginning of irrigation, around the turn of the century, the water table in the Boise Valley rose steadily; the amount of rise at some places was as much as 140 feet. Shallow perched zones of saturation were created locally. More than 100,000 acres of Boise Valley land now is waterlogged or threatened with waterlogging, despite the presence of more than 325

  15. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel

  16. Test holes drilled in support of ground-water investigations, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    Project Gnome is a proposed underground nuclear shot to be detonated within a massive salt bed in Eddy County, N. Mex. Potable and neat potable ground water is present in rocks above the salt and is being studied in relation to this nuclear event. This report presents details of two test holes which were drilled to determine ground-water conditions in the near vicinity of the shot point. A well-defined aquifer is present at the site of USGS test hole 1, about 1,000 feet south of the access shaft to the underground shot point. Water with 75 feet of artesian pressure head is contained in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. The dolomite aquifer is 32 feet thick and its top lies at a depth of 517 feet below land surface. The aquifer yielded 100 gpm (gallons per minute) with a drawdown of 40 feet during a pumping period of 24 hours. Water was not found in rocks above or below the Culebra dolomite. At the site of USGS test hole 2, about 2 miles southwest of the access shaft no distinctive aquifer exists. About one-half gpm was yielded to the well from the rocks between the Culebra dolomite and the top of the salt. Water could not be detected in the Culebra dolomite or overlying rocks. The report contains drawdown and recovery curves of yield tests, drilling-time charts, and electric logs. The data are given in tables; they include summaries of hole construction, sample description logs, water measurements, drilling-time logs, and water analyses.

  17. Reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of the Belle Fourche irrigation project, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Arthur J.

    1952-01-01

    The Belle Fourche irrigation project is in western South Dakota on the plains adjacent to the northeastern edge of the Black Hills. The project is drained by the Belle Fourche River and is characterized generally by broad shallow valleys that lie between hills with gentle slopes. The climate is semiarid. Most of the area is mantled by residual clay, terrace deposits, and alluvium. The terrace deposits contain much water and are the most permeable deposits in the project area. The alluvial deposits of the Belle Fourche River and of the creeks south of the river contain much sand and gravel and are relatively permeable. The alluvium of the creeks north of the river is predominantly clay and is only slightly permeable; it greatly resembles the residual clay of the weathered bedrock formations, which are mostly shale in this area. Although relatively abundant ground water is found in the unconsolidated materials above the bedrock formations, the ground water from the clayey deposits generally contains too great a concentration of objectionable salts to be fit for human or livestock consumption. The ground water in the more coarse materials is of better quality and in some small areas is satisfactory for domestic use. Most of the water for domestic use is hauled from deep artesian wells within the area. The chief source of ground water is seepage from irrigation canals in the terrace and alluvial deposits. When this water moves to areas of lower permeability a correspondingly greater rise of the water table compensates for the lower permeability and results in the waterlogging of many areas. Open drainage ditches have been constructed in all large areas that are affected by high ground-water levels. Except in those areas that are underlain predominantly by clayey materials, these ditches usually have proven to be satisfactory for the control of ground-water levels. However, lining the canals seems to be a more satisfactory method of preventing the seepage that causes

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) was updated to include new information on the hydrogeologic framework (Hawley, J.W., Haase, C.S., and Lozinsky, R.P., 1995, An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin: Proceedings of the 39th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, November 3-4, 1994, p. 37-55). An additional year of ground-water-withdrawal data was appended to the simulation of the historical period and incorporated into the base for future projections to the year 2020. The revised model projects the simulated ground-water levels associated with an aerally enlarged occurrence of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of the Santa Fe Group east and west of the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area and north to Bernalillo. Although the differences between the two model versions are substantial, the revised model does not contradict any previous conclusions about the effect of City of Albuquerque ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Rio Grande or the net benefits of an effort to conserve ground water. Recent revisions to the hydrogeologic model (Hawley, J.W., Haneberg, W.C., and Whitworth, P.M., in press, Hydrogeologic investigations in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1992-1995: Socorro, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Open- File Report 402) of the Albuquerque Basin eventually will require that this model version also be revised and updated.

  19. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  20. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  1. Projected effects of proposed salinity-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the upper Brazos River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1982-01-01

    As part of the plan to control the natural salt pollution in the upper Brazos River basin of Texas, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers recommended construction of three impoundment and retention reservoirs. In connection with the proposed reservoirs, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow ground-water system of the area and to project the post-construction effects of the reservoirs on the shallow aquifer, especially in relation to aquifer-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  2. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford project, January-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1980-04-01

    Operations on the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and low-level liquid radioactive waste to the ground. Radioactivity and chemical substances have been carried with these discharges and have reached the Hanford ground water. For may years wells have been used as groundwater sampling structures to gather data on the distribution and movement of these discharges as they interact with the unconfined ground water beneath the site. During 1979, 317 wells were sampled on various frequencies from weekly to annually. This report is one of a series prepared annually to document the evaluation of the status of ground water on the Hanford Site. Data collected during 1979 describe the movement of radionuclide (Tritium and Beta) and nitrate plumes that respond to the influence of groundwater flow, ionic dispersion and radioactive decay.

  3. RADIOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE GROUND-WATER BENEATH THE HANFORD PROJECT JANUARY-DECEMBER 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, PA

    1979-04-01

    This report is one of a series prepared annually for the Department of Energy, to provide an evaluation of the status of ground-water contamination resulting from Hanford's onsite discharges. Data collected during 1978 describe the movement of major plumes {{beta}{sub t}, {sup 3}H, NO{sub 3}) that respond to the influences of ground-water flow, ionic dispersion and radioactive decay. The total beta plume continues to recede, with the exception of a beta source that is beginning to show up in the 300 Area, a result of minor spills and leaks which have occurred during the operating life of the 300 Area. The tritium plume continues to expand and is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, although its contribution to the river cannot be distinguished from that attributable to atmospheric fallout. The plume now shows much the same configuration as in 1977. The nitrate plume shows general stability relative to its size with concentrations in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continuing to be high as a result of leaks from the evaporation facility. The results of a study to determine the vertical distribution of contaminants in the Hanford ground-water system indicate that the majority of contaminants are stratified in the upper portions of the unconfined aquifer.

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.; Thorn, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque Basin, which comprises the Santa Fe Group (late Oligocene to middle Pleistocene age) and overlying valley and basin-fill deposits (Pleistocene to Holocene age). The model is designed to be flexible and adaptive to new geologic and hydrologic information as it becomes available by using a geographic information system as a data-base manager to interface with the model. The aquifer system was defined and quantified in the model consistent with the current (July 1994) understanding of the structural and geohydrologic framework of the basin. Rather than putting the model through a rigorous calibration process, dis- crepancies between simulated and measured responses in hydraulic head were taken to indicate that the understanding of a local part of the aquifer system was incomplete or incorrect. The model simulates ground-water flow over an area of about 2,400 square miles to a depth of 1,730 to about 2,020 feet below the water table with 244 rows, 178 columns, and 11 layers. Of the 477,752 cells in the model, 310,376 are active. The top four model layers approximate the 80-foot thickness of alluvium in the incised and refilled valley of the Rio Grande to provide detail of the effect of ground-water withdrawals on the surface- water system. Away from the valley these four layers represent the interval within the Santa Fe Group aquifer system between the com- puted predevelopment water table and a level 80 feet below the grade of the Rio Grande. The simulations include initial condi- tions (steady-state), the 1901-1994 historical period, and four possible ground-water withdrawal scenarios from 1994 to 2020. The model indicates that for the year ending in March 1994, net surface-water loss in the basin resulting from the City of Albuquerque's ground-water withdrawal totaled about 53,000 acre- feet. The balance of the about 123

  6. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  10. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  11. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  16. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    the model. Areally specified recharge rates ranged from 0 to about 30 inches and total recharge increased from 1972 to 1998 by a factor of about four. Water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated using the calibrated model. Simulations represented a period of 50 years into the future in three scenarios with either unchanged pumpage, pumpage increased by historic trends, or pumpage increased by historic trends except in two areas of the Grand Prairie. If pumping remains at 1997 rates, this produces extreme water-level declines (areas where model cells have gone dry or where the water level in the aquifer is equal to or less than the original saturated thickness, assuming confined conditions in the aquifer everywhere in the formation in predevelopment times) in the aquifer in two areas of the aquifer (one in the Grand Prairie area between the Arkansas and White Rivers and the other west of Crowleys Ridge along the Cache River) with about 400 square miles going dry. Increasing the pumping rates to that which would be projected using historic data led to increased extreme water-level declines in both areas with about 1,300 square miles going dry. Declines in both scenarios generally occurred most rapidly between 2009 and 2019. Reducing the pumping rates to 90 percent of that used for projected historic rates in areas between the Arkansas and White Rivers relating to two diversion projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies did little to decrease the extreme water-level declines. However, these pumpage reductions are small (amounting to about 16 percent of the reductions that could result from implementation of these diversion projects).

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  18. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  19. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area (Appendix A) and near the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix B). Volume 1 discusses the 10 projects. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract AC06-76RL01830.

  2. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  4. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety; Etat de la surveillance environnementale et bilan du marquage des nappes phreatiques et des cours d'eau autour des sites nucleaires et des entreposages anciens de dechets radioactifs. Rapport pour le Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results.

  5. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  7. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  8. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  9. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  10. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  11. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  12. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  13. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  14. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  15. Simulated effects of projected withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifer on ground-water levels in the Camden, New Jersey, area and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is being considered as a potential source of future water supply for the Camden, New Jersey, area. The deeper Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is currently the major major source of water supply for the area, but its use may be curtailed or reduced by 35 percent of 1983 withdrawals through its designation by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy as "Water Supply Critical Area#2." Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer currently (1989) total about 7 million gallons per day. The anticipated use of this aquifer by communities with access to it, as an alternative supply, could increase to more than 14 million gallons per day by 2020. If the communities of Clayton and Glassboro decrease their withdrawals from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system by 50 percent or cease them entirely because of their proximity to saline water, the use of Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer could increase to greater than 15 million gallons per day by 2020. Simulation of the ground-water system indicates that the projected increase in withdrawals will cause cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in the Camden metro- politan area by 2020 that extend to depths ranging from 10 feet above sea level to 60 feet below sea level. This represents a secline of about 40 to 100 feet thr 1990 conditions. Withdrawals in northeastern Burlington County will cause a large cone of depression that, by 2020, will extend to depths of about 220 feet below sea level, represent- ing a decline of about 140 feet from 1990 conditions. Simulation results indicate that water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer near the Salem Nuclear Power Plant are somewhat insensitive to withdrawals elsewhere in the aquifer. In some areas, especially in Burlington County, the cones of depression have developed in proximity to the aquifer-outcrop area and could induce infiltration from streams crossing the

  16. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 2008 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the work performed by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) during the 2008 surveillance period. The objectives of the project were to employ...

  17. Teale Ground Water Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  18. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  19. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  20. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  1. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  2. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  3. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  4. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  5. Pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate critical factors in the performance of the site with respect to a criterion in terms of pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time. The degree of failure in the analytical model to meet the criterion is sensitive to the estimate of fracture porosity in the upper welded unit of the problem domain. Fracture porosity is derived from a number of more fundamental measurements including fracture frequency, fracture orientation, and the moisture-retention characteristic inferred for the fracture domain.

  6. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  8. Montana 2007 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project were to employ multiple sampling strategies to maximize the change of detecting HP-H5N1, including sampling live and hunter-harvested...

  9. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  11. A review of quality surveillance projects on cosmetics in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Chung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Drug Administration in Taiwan is responsible for the quality regulation and control of cosmetics. In order to have a clear understanding of the trends in the product quality monitoring outcomes and the regulatory control measures over the past years, this study has put together the reports of nine cosmetic surveillance projects conducted between 1982 and 2012. The findings can be used as a reference in developing a more solid quality monitoring plan and management system for cosmetic products. Results show that permanent wave products, hair dye products, and phthalate esters in cosmetic products have the highest average noncompliance rates at 39.2%, 14.2%, and 11.2%, respectively. These are followed by the average noncompliance rates of mercury in products, sunscreen products, and microorganisms in products, at 8.5%, 7.1%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the remaining three projects averaging below 4.1%. Since 1997, when new standards were announced and assistance to manufacturers was reinforced, the noncompliance rates of permanent wave products decreased annually, until 2007, when it was fully qualified for the standards. Overall, the study showed that the noncompliance rates of permanent wave products and for levels of phthalate esters, mercury, and hydroquinone in cosmetic products have all decreased in the previous years. The results of surveillance projects conducted after 2005 revealed only one noncompliance sample with lead, arsenic, and cadmium, whereas the surveillance projects on permanent wave products and chloroform- and 1,4-dioxane-containing products revealed full compliance with regulation standards. However, the noncompliance rates for microorganisms in cosmetics and the ingredients in hair dye products and sunscreen products were still high. These high-risk products must be monitored. These surveillance projects are conducted to ensure the safety of cosmetics in the market.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  13. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020; (supplement three to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) and revised by Kernodle (Kernodle, J.M., 1998, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, 1901-95, with projections to 2020 (supplement two to U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-209, 54 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  16. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  17. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  18. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  19. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-94, with projections to 2020; (supplement one to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  20. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  1. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  2. 10 Steps to Building an Architecture for Space Surveillance Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorko, E.; Barnhart, E.; Gans, H.

    Space surveillance is an increasingly complex task, requiring the coordination of a multitude of organizations and systems, while dealing with competing capabilities, proprietary processes, differing standards, and compliance issues. In order to fully understand space surveillance operations, analysts and engineers need to analyze and break down their operations and systems using what are essentially enterprise architecture processes and techniques. These techniques can be daunting to the first- time architect. This paper provides a summary of simplified steps to analyze a space surveillance system at the enterprise level in order to determine capabilities, services, and systems. These steps form the core of an initial Model-Based Architecting process. For new systems, a well defined, or well architected, space surveillance enterprise leads to an easier transition from model-based architecture to model-based design and provides a greater likelihood that requirements are fulfilled the first time. Both new and existing systems benefit from being easier to manage, and can be sustained more easily using portfolio management techniques, based around capabilities documented in the model repository. The resulting enterprise model helps an architect avoid 1) costly, faulty portfolio decisions; 2) wasteful technology refresh efforts; 3) upgrade and transition nightmares; and 4) non-compliance with DoDAF directives. The Model-Based Architecting steps are based on a process that Harris Corporation has developed from practical experience architecting space surveillance systems and ground systems. Examples are drawn from current work on documenting space situational awareness enterprises. The process is centered on DoDAF 2 and its corresponding meta-model so that terminology is standardized and communicable across any disciplines that know DoDAF architecting, including acquisition, engineering and sustainment disciplines. Each step provides a guideline for the type of data to

  3. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  4. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  7. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  8. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  11. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  12. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  13. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  14. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  15. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  17. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  18. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance - The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 27 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Harvey, Alesia; Papp, John R; Del Rio, Carlos; Soge, Olusegun O; Holmes, King K; Hook, Edward W; Kubin, Grace; Riedel, Stefan; Zenilman, Jonathan; Pettus, Kevin; Sanders, Tremeka; Sharpe, Samera; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-07-15

    Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States; 350,062 gonorrhea cases were reported in 2014. Sexually transmitted infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which can lead to serious reproductive complications including tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Prevention of sequelae and of transmission to sexual partners relies largely on prompt detection and effective antimicrobial treatment. However, treatment has been compromised by the absence of routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinical care and evolution of antimicrobial resistance to the antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea. 2014. The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) was established in 1986 as a sentinel surveillance system to monitor trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae strains in the United States. Each month, N. gonorrhoeae isolates are collected from up to the first 25 men with gonococcal urethritis attending each of the participating sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics at 27 sites. The number of participating sites has varied over time (21-30 per year). Selected demographic and clinical data are abstracted from medical records. Isolates are tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using agar dilution at one of five regional laboratories. A total of 5,093 isolates were collected in 2014. Of these, 25.3% were resistant to tetracycline, 19.2% to ciprofloxacin, and 16.2% to penicillin (plasmid-based, chromosomal, or both). Reduced azithromycin susceptibility (Azi-RS) (defined as minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥2.0 µg/mL) increased from 0.6% in 2013 to 2.5% in 2014. The increase occurred in all geographic regions, but was greatest in the Midwest, and among all categories of sex of sex partners (men who have sex with men [MSM], men who have sex with men and women [MSMW], and men who have sex with women [MSW]). No Azi-RS isolates

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  2. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  3. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  4. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  5. Salinization of a fresh palaeo-ground water resource by enhanced recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaney, F W; Herczeg, A L; Walker, G R

    2003-01-01

    Deterioration of fresh ground water resources caused by salinization is a growing issue in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. We discuss here the incipient salinization of a 10(4) km2 area of fresh ground water (Ground water 14C concentrations and unsaturated zone Cl soil water inventories indicate that the low salinity ground water originated mainly from palaeo-recharge during wet climatic periods more than 20,000 years ago. However, much of the soil water in the 20 to 60 m thick unsaturated zone throughout the area is generally saline (>15,000 mg/L) because of relatively high evapotranspiration during the predominantly semiarid climate of the last 20,000 years. Widespread clearing of native vegetation over the last 100 years and replacement with crops and pastures leads to enhancement of recharge rates that progressively displace the saline soil-water from the unsaturated zone into the ground water. To quantify the impact of this new hydrologic regime, a one-dimensional model that simulates projected ground water salinities as a function of depth to ground water, recharge rates, and soil water salt inventory was developed. Results from the model suggest that, in some areas, the ground water salinity within the top 10 m of the water table is likely to increase by a factor of 2 to 6 during the next 100 years. Ground water quality will therefore potentially degrade beyond the point of usefulness well before extraction of the ground water exhausts the resource.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  7. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  9. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  10. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  11. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  12. Depth to ground water of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  13. Novel Surveillance Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the current research is to develop the concept, algorithms and software necessary for enabling a novel surveillance system for airports ramp areas....

  14. Isotopic composition of ground waters from Kufra (Lybia) as indicator for ground water formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swailem, F.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M. (Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo (Egypt))

    1984-02-01

    The results of the isotopic composition of shallow and deep ground waters from the Kufra region indicate the fossil origin of these waters and that they are not recharged under the present climatic conditions. The virtual absence of tritium and the radiocarbon ages of these waters show that they were formed mainly in the past pluvial periods. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicate that the ground waters were recharged under cooler climatic conditions. These results may explain the origin of the large amounts of ground water which existed in the region.

  15. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32 cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  16. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  1. Risk evaluation of ground water table decline as a type of desertification. A case study are: Southern Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asrari, E.; Masoudi, M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a model to assess risk of ground water table decline. Taking into consideration eleven indicators of lowering of ground water table the model identifies areas with Potential Risk (risky zones) and areas of Actual risk as well as projects the probability of the worse degradation in future. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  3. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  4. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  5. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  6. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  7. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  9. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  11. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  12. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  16. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  17. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  18. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  19. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  20. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  2. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  5. Population-based Surveillance for Medically Attended Human Parainfluenza Viruses From the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Lyn; Whitaker, Brett; Fowlkes, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) have been shown to contribute substantially to pediatric hospitalizations in the United States. However, to date, there has been no systematic surveillance to estimate the burden among pediatric outpatients. Methods: From August 2010 through July 2014, outpatient health care providers with enumerated patient populations in 13 states and jurisdictions participating in the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducted surveillance of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Respiratory specimens were collected from the first 10 ILI patients each week with demographic and clinical data. Specimens were tested for multiple respiratory viruses, including PIV1–4, using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assays. Cumulative incidence was calculated using provider patient population size as the denominator. Results: PIVs 1–3 were detected in 8.0% of 7716 ILI-related outpatient specimens: 30% were PIV1, 26% PIV2 and 44% PIV3. PIV circulation varied noticeably by year and type, with PIV3 predominating in 2010–2011 (incidence 110 per 100,000 children), PIV1 in 2011–2012 (89 per 100,000), dual predominance of PIV2 and PIV3 (88 and 131 per 100,000) in 2012–2013 and PIV3 (100 per 100,000) in 2013–2014. The highest incidence of PIV detections was among patients aged <5 years (259–1307 per 100,000). The median age at detection for PIV3 (3.4 years) was significantly lower than the median ages for PIV1 (4.5 years) and PIV2 (7.0 years; P < 0.05). Conclusions: PIVs 1–3 comprise a substantial amount of medically attended pediatric ILI, particularly among children aged <5 years. Distinct seasonal circulation patterns as well as significant differences in rates by age were observed between PIV types. PMID:26974891

  6. CHEMICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TEHRAN GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of Tehran ground water, samples were taken randomly from 340 out of 655 deep & semi deep wells in 1993, which dug by Tehran Water Supply and Sewage Engineering Company. 260 Water specimens were examined chemically and physically and compared with the 1993 World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO criteria and analyzed statistically. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 53 deep wells which are now connected to Tehran water supply system showed Sodium- Sulphate category. Main chemical components of water are closely adjusted to the international standards and no overdoses were observed in any cases. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 72 deep wells, which were rsed for the Tehran’s orbital town's drinking water, showed that chemical components of the water were Calcic-Chloride category and there were not observed any increases within the other compounds.

  7. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  11. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual. [CIRMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs.

  12. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  14. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Through December 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Tne U.S. Geological Survey. in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site- Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes water-resource data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to document the historical and current condition of ground-water resources, to detect and document changes in those resources through time, and to allow assessments of ground-water resources during investigations to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground- water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Fiat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies or as part of other programs are included to further indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels and median annual ground-water withdrawals in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of a11 water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar year 1992. Data on ground-water quality are compared to established, proposed, or tentative primary and secondary drinking-water standards, and measures which exceeded those standards are listed for 18 sites. Detected organic compounds for which established, proposed, or tentative drinking-water standards exist also are listed.

  15. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  16. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  17. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  19. General database for ground water site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  3. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  4. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  5. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  6. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  7. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  8. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  9. The Analysis on the Migration Law of Iron ions in the Ground Water within the Tongjiang River Protective Zone of Xiajiang Water Control Project%峡江水利枢纽同江河防护区地下水中铁离子运移规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王呈辉; 李春华

    2015-01-01

    The overproof iron ionic concentration in the ground water which is used as the drinking water source is detrimental to residents' drinking water safety. Thus, studying its migration law could support the protection work of ground water which is used as the drinking water source. This paper aims to construct the iron ionic migration generalized model of ground water within the Tongjiang River protective zone so as to analyse the migration law of iron ions under the conditon that protective layers are installed or not between the Tongjiang protective zone and the reservoir area of Xiajiang Water Control Project . The results indicates that without protective layers, variation of iron ionic concentration appears to be a hook-like form of development with fast migration velocity and broad diffusion. Yet, with protective layers, variation appears to be a ligulate form with much slower speed and smaller diffusion range. Although the protective layers would effectively postpone the migration speed of iron ions and limit their migaration range, they could never solve the problem of iron ionic migration ultimately.%地下水铁离子浓度超标,将严重影响居民饮用水安全。认识地下水铁离子的运移规律,可为保护地下水饮用水源提供依据。本文基于溶质运移理论,建立同江河防护区内地下水铁离子运移概化模型,分析在同江河防护区与水库库区之间设置防护层与不设置防护层二种情况下铁离子的运移规律。分析表明,不设置防护层工况,铁离子浓度的变化呈现"钩状"形态发展,且运移速度快,扩散范围广;设置防护层工况,浓度的变化呈现“舌状”发展,运移速度、扩散范围远小于不设置防护层的情况;防护层会有效延缓铁的运移速度,限制运移范围,但不会从根本上解决铁的运移。

  10. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Sites, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set reports information regarding the nominal sampling locations for the National Status and Trends Benthic Surveillance Project sites. One record is...

  11. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NSandT) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  12. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NS&T) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  13. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Sites, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set reports information regarding the nominal sampling locations for the National Status and Trends Benthic Surveillance Project sites. One record is...

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of the Big Sandy Creek Valley, Lincoln, Cheyenne, and Kiowa Counties, Colorado; with a section on Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Donald L.; Horr, Clarence Albert

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the geology and ground-water resources of that part of the Big Sandy Creek valley from about 6 miles east of Limon, Colo., downstream to the Kiowa County and Prowers County line, an area of about 1,400 square miles. The valley is drained by Big Sandy Creek and its principal tributary, Rush Creek. The land surface ranges from flat to rolling; the most irregular topography is in the sandhills south and west of Big Sandy Creek. Farming and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigated lands constitute only a sin311 part of the project area, but during the last 15 years irrigation has expanded. Exposed rocks range in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. They comprise the Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formations, Pierre Shale (all Late Cretaceous), upland deposits (Pleistocene), valley-fill deposits (Pleistocene and Recent), and dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent). Because the Upper Cretaceous formations are relatively impermeable and inhibit water movement, they allow ground water to accumul3te in the overlying unconsolidated Pleistocene and Recent deposits. The valley-fill deposits constitute the major aquifer and yield as much as 800 gpm (gallons per mixture) to wells along Big Sandy and Rush Creeks. Transmissibilities average about 45,000 gallons per day per foot. Maximum well yields in the tributary valleys are about 200 gpm and average 5 to 10 gpm. The dune sand and upland deposits generally are drained and yield water to wells in only a few places. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from direct infiltration of precipitation, which annually averages about 12 inches for the entire basin, and from infiltration of floodwater. Floods in the ephemeral Big Sandy Creek are a major source of recharge to ground-water reservoirs. Observations of a flood near Kit Carson indicated that about 3 acre-feet of runoff percolated into the ground-water reservoir through each acre of the wetted stream channel The downstream decrease in channel and

  15. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  16. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  17. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system.

  18. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  19. Ground-water and precipitation data for South Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Jones, Kathy H.; Stringfield, Whitney J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous water-level data collected from 53 wells in South Carolina during 1990 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs are presented for selected wells to illustrate the effects that changes in ground-water recharge and artificial ground-water discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are listed in tables. Monthly mean water levels for 1990 and for the entire period of record at each monitoring well are depicted in hydrographs. Also included are precipitation records from ten National Weather Service stations in South Carolina.

  20. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  1. Comparison of surveillance sample demographics over two cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project, Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Montealegre, Jane R

    2014-04-01

    We examined differences in sample demographics across cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, that examines HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), and heterosexuals living in areas of high HIV prevalence (HET). MSM were recruited through venue-based sampling, and IDU and HET through respondent driven sampling (RDS). RDS data were weighted to account for sampling bias. We compared crude prevalence estimates from MSM1 (2004) to those from MSM2 (2008) for demographic factors known to influence risky sexual and drug-use behaviors. We compared crude and adjusted prevalence estimates for IDU1 (2005) and IDU2 (2009) and HET1 (2006) and HET2 (2010). In the MSM cycle, we found differences in age, and the proportions seeking medical care and reporting a recent arrest. There were no differences in the comparison of crude and weighted estimates for the RDS collected samples, nor were there differences comparing HET1 and HET2 weighted estimates. IDU2 recruited a larger proportion of males, and had a higher percent who graduated from high school and who reported recent medical care and a previous HIV test. Differences across MSM cycles may be related to differences in venues identified for each cycle. Differences in the IDU cycles may be due to an effort on our part to increase the racial/ethnic and drug-use diversity of the sample in IDU2. Our findings show the importance of formative work for both venue-based and RDS samples to increase understanding of the dimensions that affect social networks and the dynamics of populations in space and time. With familiarity of the target population, we believe that both venue-based and RDS recruitment approaches for NHBS work well and can be used to evaluate changes in risky sexual and drug use behaviors and in HIV testing behaviors.

  2. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  3. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  4. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  5. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  6. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  7. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  8. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  9. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  10. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  11. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  17. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  18. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  19. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well

  20. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    direction, although the direction of groundwater movement locally is influenced by water -supply wells and by groundwater extraction and treatment systems...Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device June 2011 i COST & PERFORMANCE REPORT Project: ER-200630 TABLE OF CONTENTS...range of analyte types. These included dissolved and total inorganics (including non-metal anions, metalloids , and metals) and four volatile organic

  1. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  4. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  5. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  6. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  8. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1999. Data collected prior to 1999 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-99. At two water-supply wells median water levels for calendar year 1999 were unchanged from their respective baseline periods. At a nearby observation well, the 1999 median water level was slightly lower (0.1 foot) than its baseline period. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1999 were slightly higher (0.2 foot to 1.6 feet) than for their respective baseline periods.

  9. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geolgical Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  10. Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive recharge a year.

  11. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  12. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  13. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  14. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-FS-009 Gigapixel Surveillance Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R E; Bennett, C L

    2010-04-20

    The threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction add urgency to the development of new techniques for surveillance and intelligence collection. For example, the United States faces a serious and growing threat from adversaries who locate key facilities underground, hide them within other facilities, or otherwise conceal their location and function. Reconnaissance photographs are one of the most important tools for uncovering the capabilities of adversaries. However, current imaging technology provides only infrequent static images of a large area, or occasional video of a small area. We are attempting to add a new dimension to reconnaissance by introducing a capability for large area video surveillance. This capability would enable tracking of all vehicle movements within a very large area. The goal of our project is the development of a gigapixel video surveillance camera for high altitude aircraft or balloon platforms. From very high altitude platforms (20-40 km altitude) it would be possible to track every moving vehicle within an area of roughly 100 km x 100 km, about the size of the San Francisco Bay region, with a gigapixel camera. Reliable tracking of vehicles requires a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.5 to 1 m and a framing rate of approximately two frames per second (fps). For a 100 km x 100 km area the corresponding pixel count is 10 gigapixels for a 1-m GSD and 40 gigapixels for a 0.5-m GSD. This is an order of magnitude beyond the 1 gigapixel camera envisioned in our LDRD proposal. We have determined that an instrument of this capacity is feasible.

  15. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  16. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Bavusi, Massimo; Bernini, Romeo; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Bost, Marie; Bourquin, Frédrèric; Cottineau, Louis-Marie; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Della Vecchia, Pietro; Dolce, Mauro; Dumoulin, Jean; Eppelbaum, Lev; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Gustafsson, Mats; Hugenschmidt, Johannes; Kaspersen, Peter; Kim, Hyunwook; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Leggio, Mario; Loperte, Antonio; Mazzetti, Paolo; Moroni, Claudio; Nativi, Stefano; Nordebo, Sven; Pacini, Fabrizio; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Perrone, Angela; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice Carlo; Rizzo, Enzo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Taillade, Fédrèric

    2010-01-01

    The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call "ICT and Security" of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring). In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  17. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring. In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  18. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Hyde Park landfill, Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslia, M.L.; Johnston, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Hyde Park landfill is a 15-acre chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. Underlying the site in descending order are: (1) low permeability glacial till, (2) a moderately permeable fractured rock aquifer--the Lockport Dolomite, and (3) a low permeability unit--the Rochester Shale. The site is bounded on three sides by ground-water drains; the Niagara River Gorge, the Niagara Power Project canal, and the power project conduits. A finite element model was used to simulate ground-water flow along an east-west section through the Hyde Park site (from the power project conduits to the Niagara Gorge). Steady-state conditions were simulated with an average annual recharge rate of 5 inches per year. The calibrated model simulated measured water levels within 5 feet in the glacial till and upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite and approximated the configuration of the water table. Based on simulation, ground-water flow near the Hyde Park site can be summarized as follows: 1. Specific discharge (Darcy velocity) ranges from about 0.01 to 0.1 foot per day in the upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite to less than 0.00001 foot per day in the Rochester Shale. Real velocities are highest in the upper unit of the Lockport, ranging from about 1.5 to 4.8 feet per day. 2. A ground-water divide exists east of the landfill, indicating that all ground water originating near or flowing beneath the landfill will flow toward and discharge in the gorge. 3. The zone of highest velocities (and presumably greatest potential for transporting chemical contaminants) includes the upper unit of the Lockport and part of the lower unit of the Lockport Dolomite between the landfill and the gorge. The time required for ground water to move from the landfill to the gorge in the Lockport Dolomite is estimated to be 5 to 7 years.

  20. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  1. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999).In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns.As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of collecting

  2. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed.

  3. Ground-water geology of the Bruneau-Grand View area, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert Thomas; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1957-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area is part of an artesian basin in northern Owyhee County, Idaho. The area described in this report comprises about 600 square miles, largely of undeveloped public domain, much of which is open, or may be opened, for desert-entry filing. Many irrigation-entry applications to the Federal Government are pending, and information about ground-water geology is needed by local citizens and well drillers, by Federal agencies that have custody of the land, and by local and State agencies that administer water rights. The areal geology and ground-water conditions in the Bruneau-Grand View area seemingly typify several basins in southwestern Idaho, and this study is a step toward definition and analysis of regional problems in ground-water geology and the occurrence and availability of ground water for irrigation or other large-scale uses. Owyhee County is subdivided physiographically into a plateau area, the Owyhee uplift, and the Snake River valley. The Bruneau-Grand View area is largely within the Snake River valley. The climate is arid and irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. Nearly all usable indigenous surface water in the area is appropriated, including freshet flow in the Bruneau River, which is used for power generation at the C. J. Strike Dam. However, with storage facilities additional land could be irrigated, and some land may be irrigated with Snake River water if suitable reclamation projects are constructed. Sedimentary and igneous rocks exposed in the area range in age from Miocene to Recent. The igneous rocks include silicic and basic intrusive and extrusive bodies, and the sedimentary rocks are compacted stream and lake sediments. The rocks contain economically important artesian aquifers; the principal ones are volcanic rocks in which ground water is imperfectly confined beneath sediments of the Idaho formation, thus forming a leaky artesian system. The altitude of the piezometric surface of the artesian

  4. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  5. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  6. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  7. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  8. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  9. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  10. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  12. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  13. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  14. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  16. Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.B.; Collins, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  19. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  20. Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-ping; CAO Lian-hai; CHEN Xiao-gang; SHEN Zhao-li; ZHONG Zuo-shen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption sa-turation on the 17th day in coarse sand and on the 130~140th day in medium sand, then had a higher effluent concentration because of desorption. It is concluded that NH4-N eas-ily moved to ground water. When the concentration of NH4-N in Liangshui River were 46.86, 26.95 mg/L, that in groundwater are less than 1.10 mg/L. It is found that Liangshui River have a little influence on groundwater because of bottom mud, thickness and char-acter of the infiltration medium under the river bed and seepage quantity of river water.Clean water leaching test states that after the silt is cleared away and clean water is poured, NH4-N in the penetration media under the polluted river is obviously carried into ground water, and ground water is polluted secondly.

  1. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  3. The Use Of Permeable Concrete For Ground Water Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Tejankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop Smart Cities in India, we need to develop smart technologies and smart construction materials. Permeable concrete an innovative material is environment friendly and a smart material which can be used for construction of several structures. In India, the ground water table is decreasing at a faster rate due to reduction in ground water recharge. These days, the vegetation cover is replaced by infrastructure hence the water gets very less opportunity to infiltrate itself into the soil. If the permeable concrete which has a high porosity is used for the construction of pavements, walking tracks, parking lots, well lining, etc. then it can reduce the runoff from the site and help in the ground water recharge. Such type of smart materials will play an important role for Indian conditions where government is putting lot of efforts to implement ground water recharging techniques. During the research work, the runoff for a particular storm was calculated for a bitumen pavement on a sloping ground. Later after studying the various topographical features, the traffic intensity and the rainfall for that particular area, the concrete was designed and tested for the different proportion and thus the mix design for the permeable concrete was finalized based upon its permeability and strength characteristics. Later by using this permeable concrete the infiltration and runoff for the same storm was compared and studied. The research paper will thus give an account of the properties of permeable concrete where it can be used over an existing road.

  4. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  5. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  6. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  7. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  8. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  9. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  10. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  12. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  13. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  14. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  15. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  20. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  1. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  2. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  3. Selected Ground-Water Data of Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985-93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3-2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  4. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  5. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  6. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  7. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  8. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In ground water flow system models with hydraulic-head observations but without significant imposed or observed flows, extreme parameter correlation generally exists. As a result, hydraulic conductivity and recharge parameters cannot be uniquely estimated. In complicated problems, such correlation...... correlation coefficients, but it required sensitivities that were one to two significant digits less accurate than those that required using parameter correlation coefficients; and (3) both the SVD and parameter correlation coefficients identified extremely correlated parameters better when the parameters...

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  12. Photodegradation of dimethenamid-P in deionised and ground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavaški O.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photodegradation of dimethenamid-P herbicide was performed in deionised and ground water using TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. The effect of electron acceptor (H2O2, scavenger of •OH radicals (C2H5OH and scavenger of holes (NaCl and Na2SO4 as well as solution pH was analyzed. The photodegradation of dimethenamid-P was followed by HPLC. The formation of transformation products was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Ion chromatography and total organic carbon measurements were used for the determination of the mineralization level. HPLC analysis showed the almost complete removal of herbicide after 90 min in deionised and ground water, while total organic carbon analysis showed that dimethenamid-P was mineralized 64 and 50 % in deionised and ground water, respectively. The ion chromatography results showed that the mineralization process leads to the formation of chloride, sulphate and nitrate anions during the process. Transformation products were identified and the degradation mechanism was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  13. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  14. Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is the first of three phases of a ground-water management study. In this report, effects of irrigation and drought on the ground-water resources of Salem are examined. Irrigation water use for five soil types is estimated from a monthly water budget model on the basis of precipitation and temperature data from the last 30 years at selected weather stations across Salem. Moisture deficits are computed for each soil type on the basis of the water requirements of a corn crop. It is assumed that irrigation is used to make up the moisture deficit in those places where irrigation systems already exist. Irrigation water use from each township with irrigated acreage is added to municipal and industrial ground-water use data and then compared to aquifer potential yields. The spatial analysis is accomplished with a statewide geographic information system. An important distinction is made between the seasonal effects of irrigation water use and the annual or long-term effects.

  15. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  16. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  17. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  18. [Metal contamination of the ground water in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, Amal; Fekhaoui, Mohammed; El Abidi, Abdellah; Tahri, Latifa; Bouissi, Mostafa; El Houssine, Zaid

    2003-01-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal contamination of the ground water in the Moroccan city of Mohammedia and its relation to the highly developed industrial and domestic activities in the region. Six heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Fe and Pb, were assayed in the waters of 19 wells throughout the city, in industrial areas, public landfills, and residential zones. Four sampling campaigns were conducted between January and May 1999. Analysis of the heavy metal levels revealed a causal relation between the human activities at the sites studied and the degree of contamination recorded. The sites in the industrial areas had elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu or Pb and most often a combination of at least two of these at a single site. Moreover, the spatial distribution of this pollution showed water in S7 areas to be high in iron and that in S5 and S7 (industrial) areas high in mercury. The concentrations measured are respectively 2.5 and 3-5 times greater than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) recommended by WHO for potable water. This work has conclusively proven the presence of dangerous heavy metal contamination of the ground water supply in the area of Mohammedia; it demonstrates the need for conservation and antipollution measures aimed against heavy metal contamination of the overall water supply and in particular the ground water.

  19. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  1. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  2. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, Frank A.; O'Brien, G. M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this 'second-generation' regional model was to enhance the knowledge an understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-state representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is situated within the southern Great Basin, a subprovince of the Basin and Range physiographic province, bounded by latitudes 35 degrees north and 38 degrees 15 minutes north and by longitudes 115 and 118 degrees west. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the arid climatic conditions and the complex geology. Ground-water flow generally can be described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as

  3. Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

    2007-01-01

    A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    Washington County, in northeastern Colorado, has an area of 2,520 square miles. The eastern two-thirds of the county, part of the High Plains physiographic section, is relatively flat and has been moderately altered by the deposition of loess and dune sand, and by stream erosion. The western one-third is a part of the South Platte River basin and has been deeply dissected by tributary streams. The soils and climate of the county are generally suited for agriculture, which is the principal industry. The rocks that crop out in the county influence the availability of ground water. The Pierre Shale, of Late Cretaceous age, underlies the entire area and ranges in thickness from 2,000 to 4,500 feet. This dense shale is a barrier to the downward movement of water and yields little or no water to wells. The Chadron Formation, of Oligocene age, overlies the Pierre Shale in the northern and central parts of the area. The thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. Small to moderate quantities of water are available from the scattered sand lenses and from the highly fractured zones of the siltstone. The Ogallala Formation, of Pliocene age, overlies the Chadron Formation and in Washington County forms the High Plains section of the Great Plains province. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation ranges from 0 to about 400 feet, and the yield from wells ranges from a few gallons per hour to about 1,500 gpm. Peorian loess, of Pleistocene age, and dune sand, of Pleistocene to Recent age, mantle a large pan of the county and range in thickness from a few inches to about 120 feet Although the loess and dune sand yield little water to wells, they absorb much of the precipitation and conduct the water to underlying formations. Alluvium, of Pleistocene and Recent age, occupies most of the major stream valleys in thicknesses of a few feet to about 250 feet. The yield of wells tapping the alluvium ranges from a few gallons per minute to about 3,000 gpm, according

  5. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  6. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  8. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  9. Depth to ground water contours of hydrographic area 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of depth to ground water contours for hydrographic-area (HA) 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada. These data represent static ground-water levels...

  10. Digital data set describing ground-water regions with unconsolidated watercourses in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes ground-water regions in the United States defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ground-water regions are useful for dividing the...

  11. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  12. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  13. Italian network for obesity and cardiovascular disease surveillance: A pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Luigi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Also in Mediterranean countries, which are considered a low risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD, the increase in body mass index (BMI has become a public health priority. To evaluate the feasibility of a CVD and obesity surveillance network, forty General Practitioners (GPs were engaged to perform a screening to assess obesity, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle habits and medication use. Methods A total of 1,046 women and 1,044 men aged 35–74 years were randomly selected from GPs' lists stratifying by age decade and gender. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed by GPs using standardized methodologies. BMI was computed and categorized in normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Food frequency (per day: fruits and vegetables; per week: meat, cheese, fish, pulses, chocolate, fried food, sweet, wholemeal food, rotisserie food and sugar drink and physical activity (at work and during leisure time were investigated through a questionnaire. CVD risk was assessed using the Italian CUORE Project risk function. Results The percentage of missing values was very low. Prevalence of overweight was 34% in women and 50% in men; prevalence of obesity was 23% in both men and women. Level of physical activity was mostly low or very low. BMI was inversely associated with consumption of pulses, rotisserie food, chocolate, sweets and physical activity during leisure time and directly associated with consumption of meat. Mean value of total cardiovascular risk was 4% in women and 11% in men. One percent of women and 16% of men were at high cardiovascular risk (≥ 20% in 10 years. Normal weight persons were four times more likely to be at low risk than obese persons. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of a surveillance network of GPs in Italy focusing on obesity and other CVD risk factors. It also provided information on lifestyle habits

  14. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  15. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Goode, Daniel J.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2000-01-01

    to water can range from flowing at land surface to more than 71 feet below land surface. Potentiometric maps based on measured water levels at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant indicate ground water flows from west to east, towards Rock Creek. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate the system is heterogeneous and flow is primarily in dipping beds that contain discrete secondary openings separated by less permeable beds. Water levels in wells open to the pumped bed, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells not open to the pumped bed. Ground-water flow was simulated for steady-state conditions prior to pumping and long-term average pumping conditions. The three-dimensional numerical flow model (MODFLOW) was calibrated by use of a parameter estimation program (MODFLOWP). Steady-state conditions were assumed for the calibration period of 1996. An effective areal recharge rate of 7 inches was used in model calibration. The calibrated flow model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the current onsite and offsite extraction well system. The simulation results generally indicate that the extraction system effectively captures much of the ground-water recharge at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant and, hence, contaminated ground-water migrating from the site. Some of the extraction wells pump at low rates and have very small contributing areas. Results indicate some areal recharge onsite will move to offsite extraction wells.

  17. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  19. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  20. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  1. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  2. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  3. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  4. Accelerating preparedness: leveraging the UNC PERLC to improve other projects related to public health surveillance, assessment, and regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Wilfert, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    The co-location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERLC) and the UNC Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center (PERRC) and other smaller projects within the North Carolina Institute for Public Health, a public health practice-oriented unit of the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, facilitated many successful collaborations. By sharing personnel, space, and other resources, the UNC PERLC and PERRC and other projects were able to meet the needs of the public health workforce by developing evidence-based training programs and tools around topics including epidemiology, surveillance, and vulnerable populations.

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  8. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  9. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Nelson; Kimberly Case; Linda Hergesheimer; Maxine Johnson; Doug Parker; Rick Staten; Scott taylor

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  10. Novel Smart Pan/Tilt/Zoom Sensor for Launch Range Video Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a pressing need for increasing the efficiency of launch range surveillance during mission launch operations. Difficulty in verifying a cleared range causes...

  11. Nitrate removal using Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486 from ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Selvakumar, R; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Singh, A; Jain, S K

    2009-01-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486, isolated from marine soil of coastal area of Trivandrum, Kerala, was used for biological removal of nitrate from ground water collected from Kar village of Pali district, Rajasthan. The organism was found to be resistance for nitrate up to 10,000 mg L(-1). The optimum growth conditions for biological removal of nitrate were established in batch culture. The effect of carbon sources on nitrate removal was investigated using mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 500 mg L(-1) of nitrate to select the most effective carbon source. Among glucose and starch as carbon source, glucose at 1% concentration increased the growth (182+/-8.24 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) and induced maximum nitrate reduction (86.4%) at 72 h. The ground water collected from Kar village, Pali district of Rajasthan containing 460+/-5.92 mg L(-1) of nitrate was subjected to three different treatment processes in pilot scale (T1 to T3). Higher removal of nitrate was observed in T2 process (88%) supplemented with 1% glucose. The system was scaled up to 10 L pilot scale treatment plant. At 72 h the nitrate removal was observed to be 95% in pilot scale plant. The residual nitrate level (23+/-0.41 mg L(-1)) in pilot scale treatment process was found to be below the permissible limit of WHO.

  12. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  13. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  14. Tomography of ground water flow from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Jardani, A.

    2007-12-01

    An inversion algorithm is developed to interpret self-potential (SP) data in terms of distribution of the seepage velocity of the ground water. The model is based on the proportionality existing between the electrokinetic source current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase. As the inverse problem is underdetermined, we use a Tikhonov regularization method with a smoothness constraint based on the differential Laplacian operator to solve the inverse problem. The regularization parameter is determined by the L-shape method. The recovery of the distribution of the seepage velocity vector of the ground water flow depends on the localization and number of non-polarizing electrodes and information relative to the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground. The inversion method is tested on two 2D synthetic cases and on two real SP data. The first field test corresponds to the infiltration of water from a ditch. The second one corresponds to large flow at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California.

  15. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data.

  16. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton,Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Regan, C.P.; Lamb, J.A.; Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area was located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consisted of 73 observation wells and 25 multiport wells. The primary objectives of the ground-water monitoring program at the Minnesota MSEA were to: (1) determine the effects of three farming systems on ground-water quality, and (2) understand the processes and factors affecting the loading, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals in ground water at the site. This report presents well construction, geologic, water-level, chemical application, water-quality, and quality-assurance data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality during 1991-95.

  17. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  18. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  19. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  20. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    high flows. Conveyance losses in the Pebble-Topaz reach were greatest, about 283 cubic feet per second, during the spring regulated high flows and were attributed to a hydroelectric project.Comparison of water levels in 30 wells in the Portneuf Valley during September and October 1968 and 2001 indicated long-term declines since 1968; the median decline was 3.4 feet. September and October were selected for characterizing long-term ground-water-level fluctuations because declines associated with irrigation reach a maximum at the end of the irrigation season. The average annual snowpack in the study area has declined significantly; 1945 85 average annual snowpack was 16.1 inches, whereas 1986 through 2002 average annual snowpack was 11.6 inches. Water-level declines during 1998 2002 may be partially attributable to the extended dry climatic conditions. It is unclear whether the declines could be partially attributed to increases in ground-water withdrawals. Between 1968 and 1980, water rights for ground-water withdrawals nearly doubled from 23,500 to 46,000 acre-feet per year. During this period, ground-water levels were relatively constant and did not exhibit a declining trend that could be related to increased ground-water withdrawal rights. However, ground-water withdrawals are not measured in the valley; thus, the amount of water pumped is not known. Since the 1990s, there have been several years when the Chesterfield Reservoir has not completely refilled, and the water in storage behind the reservoir has been depleted by the middle of the irrigation season. In this situation, surface-water diversions for irrigation were terminated before the end of the irrigation season, and irrigators, who were relying in part on diversions from the Portneuf River, had to rely solely on ground water as an alternate supply. Smaller volumes of water in the Chesterfield Reservoir since the 1990s indicate a growing demand for ground-water supplies.

  1. Expertise in exploiting ground water in Australian prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, H. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of human beings on the Australian continent has been established to go back to at least 40 000 years. Recent research has put this back to about 60 000 years B.P. (Before Present). With the awareness of living on an extremely arid continent, the need to satisfy water demands was a constant concern. Finding water for all members of the various groups, but especially for those living in the Australian inland with extremely low precipitation, was a perpetual challenge. Thus, in desert areas seeking, finding and protecting ground water was demanded continuously. Native wells were established and used for many centuries often when surface water had dried in nearby watercourses. A number of wells found in the Simpson Desert, with habitation around them until recently, are most interesting. In Central Australia, in the Cleland Hills, the location of habitation has been found at a huge rock shelter close to a rock hole providing permanent ground water when all other sources in the vicinity have dried out. It was scientifically established that this occupation goes back 22 000 years. These examples of obtaining ground water in Australian prehistory many thousands of years ago by Aborigines show a highly developed culture. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die Besiedelung des australischen Kontinents durch den Menschen vor 40 000 Jahren begann. Neueste Untersuchungen datieren diesen Zeitpunkt jedoch auf 60 000 Jahre zurueck. Fuer das Leben auf diesem extrem trockenen Erdteil war die Sicherung des Wasserbedarfs von jeher existenziell. Lebenswichtiges Wasser zu finden war fuer alle Mitglieder der verschiedenen Bevoelkerungsgruppen, vor allem aber fuer diejenigen, die sich im australischen Hinterland ansiedelten, von hoechster Bedeutung. Grundwasser in der Wueste zu suchen, zu finden und zu schuetzen war oberstes Ziel. Urspruengliche Brunnen wurden errichtet und ueber Jahrhunderte hindurch genutzt, wenn alle anderen Wasserressourcen versiegten. Hierbei

  2. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  3. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  4. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  5. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  6. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  7. Governance by pilot projects: Experimenting with surveillance in Dutch crime control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommé, F.

    2015-01-01

    Technologies that collect and analyse personal data about people and their behaviour, often referred to as surveillance technologies, are introduced in ever more parts of daily life. In this dissertation I investigate the experimental manner in which they enter crime control practices in the Netherl

  8. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  9. Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water, 1955-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.; Growitz, Douglas J.; Kam, William

    1970-01-01

    Artificial ground-water recharge has become more important as water use by agriculture, industry, and municipalities increases. Water management agencies are increasingly interested in potential use of recharge for pollution abatement, waste-water disposal, and re-use and reclamation of locally available supplies. Research projects and theoretical analyses of operational recharge systems show increased scientific emphasis on the practice. Overall ground-water basin management systems generally now contain considerations of artificial recharge, whether by direct or indirect methods. Artificial ground-water recharge is a means of conserving surface runoff for future use in places where it would otherwise be lost, of protecting ground-water basins from salt-water encroachment along coastal areas, and of storing and distributing imported water. The biblio-graphy emphasizes technology; however, annotations of articles on waste-water reclamation, ground-water management and ground-water basin management are included. Subjects closely related to artificial recharge, including colloidal flow through porous media, field or laboratory instrumentation, and waste disposal by deep well injection are included where they specifically relate to potential recharge problems. Where almost the same material has been published in several journals, all references are included on the assumption that some publications may be more readily available to interested persons than others. Other publications, especially those of foreign literature, provided abstracts that were used freely as time limitations precluded obtaining and annotating all materials. Abstracts taken from published sources are noted. These are: "Abstracts of North American Geology," U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; "Abstracts of Recent Published Material on Foil and Water Conservation," ARS-41 series, Agricultural F.esearch Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; "Water and1 Water

  10. Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Novič, Marjana; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sovič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controll...

  11. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  12. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  13. Results from the natural measuring field Horkheimer Insel concerning the materials flux atmosphere - soil - ground water. Ergebnisse aus dem Naturmessfeld Horkheimer Insel zum Stofffluss Atmosphaere - Boden - Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoese, J. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.) Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    On the 'Horkheimer Insel' in the river Neckar near Heilbronn a research project is ongoing to quantify the ground water contamination by different agricultural techniques. One of the two experimental fields is operated in the sense of a 'sustainable agriculture' and the other one in conventional practize. Investigations of the soil solution retrieved by centrifugation of soil samples down to 4 meters have shown that the sustainable agriculture resulted in an eminent decrease of nitrat accumulation in the soil and the discharge to the ground water in winter time. (orig.).

  14. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  15. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Recycling water within the local ground-water system can increase the quantity of water available for use, control or avoid environmental pollution, and control temperature of the water supply. Pumped ground water supplied a fish-rearing facility for 15 months, and the waste water recharged the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond. Eighty-three percent of the recharged water returned to the well (recycled). Make-up water from the ground-water system provided the remaining 17 percent.

  16. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  17. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  18. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  19. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  20. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  1. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  2. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  3. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  4. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  5. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  6. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  7. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  8. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  9. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  10. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  11. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  12. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  13. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  14. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agnese, F.A.; O' Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project`s long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03.

  16. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  17. A regression model to estimate regional ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, David L; Delin, Geoffrey N

    2007-01-01

    A regional regression model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution of ground water recharge in subhumid regions. The regional regression recharge (RRR) model was based on a regression of basin-wide estimates of recharge from surface water drainage basins, precipitation, growing degree days (GDD), and average basin specific yield (SY). Decadal average recharge, precipitation, and GDD were used in the RRR model. The RRR estimates were derived from analysis of stream base flow using a computer program that was based on the Rorabaugh method. As expected, there was a strong correlation between recharge and precipitation. The model was applied to statewide data in Minnesota. Where precipitation was least in the western and northwestern parts of the state (50 to 65 cm/year), recharge computed by the RRR model also was lowest (0 to 5 cm/year). A strong correlation also exists between recharge and SY. SY was least in areas where glacial lake clay occurs, primarily in the northwest part of the state; recharge estimates in these areas were in the 0- to 5-cm/year range. In sand-plain areas where SY is greatest, recharge estimates were in the 15- to 29-cm/year range on the basis of the RRR model. Recharge estimates that were based on the RRR model compared favorably with estimates made on the basis of other methods. The RRR model can be applied in other subhumid regions where region wide data sets of precipitation, streamflow, GDD, and soils data are available.

  18. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  19. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  20. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana. Water Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study to provide a quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills and provide a general description of the ground-water quality beneath and near the two landfills. These objectives provide the information necessary to evaluate the effects of the landfills on ground-water quality. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected in 1985 and 1986 at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills to fulfill the study objectives. Ground-water models were used to investigate the flow systems and estimate the volume of flow at the landfills. The report includes descriptions of the data collection, geologic and hydrologic descriptions of the two landfills, and brief histories of trash and sludge disposal. Ground-water-flow models are described and estimates of the volume of flow are discussed. A description of the quality-assurance plan used in conjunction with the water-quality data collection and analysis is included. Water-quality data are presented with statistical summaries of ground-water quality related to well depth and position in the flow system.

  1. User Guide and Documentation for Five MODFLOW Ground-Water Modeling Utility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Litke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents five utility programs designed for use in conjunction with ground-water flow models developed with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW ground-water modeling program. One program extracts calculated flow values from one model for use as input to another model. The other four programs extract model input or output arrays from one model and make them available in a form that can be used to generate an ArcGIS raster data set. The resulting raster data sets may be useful for visual display of the data or for further geographic data processing. The utility program GRID2GRIDFLOW reads a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flow terms for one (source) model grid and converts the flow values to input flow values for a different (target) model grid. The spatial and temporal discretization of the two models may differ. The four other utilities extract selected 2-dimensional data arrays in MODFLOW input and output files and write them to text files that can be imported into an ArcGIS geographic information system raster format. These four utilities require that the model cells be square and aligned with the projected coordinate system in which the model grid is defined. The four raster-conversion utilities are * CBC2RASTER, which extracts selected stress-package flow data from a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flows; * DIS2RASTER, which extracts cell-elevation data from a MODFLOW Discretization file; * MFBIN2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW binary output file of head or drawdown; and * MULT2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW Multiplier file.

  2. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    that the scientific management of this ground-water reservoir is the key to permanent irrigation agriculture in the Punjab. The West Pakistan Water .and Power Development Authority has prepared a long-range program for reclaiming the irrigated lands of the Punjab. The essential feature of this program is a proposed network of tubewells (drilled wells) located with an .average density of about one per square mile. Groundwater withdrawals will serve the dual purpose of helping to supply irrigation requirements and of providing subsurface drainage. Despite the feasibility and inherent advantages of tubewell reclamation methods, it is inevitable that just as the superposition of the canal system on the native environment caused undesirable side effects, large-scale ground-water withdrawals again will disturb the hydrologic regimen. The distribtution of withdrawals and maintenance of a favorable salt balance are two distinct, but related aspects of the ground-water budget that present potential hazards that must be considered in the design and management of the tubewell projects. The availability of ground water for irrigation diminishes from northeast to southwest, or downgradient along the doab (an area lying between two rivers) and is negligible in the centers of the lower parts of the doabs, where the ground water is too highly mineralized for use. Ground-water supplies must be developed in areas where they are available and it might become necessary, under a program of maximum exploitation of ground-water resources, to transfer supplies from outside sources to points of use in the lower parts of the doabs. Several factors inherent in the tubewell system will tend to depreciate the quality of ground water with time. Among these are the addition of salts leached from the soils, increased concentration of salts due .to repeated cycles of recirculation, and the possible lateral and upward encroachment of saline water in response to pumping. It is reasonably ce

  3. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  4. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  5. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  6. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  7. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  8. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  9. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... requirements of this section. (3) When a significant deficiency is identified at a Subpart H public...

  11. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  12. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  13. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for...

  14. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  15. Combined ion exchange/biological denitrification for nitrate removal from ground water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for nitrate removal from ground water. High nitrate concentrations in ground water are a result of fertilization in agriculture. According to a directive of the European Community the maximum admissible concentration of nitrate in drinking wate

  16. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  17. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  19. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  20. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Ground-Water Plumes Discharging into Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    ground water in highly saline wetlands (Swanson et al., 1984), and the distribution of marsh marigold (Caltha palustris L.) has been used to map...seeps and springs next to a lake and in wetlands in Minnesota (Rosenberry et al., 2000). Marsh marigold favors ground-water discharge areas across the

  1. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  2. Ground-water resources of Pavant Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1965-01-01

    Pavant Valley, in eastern Millard County in west-central Utah, is in the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range province. The area of investigation is 34 miles long from north to south and 9 miles wide from east to west and comprises about 300 square miles. Agriculture, tourist trade, and mining are the principal industries. The population of the valley is about 3,500, of which about half live in Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County. The climate is semiarid and temperatures are moderate. Average normal annual precipitation in the lowlands is estimated to range from 10 to 14 inches. Precipitation is heaviest during the late winter and spring, January through May. The average monthly temperature at Fillmore ranges from 29?F in January to 76?F in July; the average annual temperature is 52?F. Because of the aridity, most crops cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Irrigation requirements were satisfied for about 60 years after the valley was settled by diverting streams tributary to the valley. Artesian water was discovered near Flowell in 1915. By 1920 flowing artesian wells supplied about 10 percent of the irrigation water used in the valley, not including water from the Central Utah Canal. The Central Utah Canal was constructed in 1916 to convey water to the Pavant Valley from the Sevier River. Especially since 1916, the quantity of surface water available each year for irrigation has changed with the vagaries of nature. The total percentage of irrigation water contributed by ground water, on the other hand, gradually increased to about 15 percent in 1945 and then increased rapidly to 45 percent in 1960; it will probably stabilize at about 50 percent. Sand and gravel deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age are the principal aquifers in Pavant Valley. These deposits are coarser, more extensive, and more permeable near the mountains and become progressively finer .and less .permeable westward away from the mountains. As ground water moves westward

  3. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  4. Seepage laws in aquifer near a partially penetrating river with an intensive extraction of ground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国东; 李俊亭

    1997-01-01

    The intensive extraction of ground water from aquifers near a river is an efficient way to exploit ground water resources. A lot of problems, however, have arisen because the mechanism of ground water flow in this way has not been clear. A sand-box model and a numerical model are respectively used to simulate the extraction of ground water near a partially penetrating river physically and theoretically. The results show that the ground water will lose saturated hydraulic connection with the river water as the pumping intensity increases. The broken point of hydraulic connection is located in the interior of aquifers rather than on the riverbed. After hydraulic disconnection occurs, two saturated zones, a suspended saturated zone linked with river and an unconfined aquifer, are formed.

  5. Isotopic evidence of complex ground-water flow at Yucca mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Stuckless, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Strontium isotopes (expressed as per mill deviation from mean sea water, ??87Sr) reflect interaction between ground water and the aquifer through which it is flowing. In the Cenozoic aquifer of the Yucca Mountain region, ??87Sr values increase from north to south downgradient in the flow system. The largest ??87Sr values occur in the Amargosa Desert where ground water probably encounters alluvial basin fill derived from Precambrian rocks in the Funeral Range. Similarly, large ??87Sr values for ground water in the Paleozoic aquifer at the western end of the Spring Mountains also probably reflect an encounter with Precambrian rocks. In several wells into the volcanic rocks, apparent isotopic disequilibrium between ground water and the producing units suggests that the ground water probably integrates over a substantial part of the saturated section in attaining its strontium isotope signature.

  6. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  7. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  8. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Moffett, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d-1. The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m3 d-1, a relatively low ground Water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models. The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore we]l sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay.

  9. Chemical reactions of uranium in ground water at a mill tailings site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelouas, A.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1998-11-01

    We studied soil and ground water samples from the tailings disposal site near Tuba City, AZ, located on Navajo sandstone, in terms of uranium adsorption and precipitation. The uranium concentration is up to 1 mg/l, 20 times the maximum concentration for ground water protection in the United States. The concentration of bicarbonate (HCO 3-) in the ground water increased from ≤7×10 -4 M, the background concentration, to 7×10 -3 M. Negatively charged uranium carbonate complexes prevail at high carbonate concentrations and uranium is not adsorbed on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. Leaching experiments using contaminated and uncontaminated sandstone and 1 N HCl show that adsorption of uranium from the ground water is negligible. Batch adsorption experiments with the sandstone and ground water at 16°C, the in situ ground water temperature, show that uranium is not adsorbed, in agreement with the results of the leaching experiments. Adsorption of uranium at 16°C is observed when the contaminated ground water is diluted with carbonate-free water. The observed increase in pH from 6.7 to 7.3 after dilution is too small to affect adsorption of uranium on the sandstone. Storage of undiluted ground water to 24°C, the temperature in the laboratory, causes coprecipitation of uranium with aragonite and calcite. Our study provides knowledge of the on-site uranium chemistry that can be used to select the optimum ground water remediation strategy. We discuss our results in terms of ground water remediation strategies such as pump and treat, in situ bioremediation, steam injection, and natural flushing.

  10. Epidemiological surveillance of informal workers' health in two cities in southeastern Brazil: the experience of the TRAPP-TRAPPURA projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Filho, Heleno Rodrigues; Cugliari, Luciana; Gaspar, Aidê A Coelho Dos Santos; Loureiro, José Fernando; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Informal labor markets have grown in peripheral countries, accounting for more than 50% of jobs. There is anecdotal evidence of a direct relation between informal sector growth and an increase in the frequency and severity of work-related diseases and injuries. Two sister pilot projects were conducted in Uberaba and Campinas, Brazil to develop population-based epidemiological surveillance of workplace injuries in the informal sector. Results for Campinas and Uberaba found cumulative yearly incidences of 5.1% and 10.4%, with incidence rates of 2.2 and 6.5 injuries per 100,000 worked hours, respectively. The proportions of lost work time were 0.3% and 0.31%. Rates found were comparable to those found in the literature for both formal and informal jobs. These results suggest that bad working conditions in the formal labor market are replicated in the informal market as subcontracting and outsourcing contribute to the growth of informal jobs.

  11. Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, W.D.E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

    1963-01-01

    quantities of water to wells. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from precipitation on the basin. Of the average annual precipitation of 19.5 inches, about 0.9 inch infiltrates to the water table, thereby contributing about 220,000 acre-feet of water annually to the ground-water reservoir. About 81 million acre-feet of water that could drain under gravity, and thus theoretically is available to wells, is held in groundwater storage in the basin. Water is discharged from the ground-water reservoir by wells, evaporation and transpiration, springs, seepage into streams, and movement into adjacent areas to the east and southeast. Most of the domestic, stock, and irrigation water supplies and all the public supplies are pumped from wells. During 1953, 96 wells were used to irrigate 10,000 acres of land with 19,000 acre-feet of water. About 34,000 acre-feet of water is evaporated and transpired annually in the valleys of the main streams and in areas of shallow water table in the sandhills. From the projection of base-flow measurements made during 1952, it was estimated that the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek into the reservoir above Enders Dam is about 57,000 acre-feet. By similar determinations, the average annual flow of Frenchman Creek at the gaging station at Palisade, Nebr., about 22 miles downstream from Enders Dam, is about 76,000 acre-feet, and the flow of Stinking Water Creek at the gaging station near Palisade is about 22,000 acre-feet. The combined flow of Frenchman and Stinking Water Creeks at their confluence near Palisade thus is about 98,000 acre-feet per year. About 90,000 acre-feet of ground water is estimated to move eastward each year across the Colorado-Nebraska State line within the basin. Additional irrigation wells that will tap the Ogallala formation and the alluvium in the major valleys undoubtedly will be drilled. On the basis of current estimates of future irrigation.withdrawals, it is concluded that by the

  12. U.S. Geological Survey ground-water studies in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of water supply in Illinois. The largest amount of ground*water withdrawal is in the northern one-third of the State where aquifers to a depth of about 1,500 feet below land surface contain large quantities of potable water. Approximately 74 percent of the public water-supply systems in Illinois use ground water to supply potable water to more than 5.5 million people. Ground-water withdrawals account for almost 25 percent of the total water withdrawn for public water supplies in Illinois. Many public water-supply systems in the Chicago area have recently changed from using ground water pumped from wells to using water delivered from Lake Michigan. The major issues related to ground water in Illinois are: Water- quality degradation or contamination from point and nonpoint sources, and Water availability, because of the lowering of ground-water levels in the bedrock aquifers in northeastern Illinois and elsewhere in the State where pumpage has exceeded aquifer recharge and the susceptibility of the limited surface-water supplies in central and southern Illinois to drought.

  13. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  14. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  15. Geochemical characterization of shallow ground water in the Eutaw aquifer, Montgomery, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.L.; Journey, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in, or directly down gradient from, recharge areas of the Eutaw aquifer in Montgomery, Alabama. The major ion content of the water evolves from calcium-sodium-chloride- dominated type in the recharge area to calcium-bicarbonate-dominated type in the confined portion of the aquifer. Ground water in the recharge area was undersaturated with respect to aluminosilicate and carbonate minerals. Ground water in the confined portion of the aquifer was at equilibrium levels for calcite and potassium feldspar. Dissolved oxygen and nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations decreased as ground water age increased; pH, iron, and sulfate concentrations increased as ground water age increased. Aluminum, copper, and zinc concentrations decreased as ground water age and pH increased. These relations indicate that nitrate, aluminum, copper, and zinc are removed from solution as water moves from recharge areas to the confined areas of the Eutaw aquifer. The natural evolution of ground water quality, which typically increases the pH and decreases the dissolved oxygen content, may be an important limiting factor to the migration of nitrogen based compounds and metals.

  16. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  17. Ground-Water Resources in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawaii, and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Tribble, Gordon W.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, which was established in 1978, the ground-water flow system is composed of brackish water overlying saltwater. Ground-water levels measured in the Park range from about 1 to 2 feet above mean sea level, and fluctuate daily by about 0.5 to 1.5 feet in response to ocean tides. The brackish water is formed by mixing of seaward flowing fresh ground water with underlying saltwater from the ocean. The major source of fresh ground water is from subsurface flow originating from inland areas to the east of the Park. Ground-water recharge from the direct infiltration of precipitation within the Park area, which has land-surface altitudes less than 100 feet, is small because of low rainfall and high rates of evaporation. Brackish water flowing through the Park ultimately discharges to the fishponds in the Park or to the ocean. The ground water, fishponds, and anchialine ponds in the Park are hydrologically connected; thus, the water levels in the ponds mark the local position of the water table. Within the Park, ground water near the water table is brackish; measured chloride concentrations of water samples from three exploratory wells in the Park range from 2,610 to 5,910 milligrams per liter. Chromium and copper were detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park and one well upgradient of the Park at concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per liter. One semi-volatile organic compound, phenol, was detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park at concentrations between 4 and 10 micrograms per liter. A regional, two-dimensional (areal), freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of regional withdrawals on ground-water flow within the Park. For average 1978 withdrawal rates, the estimated rate of fresh ground-water discharge to the ocean within the Park is about 6.48 million gallons per day, or about 3 million gallons per day per mile of coastline

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    . This sandstone also yields some water to uncased wells that tap the deeper rocks of the Upper Cambrian series. East of the Rock River the Platteville, Decorah, and Galena formations undifferentiated, or Platteville-Galena unit, is the principal source of water for domestic and stock wells. Unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin cover most of Rock County and supply water to many small wells. In the outwash deposits along the Rock River, wells of extremely high capacity have been developed for industrial and municipal use. The most significant feature of the bedrock surface in Rock County is the ancestral Rock River valley, which has been filled with glacial outwash to a depth of at least 396 feet below the present land surface. East of the buried valley the bedrock has a fiat, relatively undissected surface. West of the valley the bedrock surface is rugged and greatly dissected. Ground water in Rock County occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions; however, because of the interconnection and close relation of all ground water in the county, the entire system is considered to be a single groundwater body whose surface may be represented by one piezometric map. Recharge occurs locally, throughout the county. Nearly all recharge is derived directly from precipitation that percolates downward to become a part of the groundwater body. Natural movement of water in the consolidated water-bearing units is generally toward the buried Rock and Sugar River valleys. Movement of water in the sandstones of Cambrian age was calculated to be about 44 million gallons a day toward the Rock River. Discharge from wells in Rock County in 1957 was about 23 million gallons a day. Nearly 90 percent of this water was drawn from the area along the Rock River. Drilled wells, most of which were drilled by the cable-tool method, range in diameter from 3 to 26 inches, and in depth from 46 to 1,225 feet. Driven wells in alluvium and glacial drift are usually 1? to 2? in

  19. Ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas, southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Paul J.; Soja, Constance M.; Sidle, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Appraisals of the resources of selected management areas in eastern Oregon are being made by the U.S. Bureau of Land Mangement. To provide needed hydrologic information, the Bureau of Land Management requested the U.S. Geological Survey to inventory ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas. The inventory included field location of selected wells and springs; measurement of ground-water levels, temperatures, specific conductance, and pH; and the collection of ground-water samples from selected sources to determine dissolved chemical constituents.

  20. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The study area occupies about 14,500 square miles in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada. Thermal ground water occurs under artesian conditions, in discontinuous or compartmented zones, in igneous or sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age. Ground-water movement is generally northward. Temperatures of the ground water range from about 30/sup 0/ to more than 80/sup 0/C. Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/C. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water water is near zero.

  1. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  2. General and Localized corrosion of Austenitic and Borated Stainless Steels in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Fix; J. Estill; L. Wong; R. Rebak

    2004-05-28

    Boron containing stainless steels are used in the nuclear industry for applications such as spent fuel storage, control rods and shielding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion resistance of three borated stainless steels with standard austenitic alloy materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Tests were conducted in three simulated concentrated ground waters at 90 C. Results show that the borated stainless were less resistant to corrosion than the witness austenitic materials. An acidic concentrated ground water was more aggressive than an alkaline concentrated ground water.

  3. General and Localized Corrosion of Austenitic And Borated Stainless Steels in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estill, J C; Rebak, R B; Fix, D V; Wong, L L

    2004-03-11

    Boron containing stainless steels are used in the nuclear industry for applications such as spent fuel storage, control rods and shielding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion resistance of three borated stainless steels with standard austenitic alloy materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Tests were conducted in three simulated concentrated ground waters at 90 C. Results show that the borated stainless were less resistant to corrosion than the witness austenitic materials. An acidic concentrated ground water was more aggressive than an alkaline concentrated ground water.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  5. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  6. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  7. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  8. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  10. Evaluation of primitive ground water supplies as a risk factor for the development of major waterborne zoonosis in Egyptian children living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadaly, Hassan A; Hassanain, Nawal A; Hassanain, Mohey A; Barakat, Ashraf M; Shaapan, Raafat M

    2017-08-23

    Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages. The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of zoonotic pathogens within the infiltrated untreated ground water supplies with an assessment of the impact of such biohazards on children living in the studied Egyptian rural areas. A total of 796 stool samples were collected from children under 10 years of age from the Abulnomorous (401) and Shabramant (395) villages in Giza, Egypt, and two hundred forty five ground water samples were collected from various individual home water supplies (ground pumps) within two rural Egyptian localities, namely, the Abulnomorous (128) and Shabramant (117) villages. All the samples were examined for the identification of bacterial, fungal and parasitic zoonosis. The isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella spp. was documented in the following frequencies in the water and stool samples of symptomatic children (11.4% and 5.2%), (6.9% and 2.9%), (13.9% and 6.4%) and (4.5% and 2.3%), respectively. Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were detected in the examined water and morbid stool samples at (7.8% and 2.9%) and (1.6% and 0%), respectively. Additionally, the existence of parasites, including Entamoeba histolytica (5.7% and 4%), Giardia lamblia (9% and 1.7%) and Cryptosporidium oocysts (15.1% and 3.5%), was determined. Regarding Toxoplasma gondii, sporulated oocysts were detected in the ground water (2.9%). The prevalence of diarrhea among the examined children in Abulnomorous was higher (24.7%) than those

  11. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  12. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  13. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  15. Estimated mean annual natural ground-water recharge in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer resolution raster (grid) dataset is an index of mean annual natural ground-water recharge. The dataset was created by multiplying a grid of...

  16. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  17. Evaluation of the Impacts of Irrigation Ground-Water Withdrawl on a Prairie Wetland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To assess the effects of ground-water removal for irrigation on a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easement wetland in Kidder County, North Dakota, researchers...

  18. Simulation of regional ground-water flow in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model that simulates regional ground-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon. Ground water and surface water are intimately connected in the upper Deschutes Basin and most of the flow of the Deschutes River is supplied by ground water. Because of this connection, ground-water pumping and reduction of artificial recharge by lining leaking irrigation canals can reduce the amount of ground water discharging to streams and, consequently, streamflow. The model described in this report is intended to help water-management agencies and the public evaluate how the regional ground-water system and streamflow will respond to ground-water pumping, canal lining, drought, and other stresses. Ground-water flow is simulated in the model by the finite-difference method using MODFLOW and MODFLOWP. The finite-difference grid consists of 8 layers, 127 rows, and 87 columns. All major streams and most principal tributaries in the upper Deschutes Basin are included. Ground-water recharge from precipitation was estimated using a daily water-balance approach. Artificial recharge from leaking irrigation canals and on-farm losses was estimated from diversion and delivery records, seepage studies, and crop data. Ground-water pumpage for irrigation and public water supplies, and evapotranspiration are also included in the model. The model was calibrated to mean annual (1993-95) steady-state conditions using parameter-estimation techniques employing nonlinear regression. Fourteen hydraulic-conductivity parameters and two vertical conductance parameters were determined using nonlinear regression. Final parameter values are all within expected ranges. The general shape and slope of the simulated water-table surface and overall hydraulic-head distribution match the geometry determined from field measurements. The fitted standard deviation for hydraulic head is about 76 feet. The general magnitude and distribution of ground-water discharge to

  19. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  20. Supplementary report on the ground-water supplies of the Atlantic City region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Brunstein, Maurice S.

    1936-01-01

    This report is the second progress report on the ground-water investigations in the Atlantic City region. Many important problems still remain to be solved, however, and it is in no sense a final report.

  1. Polygons Representing Sensitivity of Ground Water to Contamination in Lawrence County, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes 956 polygons labeled with a sensitivity-unit code that represents the sensitivity of ground water to contamination in Lawrence County, SD....

  2. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  3. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  4. Metrics for Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water at CAFO Land Application Site - Iowa Swine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the most common chemical contaminant found in ground water and there are increasing indications that agriculture contributes to this contamination. In the United States, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) are a common agricultural practice. CAFO lea...

  5. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  6. Bioremediation of organic solvents in ground water: A case study--Grandview, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humenik, J.A. (American Compliance Technologies, Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Organic solvents leaking from underground storage tanks or from spillage pose a serious threat to ground-water quality. Chemicals such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methyl-methacrylate are commonly associated with the manufacturing of plastics and fiberglass. After pump-and-treat operations were unsuccessful in remediating ground water contaminated with ethylbenzene and styrene resulting from leaking underground chemical storage tanks, bioremediation was implemented to degrade the contaminants to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources target cleanup limits. Due to low permeability clays and anaerobic subsurface conditions, the bioremediation design consisted of a ground-water recovery system, an aboveground bioreactor to treat ground water, and a recharge network to introduce acclimated microbes, nutrients, and oxygen to the subsurface. Commercially prepared microbial strains and nutrients were utilized for the close-loop system, as insufficient indigenous microbes and nutrients were present in subsurface matrix.

  7. Probability of nitrate contamination of recently recharged ground waters in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a national map of predicted probability of nitrate contamination of shallow ground waters based on a logistic regression (LR) model. The LR model...

  8. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  9. Relationships between basic soils-engineering equations and basic ground-water flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The many varied though related terms developed by ground-water hydrologists and by soils engineers are useful to each discipline, but their differences in terminology hinder the use of related information in interdisciplinary studies. Equations for the Terzaghi theory of consolidation and equations for ground-water flow are identical under specific conditions. A combination of the two sets of equations relates porosity to void ratio and relates the modulus of elasticity to the coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume compressibility, compression index, coefficient of consolidation, specific storage, and ultimate compaction. Also, transient ground-water flow is related to coefficient of consolidation, rate of soil compaction, and hydraulic conductivity. Examples show that soils-engineering data and concepts are useful to solution of problems in ground-water hydrology.

  10. Interaction of ground water with the Rock River near Byron, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to the Rock River in the study area, estimated by three independent methods, ranged from 16,300 to 30,900 cubic feet per day; the low value, determined by the use of the modified Darcy equation, is an estimate only of ground-water discharge from the southern side of the Rock River. The vertical distribution of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water was determined at a test hole along the estimated centerline of the contaminant plume and as close to the river as property access would allow. The maximum concentrations of TCE of 3 micro- grams per liter were found at depths of 59 and 64 feet. The contaminant was dispersed across a verti- cal interval of about 75 feet at depths of 19 and 94 feet. All of the TCE in ground water discharges to the Rock River because no TCE was detected below a depth of 109 feet, and increasing vertical head gradients with depth indicate ground-water flow from a depth of 119 feet is to the river. The maximum possible discharge of TCE is estimated to be about 1.7 grams per day. A finite-difference numerical model was used to simulate ground-water flow along a vertical section through the ground-water system from the Byron Superfund site to the Rock River. Results of the ground-water flow simulation indicate that, if underflow in the St. Peter aquifer occurs beneath the Rock River, it would be water that was present at depth in the flow system at the Byron Superfund site rather than contaminated water that had recharged the system in the vicinity of the Byron Superfund site. (USGS)

  11. Ground-water basic data for Griggs and Steele Counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Joe S.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the hydrologic investigation in Griggs and Steele Counties, N. Dak. (fig. 1) were to: (1) determine the location, extent, and nature of the major aquifers; (2) evaluate the occurrence and movement of ground water, including recharge and discharge; (3) estimate the quantities of water stored in the aquifers; (4) estimate the potential yields of wells tapping the major aquifers; and (5) determine the chemical quality of the ground water.

  12. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the perched ground water under seepage-irrigated potato cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Arboleda, F; Mylavarapu, R; Hutchinson, C; Portier, K

    2008-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen rates for potato production in northeast Florida have been declared as a potential source of nitrate pollution in the St. Johns River watershed. This 3-yr study examined the effect of N rates (0, 168, and 280 kg ha(-1)) split between planting and 40 d after planting on the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Atlantic) in rotation with sorghum sudan grass hybrid (Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese, cv. SX17), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), and greenbean (Phaseolus vulgare cv. Espada). Soil solution from the root zone and water from the perched ground water under potato were sampled periodically using lysimeters and wells, respectively. Fertilization at planting increased the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water, but no effect of the legumes in rotation with potatoes on nitrate leaching was detected. Fertilization of green bean increased NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato planted in the following season. The NO(3)-N concentration in the soil solution within the potato root zone followed a similar pattern to that of the perched ground water but with higher initial values. The NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water was proportional to the rainfall magnitude after potato planting. A significant increase in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under cowpea planted in summer after potato was detected for the side-dressing of 168 kg ha(-1) N applied to potato 40 d after planting but not at the 56 kg ha(-1) N side-dress. Elevation in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under sorghum was not significant, supporting its use as an effective N catch crop.

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  15. A national surveillance project on chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with

  16. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  17. Vadose zone-attenuated artificial recharge for input to a ground water model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William E; Wurstner, Signe K; Eslinger, Paul W

    2007-01-01

    Accurate representation of artificial recharge is requisite to calibration of a ground water model of an unconfined aquifer for a semiarid or arid site with a vadose zone that imparts significant attenuation of liquid transmission and substantial anthropogenic liquid discharges. Under such circumstances, artificial recharge occurs in response to liquid disposal to the vadose zone in areas that are small relative to the ground water model domain. Natural recharge, in contrast, is spatially variable and occurs over the entire upper boundary of a typical unconfined ground water model. An improved technique for partitioning artificial recharge from simulated total recharge for inclusion in a ground water model is presented. The improved technique is applied using data from the semiarid Hanford Site. From 1944 until the late 1980s, when Hanford's mission was the production of nuclear materials, the quantities of liquid discharged from production facilities to the ground vastly exceeded natural recharge. Nearly all hydraulic head data available for use in calibrating a ground water model at this site were collected during this period or later, when the aquifer was under the diminishing influence of the massive water disposals. The vadose zone is typically 80 to 90 m thick at the Central Plateau where most production facilities were located at this semiarid site, and its attenuation of liquid transmission to the aquifer can be significant. The new technique is shown to improve the representation of artificial recharge and thereby contribute to improvement in the calibration of a site-wide ground water model.

  18. Effect of liquid municipal biosolid application method on tile and ground water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Sabourin, L; Curnoe, W; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Rahman, S; Ball-Coelho, B; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; McLaughlin, N

    2008-01-01

    This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation.

  19. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  20. Strontium isotopic identification of water-rock interaction and ground water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Carol D; Toner, Rachel N

    2004-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of ground waters in the Bighorn and Laramie basins' carbonate and carbonate-cemented aquifer systems, Wyoming, United States, reflect the distinctive strontium isotope signatures of the minerals in their respective aquifers. Well water samples from the Madison Aquifer (Bighorn Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that match their carbonate host rocks. Casper Aquifer ground waters (Laramie Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that differ from the bulk host rock; however, stepwise leaching of Casper Sandstone indicates that most of the strontium in Casper Aquifer ground waters is acquired from preferential dissolution of carbonate cement. Strontium isotope data from both Bighorn and Laramie basins, along with dye tracing experiments in the Bighorn Basin and tritium data from the Laramie Basin, suggest that waters in carbonate or carbonate-cemented aquifers acquire their strontium isotope composition very quickly--on the order of decades. Strontium isotopes were also used successfully to verify previously identified mixed Redbeds-Casper ground waters in the Laramie Basin. The strontium isotopic compositions of ground waters near Precambrian outcrops also suggest previously unrecognized mixing between Casper and Precambrian aquifers. These results demonstrate the utility of strontium isotopic ratio data in identifying ground water sources and aquifer interactions.

  1. Nitrate reduction during ground-water recharge, Southern High Plains, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Mullican, William F., III; Romanak, Katherine D.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2000-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, artificial recharge or reuse of wastewater may be desirable for water conservation, but NO 3- contamination of underlying aquifers can result. On the semi-arid Southern High Plains (USA), industrial wastewater, sewage, and feedlot runoff have been retained in dozens of playas, depressions that focus recharge to the regionally important High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. Analyses of ground water, playa-basin core extracts, and soil gas in an 860-km 2 area of Texas suggest that reduction during recharge limits NO 3- loading to ground water. Tritium and Cl - concentrations in ground water corroborate prior findings of focused recharge through playas and ditches. Typical δ15N values in ground water (>12.5‰) and correlations between δ15N and ln CNO -3-N suggest denitrification, but O 2 concentrations ≥3.24 mg l -1 indicate that NO 3- reduction in ground water is unlikely. The presence of denitrifying and NO 3--respiring bacteria in cores, typical soil-gas δ15N values water can still exceed drinking-water standards, as observed in the vicinity of one playa that received wastewater. Therefore, continued ground-water monitoring in the vicinity of other such basins is warranted.

  2. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  3. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  4. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe,...

  5. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, LLC, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) into a...

  6. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1975 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Fix, J.J.; Speer, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This document contains detailed data collected by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance program during 1975. Environmental Surveillance responsibilities at Hanford are divided between Hanford Environmental Health Foundation (HEHF) and Battelle-Northwest (BNW). HEHF is responsible for measuring all nonradiological air quality and sanitary water parameters of interest. BNW is responsible for measuring radiological parameters in all environmental media of significance and for measuring both radiological and nonradiological parameters of Columbia River water and ground water. A brief description of the method and location of sample collection during 1975 is included. Data are tabulated on the content of specific radionuclides in surface air. Columbia River water, drinking water, ground water, foods, fish, and wild animals. Data are also included on content of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ in air, nitrates in Columbia River water, ground water, and drinking water, and water quality of samples of Columbia River water collected at various sampling locations. (CH)

  7. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Reiner

    2007-08-07

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  8. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000-2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  9. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  10. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  11. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  12. Characteristics of males infected with common Neisseria gonorrhoeae sequence types in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, San Francisco, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Marcus, Julia L; Barry, Pennan M; Pandori, Mark W; Buono, Sean; Hess, David; Philip, Susan S

    2013-10-15

    We analyzed 265 urethral Neisseria gonorrhoeae specimens collected from symptomatic males at San Francisco's municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic, a participant in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, during 2009. We used N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing to describe characteristics of patients infected with common sequence type families. Specimens were classified into 6 homology-based families and 1 additional family of all other identified strains. Strain family results were combined with results of culture-based antibiotic sensitivity minimum inhibitory concentration, sociodemographic and behavioral risk data collected at the clinic, and presence or absence of the mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (penA) allele. Characteristics of patients were compared across strain families through the use of χ(2) statistics. Among men who have sex with men, strain distribution differed by those reporting receptive oral sex as their only urethral exposure (P = 0.04), by number of sex partners (P = 0.03), and by race/ethnicity (P gonorrhoeae infection could help develop a more complete epidemiology of gonorrhea in the United States.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  14. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  15. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  16. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  17. Sub-Saharan African ground water protection-building on international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreamer, David K; Usher, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces significant challenges in dealing with ground water pollution. These countries can look to successes and missteps on other continents to help choose their own individual paths to ensuring reliable and clean supplies of ground water. In the large view, sub-Saharan Africa can define specific levels of acceptable risk in water quality that drive cleanup efforts and are amenable to acceptance across national and geographic boundaries. Ground water quality databases must be expanded, and data must be available in an electronic form that is flexible, expandable, and uniform, and that can be used over wide geographic areas. Guidance from other continents is available on well construction, sampling and monitoring, interim remediation, technical impracticability, monitored natural attenuation, and many specific issues such as how to deal with small waste generators and septic contamination of water supply wells. It is important to establish a common African view on the appropriateness of other nations' ground water quality guidance for African issues, economic conditions, and community circumstances. Establishing numerical, concentration-based, water quality action levels for pollutants in ground water, which many neighboring African nations could hold comparable, would set the stage for risk-based remediation of contaminated sites. Efforts to gain public, grass-roots understanding and support for stable and balanced enforcement of standards are also key. Finally, effective capacity building in the region could be an eventual solution to ground water quality problems; with increased numbers of trained environmental professionals, ground water throughout the region can be protected and contaminated sites cleaned up.

  18. INVESTIGATIONS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF GROUND WATER OF SINGRAULI DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pandey et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the most preferred water source in current scenario. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many band below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by research investigators. Various causes associated for the contamination of ground water. The major cause of the contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of industrial waste. The effort was made to assess the quality of ground water and thrash out the portability of ground water by physico-chemical temperament. Present study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of Singrauli district an energy hub station of Madhya Pradesh state of India Study was conduct in year 2012 by selecting 13 different spots, covered all the four directions of Singrauli. Ground water samples were taken from different sources such as bore well, well water, municipal supplier water etc. Investigations of Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater quality based on Physico-chemical parameters have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for different objects. Quality analysis has been made through in terms of pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. Comparative studies of collected samples indicated that there is no appreciable change in the different parameters during sampling season. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ICMR. The results showed that high total hardness content indicating the need of some treatment for minimization. Other investigated samples were found within the water quality standards but the quality of water is not completely favorable as per standard human requirement. Water is not completely fit for drinking purpose due to improper management of disposal of industrials, mines waste or garbage in these local energy hub environments.

  19. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J K; O'Connell, Michael E; Prestegaard, Karen L

    2007-01-01

    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr(-1)) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds.

  20. Denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, E.; Hwang, H.-H.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Beaumont, W.C.; Holm, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution of surface water by N is considered a major cause of hypoxia. Because Corn Belt watersheds have been identified as major sources of N in the Mississippi River basin, the fate and transport of N from midwestern agricultural watersheds have received considerable interest. The fate and transport of N in the shallow ground water of these watersheds still needs additional research. Our purpose was to estimate denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, Corn Belt watershed with fine-grained soils. Over a 3-yr period, N was monitored in the surface and ground water of an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. A significant amount of N was transported past the tile drains and into shallow ground water. The ground water nitrate was isotopically heavier than tile drain nitrate, which can be explained by denitrification in the subsurface. Denitrifying bacteria were found at depths to 10 m throughout the watershed. Laboratory and push-pull tests showed that a significant fraction of nitrate could be denitrified rapidly. We estimated that the N denitrified in shallow ground water was equivalent to 0.3 to 6.4% of the applied N or 9 to 27% of N exported via surface water. These estimates varied by water year and peaked in a year of normal precipitation after 2 yr of below average precipitation. Three years of monitoring data indicate that shallow ground water in watersheds with fine-grained soils may be a significant N sink compared with N exported via surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  1. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  2. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Aldridge

    Full Text Available School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza.We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13. The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP influenza like illness (ILI episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus.27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds, laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus.This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  3. Cardiovascular risk surveillance to develop a nationwide health promotion strategy: the grenada heart project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Woodward, Mark; Iyengar, Rupa; Hunn, Marilyn; Lewis, Marcelle; Francis, Lesley; Charney, Alexander; Graves, Claire; Farkouh, Michael E; Fuster, Valentin

    2012-07-01

    The Grenada Heart Project aims to study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial determinants of the cardiovascular health in Grenada in order to develop and implement a nationwide cardiovascular health promotion program. We recruited 2,827 adults randomly selected from the national electronic voter list. The main outcome measures were self-reported cardiovascular disease and behavioral risk factors, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, point-of-care testing for glucose and lipids, and ankle-brachial index. Risk factors were also compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Survey data. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors were: overweight and obesity-57.7% of the population, physical inactivity-23.4%, diabetes-13.3%, hypertension-29.7%, hypercholesterolemia-8.6%, and smoking-7%. Subjects who were physically active had a significantly lower 10-year Framingham risk score (pNutrition Survey data, Grenadian women had higher rates of adiposity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas Grenadian men had a higher rate of diabetes, a similar rate of hypertension, and lower rates of the other risk factors. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6%; stroke and coronary heart disease were equally prevalent at ∼2%. This randomly selected adult sample in Grenada reveals prevalence rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes significantly exceeding those seen in the United States. The contrasting, paradoxically low levels of prevalent cardiovascular disease support the concept that Grenada is experiencing an obesity-related "risk transition." These data form the basis for the implementation of a pilot intervention program based on the Institute of Medicine recommendations and may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  5. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    Queens County is a heavily populated borough of New York City, at the western end of Long Island, N. Y., in which large amounts of ground water are used, mostly for public supply. Ground water, pumped from local aquifers, by privately owned water-supply companies, supplied the water needs of about 750,000 of the nearly 2 million residents of the county in 1967; the balance was supplied by New York City from surface sources outside the county in upstate New York. The county's aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Late Cretaceous and of Pleistocene ages, and the aquifers comprise a wedge-shaped ground-water reservoir lying on a southeastward-sloping floor of Precambrian(?) bedrock. Beds of clay and silt generally confine water in the deeper parts of the reservoir; water in the deeper aquifers ranges from poorly confined to well confined. Wisconsin-age glacial deposits in the uppermost part of the reservoir contain ground water under water-table conditions. Ground water pumpage averaged about 60 mgd (million gallons per day) in Queens County from about 1900 to 1967. Much of the water was used in adjacent Kings County, another borough of New York City, prior to 1950. The large ground-water withdrawal has resulted in a wide-spread and still-growing cone of depression in the water table, reflecting a loss of about 61 billion gallons of fresh water from storage. Significant drawdown of the water table probably began with rapid urbanization of Queens County in the 1920's. The county has been extensively paved, and storm and sanitary sewers divert water, which formerly entered the ground, to tidewater north and south of the county. Natural recharge to the aquifers has been reduced to about one half of the preurban rate and is below the withdrawal rate. Ground-water levels have declined more than 40. feet from the earliest-known levels, in 1903, to 1967, and the water table is below sea level in much of the county. The aquifers are being contaminated by the movement of

  6. Statistical evaluation of effects of riparian buffers on nitrate and ground water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, T.B.

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted to statistically evaluate the effectiveness of riparian buffers for decreasing nitrate concentrations in ground water and for affecting other chemical constituents. Values for pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), silica, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, and manganese at 28 sites in the Contentnea Creek Basin were significantly higher (p 20 yr) discharging ground water draining areas with riparian buffers compared with areas without riparian buffers. No differences in chloride, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and dssolved oxygen concentrations in old ground water between buffer and nonbuffer areas were detected. Comparison of samples of young (20 yr) discharging ground water draining areas with riparian buffers compared with areas without riparian buffers. No differences in chloride, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in old ground water between buffer and nonbuffer areas were detected. Comparison of samples of young (water samples from buffer and nonbuffer areas indicated significantly higher specific conductance, calcium, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen in nonbuffer areas. Riparian buffers along streams can affect the composition of the hyporheic zone by providing a source of organic carbon to the streambed, which creates reducing geochemical conditions that consequently can affect the chemical quality of old ground water discharging through it. Buffer zones between agricultural fields and streams facilitate dilution of conservative chemical constituents in young ground water that originate from fertilizer applications and also allow denitrification in ground water by providing an adequate source of organic carbon generated by vegetation in the buffer zone. Based on the median chloride and nitrate values for young ground water in the Contentnea Creek Basin, nitrate was 95% lower in buffer areas compared with nonbuffer areas, with a 30 to 35% reduction estimated to be due to

  7. A modelling approach to determine the origin of urban ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, Sam A; Lerner, David N

    2007-04-01

    A simple modelling approach was developed to link patterns of urban land-use with ground water flow and chemistry in three dimensions and was applied to characterize the origin of recharge in the aquifer beneath the old industrial city of Nottingham, UK. The approach involved dividing land uses into types, and times into periods, and assigning the recharge from each an individual tracer-solute with a unit concentration. The computer code MT3DMS was used to track the multiple tracer-solutes in transient, three-dimensional simulations of the important urban aquifer. A depth-specific hydrochemical dataset collected in parallel supported the model predictions. At depth under the industrial area studied, a large component of ground water originated of older agricultural origin, with relatively low nitrate concentrations. Shallower ground water originated mainly from residential and industrial areas, with higher nitrate concentrations probably arising from leaking sewers and contaminated land. The results highlighted the spectrum of ground water from different origins that amalgamate even at short well screens in a non-pumped borehole and remind us that the non-point-source pollution of ground water from anthropogenic activities will involve more years of slow degradation of quality.

  8. Application of GIS and MODFLOW to Ground Water Hydrology- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singha Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Due to over exploitation, the ground water systems are affected and require management to maintain the conditions of ground water resources within acceptable limits. With the development of computers and advances in information technology, efficient techniques for water management has evolved. The main intent of the paper is to present a comprehensive review on application of GIS (Geographic Information System followed by coupling with MODFLOW package for ground water management and development. Two major areas are discussed stating GIS applications in ground water hydrology. (i GIS based subsurface flow and pollution modelling (ii Selection of artificial recharge sites. Although the use of these techniques in groundwater studies has rapidly increased since last decade the sucess rate is very limited. Based on this review , it is concluded that integation of GIS and MODFLOW have great potential to revolutionize the monitoring and management of vital ground water resources in the future.

  9. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  10. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  11. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large.

  12. Identification of septic system effluent in ground water using small catchment hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.B.J.; Alexander, E.C. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    In many areas the contribution of septic system effluent to ground water contamination is still uncertain because of ambiguous provenance of chemical constituents. The problem is to establish a diagnostic chemical signature for the septic system effluent. Chlorides, nitrogen isotopes and optical brighteners have all been used as single constituent tracers for this purpose. These tracers tend to have limited range of application and cannot resolve ambiguity in areas with multiple potential contaminant sources. The authors addressed this problem using eight major ions to characterize the ground water chemistry, graphically or statistically. They identify the chemical signatures of septic system effluent and other non-point source contamination from the ground water chemistry of small ground water catchments overlain by single or very restricted land use types. They studied five small catchments near Rochester, Minnesota to isolate pre-development and non-septic system components of the ground water chemistry. Five small isolated hills were selected each with a distinct land-use type; natural forest, agricultural, unsewered residential, mixed agricultural/residential and fully sewered residential. The results show that Piper diagrams and statistical analysis can be used to define chemical signatures for the unsewered residential area using septic systems, the natural forest, and the agricultural catchments. The signatures of the mixed agriculture/residential and the fully sewered catchments are very similar to that of the agricultural catchment.

  13. Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ailiang; Gray, Floyd; Eastoe, Christopher J; Norman, Laura M; Duarte, Oscar; Long, Austin

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (S and O) isotopes used in conjunction with sulfate concentration provide a tracer for ground water contributions to base flow. They are particularly useful in areas where rock sources of contrasting S isotope character are juxtaposed, where water chemistry or H and O isotopes fail to distinguish water sources, and in arid areas where rain water contributions to base flow are minimal. Sonoita Creek basin in southern Arizona, where evaporite and igneous sources of sulfur are commonly juxtaposed, serves as an example. Base flow in Sonoita Creek is a mixture of three ground water sources: A, basin ground water with sulfate resembling that from Permian evaporite; B, ground water from the Patagonia Mountains; and C, ground water associated with Temporal Gulch. B and C contain sulfate like that of acid rock drainage in the region but differ in sulfate content. Source A contributes 50% to 70%, with the remainder equally divided between B and C during the base flow seasons. The proportion of B generally increases downstream. The proportion of A is greatest under drought conditions.

  14. Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, A.; Gray, F.; Eastoe, C.J.; Norman, L.M.; Duarte, O.; Long, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (S and O) isotopes used in conjunction with sulfate concentration provide a tracer for ground water contributions to base flow. They are particularly useful in areas where rock sources of contrasting S isotope character are juxtaposed, where water chemistry or H and O isotopes fail to distinguish water sources, and in arid areas where rain water contributions to base flow are minimal. Sonoita Creek basin in southern Arizona, where evaporite and igneous sources of sulfur are commonly juxtaposed, serves as an example. Base flow in Sonoita Creek is a mixture of three ground water sources: A, basin ground water with sulfate resembling that from Permian evaporite; B, ground water from the Patagonia Mountains; and C, ground water associated with Temporal Gulch. B and C contain sulfate like that of acid rock drainage in the region but differ in sulfate content. Source A contributes 50% to 70%, with the remainder equally divided between B and C during the base flow seasons. The proportion of B generally increases downstream. The proportion of A is greatest under drought conditions.

  15. The anti-obesity effect of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Joo; Youn, Cha-Kyung; Hyun, Jin Won; You, Ho Jin

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Jeju ground water containing the vanadium components S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l) and S3 (26.0 ± 2.09 μg/l) on the differentiation of 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity in mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were cultured and differentiated in media consisting of Jeju ground water (S1, S3) or deionized water (DW) containing dexamethasone, isobutylmethylxanthine, and insulin. Oil Red O staining showed that lipid accumulation was attenuated in adipocyte cells treated with Jeju ground water. S3 significantly decreased peroxisome-activated receptor γ and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α mRNA expression levels, which play major roles in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, compared to DW. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of targeted genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin, were decreased by S3 treatment compared with the control group. In mice with HFD-induced obesity, Jeju ground water decreased HFD-induced body weight gain and reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose levels in the plasma compared to control mice. Taken together, Jeju ground water inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in obesity animal models.

  16. Physical and chemical data for ground water in the Michigan basin, 1986-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, G.T.; Baltusis, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 459 wells located in the Michigan basin as part of a Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. Data on the physical and chemical characteristics of 476 ground-water samples from these wells represent ground-water characteristics in the Berea Sandstone, Coldwater Shale, Marshall Sandstone, Michigan Formation, Bayport Limestone, Saginaw Formation, Grand River Formation, and glacial deposits. Ground-water samples were measured in the Geld for specific conductance, temperature, and alkalinity. Analyses of ground water for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, total iron, and sulfide were also done in the field. Additional laboratory analysis provided data on eight major and 18 minor inorganic constituents. Twenty-one samples were analyzed for tritium, 140 samples were analyzed for carbon-13, and 19 samples were analyzed for carbon-14. The stable-isotope ratio of deuterium to hydrogen was determined for 408 samples; the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 was determined for 433 samples; and the ratio of sulfur-34 to sulfur-32 was determined for 20 samples. Sixteen samples were analyzed for the unstable isotopes of uranium; 13 samples were analyzed for radium-226; and the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 was determined for 13 samples.

  17. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  18. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other

  19. Geology and ground-water resources of the Douglas basin, Arizona, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Donald Robert; Cushman, R.L.; Hatchett, James Lawrence

    1955-01-01

    The Douglas basin is part of a large northwest-trending intermontane valley, known as the Sulphur Spring Valley, which lies in southeastern Arizona, and extends into northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Maturely dissected mountains rise abruptly from long alluvial slopes and culminate in peaks 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the valley floor, Bedrock in the mountain areas confines drainage on the east and west, and an arc of low hills to the north separates the basin from the Willcox basin of the Sulphur Spring Valley. Drainage of the 1,200 square miles in the Douglas basin is southward into Mexico through Whitewater Draw. The mountains include igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks ranging in age from pre-Cambrian to Tertiary, including Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that total about 10,000 feet in thickness. The older rocks have been metamorphosed, and all the bedrock has been affected by igneous intrusion, largely in Mesozoic time, and by structural movements, largely in Cenozoic time and extending into the Quaternary period. By the early part of Cenozoic time the major structural features were formed, and mountain ranges had been uplifted above the valley trough along northwest-trending fault zones. Since that time the physiographic features have resulted through erosion of the mountain blocks and the deposition, in places, of more than 2,800 feet of unconsolidated rock debris in the valley. Ground-water supplies of the Douglas basin are developed largely in the saturated zone of the valley-fill sediments. The ground water in the valley fill occurs in thin lenses and strata of sand and gravel, which are interbedded with large thicknesses of silt and day. Scattered gypsum beds and extensive caliche deposits appear at the surface and occur within the valley fill at various depths. Although the valley-fill sediments are as much as 2,800 feet thick, the uppermost 300 feet or so are the most permeable. Ground water originates as precipitation in the mountain areas

  20. Occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs and ionizing radiation in Canadian veterinary settings: findings from a national surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A; Nicol, Anne-Marie; Peters, Cheryl E

    2013-11-01

    Although veterinary workers may encounter various occupational health hazards, a national characterization of exposures is lacking in Canada. This study used secondary data sources to identify veterinary exposure prevalence for ionizing radiation and antineoplastic agents, as part of a national surveillance project. For ionizing radiation, data from the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada were used to identify veterinarians and veterinary technicians monitored in 2006. This was combined with Census statistics to estimate a prevalence range and dose levels. For antineoplastic agents, exposure prevalence was estimated using statistics on employment by practice type and antineoplastic agent usage rates, obtained from veterinary licensing bodies and peer-reviewed literature. In 2006, 7,013 (37% of all) Canadian veterinary workers were monitored for ionizing radiation exposure. An estimated 3.3% to 8.2% of all veterinarians and 2.4% to 7.2% of veterinary technicians were exposed to an annual ionizing radiation dose above 0.1 mSv, representing a total of between 536 and 1,450 workers. All monitored doses were below regulatory limits. For antineoplastic agents, exposure was predicted in up to 5,300 (23%) of all veterinary workers, with an estimated prevalence range of 22% to 24% of veterinarians and 20% to 21% of veterinary technicians. This is the first national-level assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation and antineoplastic agents in Canadian veterinary settings. These hazards may pose considerable health risks. Exposures appeared to be low, however our estimates should be validated with comprehensive exposure monitoring and examination of determinants across practice areas, occupations, and tasks.

  1. Ground-water quality in the Davie Landfill, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water adjacent to a disposal pond for septic tank sludge, oil, and grease at the Davie landfill, Broward County, Florida was tested for a variety of ground-water contaminants. Three wells adjacent to the disposal pond yielded water rich in nutrients, organic carbon and many other chemical constituents. Total coliform bacteria ranged from less than 100 to 660 colonies per 100 milliliters in samples collected from the shallowest well (depth 20 feet). At well depths of 35 and 45 feet bacterial counts were less than 20 colonies per 100 milliliters or zero. Concentrations of several constituents in water samples collected from the wells downgradient from the landfill, disposal pond, and an incinerator wash pond were greater than in samples collected from wells immediately upgradient of the landfill. A comparison of sodium-chloride ion ratios indicated that downgradient ground-water contamination was related to the incinerator wash water pond rather than the septic tank sludge pond. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Effect of pesticide use in fruit production orchards on shallow ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, R M; Carvajal, L G; Novelli, M; de D'Angelo, A M Pechen

    2003-05-01

    As a part of landscape-scale study, ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in fruit production farms belonging to the valley of Neuquen river during the period 1995-1998 and analyzed for organophosphate pesticides. As a consequence of the leaching process, ground water from the Valley of Neuquen River frequently contained concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides that exceeded acute toxicity risk ratios established to protect aquatic life. It was found that some pesticides, as azinphos methyl, had a high detection frequency, 66% of the samples, with concentrations varying from no detection to 48.9 ppb. Dimethoate, metidathion and phosmet were also detected with frequencies of 14.1, 13.6 and 10.8% and with concentration ranks from no detection to a maximum value of 10.9, 2.0 and 15.5 ppb, respectively. Seasonal variations and temporal trends were found for these compounds in ground water.

  3. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  4. Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-bin; YAN Hong-kun; WANG Zhao-jun

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollu-tion factors in the ground water are consisted with the main pollution factor in the leading water of the gangue. By synthetically analyzing, a conclusion is shown that the salts in the leacheate of the waste dump of open pit coal mine are the primary pollution source for groundwater of Yujiagou area. An assessment is made about the degree of pollution of the ground water in the study area.

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer is a major source of public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The aquifer outcrop trends northwest - southeast across Mississippi and Alabama. A relatively thin shallow aquifer overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer in the flood plains and terraces of the Alabama, Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ground water in the shallow aquifer and the Black Warrior River aquifer is susceptible to contamination due to the effects of land use. Ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer and the shallow subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer, underlying an agricultural and an urban area, is described and compared. The agricultural and urban areas are located in central Alabama in Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa Counties. Row cropping in the Mobile River Basin is concentrated within the flood plains of major rivers and their tributaries, and has been practiced in some of the fields for nearly 100 years. Major crops are cotton, corn, and beans. Crop rotation and no-till planting are practiced, and a variety of crops are grown on about one-third of the farms. Row cropping is interspersed with pasture and forested areas. In 1997, the average farm size in the agricultural area ranged from 196 to 524 acres. The urban area is located in eastern Montgomery, Alabama, where residential and commercial development overlies the shallow aquifer and subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer. Development of the urban area began about 1965 and continued in some areas through 1995. The average home is built on a 1/8 - to 1/4 - acre lot. Ground-water samples were collected from 29 wells in the agricultural area, 30 wells in the urban area, and a reference well located in a predominately forested area. The median depth to the screens of the agricultural and urban wells was 22.5 and 29 feet, respectively. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and pesticides

  7. EFFECT OF SANTA ROSA LAKE ON GROUND WATER FLOW TO THE PECOS RIVER, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980, Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles (11 kilometers) north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the ground water flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow-gaging stations, which are used to administer water rights along the Pecos River. The effect of the lake on streamflow was investigated using a three-dimensional ground water flow model. These simulations indicated that the net change in ground water flow to the river would be almost zero if the lake were maintained at its flood control pool for 90 days.

  8. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  9. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  10. Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinisation of land and rivers is a problem of national importance in India. Appropriate land management options to alleviate salinisation should be chosen with knowledge of the effects of land management on stream flow, stream salinity, stream salt load and land productivity. The Management of Catchment Salinisation (MCS modelling approach has been described in earlier work. It links a one-dimensional soil water model with a groundwater model to investigate the effects of management options in study areas of approximately 50 km2. The one dimensional model is used to characterize the annual soil water balance as a function of underlying aquifer Vpotential for all required combinations of soil, vegetation and groundwater salinity. It includes the effect of salt accumulation on plant water use. A groundwater model is then used to estimate the depth to water table across the study area that reflects the topography, hydrogeology and the distribution of vegetation. The MCS model is used to investigate the potential effects of future land use scenarios on catchment salt and water balance. Land use scenarios that have been considered include: forest plantations, revegetation with native trees and shrubs, and development of small areas of crops (10 to 20 ha irrigated with groundwater. This project focuses on the development of small crop areas irrigated with groundwater and investigates the sustainability of these schemes. It also compares the reduction of catchment salt load export under irrigation development with the reduction under afforestation

  11. Movement of coliform bacteria and nutrients in ground water flowing through basalt and sand aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entry, J A; Farmer, N

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale deposition of animal manure can result in contamination of surface and ground water and in potential transfer of disease-causing enteric bacteria to animals or humans. We measured total coliform bacteria (TC), fecal coliform bacteria (FC), NO3, NH4, total P, and PO4 in ground water flowing from basalt and sand aquifers, in wells into basalt and sand aquifers, in irrigation water, and in river water. Samples were collected monthly for 1 yr. Total coliform and FC numbers were always higher in irrigation water than in ground water, indicating that soil and sediment filtered most of these bacteria before they entered the aquifers. Total coliform and FC numbers in ground water were generally higher in the faster flowing basalt aquifer than in the sand aquifer, indicating that the slower flow and finer grain size may filter more TC and FC bacteria from water. At least one coliform bacterium/100 mL of water was found in ground water from both basalt and sand aquifers, indicating that ground water pumped from these aquifers is not necessarily safe for human consumption according to the American Public Health Association and the USEPA. The NO3 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the sand aquifer than in water flowing from the basalt aquifer or in perched water tables in the basalt aquifer. The PO4 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the basalt aquifer than in water flowing from the sand aquifer. The main concern is fecal contamination of these aquifers and health consequences that may arise from human consumption.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of ground water recharge in central Australia: a tracer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Cook, Peter G; Herczeg, Andrew L

    2002-01-01

    Two environmental tracer methods are applied to the Ti-Tree Basin in central Australia to shed light on the importance of recharge from floodouts of ephemeral rivers in this arid environment. Ground water carbon-14 concentrations from boreholes are used to estimate the average recharge rate over the interval between where the ground water sample first entered the saturated zone and the bore. Environmental chloride concentrations in ground water samples provide estimates of the recharge rate at the exact point in the landscape where the sample entered the saturated zone. The results of the two tracer approaches indicate that recharge rates around one of the rivers and an extensive floodplain are generally higher than rates of diffuse recharge that occurs in areas of lower topographic relief. Ground water 2H/1H and 18O/16O compositions are all depleted in the heavier isotopes (delta2H = -67 per thousand to -50 per thousand; delta18O = -9.2 per thousand to -5.7%o) compared with the long-term, amount-weighted mean isotopic composition of rainfall in the area (delta2H = -33.8 per thousand; delta18O = -6.3 per thousand). This indicates that recharge throughout the basin occurs only after intense rainfall events of at least 150 to 200 mm/month. Finally, a recharge map is developed to highlight the spatial extent of the two recharge mechanisms. Floodout recharge to the freshest ground water (TDS recharge rate of approximately 0.2 mm/year to the remainder of the basin. These findings have important implications for management of the ground water resource.

  13. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary