WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-water resource problems

  1. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  2. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  3. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  4. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  5. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  7. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  8. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  9. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  11. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    Washington County, in northeastern Colorado, has an area of 2,520 square miles. The eastern two-thirds of the county, part of the High Plains physiographic section, is relatively flat and has been moderately altered by the deposition of loess and dune sand, and by stream erosion. The western one-third is a part of the South Platte River basin and has been deeply dissected by tributary streams. The soils and climate of the county are generally suited for agriculture, which is the principal industry. The rocks that crop out in the county influence the availability of ground water. The Pierre Shale, of Late Cretaceous age, underlies the entire area and ranges in thickness from 2,000 to 4,500 feet. This dense shale is a barrier to the downward movement of water and yields little or no water to wells. The Chadron Formation, of Oligocene age, overlies the Pierre Shale in the northern and central parts of the area. The thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. Small to moderate quantities of water are available from the scattered sand lenses and from the highly fractured zones of the siltstone. The Ogallala Formation, of Pliocene age, overlies the Chadron Formation and in Washington County forms the High Plains section of the Great Plains province. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation ranges from 0 to about 400 feet, and the yield from wells ranges from a few gallons per hour to about 1,500 gpm. Peorian loess, of Pleistocene age, and dune sand, of Pleistocene to Recent age, mantle a large pan of the county and range in thickness from a few inches to about 120 feet Although the loess and dune sand yield little water to wells, they absorb much of the precipitation and conduct the water to underlying formations. Alluvium, of Pleistocene and Recent age, occupies most of the major stream valleys in thicknesses of a few feet to about 250 feet. The yield of wells tapping the alluvium ranges from a few gallons per minute to about 3,000 gpm, according

  12. Ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas, southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Paul J.; Soja, Constance M.; Sidle, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Appraisals of the resources of selected management areas in eastern Oregon are being made by the U.S. Bureau of Land Mangement. To provide needed hydrologic information, the Bureau of Land Management requested the U.S. Geological Survey to inventory ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas. The inventory included field location of selected wells and springs; measurement of ground-water levels, temperatures, specific conductance, and pH; and the collection of ground-water samples from selected sources to determine dissolved chemical constituents.

  13. Salinization of a fresh palaeo-ground water resource by enhanced recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaney, F W; Herczeg, A L; Walker, G R

    2003-01-01

    Deterioration of fresh ground water resources caused by salinization is a growing issue in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. We discuss here the incipient salinization of a 10(4) km2 area of fresh ground water (Ground water 14C concentrations and unsaturated zone Cl soil water inventories indicate that the low salinity ground water originated mainly from palaeo-recharge during wet climatic periods more than 20,000 years ago. However, much of the soil water in the 20 to 60 m thick unsaturated zone throughout the area is generally saline (>15,000 mg/L) because of relatively high evapotranspiration during the predominantly semiarid climate of the last 20,000 years. Widespread clearing of native vegetation over the last 100 years and replacement with crops and pastures leads to enhancement of recharge rates that progressively displace the saline soil-water from the unsaturated zone into the ground water. To quantify the impact of this new hydrologic regime, a one-dimensional model that simulates projected ground water salinities as a function of depth to ground water, recharge rates, and soil water salt inventory was developed. Results from the model suggest that, in some areas, the ground water salinity within the top 10 m of the water table is likely to increase by a factor of 2 to 6 during the next 100 years. Ground water quality will therefore potentially degrade beyond the point of usefulness well before extraction of the ground water exhausts the resource.

  14. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  15. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32 cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  16. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  17. Ground-water resources of Pavant Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1965-01-01

    Pavant Valley, in eastern Millard County in west-central Utah, is in the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range province. The area of investigation is 34 miles long from north to south and 9 miles wide from east to west and comprises about 300 square miles. Agriculture, tourist trade, and mining are the principal industries. The population of the valley is about 3,500, of which about half live in Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County. The climate is semiarid and temperatures are moderate. Average normal annual precipitation in the lowlands is estimated to range from 10 to 14 inches. Precipitation is heaviest during the late winter and spring, January through May. The average monthly temperature at Fillmore ranges from 29?F in January to 76?F in July; the average annual temperature is 52?F. Because of the aridity, most crops cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Irrigation requirements were satisfied for about 60 years after the valley was settled by diverting streams tributary to the valley. Artesian water was discovered near Flowell in 1915. By 1920 flowing artesian wells supplied about 10 percent of the irrigation water used in the valley, not including water from the Central Utah Canal. The Central Utah Canal was constructed in 1916 to convey water to the Pavant Valley from the Sevier River. Especially since 1916, the quantity of surface water available each year for irrigation has changed with the vagaries of nature. The total percentage of irrigation water contributed by ground water, on the other hand, gradually increased to about 15 percent in 1945 and then increased rapidly to 45 percent in 1960; it will probably stabilize at about 50 percent. Sand and gravel deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age are the principal aquifers in Pavant Valley. These deposits are coarser, more extensive, and more permeable near the mountains and become progressively finer .and less .permeable westward away from the mountains. As ground water moves westward

  18. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  19. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    . This sandstone also yields some water to uncased wells that tap the deeper rocks of the Upper Cambrian series. East of the Rock River the Platteville, Decorah, and Galena formations undifferentiated, or Platteville-Galena unit, is the principal source of water for domestic and stock wells. Unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin cover most of Rock County and supply water to many small wells. In the outwash deposits along the Rock River, wells of extremely high capacity have been developed for industrial and municipal use. The most significant feature of the bedrock surface in Rock County is the ancestral Rock River valley, which has been filled with glacial outwash to a depth of at least 396 feet below the present land surface. East of the buried valley the bedrock has a fiat, relatively undissected surface. West of the valley the bedrock surface is rugged and greatly dissected. Ground water in Rock County occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions; however, because of the interconnection and close relation of all ground water in the county, the entire system is considered to be a single groundwater body whose surface may be represented by one piezometric map. Recharge occurs locally, throughout the county. Nearly all recharge is derived directly from precipitation that percolates downward to become a part of the groundwater body. Natural movement of water in the consolidated water-bearing units is generally toward the buried Rock and Sugar River valleys. Movement of water in the sandstones of Cambrian age was calculated to be about 44 million gallons a day toward the Rock River. Discharge from wells in Rock County in 1957 was about 23 million gallons a day. Nearly 90 percent of this water was drawn from the area along the Rock River. Drilled wells, most of which were drilled by the cable-tool method, range in diameter from 3 to 26 inches, and in depth from 46 to 1,225 feet. Driven wells in alluvium and glacial drift are usually 1? to 2? in

  20. Efficiency Of Ground Water Resources In Northeast Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sewidan, A. S. [احمد صفوت سويدان

    1993-01-01

    The present study deals with actual quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the groundwater resources in El Sheikh Zuwayid-Rafah area, the northeast coast of Sinai Peninsula. The quantitative analysis is achieved by using groundwater contour maps in 1982 and 1988m while the qualitative evaluation is done using an isosalinity contour map in 1988. A resulting modulus contour map (1982-1988) is drawn to show the variations in the groundwater flow condition. An efficiency groundwater map is co...

  1. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  2. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  3. Ground-Water Resources of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Meriana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Saipan has an area of 48 mi2 and is the largest of the 14 islands in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). The island is formed by volcanic rocks overlain by younger limestones. The island is situated in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15?12'N and longitude 145?45'E, about 3,740 mi west-southwest of Honolulu and midway between Japan and New Guinea (fig. 1). The climate on Saipan is classified as tropical marine with an average temperature of 80?F. The natural beauty of the island and surrounding waters are the basis for a growing tourist-based economy. The resulting rapid development and increases in resident and tourist populations have added stresses to the island's limited water supplies. Freshwater resources on Saipan are not readily observable because, aside from the abundant rainfall, most freshwater occurs as ground water. Fresh ground water is found in aquifers composed mainly of fragmental limestones. About 90 percent of the municipal water supply comes from 140 shallow wells that withdraw about 11 Mgal/d. The chloride concentration of water withdrawn from production wells ranges from less than 100 mg/L for wells in the Akgak and Capital Hill well fields, to over 2,000 mg/L from wells in the Puerto Rico, Maui IV, and Marpi Quarry well fields. The chloride concentrations and rates of ground-water production are not currently adequate for providing island residents with a potable 24-hour water supply and future demands are expected to be higher. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island, and water resources on tropical islands in general, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative program with the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation (CUC). The objective of the program, initiated in 1989, is to assess the ground-water resources of Saipan and to make hydrologic information available to the CUC in support of their ongoing efforts to improve the quality and quantity of the municipal water

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Wichita and Greeley Counties, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, G.C.; Branch, J.R.; Wilson, W.W.

    1954-01-01

    This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of Wichita and Greeley counties in western Kansas. The area consists of a flat to gently rolling plain, which slopes eastward [at] about 15 feet per mile. A short reach of Ladder Creek (Beaver) is the only perennially flowing stream in the two counties. Ephemeral streams, which flow only during and after heavy rains, are White Woman and Sand Creeks and the western reach of Ladder Creek. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 17 inches in Wichita County and 16 inches in Greeley County. Agriculture is the principal occupation in the area, and wheat is the most important crop. A considerable area is irrigated; sugar beets and sorghums are the principal irrigated crops.The outcropping rocks range in age from late Cretaceous to Recent; the Smoky Hill chalk member of the Niobrara formation, which is exposed along White Woman Creek in western Greeley County, is the oldest. The Niobrara is almost everywhere overlain by the Ogallala formation of Pliocene age. Generally the Ogallala is overlain by windblown silt of the Pleistocene Sanborn formation, but in places it is exposed along streams. The most recent deposits are dune sand and the alluvium along the streams. The Dakota formation, which is an important aquifer in parts of Kansas, is 300 to 450 feet beneath the Niobrara formation.The ground water that is available to wells in Wichita and Greeley counties is derived entirely from precipitation in the area or in areas immediately west and north. Ground water moves in a generally easterly direction with a gradient that varies inversely with the permeability of the water-bearing beds. The ground-water reservoir is recharged principally by precipitation within the area or within adjacent areas, Ground-water discharge takes place principally by pumping from wells, subsurface outflow, and evaporation and transpiration. Most of the domestic, stock, public, and irrigation

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Big Sandy Creek Valley, Lincoln, Cheyenne, and Kiowa Counties, Colorado; with a section on Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Donald L.; Horr, Clarence Albert

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the geology and ground-water resources of that part of the Big Sandy Creek valley from about 6 miles east of Limon, Colo., downstream to the Kiowa County and Prowers County line, an area of about 1,400 square miles. The valley is drained by Big Sandy Creek and its principal tributary, Rush Creek. The land surface ranges from flat to rolling; the most irregular topography is in the sandhills south and west of Big Sandy Creek. Farming and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigated lands constitute only a sin311 part of the project area, but during the last 15 years irrigation has expanded. Exposed rocks range in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. They comprise the Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formations, Pierre Shale (all Late Cretaceous), upland deposits (Pleistocene), valley-fill deposits (Pleistocene and Recent), and dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent). Because the Upper Cretaceous formations are relatively impermeable and inhibit water movement, they allow ground water to accumul3te in the overlying unconsolidated Pleistocene and Recent deposits. The valley-fill deposits constitute the major aquifer and yield as much as 800 gpm (gallons per mixture) to wells along Big Sandy and Rush Creeks. Transmissibilities average about 45,000 gallons per day per foot. Maximum well yields in the tributary valleys are about 200 gpm and average 5 to 10 gpm. The dune sand and upland deposits generally are drained and yield water to wells in only a few places. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from direct infiltration of precipitation, which annually averages about 12 inches for the entire basin, and from infiltration of floodwater. Floods in the ephemeral Big Sandy Creek are a major source of recharge to ground-water reservoirs. Observations of a flood near Kit Carson indicated that about 3 acre-feet of runoff percolated into the ground-water reservoir through each acre of the wetted stream channel The downstream decrease in channel and

  6. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  7. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    Rising water tables and the salinization of land as the result of canal irrigation threaten the agricultural economy of the Punjab. Since 1954 the Water and Soils Investigation Division of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority has inventoried the water and soils resources of the Punjab and investigated the relations between irrigation activities, the natural hydrologic factors, and the incidence of waterlogging and subsurface-drainage problems. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which was carried out under a cooperative agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and its predecessor, the U.S. International Cooperation Administration. Leakage from the canal systems, some of which have been in operation for more than 100 years, is the principal cause of rising water levels and constitutes the major component of ground-water recharge in the Punjab. Geologic studies have shown that virtually the entire Punjab is underlain to depths of 1,000 feet or more by unconsolidated alluvium, which is saturated to within a few feet of land surface. The alluvium varies in texture from medium sand to silty clay, but sandy sediments predominate. Large capacity wells, yielding 4 cfs or more, can be developed almost everywhere. Ground water occurring within a depth of 500 feet below the surface averages less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids throughout approximately two-thirds of the Punjab. It is estimated that the volume of usable ground water in storage in this part of the alluvial aquifer is on the order of 2 billion acre-feet. In the other one-third of the Punjab, total dissolved solids range from 1,000 to about 20,000 ppm. In about one-half of this area (one-sixth of the area of the Punjab) some ground water can be utilized by diluting with surface water from canals. The ground-water reservoir underlying the Punjab is an unexploited resource of enormous economic value. It is recognized

  8. Geology and ground-water resources in the Zebulon area, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M.J.; Milby, B.J.; Peck, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current (1991) surface-water source of drinking-water supply for the city of Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia, no longer provides an adequate water supply and periodically does not meet water-quality standards. The hydrogeology of crystalline rocks in the Zebulon area was evaluated to assess the potential of ground-water resources as a supplemental or alternative source of water to present surface-water supplies. As part of the ground-water resource evaluation, well location and construction data were compiled, a geologic map was constructed, and ground water was sampled and analyzed. Three mappable geologic units delineated during this study provide a basic understanding of hydrogeologic settings in the Zebulon area. Rock types include a variety of aluminosilicate schists, granitic rocks, amphibolites/honblende gneisses, and gondites. Several geologic features that may enhance ground-water availability were identified in the study area. These features include contacts between contrasting rock types, where a high degree of differential weathering has occurred, and well-developed structural features, such as foliation and jointing are present. High-yielding wells (greater than 25 gallons per minute) and low-yielding wells (less than one gallon per minute) were located in all three geologic units in a variety of topographic settings. Well yields range from less than one gallon per minute to 250 gallons per minute. The variable total depths and wide ranges of casing depths of the high-yielding wells are indicative of variations in depths to water-bearing zones and regolith thicknesses, respectively. The depth of water-bearing zones is highly variable, even on a local scale. Analyses of ground-water samples indicate that the distribution of iron concentration is as variable as well yield in the study area and does not seem to be related to a particular rock type. Iron concentrations in ground-water samples ranged from 0.02 to 5.3 milligrams per liter. Both iron

  9. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel

  10. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Recycling water within the local ground-water system can increase the quantity of water available for use, control or avoid environmental pollution, and control temperature of the water supply. Pumped ground water supplied a fish-rearing facility for 15 months, and the waste water recharged the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond. Eighty-three percent of the recharged water returned to the well (recycled). Make-up water from the ground-water system provided the remaining 17 percent.

  11. Ground Water Education in America's Schools: A Catalog of Resource Materials for Elementary and Secondary Education Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Ground Water Trust, Dublin, OH.

    More than 13 million privately-owned wells and over 100,000 public water supply sources pump ground water to approximately 123 million Americans daily for personal, commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Yet, even as the nation's need for water grows, the prevailing lack of public knowledge and understanding about this resource leads to…

  12. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  13. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana. Water Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study to provide a quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills and provide a general description of the ground-water quality beneath and near the two landfills. These objectives provide the information necessary to evaluate the effects of the landfills on ground-water quality. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected in 1985 and 1986 at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills to fulfill the study objectives. Ground-water models were used to investigate the flow systems and estimate the volume of flow at the landfills. The report includes descriptions of the data collection, geologic and hydrologic descriptions of the two landfills, and brief histories of trash and sludge disposal. Ground-water-flow models are described and estimates of the volume of flow are discussed. A description of the quality-assurance plan used in conjunction with the water-quality data collection and analysis is included. Water-quality data are presented with statistical summaries of ground-water quality related to well depth and position in the flow system.

  14. THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF USING GROUND WATER TO COOL LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thay Ngok Shon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature in the central part of Vietnam in summer can reach 32–35°C; in some places it can be more than 42°C. Hot climate strongly affects the animal organism alongside with the animal weight reduction and reduction the quantity of egg-laying in poultry. Therefore, air conditioning in livestock buildings is necessary. There are several ways to cool the temperature in such buildings, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use underground water at the temperature of 24–25°C for this purpose. One of the methods of cooling sheds for livestock is sprinkler irrigation of water on the roof. For calculating the amount of heat, removed from the indoor air in the shed to the cooling water, in the first approximation specialists believe in some cases that an appropriate amount of heat being removed is determined mainly by heat transfer from the air inside the shed to the cooling water through the surface of the roof, represented by the lower part of the wave that form the surface of a metal tile, neglecting the influence of heat conduction on top of the wave of the tile surface. Consequentially, such a simplification leads to possible errors. Therefore, the authors solved the problem of cooling shed by irrigation of water on the roof by an analytical method. Specifically, we solved the problem of heat conductivity of the fin of the finite length of constant cross section, wherein different sides of the fin are conjugate with different environments. Additionally, the calculation considered the effect of solar radiation. For this purpose, the authors have created a heat balance equation at steady state for any infinitesimal element of the fin, and solved the differential equation afterwards. The authors applied the results for calculating practical problem of ground water irrigation of a roof of a livestock shed made of metal areas tiles. 

  15. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Ngatik Island, Sapwuahfik Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Ngatik Island contains about 509 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 990,000 gallons per day on the basis of an estimated mean annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 280,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 30,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube-wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Ngatik can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking and ground water can be used for sanitary purposes. When rainwater- catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  16. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll contains about 384 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 230,000 gallons per day on the basis of an average annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 69,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 50,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Pingelap can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  17. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Kahlap Island, Mwoakilloa Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Kahlap Island contains about 21.3 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 125,000 gallons per day on the basis of a mean annual rainfall of 120 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 17,300 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 13,500 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal- infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow- water-table and deep driven wells. The ground- water resource on Kahlap can be used in conjunc- tion with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  18. Ground-Water Resources in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawaii, and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Tribble, Gordon W.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, which was established in 1978, the ground-water flow system is composed of brackish water overlying saltwater. Ground-water levels measured in the Park range from about 1 to 2 feet above mean sea level, and fluctuate daily by about 0.5 to 1.5 feet in response to ocean tides. The brackish water is formed by mixing of seaward flowing fresh ground water with underlying saltwater from the ocean. The major source of fresh ground water is from subsurface flow originating from inland areas to the east of the Park. Ground-water recharge from the direct infiltration of precipitation within the Park area, which has land-surface altitudes less than 100 feet, is small because of low rainfall and high rates of evaporation. Brackish water flowing through the Park ultimately discharges to the fishponds in the Park or to the ocean. The ground water, fishponds, and anchialine ponds in the Park are hydrologically connected; thus, the water levels in the ponds mark the local position of the water table. Within the Park, ground water near the water table is brackish; measured chloride concentrations of water samples from three exploratory wells in the Park range from 2,610 to 5,910 milligrams per liter. Chromium and copper were detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park and one well upgradient of the Park at concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per liter. One semi-volatile organic compound, phenol, was detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park at concentrations between 4 and 10 micrograms per liter. A regional, two-dimensional (areal), freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of regional withdrawals on ground-water flow within the Park. For average 1978 withdrawal rates, the estimated rate of fresh ground-water discharge to the ocean within the Park is about 6.48 million gallons per day, or about 3 million gallons per day per mile of coastline

  19. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well

  20. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  1. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of Cortland, Trumbull County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, G.J.; Wright, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The city of Cortland lies on the southeast ern shoreline of the 12.3-square-mile Mosquito Creek Lake in Trumbull County, Ohio. Cortland relies upon public wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone for potable water. The Cussewago Sandstone, the principal aquifer in the study area, is a subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake; the unit dips gently towards the southeast. Thickness of the Cussewago Sandstone ranges from less than 20 feet in south-central Bazetta Township to 152 feet in Cortland. The Bedford Shale overlies and confines the Cussewago Sandstone and separates it hydraulically from the Berea Sandstone. The Bedford Shale and Berea Sandstone are not a prolific source of ground water. In places, the Bedford Shale was completely eroded away prior to deposition of the Berea Sandstone. Where the Bedford Shale is absent, such as at the City of Cortland North Well Field, the Berea Sandstone and Cussewago Sandstone are likely in hydraulic connection. Throughout most of the study area, the Cussewago Sandstone is a confined aquifer. Ground-water flow is to the east and southeast. Pumping at both Cortland well fields has created cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. These cones of depression cause a local reversal in ground-water flow immediately east of both well fields. The absence of detectable concentrations of tritium in water samples from wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone at Cortland indicates that ground water predates the atmospheric nuclear testing of the 1950's. Ground water requires about 60 to 110 years to flow from the Cussewago Sandstone subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake to the Cortland public-supply wells. A comparison of aquifer storage and pumpage in the study area shows that the Cussewago Sandstone receives adequate recharge to support current withdrawals by Cortland public-supply wells. In the immediate vicinity of Cortland- between Route 305 and the Bazetta-Mecca Town ship line and between the

  2. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawutti Lohawijarn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  3. Ground-water resources of coastal Citrus, Hernando, and southwestern Levy counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of the Douglas basin, Arizona, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Donald Robert; Cushman, R.L.; Hatchett, James Lawrence

    1955-01-01

    The Douglas basin is part of a large northwest-trending intermontane valley, known as the Sulphur Spring Valley, which lies in southeastern Arizona, and extends into northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Maturely dissected mountains rise abruptly from long alluvial slopes and culminate in peaks 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the valley floor, Bedrock in the mountain areas confines drainage on the east and west, and an arc of low hills to the north separates the basin from the Willcox basin of the Sulphur Spring Valley. Drainage of the 1,200 square miles in the Douglas basin is southward into Mexico through Whitewater Draw. The mountains include igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks ranging in age from pre-Cambrian to Tertiary, including Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that total about 10,000 feet in thickness. The older rocks have been metamorphosed, and all the bedrock has been affected by igneous intrusion, largely in Mesozoic time, and by structural movements, largely in Cenozoic time and extending into the Quaternary period. By the early part of Cenozoic time the major structural features were formed, and mountain ranges had been uplifted above the valley trough along northwest-trending fault zones. Since that time the physiographic features have resulted through erosion of the mountain blocks and the deposition, in places, of more than 2,800 feet of unconsolidated rock debris in the valley. Ground-water supplies of the Douglas basin are developed largely in the saturated zone of the valley-fill sediments. The ground water in the valley fill occurs in thin lenses and strata of sand and gravel, which are interbedded with large thicknesses of silt and day. Scattered gypsum beds and extensive caliche deposits appear at the surface and occur within the valley fill at various depths. Although the valley-fill sediments are as much as 2,800 feet thick, the uppermost 300 feet or so are the most permeable. Ground water originates as precipitation in the mountain areas

  5. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Missouri Basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, O. James

    1978-01-01

    The Missouri Basin Region lies in the north-central part of the United States and southern Canada. It includes parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada; parts of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Colorado, Kansas, and Missouri, and all of Nebraska in the United States. The region includes about one-sixth of the contiguous United States and requires large water supplies for irrigation, industrial, public, and rural uses. Climate ranges from semiarid to subhumid. Normal annual precipitation increases generally eastward in the downstream direction, but precipitation is not a dependable source of supply. The Missouri River and its tributaries furnish water to many users, but surface water is often inadequate to meet large demands. Numerous surface reservoirs help to regulate streamflow and provide storage, but they also allow an increase in evapotranspiration, which in some areas exceeds normal precipitation. Ground water occurs in aquifers classified as alluvial deposits of sand and gravel, glacial deposits, dune-sand deposits, basin-fill deposits of sand and gravel, sandstone, siltstone, fractured sandy clay, limestone, and dolomite. Ground water can be developed and managed in an orderly manner provided adequate geologic and hydrologic data are available to determine aquifer characteristics and response to pumping and other hydraulic stresses. These data and determinations are essential to design, testing, and implementation of water management plans.

  6. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H.E.; Phoenix, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Most people in the California Region live in a semiarid or arid climate, with precipitation less than the potential evapotranspiration- environments of perennial water deficiency. The deficiency becomes most onerous during the characteristically rainless summers and during recurrent droughts that may continue for 10--20 years. However, water from winter rain and snow can be stored for use during the dry summer months, and water stored during a wet climatic period can be used in a succeeding dry period; moreover, perennial deficiency can be overcome by bringing water from areas of perennial surplus. Ground-water reservoirs have especial significance in arid and semiarid regions as repositories where water is stored or can be stored with minimum loss by evaporation.

  7. Ground-water resources and geology of St. Croix County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing need for good-quality ground water in St. Croix County, caused by a steadily increasing population, can be met from the sand-and-gravel and sandstone aquifers. As much as 15 gallons per minute (0.95 litres per second) can be obtained from wells almost everywhere in the county. Yields of more than 1,000 gallons per minute (63 litres per second) are available from glacial deposits and alluvium where there is sufficient thickness of saturated sand and gravel. The sandstone aquifer underlies the entire county and is more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) thick in the southwest near River Falls. In St. Croix County the sandstone aquifer is all bedrock younger than Precambrian age and includes, in ascending order, from oldest to youngest, sandstones of Cambrian age (in ascending order, the Mount Simon, Eau Claire, Galesville, and Franconia Sandstones, and the Trempealeau Formation); and the Prairie du Chien Group, St. Peter Sandstone, and Galena-Platteville unit (Platteville and Decorah Formations and Galena Dolomite, undifferentiated), all of Ordovician age. This aquifer is capable of yielding more than 1,000 gallons per minute (63 litres per second) to wells in much of the county and is the principal source of municipal water.

  8. Ground-water resources of the Lambayeque Valley, Department of Lambayeque, northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.; Sayan, M. Juan Luis

    1969-01-01

    Ground water in the Lambayeque Valley has been developed mainly for irrigation of sugarcane and rice. The locality is on the coastal plain of northern Peru, about 650 km (kilometers) northwest of Lima, the national capital. The area considered in this study is about 1,670 sq km (square kilometers) and is mainly on the alluvial fan of Rio Chancay and entirely in the Department of Lambayeque. Chiclayo, the departmental capital and largest city, has a population, of about 46,000. The climate is hot and virtually rainless. Agriculture is dependent on irrigation. The available water, whether in stream s or underground, is introduced from the Andean highlands by Rio Chancay. Rocks in the area range in age from Cretaceous, or possibly Jurassic, to Quaternary and in lithology from dense and hard igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks to unconsolidated sediments. The bedrock contains and yields water only in small quantities, if at all. The principal water-bearing strata are in the alluvium comprising the fan of Rio Chancay. Where ground water in the alluvium has been most intensively developed, the productive zone is within 20 m (meters) of the land surface and is composed approximately as follows: (1) relatively impermeable soil, clay, and clayey sand, 5 to 10 m thick, (2) permeable sand and gravel, 6 to 10 m thick, at places including one or more layers of clay, so that several water-bearing beds are distinguishable, and (3) relatively impermeable mixtures of clay, sand, and gravel extending below the bottom of wells. Unit 3 in the deepest test continued to 102 m. Unit 2 is the principal source of water tapped by irrigation wells. In the northern part of the area wells locally yield water rather freely from strata as deep as 73 m, but elsewhere in the area the strata deeper than 20 m are not very productive. Wells at and near Chiclayo yield only small amounts, and the deepest well disclosed, in 100 m of material, only 5.5 m of material that can be considered as

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.; Vaksvik, Knute N.

    1935-01-01

    master streams are characterized by deep amphitheater-headed valleys. After this erosion cycle the island was submerged more than 1,200 feet, and these great valleys were drowned and alluviated. Besides this submergence, several strand lines, preserved up to 100 feet above present sea level occur, which may be due to world-wide changes in sea level in response to the withdrawal and restoration of water concurrent with the advances and recessions of the polar ice caps and to accompanying changes in the ocean floor. During this time of shifting ocean levels spasmodic eruptions occurred on the southeast end of the Koolau Range, producing numerous lava flows and tuff cones, most of which are nephelite basalt. The last of these eruptions occurred in Recent time. A description of the climate, rates of run-off, and results of experiments to determine evaporation and transpiration in the areas of high rainfall are given. It was found that the consumptive use decreases materially and becomes a very small percentage of the rainfall in the areas of high precipitation. The lava rocks of the island are very permeable and, because of a rainfall reaching a maximum of 300 inches a year, carry large amounts of ground water, confined and unconfined, basal and perched. The basal ground water floats on salt water because of its lower specific gravity. Consequently for each foot the water table stands above sea level, salt water lies about 42 feet below sea level, in accordance with the sea along the coast as basal ground water. In most places the lava rocks along the shore are overlain by an impermeable or nearly impermeable caprock consisting of submerged lateritic soils and marine noncalcareous sediments. These deposits retard the escape of basal ground water into the sea and give rise to artesian water, but unlike most other artesian systems, this one has no lower restraining formation. The artesian water is the principal source of domestic, municipal, and irrigation supplies. The

  10. Water resources of the Milford area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.; Cordova, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation of the water resources of the Milford area was made as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, to investigate the water resources of the State. The primary purpose of this report is to provide basic hydrologic information needed for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the valley.

  11. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Molokai, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon A.

    1947-01-01

    both parts of the island, producing high sea-cliffs on the windward coast. In late Tertiary or early Pleistocene time the island was submerged to a level at least 560 feet above the present shore line, then reemerged. Later shifts of sea level, probably partly resulting from Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation, ranged from 300 feet below to 100 feet or more above present sea level. Marine deposits on the southern slope extend to an altitude of at least 200 feet. Eruption of the Kalaupapa basalt built a small lava cone at the foot of the northern cliff, forming Kalaupapa peninsula; and a small submarine eruption off the eastern end of Molokai built the Mokuhooniki tuff cone, the fragments of which now form Hooniki and Kanaha Islands. Deposition of marine and fluviatile sediments has built a series of narrow flats close to sea-level along the southern coast. Nearly the entire island is underlain, close to sea level, by ground water of the basal zone of saturation. Beneath West Molokai, the Hoolehua Plain between West and East Molokai, and the southern coastal area of East Molokai, the basal water is brackish. Beneath much of East Molokai, fresh basal water is obtainable. Small amounts of fresh water are perched at high levels in East Molokai by thin poorly permeable ash beds. Fresh water is confined at high levels in permeable compartments between poorly permeable dikes in the rift zones of East Molokai, and can be developed by tunnels. Projects to bring the abundant surface and ground water of the large wind ward valleys to the Hoolehua Plain are described. Future developments are suggested. All wells and water-development tunnels are described in tables.

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konizeski, Richard L.; McMurtrey, R.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1968-01-01

    clay to boulder-sized aggregates. Throughout most of the area the strata dip gently towards the valley axis, but along the western margins of the valley they dip steeply into the mountains. In late Pliocene or early Pleistocene the Tertiary strata were eroded to a nearly regular valley divide surface. In the western part of the valley the erosion surface was thinly mantled by glacial debris from the Flint Creek Range. Still later, probably during several interglacial intervals, the Clark Fork and its tributaries entrenched themselves in the Tertiary strata to an average depth of about 150 feet. The resultant erosional features were further modified by Wisconsin to Recent glaciofluvial deposition. Three east-west cross .sections and a corrected gravity map were drawn for the valley. They indicate a maximum depth of fill of more than 5,500 feet in the southern part. Depths decrease to the north to approximately 2,300 feet near the town of Deer Lodge. The principal source of ground water in the Deer Lodge Valley is the upper few hundred feet of unconsolidated valley fill. Most of the wells tapping these deposits range in depth from a few feet to 250 feet. Water levels range from somewhat above land surface (in flowing wells) to about 150 feet below. Yields of the wells range from a few gallons per minute to 1,000 gallons per minute. Generally, wells having the highest yields are on the flood plain of the Clark Fork or the coalescent fans of Warm Springs and Mill Creeks. Discharge of ground water by seepage into streams, by evapotranspiration, and by pumping from wells causes a gradual lowering of the water table. Each spring and early summer, seepage of water from irrigation and streams and infiltration of water from snowmelt and precipitation replenish the ground-water reservoir. Seasonal fluctuation of the water table generally is less than 10 feet. The small yearly water table fluctuation indicates that recharge about balances discharge from th

  13. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington, D.C., and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul McKelvey

    1964-01-01

    The area of this report includes 436 square miles centered about the District of Columbia. The area contains parts of two distinctly different physiographic provinces-the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. The Fall Line, which separates the Piedmont province on the west from the Coastal Plain Province on the east, bisects the area diagonally from northeast to southwest. Northwest of the Fall Line, deeply weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks are exposed ; to the southeast, these rocks are covered by Coastal Plain sediments; the nonconformity between crystalline rock and sediments dips southeast at an average rate of about 125 feet per mile. The rocks of the Piedmont include: (1) schist, phyllite, and quartzite of the Wissahickon Formation; (2) altered mafic rocks such as greenstone and serpentine; (3) the Laurel Gneiss of Chapman, 1942, and the Sykesville Formation of Jonas, 1928--both probably derived from the Wissahickon ; and (4) later granitic intrusive rocks. Lying upon this basement of hard rocks east of the Fall Line are the generally unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain, which include gravel, sand, and clay, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Recent. These sediments measure only a few inches at their western extremity but thicken to 1,800 feet at the southeast corner of the mapped area. Owing to the great diversity in the geology of the two provinces, the waterbearing characteristics of the rocks also vary greatly. In the Piedmont, ground water occurs under unconfined or water-table conditions in openings and fissures in the hard rocks or in the residual weathered blanket that overlies them. In the Coastal Plain, the shallow wells tap unconfined water, but beneath the upper clay layers the water is contained in the sand and gravel under artesian pressure and must be recovered by deep drilled wells. Wells are of three types--drilled, bored, and dug. Drilled wells furnish a permanent water supply and are the least subject to pollution when properly

  14. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Assessment of impacts on ground water resources in Libya and vulnerability to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Bindra; Hamid, A.; S. Abulifa; H.S. Al Reiani; Hammuda Khalifa Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    This paper is designed to present the likely impact of climate change on groundwater resources in general and Libya in particular. State of the art reviews on recent research studies, and methodology to assess the impact of climate change on groundwater resources shows that climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. It outlines to demonstrate that how climate change impact assessment plays a vital role in forming the sensitive water balance rarely achi...

  16. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of the Crown Point fish hatchery, Essex County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, I.H.

    1968-01-01

    The Crown Point Fish Hatchery, one of several hatcheries operated by the New York State Conservation Department, is located in Crown Point Center, Essex County, on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and about 2 miles west of lake Champlain. Figure 1 is a location map of the vicinity of the Hatchery. This report summarizes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Conservation Department, Division of Water Resources, to locate and evaluate sources of additional ground-water supply for the Hatchery. In order to expand the facilities at the Hatchery, an additional water supply of about 100 gpm (gallons per minute) to as much as 350 gpm is needed. In addition, the type of fish culture practiced requires a water temperature of about 7 to 13 degrees Celsius (centigrade) for optimum results.

  17. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Hawaii region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The water resources of the Hawaii Region, taken as a whole, are far greater than foreseeable future demands on them, but this is not so for the individual islands. Each and every island is independent with respect to water supply, and the occurrence and availability of water vary widely from island to island.

  18. Assessment of impacts on ground water resources in Libya and vulnerability to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Bindra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed to present the likely impact of climate change on groundwater resources in general and Libya in particular. State of the art reviews on recent research studies, and methodology to assess the impact of climate change on groundwater resources shows that climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. It outlines to demonstrate that how climate change impact assessment plays a vital role in forming the sensitive water balance rarely achieved in most area owing to precipitation variability’s and seasonality. It demonstrates that how large increases in water demand with very little recharge from precipitation have strained Libya’s groundwater resources resulting in declines of groundwater levels and its quality, especially on Libyan coastal areas where most of the agriculture, domestic and industrial activities are concentrated. Based on several research studies it demonstrates that how policy and decision making process using best practices for monitoring, analyzing and forecasting variation of climate is a way forward to cope with the impact of sea level rise, and combat some water supplies in vulnerable areas that are becoming unusable due to the penetration of salt water into coastal aquifers (Jifara Plain, Sirt, Jebal El-Akhdar.Finally, a number of Global Climate Models (GCM are reviewed to demonstrate that how better understanding of climate and climate change forecasting helps in devising appropriate adaptation strategies due to the impact of climate change.

  19. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  20. Estimating pumping time and ground-water withdrawals using energy-consumption data. Water-Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurr, R.T.; Litke, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydrology of an aquifer requires knowledge about the volume of ground water in storage and also about the volume of ground-water withdrawals. Totalizer flow meters may be installed at pumping plants to measure withdrawals; however, it generally is impractical to equip all wells in an area with meters. A viable alternative is the use of rate-time methods to estimate withdrawals. The relation between power demand and pumping rate at a pumping plant can be described through the use of the power-consumption coefficient. Where equipment and hydrologic conditions are stable, this coefficient can be applied to total energy consumption at a site to estimate total ground-water withdrawals. Random sampling of power-consumption coefficients can be used to estimate area-wide ground-water withdrawals.

  1. Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to geology and ground water of the Miami area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.; Ferguson, G.E.; Love, S.K.

    1955-01-01

    The circulation of water, in any form, from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere and back again is called the hydrologic cycle. A comprehensive study of the water resources of any area must, therefore, include data on the climate of the area. The humid subtropical climate of southeast Florida is characterized by relatively high temperatures, alternating semi-annual wet and dry season, and usually light put persistent winds. The recurrence of drought in an area having relatively large rainfall such as southeastern Florida indicates that the agencies that remove water are especially effective. Two of the most important of the agencies associated with climate are evaporation and transpiration, or 'evapotranspiraton'. Evaporation losses from permanent water areas are believed to average between 40 and 45 inches per year. Over land areas indirect methods much be used to determine losses by evapotranspiration; necessarily, there values are not precise. Because of their importance in the occurrence and movement of both surface and ground waters, detailed studies were made of the geology and geomorphology of southern Florida. As a result of widespread crustal movements, southern Florida emerged from the sea in later Pliocene time and probably was slightly tilted to the west. At the beginning of the Pleistocene the continent emerged still farther as a result of the lowering of sea level attending the first widespread glaciation. During this epoch, south Florida may have stood several hundred feet above sea level. During the interglacial ages the sea repeatedly flooded southern Florida. The marine members of the Fort Thompson formation in the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression and the Calossahatchee River Valley apparently are the deposits of the interglacial invasions by the sea. The fresh-water marls, sands, and organic deposits of the Fort Thompson formation appear to have accumulated during glacial ages when seas level was low and the area was a land surface

  2. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  3. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  4. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  5. Ground-water resources in the lower Milliken--Sarco--Tulucay Creeks area, southeastern Napa County, California, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water obtained from individual private wells is the sole source of water for about 4,800 residents living in the lower Milliken-Sarco-Tulucay Creeks area of southeastern Napa County. Increases in population and in irrigated vineyards during the past few decades have increased water demand. Estimated ground-water pumpage in 2000 was 5,350 acre-feet per year, an increase of about 80 percent since 1975. Water for agricultural irrigation is the dominant use, accounting for about 45 percent of the total. This increase in ground-water extraction has resulted in the general decline of ground-water levels. The purpose of this report is to present selected hydrologic data collected from 1975 to 2002 and to quantify changes in the ground-water system during the past 25 years. The study area lies in one of several prominent northwest-trending structural valleys in the North Coast Ranges. The area is underlain by alluvial deposits and volcanic rocks that exceed 1,000 feet in thickness in some places. Alluvial deposits and tuff beds in the volcanic sequence are the principal source of water to wells. The ground-water system is recharged by precipitation that infiltrates, in minor amounts, directly on the valley floor but mostly by infiltration in the Howell Mountains. Ground water moves laterally from the Howell Mountains into the study area. Although the area receives abundant winter precipitation in most years, nearly half of the precipitation is lost as surface runoff to the Napa River. Evapotranspiration also is high, accounting for nearly one-half of the total precipitation received. Because of the uncertainties in the estimates of precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration, a precise estimate of potential ground-water recharge cannot be made. Large changes in ground-water levels occurred between 1975 and 2001. In much of the western part of the area, water levels increased; but in the central and eastern parts, water levels declined by 25 to 125 feet. Ground-water

  6. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  7. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  8. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region. More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies. Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface. In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  10. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  11. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the North Platte Natural Resources District, western Nebraska, June-July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Sibray, S.S.; Cannia, J.C.; Tanner, D.Q.

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred twenty wells completed in unconfined Quaternary alluvial, Ogallala, Arikaree, Brule fractured, sand and confined Chadron and undifferentiated Cretaceous water-bearing units were sampled in June and July 1991 to characterize the quality of ground water in the study area. More than 75 percent of the water samples had nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Samples from six wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and Brule fractured water-bearing units exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen. Water from several wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and the Brule water-bearing units had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine, or prometon. Major element concentrations in water from 44 wells indicated that the water-bearing units had distinct chemistry. Water from unconfined water- bearing units generally was a calcium bicarbonate type and water from the confined water-bearing units generally was a sodium bicarbonate type. Measurements of pH and concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, arsenic, beryllium, manganese, adjusted gross alpha activities, radon, and uranium in ground water exceeded final or proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels.

  12. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  13. Ground-water resources of the glacial outwash along the White River, Johnson and Morgan counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Z.C.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    An 88-square-mile segment of the White River valley contains an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer ranging-from a featheredge zero, to 120 feet in saturated thickness. Hydraulic conductivity is 340 feet per day, and transmissivity is as much as 35,000 square feet per day. The aquifer, recharged primarily by precipitation, gains same recharge through interbedded till and outwash boundaries and through losing streams. A two-dimensional digital model was used to simulate the steady-state ground-water flow system. Sensitivity analyses tested the reaction of the model to adjustments in hydraulic conductivity, steam bed leakance, and recharge. Simulated pumpage of 20-, 66-, and 122-million gallons per day reduced streamflow by 5, 15, and 30% , respectively. A real drawdown did not exceed 25 feet. Ground water was a calcium bicarbonate type having a median pH of 7.1, a mean alkalinity of 240 milligrams per liter, a mean hardness of 280 milligrams per liter, a mean dissolved oxygen concentration of 2.2 milligrams per liter, a mean redox potential of +347 millivolts, and a mean dissolved-solids concentration of 366 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded National Drinking Water Regulations in 15 and 49% of the analyses, respectively. Temperature and concentration of dissolved organic carbon varied seasonally. Dissolved carbon and manganese varied with seasonally. Dissolved carbon and manganese varied with differing boundary material, till and bedrock. (USGS)

  14. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  15. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies.

  16. Estimation of ground water resources in exploration of water source fields in alluvial plain%冲积平原水源地资源量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯斌

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of water resources is very important in the exploration of water source field. Base on estimation of the ground water resources of Xiao Li-zhuang water source field in new municipal area of Yongcheng, Henan province, the content and requirement of calculating the groundwater resources for the water source field of the alluvial plain are systematically expounded in this paper. Recharge of ground water includes infiltration of precipitation water and well irrigation. Groundwater excretion includes evaporation, pumping, lateral runoff, and lateral infiltration of surface water.%水源地资源量计算在水源地勘察中非常重要.本文结合河南省永城市新城水厂小李庄水源地的地下水资源量计算实践,系统地阐述了冲积平原水源地地下水资源量计算的内容及要求.其中,地下水补给量包括大气降水入渗补给量和农业井灌回渗补给量.地下水排泄量包括地下水的蒸发量、开采量、侧向径流排泄量和地表水侧渗排泄量.

  17. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  18. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  19. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. GIS-Based Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Ground Water Resources in West Bokaro Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Tiwari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Quality Index (WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess quality and ensure sustainable safe use of water for drinking. The present work is aimed to assess the groundwater quality of West Bokaro coalfield region for knowing the suitability of drinking purpose by calculating the WQI and using Geographical Information System (GIS techniques. Thirty three groundwater samples were collected from dug wells during post-monsoon, 2012 for comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. Ten parameters were considered for calculating the WQI such as: pH, fluoride (F-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3-, sulphate(SO42-, bicarbonate (HCO3- calcium(Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, total hardness (TH and total dissolved solid (TDS. The spatial distribution maps of the above mentioned parameters were prepared by using GIS, software. The computed WQI value ranges from 21 to 131 with an overall average of WQI value 73. More than half of the locations fall in Excellent to Good category indicating the ground water in the study area is suitable for drinking purposes.

  2. Ground-water resources and contamination at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    Kwajalein Island is the largest of the many low, sandy islets that form Kwajalein Atoll in the western North Pacific Ocean. Salinity and water-level surveys at exploratory monitoring wells in 1990 and 1991 delineated a freshwater lens nearly 40 feet thick floating on saltwater within the carbonate sand and gravel aquifer. A transition zone of mixture between the freshwater and saltwater is as thick as 90 feet. Maximum water-table height is only 1.5 feet above sea level. The freshwater lens thinned and thickened by 5 feet during the year-long field study in response to seasonal rainfall and pumping. Freshwater is produced by airstrip rain catchments and shallow, horizontal wells up to 1,400 feet long. Catchment and ground-water yields are roughly equal on average, but catchment is the principal source during the wet season, whereas the dry season requires sustained pumping. The salinity of pumped water has remained below drinking-water standards since wells were installed in 1971, except during the drought of 1983-84, the most severe drought in the rainfall record dating back to 1945. Wet-season rains at the end of the drought reduced salinity to low levels in just a few months. The operating history of the combined catchment/well water supply indicates that it is capable of producing at least 300,000 gallons per day in all but the driest years, and more in wet years. Several sites are contaminated by fuels, solvents, or metals, but most are at the periphery of the freshwater flow system where contaminants are carried toward the shore. However, three interior sites have greater potential to contaminate nearby water-supply wells.

  3. Preliminary report on the stable isotope imaging and characterization of surface and ground water resources in the southern Sacramento Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Criss, R.E.; Campbell, K.R. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1993-11-01

    This document contains information about the water resources in Sacramento. The project considers isotopic characterization of groundwater and the environmental effects of the misuse of water resources. In particular, the study looks at the effects extensive agriculture and the overdrafting of groundwater.

  4. Seepage laws in aquifer near a partially penetrating river with an intensive extraction of ground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国东; 李俊亭

    1997-01-01

    The intensive extraction of ground water from aquifers near a river is an efficient way to exploit ground water resources. A lot of problems, however, have arisen because the mechanism of ground water flow in this way has not been clear. A sand-box model and a numerical model are respectively used to simulate the extraction of ground water near a partially penetrating river physically and theoretically. The results show that the ground water will lose saturated hydraulic connection with the river water as the pumping intensity increases. The broken point of hydraulic connection is located in the interior of aquifers rather than on the riverbed. After hydraulic disconnection occurs, two saturated zones, a suspended saturated zone linked with river and an unconfined aquifer, are formed.

  5. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  6. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District, eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground-water quality was conducted in the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District of eastern Nebraska. Sixty-one irrigation, municipal, domestic, and industrial wells completed in the principal aquifers--the unconfined Elkhorn, Missouri, and Platte River Valley alluvial aquifers, the upland area alluvial aquifers, and the Dakota aquifer--were selected for water-quality sampling during July, August, and September 1992. Analyses of water samples from the wells included determination of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and acetanilide herbicides. Waterquality analyses of a subset of 42 water samples included dissolved solids, major ions, metals, trace elements, and radionuclides. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen in water samples from 2 of 13 wells completed in the upland area alluvial aquifers exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Thirty-nine percent of the dissolved nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations were less than the detection level of 0.05 milligram per liter. The largest median dissolved nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations were in water from the upland area alluvial aquifers and the Dakota aquifer. Water from all principal aquifers, except the Dakota aquifer, had detectable concentrations of herbicides. Herbicides detected included alachlor (1 detection), atrazine (13 detections), cyanazine (5 detections), deisopropylatrazine (6 detections), deethylatrazine (9 detections), metolachlor (6 detections), metribuzin (1 detection), prometon (6 detections), and simazine (2 detections). Herbicide concentrations did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water. In areas where the hydraulic gradient favors loss of surface water to ground water, the detection of herbicides in water from wells along the banks of the Platte River indicates that the river could act as a line source of

  7. Combined land use and climate change impact on Surface and Ground water resources in the Rio Cobre and Great River basin, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Grey, O.; Webber, D.

    2011-12-01

    Possible adverse impacts of land use and climate change on one hand and population pressure, extended droughts, and environmental degradation on the other hand are major factors limiting water resources availability in the watersheds of Jamaica. The main objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of land use/ land cover changes as well as climate change on the hydrological processes and water recourses availability in the Rio Cobre and Great River basins. A spatially distributed model SWAT was calibrated and validated in the basin and used for the study of land use and climate change impacts in the watersheds. Different land cover types were tested to analyze its impact on the hydrology of the watershed. The main land cover parameters considered within the Great and Rio Cobre River Watershed includes Agriculture, Tourism, Water, Road Infrastructure, Population, Forestry and land cover Information. The outputs of different Global climate model (GCM) were downscaled to the watershed level and used for assessing the impact of climate change on water resources availability in the area. The analysis of climate change impact on the surface and ground water resources of the basin indicated that the basin will experience a change in water balance due to changes in the major climate variables in the forthcoming decades. The direction of streamflow change follows mainly the direction of changes in rainfall. Many of the models show statistically-significant declines in mean annual streamflow (up to 60% reduction in streamflow) for the different time-periods and scenarios. The combined effect of climate and land-use/land-cover change on the hydrological processes and water recourses variability is an important step to develop sustainable adaptation strategy.

  8. TYPES OF TOURISM ASSOCIATED WITH GROUND-WATER RESOURCES IN THE ADJOINING COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND SZABOLCS-SZATMÁR-BEREG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂTEA (BOTA CĂTĂLINA MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing a long and unceasing history based on harnessing the healing effects of thermal and mineral springs, curative tourism represents one of the earliest forms of travel. Due to its multiple facets of medical, social and economic nature, this form has been aligned on a global upward trend, marking thus a shift towards health tourism. At present, the spectrum of health tourism comprises both the medical and wellness dimensions reuniting several specific types (surgical, therapeutic, medical wellness, leisure and holistic, however the practice of such activities strongly depends on the destination components (natural assets, general and tourism infrastructure. In the case of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties, spas and localities endowed with therapeutic factors (mineral and thermal springs completed with the bioclimatic component tardily undertake this trend in an attempt to reorganise their touristic offer. Within this context, the present paper aims to explore the prespectives for health tourism development through ground-water resources by emphasising the touristic potential of thermal and mineral springs from the two neighbouring counties. Furthermore, the study has revealed that therapeutic and wellness tourism represent viable directions to generate revenue and revitalise the economy of the area.

  9. Water resources and potential effects of ground-water development in Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek basins, Elko and Eureka counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The basins of Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creeks in northeastern Nevada are along the Carline trend, an area of large, low-grade gold deposits. Pumping of ground water, mostly for pit dewatering at one of the mines, will reach maximum rates of about 70,000 acre-ft/yr (acre-feet per year) around the year 2000. This pumping is expected to affect ground-water levels, streamflow, and possibly the flow of Carlin spring, which is the water supply for the town of Carlin, Nev. Ground water in the upper Maggie Creek Basin moves from recharge areas in mountain ranges toward the basin axis and discharges as evapotranspiration and as inflow to the stream channel. Ground water in the lower Maggie, Marys, and Susie Creek Basins moves southward from recharge areas in mountain ranges and along the channel of lower Maggie Creek to the discharge area along the Humboldt River. Ground-water underflow between basins is through permeable bedrock of Schroeder Mountain from the upper Maggie Creek Basin to the lower Maggie Creek Basin and through permeable volcanic rocks from lower Maggie Creek to Carlin spring in the Marys Creek Basin. The only source of water to the combined area of the three basins is an estimated 420,000 acre-ft/yr of precipitation. Water leaves as runoff (38,000 acre-ft/yr) and evapotranspiration of soil moisture and ground water (380,000 acre-ft/yr). A small part of annual precipitation (about 25,000 acre-ft/yr) infiltrates the soil zone and becomes ground-water recharge. This ground water eventually is discharged as evapotranspiration (11,000 acre-ft/yr) and as inflow to the Humboldt River channel and nearby springflow (7,000 acre-ft/yr). Total discharge is estimated to be 18,000 acre-ft/yr.

  10. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999).In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns.As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of collecting

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  14. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  15. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  16. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  17. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  18. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  19. Ground-water resources and contamination at Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted on Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll to define the extent of the freshwater lenses and recharge zones and to asses potential contaminant migration from known sources of contamination. Rainfall, which is the sole natural source of freshwater, is strongly seasonal and occasional multi-year droughts are capable of disrupting the island's water supply. The supply of freshwater is produced by a joint system of rain catchments and shallow wells. From 1980-91, rain- catchment yield and ground-water withdrawal average 22,632 and 5,829 gallons per day, respectively. Maps were produced showing the areal extent of freshwater, the thickness of the freshwater lenses, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow, and contamination sites and potential migration pathways of contaminants. Sectional views of freshwater lens thicknesses and seasonal freshwater lens thickness changes were also constructed. The freshwater lens attains a maximum thickness of 23 feet beneath the central area of Roi where recharge is high. The estimated amount of water in the lenses with chloride concentrations less than 250 milligrams per liter underlying Roi and Namur is 226 million and 4.2 million gallons, respectively. The presence of thick vegetation on Namur increases evapotranspiration losses significantly producing a smaller freshwater lens. Freshwater thicknesses shrank and expanded in a seasonal cycle as much as 3 feet near withdrawal wells. The water table forms broad mounds beneath Roi and Namur and freshwater heads reach a maximum of 1.4 feet. Most known sites of contamination lie near the periphery of the island where ground-water flow patterns will carry contaminants away from the withdrawal wells toward the shore.

  20. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  1. Reconnaissance of ground-water resources in a part of the Yampa River basin between Craig and Steamboat Springs, Moffat and Routt counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Parts of the Yampa River basin near the towns of Steamboat Springs and Craig, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. Aquifers in the study area include: alluvium; the Browns Park, Wasatch, Fort Union, Lance, Williams Fork, and Iles Formations; and the Lewis and Mancos Shales. Well yields are generally less than 25 gpm (gallons per minute). In the alluvium of the Yampa River, well yields may be as much as 900 gpm. Where the sandstones of the Williams Fork and Iles Formations are fractured, well yields have been reported to be as much as 100 gpm. Well yields from the Lewis and Mancos Shales are less than 5 gpm. The quality of the ground water is variable and dependent on rock type. Most of the waters are calcium and sodium bicarbonate types. Calcium sulfate type waters are found where water in the aquifer has been in contact with gypsum, organic materials, or coals. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water range from as little as 82 to as much as 4,230 milligrams per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Teale Ground Water Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  3. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  4. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  6. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  7. Water resources and related geology of Dera Ismail Khan district, West Pakistan, with reference to the availability of ground water for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, J.W.; Khan, Lutfe Ali; Jawaid, Khalid

    1970-01-01

    Dera Ismail (D.I.) Khan District contains an area of 3,450 square miles between the right bank of the Indus River and the Sulaiman Range in westcentral West Pakistan. Agriculture is the principal source of income in the District, but only a small part of the arable land is fully utilized. The region is semiarid and has an average annual rainfall of about 9 inches and a potential evapotranspirational rate of eight to nine times the annual rainfall. Thus, rainfall alone is not adequate for high-intensity cropping. Irrigation is practiced near the Indus River; the Paharpur Canal is used, as well as the traditional inundation method. Elsewhere in the District, adequate water is supplied to local areas by karezes, perennial streams from the mountains, and some recently installed tubewells (see 'Glossary'). Further development of ground-water supplies would permit a more effective utilization of most of the presently tilled land and would allow additional land to be farmed. D.I. Khan District is primarily an alluvial plain that slopes from the mountain ranges in the northern and western parts of the District toward the Indus River. Rocks in the bordering mountains are of Paleozoic to early or middle Pleistocene age. The unconsolidated rocks of the plain, of middle (?) Pleistocene to Holocene (Recent) age, consist of piedmont deposits derived from the hills to the north and west and of alluvium laid down by the Indus River. These deposits interfinger in a transitional zone about 8 to 12 miles west of the river. Lithologic and structural features indicate that the unconsolidated rocks possibly may be divided into broad units. The investigations in D.I. Khan District have revealed two main areas of potential ground-water development based on considerations of both permeability and chemical quality of the ground water: 1. A belt about 10 miles wide parallels the Indus River from the Khisor Range southward to the area immediately south of D.I. Khan town. In this belt, the

  8. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  9. Tectonic Setting of the Gravity Fault and Implications for Ground-Water Resources in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C. C.; Jansen, J. R.; McPhee, D. K.; Morin, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Amargosa trough, extending south from Crater Flat basin to the California-Nevada state line, is believed to be a transtensional basin accommodated in part by strike-slip displacement on the northwest-striking State Line fault and normal displacement on the north-striking Gravity fault. The Gravity fault, lying along the eastern margin of the Amargosa trough, was first recognized in the 1970s on the basis of correlations between gravity anomalies and a prominent spring line in Amargosa Valley. The Gravity fault causes an inflection in water-table levels, similar to other (but not all) normal faults in the area. Pools along the spring line, some of which lie within Death Valley National Park and Ash Meadows Wildlife Refuge, include endemic species potentially threatened by increasing agricultural activities in Amargosa Valley immediately to the west, where water tables are declining. Most of the springs and pools lie east of the Gravity fault, however, and it is important to understand the role that the Gravity fault plays in controlling ground-water flow. We have conducted a variety of geophysical investigations at various scales to better understand the tectonic framework of the Amargosa Desert and support new ground-water-flow models. Much of our focus has been on the tectonic interplay of the State Line, Gravity, and other faults in the area using gravity, ground-magnetic, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys. With 1250 new gravity measurements from Ash Meadows and Stewart Valley, we have developed a revised three-dimensional crustal model of the Amargosa trough constrained by well information and geologic mapping. The model predicts approximately 2 km of vertical offset on the Gravity fault but also suggests a complex structural framework. The fault is conventionally seen as a simple, down-to-the-west normal fault juxtaposing permeable pre-Tertiary carbonate rocks to the east against less permeable Tertiary sediments to

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  11. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  12. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  18. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  19. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  20. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  2. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  3. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  4. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1997. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1996-30 September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-12-03

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 790 observation wells and 245 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  5. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1996-11-22

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 845 observation wells and 187 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  6. An assembly model for simulation of large-scale ground water flow and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junqi; Christ, John A; Goltz, Mark N

    2008-01-01

    When managing large-scale ground water contamination problems, it is often necessary to model flow and transport using finely discretized domains--for instance (1) to simulate flow and transport near a contamination source area or in the area where a remediation technology is being implemented; (2) to account for small-scale heterogeneities; (3) to represent ground water-surface water interactions; or (4) some combination of these scenarios. A model with a large domain and fine-grid resolution will need extensive computing resources. In this work, a domain decomposition-based assembly model implemented in a parallel computing environment is developed, which will allow efficient simulation of large-scale ground water flow and transport problems using domain-wide grid refinement. The method employs common ground water flow (MODFLOW) and transport (RT3D) simulators, enabling the solution of almost all commonly encountered ground water flow and transport problems. The basic approach partitions a large model domain into any number of subdomains. Parallel processors are used to solve the model equations within each subdomain. Schwarz iteration is applied to match the flow solution at the subdomain boundaries. For the transport model, an extended numerical array is implemented to permit the exchange of dispersive and advective flux information across subdomain boundaries. The model is verified using a conventional single-domain model. Model simulations demonstrate that the proposed model operated in a parallel computing environment can result in considerable savings in computer run times (between 50% and 80%) compared with conventional modeling approaches and may be used to simulate grid discretizations that were formerly intractable.

  7. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  8. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  9. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  10. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020; (supplement three to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) and revised by Kernodle (Kernodle, J.M., 1998, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, 1901-95, with projections to 2020 (supplement two to U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-209, 54 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  11. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-94, with projections to 2020; (supplement one to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  12. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  13. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  15. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  16. [Wyandotte National Wildlife Refuge : Resource Problems

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a December 1981 Threats and Conflicts survey, twenty-five resource problems were identified for Wyandotte National Wildlife Refuge. This plan summarizes...

  17. Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge : Resource Problems

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a December 1981 threats and conflicts survey, twenty-nine resource problems were identified for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge. This plan summarizes...

  18. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  19. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  20. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  1. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  2. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  4. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  5. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  6. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  7. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  8. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  9. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  10. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....

  11. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  12. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  13. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  14. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  15. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  16. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  17. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  18. Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    Feb. 2008. [15] G. Laporte and S. Martello. The selective traveling salesman problem . Discrete Applied Math- ematics, 26:193–207, 1990. [16] H. D...the following convex NLP produces the minimum travel distance between them. Problem D δ∗i,j = min t ||(ρi + (t− τi)ui)− (ρj + (t− τj)uj)|| s.t. max...Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards Jesse Pietz, Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate

  19. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    public-supply wells in Clark County may be receiving a component of water that recharged in areas that are more conducive to contaminant entry. The aquifer sensitivity maps illustrate a critical deficiency in the DRASTIC methodology: the failure to account for the dynamics of the ground-water flow system. DRASTIC indices calculated for a particular location thus do not necessarily reflect the conditions of the ground-water resources at the recharge areas to that particular location. Each hydrogeologic unit was also mapped to highlight those areas that will eventually receive flow from recharge areas with on-site waste-disposal systems. Most public-supply wells in southern Clark County may eventually receive a component of water that was recharged from on-site waste-disposal systems.Traveltimes from particle tracking were used to estimate the minimum and maximum age of ground water within each model-grid cell. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-age dating of ground water from 51 wells was used to calibrate effective porosity values used for the particle- tracking program by comparison of ground-water ages determined through the use of the CFC-age dating with those calculated by the particle- tracking program. There was a 76 percent agreement in predicting the presence of modern water in the 51 wells as determined using CFCs and calculated by the particle-tracking program. Maps showing the age of ground water were prepared for all the hydrogeologic units. Areas with the youngest ground-water ages are expected to be at greatest risk for contamination from anthropogenic sources. Comparison of these maps with maps of public- supply wells in Clark County indicates that most of these wells may withdraw ground water that is, in part, less than 100 years old, and in many instances less than 10 years old. Results of the analysis showed that a single particle-tracking analysis simulating advective transport can be used to evaluate ground-water vulnerability for any part of a ground-wate

  20. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  1. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  2. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  3. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In ground water flow system models with hydraulic-head observations but without significant imposed or observed flows, extreme parameter correlation generally exists. As a result, hydraulic conductivity and recharge parameters cannot be uniquely estimated. In complicated problems, such correlation...... correlation coefficients, but it required sensitivities that were one to two significant digits less accurate than those that required using parameter correlation coefficients; and (3) both the SVD and parameter correlation coefficients identified extremely correlated parameters better when the parameters...

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  5. Land management impacts on dairy-derived dissolved organic carbon in ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomycia, Jill C; Hernes, Peter J; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    Dairy operations have the potential to elevate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in ground water, where it may interact with organic and inorganic contaminants, fuel denitrification, and may present problems for drinking water treatment. Total and percent bioavailable DOC and total and carbon-specific trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (TTHMFP and STHMFP, respectively) were determined for shallow ground water samples from beneath a dairy farm in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sixteen wells influenced by specific land management areas were sampled over 3 yr. Measured DOC concentrations were significantly elevated over the background as measured at an upgradient monitoring well, ranging from 13 to 55 mg L(-1) in wells downgradient from wastewater ponds, 8 to 30 mg L(-1) in corral wells, 5 to 12 mg L(-1) in tile drains, and 4 to 15 mg L(-1) in wells associated with manured fields. These DOC concentrations were at the upper range or greatly exceeded concentrations in most surface water bodies used as drinking water sources in California. DOC concentrations in individual wells varied by up to a factor of two over the duration of this study, indicating a dynamic system of sources and degradation. DOC bioavailability over 21 d ranged from 3 to 10%, comparable to surface water systems and demonstrating the potential for dairy-derived DOC to influence dissolved oxygen concentrations (nearly all wells were hypoxic to anoxic) and denitrification. TTHMFP measurements across all management units ranged from 141 to 1731 microg L(-1), well in excess of the maximum contaminant level of 80 microg L(-1) established by the Environmental Protection Agency. STHMFP measurements demonstrated over twofold variation ( approximately 4 to approximately 8 mmol total THM/mol DOC) across the management areas, indicating the dependence of reactivity on DOC composition. The results indicate that land management strongly controls the quantity and quality of DOC to reach shallow

  6. Land management impacts on dairy-derived dissolved organic carbon in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomycia, J.C.; Hernes, P.J.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dairy operations have the potential to elevate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in ground water, where it may interact with organic and inorganic contaminants, fuel denitrification, and may present problems for drinking water treatment. Total and percent bioavailable DOC and total and carbon-specific trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (TTHMFP and STHMFP, respectively) were determined for shallow ground water samples from beneath a dairy farm in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sixteen wells influenced by specific land management areas were sampled over 3 yr. Measured DOC concentrations were significantly elevated over the background as measured at an upgradient monitoring well, ranging from 13 to 55 mg L-1 in wells downgradient from wastewater ponds, 8 to 30 mg L-1 in corral wells, 5 to 12 mg L-1 in tile drains, and 4 to 15 mg L-1 in wells associated with manured fields. These DOC concentrations were at the upper range or greatly exceeded concentrations in most surface water bodies used as drinking water sources in California. DOC concentrations in individual wells varied by up to a factor of two over the duration of this study, indicating a dynamic system of sources and degradation. DOC bioavailability over 21 d ranged from 3 to 10%, comparable to surface water systems and demonstrating the potential for dairy-derived DOC to influence dissolved oxygen concentrations (nearly all wells were hypoxic to anoxic) and denitrification. TTHMFP measurements across all management units ranged from 141 to 1731 ??g L-1, well in excess of the maximum contaminant level of 80 ??g L-1 established by the Environmental Protection Agency. STHMFP measurements demonstrated over twofold variation (???4 to ???8 mmol total THM/mol DOC) across the management areas, indicating the dependence of reactivity on DOC composition. The results indicate that land management strongly controls the quantity and quality of DOC to reach shallow ground water and hence should be considered

  7. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  8. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  9. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  10. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  11. Supplementary report on the ground-water supplies of the Atlantic City region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Brunstein, Maurice S.

    1936-01-01

    This report is the second progress report on the ground-water investigations in the Atlantic City region. Many important problems still remain to be solved, however, and it is in no sense a final report.

  12. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  13. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  14. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  15. Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is the first of three phases of a ground-water management study. In this report, effects of irrigation and drought on the ground-water resources of Salem are examined. Irrigation water use for five soil types is estimated from a monthly water budget model on the basis of precipitation and temperature data from the last 30 years at selected weather stations across Salem. Moisture deficits are computed for each soil type on the basis of the water requirements of a corn crop. It is assumed that irrigation is used to make up the moisture deficit in those places where irrigation systems already exist. Irrigation water use from each township with irrigated acreage is added to municipal and industrial ground-water use data and then compared to aquifer potential yields. The spatial analysis is accomplished with a statewide geographic information system. An important distinction is made between the seasonal effects of irrigation water use and the annual or long-term effects.

  16. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  17. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  18. Depth to ground water of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  19. Isotopic composition of ground waters from Kufra (Lybia) as indicator for ground water formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swailem, F.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M. (Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo (Egypt))

    1984-02-01

    The results of the isotopic composition of shallow and deep ground waters from the Kufra region indicate the fossil origin of these waters and that they are not recharged under the present climatic conditions. The virtual absence of tritium and the radiocarbon ages of these waters show that they were formed mainly in the past pluvial periods. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicate that the ground waters were recharged under cooler climatic conditions. These results may explain the origin of the large amounts of ground water which existed in the region.

  20. Bioremediation of organic solvents in ground water: A case study--Grandview, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humenik, J.A. (American Compliance Technologies, Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Organic solvents leaking from underground storage tanks or from spillage pose a serious threat to ground-water quality. Chemicals such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methyl-methacrylate are commonly associated with the manufacturing of plastics and fiberglass. After pump-and-treat operations were unsuccessful in remediating ground water contaminated with ethylbenzene and styrene resulting from leaking underground chemical storage tanks, bioremediation was implemented to degrade the contaminants to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources target cleanup limits. Due to low permeability clays and anaerobic subsurface conditions, the bioremediation design consisted of a ground-water recovery system, an aboveground bioreactor to treat ground water, and a recharge network to introduce acclimated microbes, nutrients, and oxygen to the subsurface. Commercially prepared microbial strains and nutrients were utilized for the close-loop system, as insufficient indigenous microbes and nutrients were present in subsurface matrix.

  1. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  2. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  3. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  4. Geology and ground-water conditions in the Wilmington-Reading area, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus; Healy, H.G.; Hackett, O.M.

    1964-01-01

    The Wilmington-Reading area, as defined for this report, contains the headwaters of the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts. Since World War II the growth of communities in this area and the change in character of some of them from rural to suburban have created new water problems and intensified old ones. The purpose of this report on ground-water conditions is to provide information that will aid in understanding and resolving some of these problems. The regional climate, which is humid and temperate, assures the area an ample natural supply of water. At the current stage of water-resources development a large surplus of water drains from the area by way of the Ipswich River during late autumn, winter, and spring each year and is unavailable for use during summer and early autumn, when during some years there is a general water deficiency. Ground water occurs both in bedrock and in the overlying deposits of glacial drift. The bedrock is a source of small but generally reliable supplies of water throughout the area. Glacial till also is a source of small supplies of water, but wells in till often fail to meet modern demands. Stratified glacial drift, including ice-contact deposits and outwash, yields small to large supplies of water. Stratified glacial drift forms the principal ground-water reservoir. It partly fills a system of preglacial valleys corresponding roughly to the valleys of the present Ipswich River system and is more than 100 feet thick at places. The ice-contact deposits generally are more permeable than the outwash deposits. Ground water occurs basically under water-table conditions. Recharge in the Wilmington-Reading area is derived principally from precipitation on outcrop areas of ice-contact deposits and outwash during late autumn, winter. and spring. It is estimated that the net annual recharge averages about 10 inches and generally ranges from 5 inches during unusually dry years to 15 inches during unusually wet years. Ground water

  5. Relationships between basic soils-engineering equations and basic ground-water flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The many varied though related terms developed by ground-water hydrologists and by soils engineers are useful to each discipline, but their differences in terminology hinder the use of related information in interdisciplinary studies. Equations for the Terzaghi theory of consolidation and equations for ground-water flow are identical under specific conditions. A combination of the two sets of equations relates porosity to void ratio and relates the modulus of elasticity to the coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume compressibility, compression index, coefficient of consolidation, specific storage, and ultimate compaction. Also, transient ground-water flow is related to coefficient of consolidation, rate of soil compaction, and hydraulic conductivity. Examples show that soils-engineering data and concepts are useful to solution of problems in ground-water hydrology.

  6. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Through December 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Tne U.S. Geological Survey. in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site- Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes water-resource data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to document the historical and current condition of ground-water resources, to detect and document changes in those resources through time, and to allow assessments of ground-water resources during investigations to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground- water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Fiat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies or as part of other programs are included to further indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels and median annual ground-water withdrawals in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of a11 water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar year 1992. Data on ground-water quality are compared to established, proposed, or tentative primary and secondary drinking-water standards, and measures which exceeded those standards are listed for 18 sites. Detected organic compounds for which established, proposed, or tentative drinking-water standards exist also are listed.

  7. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  8. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  9. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  10. Application of GIS and MODFLOW to Ground Water Hydrology- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singha Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Due to over exploitation, the ground water systems are affected and require management to maintain the conditions of ground water resources within acceptable limits. With the development of computers and advances in information technology, efficient techniques for water management has evolved. The main intent of the paper is to present a comprehensive review on application of GIS (Geographic Information System followed by coupling with MODFLOW package for ground water management and development. Two major areas are discussed stating GIS applications in ground water hydrology. (i GIS based subsurface flow and pollution modelling (ii Selection of artificial recharge sites. Although the use of these techniques in groundwater studies has rapidly increased since last decade the sucess rate is very limited. Based on this review , it is concluded that integation of GIS and MODFLOW have great potential to revolutionize the monitoring and management of vital ground water resources in the future.

  11. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  12. Digital History: Problem of Creation of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlír, Zdenêk

    This paper is based on the reference background of historical librarianship, so that it does not address astronomical problems per se. In this respect we can see the historical astronomical material at three different levels: first, as factual data preserved from the past or as that we can take today as factual data; second, as evidence of the acquisition and explication of this factual material, i.e. history of astronomy as science; and third, as the inclusion of astronomical progress into historical material in general, and, in another sense, into the development of intellectual thought. At present we are witnessing a transition from an environment of predominantly printed material into an electronic-digital environment. In connection with this important change in communication there is also a new conceptualization of information and knowledge. This must be responded to by a conversion of existing sources and the creation of new ones. This wider horizon will require fundamental changes in the domain of the historical librarian. Creation of historical resources in the electronic-digital environment has three aspects: first, it is a permanent creation of digital image copies; second, building a catalogue as an access point common for both original and subsidiary documents; third, production of full-text databases of bibliographic and factual databases as well as comments-monographs. Owing to the fact that there does not exist in the electronic-digital environment any document in the strict sense of the word, it increases the importance of the context of data and the information itself becomes an interpretation. Also, due to the fact that the subject itself appears as a theme at more than one level, the knowledge becomes an interpretation at each next level. Thus the resources in the electronic-digital environment have the potential for an indirect, indefinite utilization. So it is not enough to just represent data in an objective way, but it is also necessary to

  13. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  14. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  15. Tomography of ground water flow from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Jardani, A.

    2007-12-01

    An inversion algorithm is developed to interpret self-potential (SP) data in terms of distribution of the seepage velocity of the ground water. The model is based on the proportionality existing between the electrokinetic source current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase. As the inverse problem is underdetermined, we use a Tikhonov regularization method with a smoothness constraint based on the differential Laplacian operator to solve the inverse problem. The regularization parameter is determined by the L-shape method. The recovery of the distribution of the seepage velocity vector of the ground water flow depends on the localization and number of non-polarizing electrodes and information relative to the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground. The inversion method is tested on two 2D synthetic cases and on two real SP data. The first field test corresponds to the infiltration of water from a ditch. The second one corresponds to large flow at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California.

  16. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  17. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  18. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  19. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, collected, compiled, and summarized hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data were collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data collected from January through December 2005 are provided for ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert. Ground-water level, discharge, and withdrawal data collected by other agencies, or as part of other programs, are provided. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2005 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements; maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes; and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At seven boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2005 were slightly higher (0.4-2.7 feet) than the median water levels for 1992-93.

  20. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    amounts of ground-water inflow, and (2) the location of ground-water catchments that could be managed to safeguard lake water quality. Knowledge of how ground-water catchments are related to lakes could be used by water-resource managers to recommend setback distances for septic tank drain fields, agricultural land uses, and other land-use practices that contribute nutrients and major ions to lakes.

  1. A BAYES LIKELIHOOD INFORMATION THEORETIC APPROACH FOR THE EXOGENOUS AGGREGATION OF REGIONAL GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work addresses a potentially serious problem in analysis or synthesis of spatially explicit data on ground water quality from wells, known to geographers as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It results from the fact that in regional aggregation of spatial data, inves...

  2. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  3. CHEMICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TEHRAN GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of Tehran ground water, samples were taken randomly from 340 out of 655 deep & semi deep wells in 1993, which dug by Tehran Water Supply and Sewage Engineering Company. 260 Water specimens were examined chemically and physically and compared with the 1993 World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO criteria and analyzed statistically. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 53 deep wells which are now connected to Tehran water supply system showed Sodium- Sulphate category. Main chemical components of water are closely adjusted to the international standards and no overdoses were observed in any cases. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 72 deep wells, which were rsed for the Tehran’s orbital town's drinking water, showed that chemical components of the water were Calcic-Chloride category and there were not observed any increases within the other compounds.

  4. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  5. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  6. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  7. Identification of septic system effluent in ground water using small catchment hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.B.J.; Alexander, E.C. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    In many areas the contribution of septic system effluent to ground water contamination is still uncertain because of ambiguous provenance of chemical constituents. The problem is to establish a diagnostic chemical signature for the septic system effluent. Chlorides, nitrogen isotopes and optical brighteners have all been used as single constituent tracers for this purpose. These tracers tend to have limited range of application and cannot resolve ambiguity in areas with multiple potential contaminant sources. The authors addressed this problem using eight major ions to characterize the ground water chemistry, graphically or statistically. They identify the chemical signatures of septic system effluent and other non-point source contamination from the ground water chemistry of small ground water catchments overlain by single or very restricted land use types. They studied five small catchments near Rochester, Minnesota to isolate pre-development and non-septic system components of the ground water chemistry. Five small isolated hills were selected each with a distinct land-use type; natural forest, agricultural, unsewered residential, mixed agricultural/residential and fully sewered residential. The results show that Piper diagrams and statistical analysis can be used to define chemical signatures for the unsewered residential area using septic systems, the natural forest, and the agricultural catchments. The signatures of the mixed agriculture/residential and the fully sewered catchments are very similar to that of the agricultural catchment.

  8. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  9. Sub-Saharan African ground water protection-building on international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreamer, David K; Usher, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces significant challenges in dealing with ground water pollution. These countries can look to successes and missteps on other continents to help choose their own individual paths to ensuring reliable and clean supplies of ground water. In the large view, sub-Saharan Africa can define specific levels of acceptable risk in water quality that drive cleanup efforts and are amenable to acceptance across national and geographic boundaries. Ground water quality databases must be expanded, and data must be available in an electronic form that is flexible, expandable, and uniform, and that can be used over wide geographic areas. Guidance from other continents is available on well construction, sampling and monitoring, interim remediation, technical impracticability, monitored natural attenuation, and many specific issues such as how to deal with small waste generators and septic contamination of water supply wells. It is important to establish a common African view on the appropriateness of other nations' ground water quality guidance for African issues, economic conditions, and community circumstances. Establishing numerical, concentration-based, water quality action levels for pollutants in ground water, which many neighboring African nations could hold comparable, would set the stage for risk-based remediation of contaminated sites. Efforts to gain public, grass-roots understanding and support for stable and balanced enforcement of standards are also key. Finally, effective capacity building in the region could be an eventual solution to ground water quality problems; with increased numbers of trained environmental professionals, ground water throughout the region can be protected and contaminated sites cleaned up.

  10. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  11. Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water, 1955-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.; Growitz, Douglas J.; Kam, William

    1970-01-01

    Artificial ground-water recharge has become more important as water use by agriculture, industry, and municipalities increases. Water management agencies are increasingly interested in potential use of recharge for pollution abatement, waste-water disposal, and re-use and reclamation of locally available supplies. Research projects and theoretical analyses of operational recharge systems show increased scientific emphasis on the practice. Overall ground-water basin management systems generally now contain considerations of artificial recharge, whether by direct or indirect methods. Artificial ground-water recharge is a means of conserving surface runoff for future use in places where it would otherwise be lost, of protecting ground-water basins from salt-water encroachment along coastal areas, and of storing and distributing imported water. The biblio-graphy emphasizes technology; however, annotations of articles on waste-water reclamation, ground-water management and ground-water basin management are included. Subjects closely related to artificial recharge, including colloidal flow through porous media, field or laboratory instrumentation, and waste disposal by deep well injection are included where they specifically relate to potential recharge problems. Where almost the same material has been published in several journals, all references are included on the assumption that some publications may be more readily available to interested persons than others. Other publications, especially those of foreign literature, provided abstracts that were used freely as time limitations precluded obtaining and annotating all materials. Abstracts taken from published sources are noted. These are: "Abstracts of North American Geology," U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; "Abstracts of Recent Published Material on Foil and Water Conservation," ARS-41 series, Agricultural F.esearch Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; "Water and1 Water

  12. The Application of MODFLOW about the Exploitation and Evaluation of the Ground water Resource in Xinjiang Irrigated Area%MODFLOW在新疆灌区地下水资源开发评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 董新光; 吴斌

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the contradiction between supply and demand about the seasonal agriculture and peak water resource in the irrigated area of Xinhe county,a reformation will be carried on to the old irrigated area for ensuring sustainable development of the agriculture.Combining with hydrogeology structure this area,using the MODFLOW software,the flow in August,2007 is made as the beginning flow of the programming year,three projects of the groundwater exploitation have been carried on by the numerical simulation.After the model action,the amount of water and the flow level of every project after 5 years and 10 years have been forecasted,and the reasonable statement of the groundwater resources exploitation has been made out,it has provided an effective way to exploit the groundwater resources scientificly and reasonably for this area.%为改善新和县灌区耕地农业用水季节性和高峰期水资源供需矛盾,保证农业经济可持续发展,对新和县旧灌区进行改造。结合新和县水文地质构造,利用MODFLOW软件,将2007年8月的流场作为规划年的初始流场,对新和县灌区地下水开采的三个方案进行数值模拟.模型运行后预报了各方案运行5年和10年后的水量和水位,分析出合理的灌区地下水资源开发方案,为科学合理的开发利用该区域地下水资源提供一条有效途径。

  13. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  14. Women in Jail: Problems, Programs and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marjorie Brown

    This manual is designed to assist those individuals or groups responsible for developing educational and vocational programs for women in jail. The first section identifies the needs and problems of women in jail, focussing on discrimination against poor women unable to afford bail, the nonviolent nature of women's crimes, and the inequity of jail…

  15. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  16. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  17. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  18. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  19. Osona ground water quality; Calidad de las aguas subterraneas de la comarca de Osona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat i Botill, F.

    2000-07-01

    Osona is the comarca (district) in Catalonia with the largest number of pig and cattle, resulting in a huge amount of excrement to dispose of. When applied correctly improperly stored, they create serious problems, contaminating ground water with potentially pathogenic nitrates and micro-organisms and often jeopardising the health of the people who consume this type of water. This study set out to determine the composition and contamination, and hence the quality, of ground water in the different municipal districts of Osona. an examination was made of the relation between water composition and the various external factors of domestic, agricultural and pig and cattle-farming origin. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. City growth as a resource utilization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2014-01-01

    We study a resource utilization scenario characterized by intrinsic attractiveness, in a system of many restaurants where customers compete to get the best services out of many choices. Results for the case with uniform attractiveness are reported. When attractiveness is uniformly distributed, it gives rise to a Zipf-Pareto law for the number of customers. We perform an exact calculation for the utilization fraction for the case when choices are made independent of attractiveness. A variant of the model is also introduced where the attractiveness can be treated as a fitness to stay in the business. When a restaurant loses customers, its fitness is replaced by a random fitness. The fitness distribution is characterized by a power law, but the power law distribution in number of customers still holds, implying the robustness of the model. Our model serves as a paradigm for city size distribution and the emergence of Zipf law.

  1. General database for ground water site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_KU2004@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamal, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Government Degree College Usta Muhammad, Balochistan 08300 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -} were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.

  4. Problems of formation of the financial resources of small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina Ivanovna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted problems of formation of financial resources of small enterprises. In article kinds and sources of financing of small enterprises are analysed, the estimation of influence of external and internal factors on formation of financial resources of small enterprises is given.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of ground water recharge in central Australia: a tracer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Cook, Peter G; Herczeg, Andrew L

    2002-01-01

    Two environmental tracer methods are applied to the Ti-Tree Basin in central Australia to shed light on the importance of recharge from floodouts of ephemeral rivers in this arid environment. Ground water carbon-14 concentrations from boreholes are used to estimate the average recharge rate over the interval between where the ground water sample first entered the saturated zone and the bore. Environmental chloride concentrations in ground water samples provide estimates of the recharge rate at the exact point in the landscape where the sample entered the saturated zone. The results of the two tracer approaches indicate that recharge rates around one of the rivers and an extensive floodplain are generally higher than rates of diffuse recharge that occurs in areas of lower topographic relief. Ground water 2H/1H and 18O/16O compositions are all depleted in the heavier isotopes (delta2H = -67 per thousand to -50 per thousand; delta18O = -9.2 per thousand to -5.7%o) compared with the long-term, amount-weighted mean isotopic composition of rainfall in the area (delta2H = -33.8 per thousand; delta18O = -6.3 per thousand). This indicates that recharge throughout the basin occurs only after intense rainfall events of at least 150 to 200 mm/month. Finally, a recharge map is developed to highlight the spatial extent of the two recharge mechanisms. Floodout recharge to the freshest ground water (TDS recharge rate of approximately 0.2 mm/year to the remainder of the basin. These findings have important implications for management of the ground water resource.

  6. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  7. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  8. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  9. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  11. Ground-water-quality data for Albany and surrounding areas, Southwest Georgia, 1951-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Easoz, Jamie A.; Priest, Sherlyn

    2002-01-01

    This report presents ground-water-quality data from the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Upper Cretaceous aquifers in the Albany and surrounding areas of southwest Georgia. Water-quality data from about 186 wells in Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty, Lee, Mitchell, Terrell, and Worth Counties are presented for the period from 1951 through 1999. The data include field water-quality parameters collected during 1951-99, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds collected during 1981-97, inorganic compounds collected during 1951-99, trace metals collected during 1964-99, radiochemicals collected during 1993-95, herbicides and insecticides collected during 1980-97, and recovery data for laboratory surrogate compounds (used for quality control and quality assurance for organic samples) collected during 1993-97. Ground-water quality data are presented in tables by data type and arranged by well number. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, well location, stratigraphy, and formation water-bearing properties. Ground-water-quality data are presented in text files and in a data base that includes geographic and tabular data. Data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the quality of ground water in Albany, Ga., and surrounding areas. Although some of these data may have been published in previous reports associated with water-resources investigations, water-quality data are compiled as a useful resource.

  12. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  13. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  14. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  15. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  16. (Eds.). Resource-bounded problem solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 14341)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhimusa, Y.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Varma, S.; Wareham, H.T.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14341 'Resource-bounded Problem Solving'. This seminar is a successor to Dagstuhl Seminar 11351: 'Computer Science & Problem Solving: New Foundations', held in August 2011, which was the first Dagstuhl event to bring together com

  17. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Little Bighorn River Valley, Big Horn County, Montana, with special reference to the drainage of waterlogged lands, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.; Klug, M.F.; Morris, D.A.; Swenson, F.A.; Krieger, R.A.

    1960-01-01

    square inch at the land surface--in the Cloverly caused the tested well to yield about 200 gallons per minute by natural flow; this is greater than the yield of any other single well in the area. Textural properties were compared with the hydraulic properties determined by laboratory tests to show the relation between different types of waterbearing materials. Materials classified as heavy soils-normally somewhat dense and impervious-had an average permeability of 7.2 gallons per day per square foot, which was more than expected. One sample of very coarse alluvial material had a permeability of 6,000 gallons per day per square foot. The depth to water beneath irrigation units was mapped, thus showing the waterlogged areas. Waterlogging is not a serious problem where the water table is more than 6 feet below the land surface. For the drainage studies the unconsolidated deposits are classified in two zones-coarse-grained sediments resting on the relatively impermeable bedrock floor and overlying fine-grained sediments which extend to the land surface. The transmissibility of the coarse-sediment zone generally is many times greater than that of the fine-sediment zone. Because in many places drains could not be economically dug deep enough to enter the coarse zone, the study of the effectiveness of drainage completed in the fine zone received much attention. The studies showed that, despite a considerable thickness of fine-grained sediments between the bottom of the drain and the top of the coarse zone, drainage ditches frequently were effective in relieving waterlogging of fields nearby. Pilot relief wells installed in existing drains showed that the effectiveness of some drains could be increased appreciably by installing a series of relief wells. Records of fluctuations of water levels in 196 observation wells and water-level contour maps were studied to show the principal areas of recharge and discharge in the irrigable areas. These studie

  19. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  20. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  1. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

  2. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  3. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  4. Response to Memorandum by Rowley and Dixon Regarding U.S. Geological Survey Report Titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    several faults. Declines of more than 50 feet were observed at wells near Marigold mine and a couple of miles closer to Lone Tree mine. The observed...Ground-water declines at Marigold mine are of particular interest because seldom do hydrologists have streamflow and ground-water data in the...Land Management, 2003, Final supplemental environmental impact statement, Glamis Marigold Mining Company’s millennium expansion project: Bureau of Land

  5. An assessment of aquifer storage recovery using ground water flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Christopher S; Anderson, Mary P

    2006-01-01

    Owing to increased demands on ground water accompanied by increased drawdowns, technologies that use recharge options, such as aquifer storage recovery (ASR), are being used to optimize available water resources and reduce adverse effects of pumping. In this paper, three representative ground water flow models were created to assess the impact of hydrogeologic and operational parameters/factors on recovery efficiency of ASR systems. Flow/particle tracking and solute transport models were used to track the movement of water during injection, storage, and recovery. Results from particle tracking models consistently produced higher recovery efficiency than the solute transport models for the parameters/properties examined because the particle tracking models neglected mixing of the injected and ambient water. Mixing between injected and ambient water affected recovery efficiency. Results from this study demonstrate the interactions between hydrogeologic and operational parameters on predictions of recovery efficiency. These interactions are best simulated using coupled numerical ground water flow and transport models that include the effects of mixing of injected water and ambient ground water.

  6. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  7. Geology and ground-water resources of Winkler County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Wesselman, John B.

    1963-01-01

    Winkler County, in west Texas, is adjacent to the southeast corner of New Mexico. Most of the county lies in the Pecos Valley; the remainder, in the northeastern part of the county, is part of the Llano Estacado, or the High Plains. Its principal industries are those related to the production and refining of oil, but ranching also is an important occupation. The county has an arid to semiarid climate, an area of about 887 square miles, and a population of about 12,000 in 1957.

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Galveston County, on the Texas gulf coast, is underlain by alternating beds of sand and clay. These sand and clay strata crop out in belts that roughly parallel the coastline and dip gently southeastward at an angle gre? +,er than the slope of the land, thereby creating artesian aquifers. The formations that yield potable water to wells are the Lissie formation, the "Alta Loma" sand and other sands of the Beaumont clay, and beach and dune sands of Recent aie. Most of the potable water is obtained on the mainland of Galveston County. The water from most wells on Galveston Island is highly mineralized.

  9. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming Method for Concave Resource Allocation Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜计荣; 孙小玲

    2005-01-01

    Concave resource allocation problem is an integer programming problem of minimizing a nonincreasing concave function subject to a convex nondecreasing constraint and bounded integer variables. This class of problems are encountered in optimization models involving economies of scale. In this paper, a new hybrid dynamic programming method was proposed for solving concave resource allocation problems. A convex underestimating function was used to approximate the objective function and the resulting convex subproblem was solved with dynamic programming technique after transforming it into a 0-1 linear knapsack problem. To ensure the convergence, monotonicity and domain cut technique was employed to remove certain integer boxes and partition the revised domain into a union of integer boxes. Computational results were given to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  10. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  11. Ground-water and precipitation data for South Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Jones, Kathy H.; Stringfield, Whitney J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous water-level data collected from 53 wells in South Carolina during 1990 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs are presented for selected wells to illustrate the effects that changes in ground-water recharge and artificial ground-water discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are listed in tables. Monthly mean water levels for 1990 and for the entire period of record at each monitoring well are depicted in hydrographs. Also included are precipitation records from ten National Weather Service stations in South Carolina.

  12. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

  13. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas

  14. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  15. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  16. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  17. Making Sense of Complex Problems: A Resource for Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Access: PDF available on CD-ROM, Making Sense of Complex Problems: A Resource for Teams Title: Dilemmas in a general theory of planning Authors: H...PDF available on CD-ROM, Making Sense of Complex Problems: A Resource for Teams Title: Simply complexity: A clear guide to complexity theory ...you’re not aligned.” • “Tell us why that theory doesn’t make sense from your perspective.” • “I saw you shaking your head…can you help understand what’s

  18. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  19. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  20. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  1. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  2. Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Stream temperature has long been recognized as an important water quality parameter. Temperature plays a key role in the health of a stream?s aquatic life, both in the water column and in the benthic habitat of streambed sediments. Many fish are sensitive to temperature. For example, anadromous salmon require specific temperature ranges to successfully develop, migrate, and spawn [see Halupka and others, 2000]. Metabolic rates, oxygen requirements and availability, predation patterns, and susceptibility of organisms to contaminants are but a few of the many environmental responses regulated by temperature. Hydrologists traditionally treated streams and ground water as distinct, independent resources to be utilized and managed separately. With increasing demands on water supplies, however, hydrologists realized that streams and ground water are parts of a single, interconnected resource [see Winter and others, 1998]. Attempts to distinguish these resources for analytical or regulatory purposes are fraught with difficulty because each domain can supply (or drain) the other, with attendant possibilities for contamination exchange. Sustained depletion of one resource usually results in depletion of the other, propagating adverse effects within the watershed. An understanding of the interconnections between surface water and ground water is therefore essential. This understanding is still incomplete, but receiving growing attention from the research community. Exchanges between streams and shallow ground-water systems play a key role in controlling temperatures not only in streams, but also in their underlying sediments. As a result, analyses of subsurface temperature patterns provide information about surface-water/ground-water interactions. Chemical tracers are commonly used for tracing flow between streams and ground water. Introduction of chemical tracers in near-stream environments is, however, limited by real and perceived issues regarding introduced contamination

  3. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Among the duties of the water managers of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in north-central Minnesota are the development and protection of the water resources of the Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Leech Lake Indian Reservation Business Committee, conducted a three and one half-year study (1988-91) of the ground-water resources of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. The objectives of this study were to describe the availability and quality of ground water contained in glacial-drift aquifers underlying the Reservation.

  4. Fluoride, Nitrate, and Dissolved-Solids Concentrations in Ground Waters of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, W. E.; Turney, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This study provides basic data on ground-water quality throughout the State. It is intended for uses in planning and management by agencies and individuals who have responsibility for or interest in, public health and welfare. It also provides a basis for directing future studies of ground-water quality toward areas where ground-water quality problems may already exist. The information presented is a compilation of existing data from numerous sources including: the Washington Departments of Ecology and Social and Health Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as many other local, county, state and federal agencies and private corporations. Only data on fluoride, nitrate, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are presented, as these constituents are among those commonly used to determine the suitability of water for drinking or other purposes. They also reflect both natural and man-imposed effects on water quality and are the most readily available water-quality data for the State of Washington. The percentage of wells with fluoride, nitrate, or dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations were about 1, about 3, and about 3, respectively. Most high concentrations occurred in widely separated wells. Two exceptions were: high concentrations of nitrate and dissolved solids in wells on the Hanford Department of Energy Facility and high concentrations of nitrate in the lower Yakima River basin. (USGS)

  5. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual. [CIRMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs.

  6. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  7. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  8. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  9. Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.B.; Collins, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. The problem of distribution of resources of the insurance company as the problem of dynamic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Rostova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article is the problem of distribution of resources of the insurance company, as well as its mathematical record. The distribution of resources is carried out between the insurance services for a certain number of time intervals.

  11. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  12. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  13. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  14. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  15. A Heuristic Algorithm for Resource Allocation/Reallocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja Balachandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 1-opt heuristic approach to solve resource allocation/reallocation problem which is known as 0/1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem (MMKP. The intercept matrix of the constraints is employed to find optimal or near-optimal solution of the MMKP. This heuristic approach is tested for 33 benchmark problems taken from OR library of sizes upto 7000, and the results have been compared with optimum solutions. Computational complexity is proved to be (2 of solving heuristically MMKP using this approach. The performance of our heuristic is compared with the best state-of-art heuristic algorithms with respect to the quality of the solutions found. The encouraging results especially for relatively large-size test problems indicate that this heuristic approach can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

  16. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  17. Geostatical Modelling For Ground Water Pollution in Salem by Using Gis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground waters are the major resources to meet out the entire requirements. Pollution of air, water and land has an effect on the quality of the ground waters. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in Salem taluk of Salem district have been studied using Geostatistical modeling to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. The 32 water samples from PWD wells taken during the years 1999 to 2009 for post monsson and pre monsoon were tested for various chemical parameters like pH and TDS .The Geostatistical analyst of mean, mode, standard deviation, cluster & simple to study the spatial pattern of contamination movement for the years 1999 to 2009. Trend analysis was performed to identify trends in the input dataset. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO standard to know the suitability of water for drinking.

  18. Maps showing ground-water units and withdrawal, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mikels, John

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water units and withdrawal in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  19. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  1. PROBLEMS OF RESOURCE ENSURING INNOVATIVE MODERNIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feshina S. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Realization of the objects set in the Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation depends on the level of resource providing the projects and programs entering it. In this work, types of resources and a possibility of their effective use are analyzed. Russia possesses practically all types of natural resources and the labor potential necessary for a country conclusion in leaders of world economy. The problem consists in inefficient use of these resources, which are distributed in the directions, deadlock for our country. During the analysis which is carried out by means of production function it is established that return from investments into mining industry is much lower, than from capital investments in the productions which are turning out competitive, innovative products with high value added. Important task is distribution of resources in the priority directions of Strategy among which there is no astronautics, of a nuclear power engineering, aircraft, those branches where still there is a scientific and technical reserve and there were qualified personnel. The analysis of historical experience showed that the country achieved the greatest success in post-war years when command methods carried out mobilization of all necessary resources for achievement of a goal. In the modern market conditions it is offered to finance the initial stages of life cycle of innovative projects from public funds, and on closing stages to raise funds from investors by means of tools of public-private partnership

  2. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  3. PRO-GRADE: GIS toolkits for ground water recharge and discharge estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wang, Jihua; Valocchi, Albert J

    2009-01-01

    PRO-GRADE is an ESRI ArcGIS 9.2 plug-in package that consists of two separate toolkits: (1) the pattern recognition organizer for geographic information system (PRO-GIS) and (2) the ground water recharge and discharge estimator for GIS (GRADE-GIS). PRO-GIS is a collection of several existing image-processing algorithms into one user interface to offer the flexibility to extract spatial patterns according to the user's needs. GRADE-GIS is a ground water recharge and discharge estimation interface using a mass balance method that requires only hydraulic conductivity, water table, and bedrock elevation data for simulating two-dimensional steady-state unconfined aquifers. PRO-GRADE was developed to assist ongoing assessments of the water resources in Illinois and Wisconsin, and is being used to assist several ground water resource studies in several locations in the United States. The advantage of using PRO-GRADE is to enable fast production of initial recharge and discharge maps that can be further enhanced by using a follow-up ground water flow model with parameter estimation codes. PRO-GRADE leverages ArcGIS to provide a computer-assisted framework to support expert judgment in order to efficiently select alternative recharge and discharge maps that can be used as (1) guidelines for field study planning and decision making; (2) initial conditions for numerical simulation; and (3) screening for alternative model selection and prediction/parameter uncertainty evaluation. In addition, PRO-GRADE allows for more easy and rapid correlation of those maps with other hydrologically relevant geospatial data.

  4. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1999. Data collected prior to 1999 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-99. At two water-supply wells median water levels for calendar year 1999 were unchanged from their respective baseline periods. At a nearby observation well, the 1999 median water level was slightly lower (0.1 foot) than its baseline period. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1999 were slightly higher (0.2 foot to 1.6 feet) than for their respective baseline periods.

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geolgical Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  6. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  7. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  8. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  9. Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive recharge a year.

  10. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  11. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  12. The link between resource problems and interorganisational relationships : A quantitative study of Western European sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicker, Pamela; Vos, Steven; Scheerder, Jeroen; Breuer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and coaches)

  13. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  14. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed.

  15. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  16. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  17. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  18. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  19. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  20. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  1. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  2. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  3. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  5. Decadal-scale changes of pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide data for ground water sampled across the United States between 1993-1995 and 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were evaluated for trends in detection frequency and concentration. The data analysis evaluated samples collected from a total of 362 wells located in 12 local well networks characterizing shallow ground water in agricultural areas and six local well networks characterizing the drinking water resource in areas of variable land use. Each well network was sampled once during 1993-1995 and once during 2001-2003. The networks provide an overview of conditions across a wide range of hydrogeologic settings and in major agricultural areas that vary in dominant crop type and pesticide use. Of about 80 pesticide compounds analyzed, only six compounds were detected in ground water from at least 10 wells during both sampling events. These compounds were the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine, and prometon; the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor; the urea herbicide tebuthiuron; and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA). Observed concentrations of these compounds generally were Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  7. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  8. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) was updated to include new information on the hydrogeologic framework (Hawley, J.W., Haase, C.S., and Lozinsky, R.P., 1995, An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin: Proceedings of the 39th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, November 3-4, 1994, p. 37-55). An additional year of ground-water-withdrawal data was appended to the simulation of the historical period and incorporated into the base for future projections to the year 2020. The revised model projects the simulated ground-water levels associated with an aerally enlarged occurrence of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of the Santa Fe Group east and west of the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area and north to Bernalillo. Although the differences between the two model versions are substantial, the revised model does not contradict any previous conclusions about the effect of City of Albuquerque ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Rio Grande or the net benefits of an effort to conserve ground water. Recent revisions to the hydrogeologic model (Hawley, J.W., Haneberg, W.C., and Whitworth, P.M., in press, Hydrogeologic investigations in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1992-1995: Socorro, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Open- File Report 402) of the Albuquerque Basin eventually will require that this model version also be revised and updated.

  9. Ground-water geology of the Bruneau-Grand View area, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert Thomas; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1957-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area is part of an artesian basin in northern Owyhee County, Idaho. The area described in this report comprises about 600 square miles, largely of undeveloped public domain, much of which is open, or may be opened, for desert-entry filing. Many irrigation-entry applications to the Federal Government are pending, and information about ground-water geology is needed by local citizens and well drillers, by Federal agencies that have custody of the land, and by local and State agencies that administer water rights. The areal geology and ground-water conditions in the Bruneau-Grand View area seemingly typify several basins in southwestern Idaho, and this study is a step toward definition and analysis of regional problems in ground-water geology and the occurrence and availability of ground water for irrigation or other large-scale uses. Owyhee County is subdivided physiographically into a plateau area, the Owyhee uplift, and the Snake River valley. The Bruneau-Grand View area is largely within the Snake River valley. The climate is arid and irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. Nearly all usable indigenous surface water in the area is appropriated, including freshet flow in the Bruneau River, which is used for power generation at the C. J. Strike Dam. However, with storage facilities additional land could be irrigated, and some land may be irrigated with Snake River water if suitable reclamation projects are constructed. Sedimentary and igneous rocks exposed in the area range in age from Miocene to Recent. The igneous rocks include silicic and basic intrusive and extrusive bodies, and the sedimentary rocks are compacted stream and lake sediments. The rocks contain economically important artesian aquifers; the principal ones are volcanic rocks in which ground water is imperfectly confined beneath sediments of the Idaho formation, thus forming a leaky artesian system. The altitude of the piezometric surface of the artesian

  10. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  12. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  13. Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-ping; CAO Lian-hai; CHEN Xiao-gang; SHEN Zhao-li; ZHONG Zuo-shen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption sa-turation on the 17th day in coarse sand and on the 130~140th day in medium sand, then had a higher effluent concentration because of desorption. It is concluded that NH4-N eas-ily moved to ground water. When the concentration of NH4-N in Liangshui River were 46.86, 26.95 mg/L, that in groundwater are less than 1.10 mg/L. It is found that Liangshui River have a little influence on groundwater because of bottom mud, thickness and char-acter of the infiltration medium under the river bed and seepage quantity of river water.Clean water leaching test states that after the silt is cleared away and clean water is poured, NH4-N in the penetration media under the polluted river is obviously carried into ground water, and ground water is polluted secondly.

  14. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. The Use Of Permeable Concrete For Ground Water Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Tejankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop Smart Cities in India, we need to develop smart technologies and smart construction materials. Permeable concrete an innovative material is environment friendly and a smart material which can be used for construction of several structures. In India, the ground water table is decreasing at a faster rate due to reduction in ground water recharge. These days, the vegetation cover is replaced by infrastructure hence the water gets very less opportunity to infiltrate itself into the soil. If the permeable concrete which has a high porosity is used for the construction of pavements, walking tracks, parking lots, well lining, etc. then it can reduce the runoff from the site and help in the ground water recharge. Such type of smart materials will play an important role for Indian conditions where government is putting lot of efforts to implement ground water recharging techniques. During the research work, the runoff for a particular storm was calculated for a bitumen pavement on a sloping ground. Later after studying the various topographical features, the traffic intensity and the rainfall for that particular area, the concrete was designed and tested for the different proportion and thus the mix design for the permeable concrete was finalized based upon its permeability and strength characteristics. Later by using this permeable concrete the infiltration and runoff for the same storm was compared and studied. The research paper will thus give an account of the properties of permeable concrete where it can be used over an existing road.

  16. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  17. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  18. Availability and quality of ground water, southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Robert E.; Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Population growth and the potential development of subsurface mineral resources have increased the need for information on the availability and quality of ground water on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southern Ute Tribal Council, the Four Corners Regional Planning Commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, conducted a study during 1974-76 to assess the ground-water resources of the reservation. Water occurs in aquifers in the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Shale, Animas and San Jose Formations, and terrace and flood-plain deposits. Well yields from sandstone and shale aquifers are small, generally in the range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum reported yields of 75 gallons per minute. Well yields from terrace deposits generally range from 5 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum yields of 50 gallons per minute. Well yields from flood-plain deposits are as much as 25 gallons per minute but average 10 gallons per minute. Water quality in aquifers depends in part on rock type. Water from sandstone, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, whereas water from shale aquifers is predominantly a sodium bicarbonate type. Water from rocks containing interbeds of coal or carbonaceous shales may be either a calcium or sodium sulfate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water ranged from 115 to 7,130 milligrams per liter. Water from bedrock aquifers is the most mineralized, while water from terrace and flood-plain aquifers is the least mineralized. In many water samples collected from bedrock, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers, the concentrations of arsenic, chloride, dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate exceeded U.S. Public Health Service (1962) recommended limits for drinking water. Selenium in the ground water in excess of U

  19. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  20. Algorithms for the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kataoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation (MSTRA in two ways, as discrete and continuous optimization problems (d-MSTRA/c-MSTRA, prove these to be NP-hard, and present algorithms to solve these problems to optimality. We reformulate d-MSTRA as the knapsack constrained minimum spanning tree problem, and solve this problem using a previously published branch-and-bound algorithm. By applying a ‘peg test’, the size of d-MSTRA is (significantly reduced. To solve c-MSTRA, we introduce the concept of f-fractionalsolution, and prove that an optimal solution can be found within this class of solutions. Based on this fact, as well as conditions for ‘pruning’ subproblems, we develop an enumerative algorithm to solve c-MSTRA to optimality. We implement these algorithms in ANSI C programming language and, through extensive numerical tests, evaluate the performance of the developed codes on various types of instances.

  1. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  4. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  6. Quality of surface and ground waters, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington, 1973-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the quality of the surface and ground waters of the Yakima Indian Reservation in south-central Washington, during the period November 1973-October 1974. The average dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 48 to 116 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the mountain streams, and from 88 to 372 mg/L in the lowland streams, drains, and a canal. All the mountain streams contain soft water (classified as 0-60 mg/L hardness as CaC03), and the lowland streams, drains, and canal contain soft to very hard water (more than 180 mg/L hardness as CaC03). The water is generally of suitable quality for irrigation, and neither salinity nor sodium hazards are a problem in waters from any of the streams studied. The specific conductance of water from the major aquifers ranged from 20 to 1 ,540 micromhos. Ground water was most dilute in mineral content in the Klickitat River basin and most concentrated in part of the Satus Creek basin. The ground water in the Satus Creek basin with the most concentrated mineral content also contained the highest percentage composition of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. For drinking water, the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations exceeded the U.S. Public Health Service 's recommended limit of 10 mg/L over an area of several square miles, with a maximum observed concentration of 170 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS).

  7. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOI's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. The report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of the Dutch Flats area in Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebr. The area comprises about 60 square miles and consists predominantly of relatively flat-lying terraces. Farming is the principal occupation in the area. The farm lands are irrigated largely from surface water; ground water is used only as a supplementary supply during drought periods. The climate in the area is semiarid, and the mean annual precipitation is about 16 inches. The rocks exposed in the Dutch Flats area are of Tertiary sad Quaternary age. A map showing the areas of outcrop of the rock formations is included in the report. Sufficient unconfined ground water for irrigation supplies is contained in the deposits of the .third terrace, and wells that yield 1,000 to 2,000 gallons a minute probably could be developed. The depth to water in the area ranges from a few feet to about 80 feet sad averages about 30 feet. The depth to water varies throughout the year; it is least in the late summer when the recharge from irrigation is greatest, sad it is greatest in the early spring before irrigation is begun. A map showing the depth to water in September 1949 is included in the report. The ground-water reservoir is recharged by seepage from irrigation canals and laterals, by seepage from irrigation water applied to the farms, and, to a much lesser extent, by precipitation. In the area b

  8. Mathematical Approaches to Problems in Resource Management and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Simon; Shoemaker, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly, mathematical methods are being used to advantage in addressing the problems facing humanity in managing its environment. Problems in resource management and epidemiology especially have demonstrated the utility of quantitative modeling. To explore these approaches, the Center of Applied Mathematics at Cornell University organized a conference in Fall, 1987, with the objective of surveying and assessing the state of the art. This volume records the proceedings of that conference. Underlying virtually all of these studies are models of population growth, from individual cells to large vertebrates. Cell population growth presents the simplest of systems for study, and is of fundamental importance in its own right for a variety of medical and environmental applications. In Part I of this volume, Michael Shuler describes computer models of individual cells and cell populations, and Frank Hoppensteadt discusses the synchronization of bacterial culture growth. Together, these provide a valuable introdu...

  9. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  10. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  11. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  12. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  13. Selected Ground-Water Data of Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985-93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3-2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  14. An overview of experiences of basin artificial recharge of ground water in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Noboru

    In this paper, the author reviews the present situation of basin artificial recharge of ground water (MAR: managed aquifer recharge) as of 2007 in Japan. Most of the artificial recharge of basin method is carried out using alluvial fans. The enhancing groundwater resources in the Rokugo alluvial aquifer has resulted in sustainability for the groundwater environment, especially in the distal fan. As a general judgment, the basin artificial recharge contributes to sustainable aquifer management in alluvium. As a result of this review, the basin artificial recharge will be utilized more in the future, not only in Japan, but in monsoon Asian countries as well.

  15. Numerical simulation of vertical ground-water flux of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    An important gap in the understanding of the hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, is the rate at which water from the Rio Grande recharges the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Several methodologies-including use of the Glover-Balmer equation, flood pulses, and channel permeameters- have been applied to this problem in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In the work presented here, ground-water temperature profiles and ground-water levels beneath the Rio Grande were measured and numerically simulated at four sites. The direction and rate of vertical ground-water flux between the river and underlying aquifer was simulated and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying the river was estimated through model calibration. Seven sets of nested piezometers were installed during July and August 1996 at four sites along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area, though only four of the piezometer nests were simulated. In downstream order, these four sites are (1) the Bernalillo site, upstream from the New Mexico State Highway 44 bridge in Bernalillo (piezometer nest BRN02); (2) the Corrales site, upstream from the Rio Rancho sewage treatment plant in Rio Rancho (COR01); (3) the Paseo del Norte site, upstream from the Paseo del Norte bridge in Albuquerque (PDN01); and (4) the Rio Bravo site, upstream from the Rio Bravo bridge in Albuquerque (RBR01). All piezometers were completed in the inner-valley alluvium of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Ground-water levels and temperatures were measured in the four piezometer nests a total of seven times in the 24-month period from September 1996 through August 1998. The flux between the surface- and ground-water systems at each of the field sites was quantified by one-dimensional numerical simulation of the water and heat exchange in the subsurface using the heat and water transport model VS2DH. Model calibration was aided by the use of PEST, a model-independent computer program that uses

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  1. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings.This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  2. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings. This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  3. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  4. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  5. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  6. Estimating nitrogen loading to ground water and assessing vulnerability to nitrate contamination in a large karstic springs Basin, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Sepulveda, A.A.; Verdi, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) mass-balance budget was developed to assess the sources of N affecting increasing ground-water nitrate concentrations in the 960-km 2 karstic Ichetucknee Springs basin. This budget included direct measurements of N species in rainfall, ground water, and spring waters, along with estimates of N loading from fertilizers, septic tanks, animal wastes, and the land application of treated municipal wastewater and residual solids. Based on a range of N leaching estimates, N loads to ground water ranged from 262,000 to 1.3 million kg/year; and were similar to N export from the basin in spring waters (266,000 kg/year) when 80-90% N losses were assumed. Fertilizers applied to cropland, lawns, and pine stands contributed about 51% of the estimated total annual N load to ground water in the basin. Other sources contributed the following percentages of total N load to ground water: animal wastes, 27%; septic tanks, 12%; atmospheric deposition, 8%; and the land application of treated wastewater and biosolids, 2%. Due to below normal rainfall (97.3 cm) during the 12-month rainfall collection period, N inputs from rainfall likely were about 30% lower than estimates for normal annual rainfall (136 cm). Low N-isotope values for six spring waters (??15N-NO3 = 3.3 to 6.3???) and elevated potassium concentrations in ground water and spring waters were consistent with the large N contribution from fertilizers. Given ground-water residence times on the order of decades for spring waters, possible sinks for excess N inputs to the basin include N storage in the unsaturated zone and parts of the aquifer with relatively sluggish ground-water movement and denitrification. A geographical-based model of spatial loading from fertilizers indicated that areas most vulnerable to nitrate contamination were located in closed depressions containing sinkholes and other dissolution features in the southern half of the basin. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  7. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  8. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 1, California, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, Michael; Williams, John S.

    1995-01-01

    . The potential problem of withdrawals in excess of natural recharge, however, will require careful management of ground-water withdrawals.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  10. Photodegradation of dimethenamid-P in deionised and ground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavaški O.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photodegradation of dimethenamid-P herbicide was performed in deionised and ground water using TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. The effect of electron acceptor (H2O2, scavenger of •OH radicals (C2H5OH and scavenger of holes (NaCl and Na2SO4 as well as solution pH was analyzed. The photodegradation of dimethenamid-P was followed by HPLC. The formation of transformation products was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Ion chromatography and total organic carbon measurements were used for the determination of the mineralization level. HPLC analysis showed the almost complete removal of herbicide after 90 min in deionised and ground water, while total organic carbon analysis showed that dimethenamid-P was mineralized 64 and 50 % in deionised and ground water, respectively. The ion chromatography results showed that the mineralization process leads to the formation of chloride, sulphate and nitrate anions during the process. Transformation products were identified and the degradation mechanism was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  11. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  12. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  13. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  14. [Metal contamination of the ground water in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, Amal; Fekhaoui, Mohammed; El Abidi, Abdellah; Tahri, Latifa; Bouissi, Mostafa; El Houssine, Zaid

    2003-01-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal contamination of the ground water in the Moroccan city of Mohammedia and its relation to the highly developed industrial and domestic activities in the region. Six heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Fe and Pb, were assayed in the waters of 19 wells throughout the city, in industrial areas, public landfills, and residential zones. Four sampling campaigns were conducted between January and May 1999. Analysis of the heavy metal levels revealed a causal relation between the human activities at the sites studied and the degree of contamination recorded. The sites in the industrial areas had elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu or Pb and most often a combination of at least two of these at a single site. Moreover, the spatial distribution of this pollution showed water in S7 areas to be high in iron and that in S5 and S7 (industrial) areas high in mercury. The concentrations measured are respectively 2.5 and 3-5 times greater than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) recommended by WHO for potable water. This work has conclusively proven the presence of dangerous heavy metal contamination of the ground water supply in the area of Mohammedia; it demonstrates the need for conservation and antipollution measures aimed against heavy metal contamination of the overall water supply and in particular the ground water.

  15. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  16. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  17. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  18. Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

    2007-01-01

    A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Environmental and Water Resources Management: Problems and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Wenger; Zhifeng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Environmental problems and issues have no geographical bounds.Many are global in scale;others may be bounded in some manner to a particular region,yet share features with similar problems in other locales throughout the world.It is important,then,for environmental researchers,policymakers,and practitioners to reach across national and cultural boundaries to discuss these issues and learn from each other.For more than 25 years an ongoing international seminar-study tour program initiated by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI),a specialty institute within the American Society of Civil Engineers,has provided such a learning opportunity for engineers and scientists from throughout the world.Under the auspices of EWRI,seminar-study tours are scheduled approximately biennially at various locations around the world.Recent locations for seminar-study tour events have been Mexico (2006),Viet Nam (2008),Peru (2010),and China (2011).The Beijing seminar-study tour was held from October 26th to 31st and was hosted and co-sponsored by the School of Environment at Beijing Normal University.In addition to publicity support provided by EWRI,the Beijing seminarstudy tour received financial support from the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay,Green Bay,Wisconsin,USA,with the latter also serving as cosponsor.

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  1. Multivariate indications between environment and ground water recharge in a sedimentary drainage basin in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Wang, Xunming; Rioual, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    A paucity of studies on the interaction between environment and ground water recharge severely restricts the ability of people to assess future water resources under changing environment. In this study, an effort to explore the relationship between the arid environment and ground water recharge was carried out using multivariate statistical techniques in a sedimentary drainage basin (the Jungar) in northwestern China. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed based on hydrogeochemical data to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors. Observation of the HCA and PCA analytical results revealed a division of seven clusters (C1 to C7) and three principal components (PC1 to PC3), which explained 59.6%, 16.6% and 10.9% of the variance, respectively, and thus, accounted for the majority of the total variance in the original dataset. Based on these Q-mode HCA clusters and R-mode PAC scores, dominant environmental processes influencing recharge regimes were identified, i.e., geogenic, geomorphoclimatic, and anthropogenic, which separated the recharge regimes into four zones (Zone I to Zone IV). Zones I and II (C4 + C1) were associated to ;elevated hydroclimate degree; coupled to ;low salinity;. Zone III (C2 + C3) was associated to ;moderately elevated salinity; and evidently ;elevated contamination; but coupled to ;low hydroclimate degree;. Zone IV (C5 + C6 + C7) was associated mainly to ;elevated salinity; coupled to ;low or inverse hydroclimate degree;. It revealed that the geogenic processes are more significant (60%) than the geomorphoclimatic (17%) and anthropogenic (11%) processes. As a result, the overall recharge process is rather heterogeneous and is strongly environment dominated in the Jungar drainage system. Compared with other watersheds in arid environment, a distinctive feature of the Jungar waters is that they are affected by a combination of natural and non-natural events, rather than

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  3. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  4. Depth to ground water contours of hydrographic area 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of depth to ground water contours for hydrographic-area (HA) 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada. These data represent static ground-water levels...

  5. Digital data set describing ground-water regions with unconsolidated watercourses in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes ground-water regions in the United States defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ground-water regions are useful for dividing the...

  6. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  7. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  8. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  9. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Goode, Daniel J.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Gettysburg, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial and commercial supply. In 1983, ground water at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant was found by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources to be contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and other synthetic organic compounds. As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980 process, a Remedial Investigation was completed in July 1991, a method of site remediation was issued in the Record of Decision dated June 1992, and a Final Design Report was completed in May 1997. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the hydrogeologic assessment of the site remediation, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1997 to determine the effects of the onsite and offsite extraction wells on ground-water flow and contaminant migration from the Gettysburg Elevator Plant. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1991 to 1998 and on results of numerical model simulations of the local ground-water flow-system. The Gettysburg Elevator Site is underlain by red, green, gray, and black shales of the Heidlersburg Member of the Gettysburg Formation. Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicates the sedimentary rock strike about N. 23 degrees E. and dip about 23 degrees NW. Depth to bedrock onsite commonly is about 6 feet but offsite may be as deep as 40 feet. The ground-water system consists of two zones?a thin, shallow zone composed of soil, clay, and highly weathered bedrock and a thicker, nonweathered or fractured bedrock zone. The shallow zone overlies the bedrock zone and truncates the dipping beds parallel to land surface. Diabase dikes are barriers to ground-water flow in the bedrock zone. The ground-water system is generally confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths. Depth

  11. Use of Ground-water Temperature Patterns to Determine the Hydraulic Conductance of the Streambed Along the Middle Reaches of the Russian River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G. W.; Constantz, J.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.

    2002-12-01

    Along the Russian River in Sonoma County, the alluvial aquifer is the preferred source of drinking water because sediments and other constituents in the river water would require additional treatment. From late spring to early winter, an inflatable dam is erected to raise the river stage and passively recharge the alluvial aquifer. The raised stage also permits diversion of river water to a series of recharge ponds located near the dam along the river. Improved understanding of stream exchanges with ground water is needed to better manage available water resources. Heat is used as a tracer of shallow ground-water movement for detailed hydraulic parameter estimation along the middle reaches of the river. Water-levels and ground-water temperatures were measured in a series of observations wells and compared to the river stage and surface-water temperatures. Hydraulic conductivities were predicted by optimizing simulated ground-water temperatures using VS2DHI, a heat and water transport model, to observed temperatures in the aquifer. These conductivity values will be used in a stream/ground-water model of this region being developed using MODFLOW. Temperature-based estimates of streambed conductance will be inserted in the STREAM package of the model to constrain this parameter. Although temperature-based predictions of hydraulic conductivity vary significantly along the reach, the results generally suggest that an anisotropy of 5 to 1 (horizontal to vertical) provides the best hydraulic conductivity matches for predicted versus observed ground-water temperatures.

  12. A Comprehensive Plan to Resolve Resource Problems at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan will address nine resource problems on Agassiz NWR and identify current and planned actions to either reduce or eliminate each problem. These problems...

  13. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  15. Ground-water quality and susceptibility of ground water to effects from domestic wastewater disposal in eastern Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.; Kues, Georgianna E.

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Bernalillo County is a historically rural, mountainous area east of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Historically, the primary economic activity consisted of subsistence farming and ranching and support of these activities from small communities. During the last 40 to 50 years, however, the area increasingly has become the site of residential developments. Homes in these developments typically are on 1- to 2-acre lots and are serviced by individual wells and septic systems. Between 1970 and 1990, the population of the area increased from about 4,000 to more than 12,000, and housing units increased from about 1,500 to more than 5,000. Results of analysis of water samples collected from 121 wells throughout eastern Bernalillo County in 1990 indicated that (1) total-nitrate concentrations in 10 samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national primary drinking-water regulation maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; (2) total-nitrate concentrations may be related to the length of time an area has been undergoing development; and (3) large dissolved-chloride concentrations may result from geologic origins, such as interbedded salt deposits or upward movement of saline ground water along faults and fractures, as well as from domestic wastewater disposal. Ground water throughout eastern Bernalillo County was assessed to be highly susceptible to contamination by overlying domestic wastewater disposal because (1) soils in more than 95 percent of eastern Bernalillo County were determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service to have severe limitations for use as septic-system absorption fields and (2) a fractured carbonate geologic terrane, which typically has large secondary permeability and limited sorption capacity, is at the surface or underlying unconsolidated material in 73 percent of the area. Ground-water-level rises following an episodal precipitation event during July 22-27, 1991

  16. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  17. Fresh Groundwater Resources in Georgia and Management Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water represents conditioned factor for human body's life. That's why the superiority of drinking water is recognized as human body's priority according to the international declarations. World is experiencing deficit of quality water. Natural Disasters caused by the pollution of the fresh groundwater is also very painful and acute, because it needed more time, more material and financial means for the liquidation of their results, and what the most important practically is, it is impossible to renew the initial natural conditions completely. All these conditions that the rational use of fresh groundwater passed by the interests of separate countries and became worldwide, international problem - fresh water became as considerable raw material for the worlds import and export. The fresh groundwater place the important role among the water recourses of Georgia. Their existing is considerably connected to the development of industry and agriculture, also with water supply issue of populated area. Groundwater management requires precise knowledge of sources (aquifers). Monitoring of Georgia's most important aquifers started many years ago and has provided large amount of data. This was interrupted at the beginning of the 1990s. It could be noted that fresh water existing in the country is distinguished with high quality. According to the mineralization and temperature parameters groundwater is generally divided into the following groups: 1) Fresh drinking waters (mineralization not exceeding 1.0 g/l); 2) Mineral waters (mineralization over 1.0 g/l); 3) Thermal waters -- healing (20˚C - 35˚C), Geothermal (40˚C - 108˚C). Below we present briefly review about the situation of fresh groundwater resources, started recovery of groundwater monitoring network and the analysis of the management problems.

  18. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  19. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  20. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  1. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  2. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  3. A new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolève

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical formulation of the coupled hydroelectrical flow in porous media is based on a linear formulation of two coupled constitutive equations for the electrical current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase and obeying Onsager's reciprocity. This formulation shows that the streaming current density is controlled by the gradient of the fluid pressure of the water phase and a streaming current coupling coefficient that depends on the so-called zeta potential. Recently a new formulation has been introduced in which the streaming current density is directly connected to the seepage velocity of the water phase and to the excess of electrical charge per unit pore volume in the porous material. The advantages of this formulation are numerous. First this new formulation is more intuitive not only in terms of constitutive equation for the generalized Ohm's law but also in specifying boundary conditions for the influence of the flow field upon the streaming potential. With the new formulation, the streaming potential coupling coefficient shows a decrease of its magnitude with permeability in agreement with published results. The new formulation is also easily extendable to non-viscous laminar flow problems (high Reynolds number ground water flow in cracks for example and to unsaturated conditions with applications to the vadose zone. We demonstrate here that this formulation is suitable to model self-potential signals in the field. We investigate infiltration of water from an agricultural ditch, vertical infiltration of water into a sinkhole, and preferential horizontal flow of ground water in a paleochannel. For the three cases reported in the present study, a good match is obtained between the finite element simulations performed with the finite element code Comsol Multiphysics 3.3 and field observations. Finally, this formulation seems also very promising for the inversion of the geometry of ground water flow from the

  4. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Sailor Creek area, Owyhee, Elmore, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1962-01-01

    This reports evaluates the ground-water resources of about 1,000 square miles in the semiarid uplands south of the Snake River between Bruneau River and Salmon Falls Creek. The outcropping rocks are the Idavada Volcanics of Pliocene age, and the Idaho Group of Pliocene and Plieistocene age, consisting of the Banbury Basalt of middle Pliocene age and overlying predominantly sedimentary deposits of middle Pliocene through middle Pleistocene age. These rocks dip gently northward. The volcanic rocks are the best aquifers, but the yield of water from the sedimentary deposits is adequate for domestic and stock use. About 6,000 acre-feet of water is withdrawn annually from the Idavada Volcanics by 9 irrigation wells to irrigate about 3,000 acres. Only a few tends of acre-feet of water withdrawn from the other formations. The regional dip of the rocks induces weak artesian conditions in the volcanic rocks and somewhat higher artesian head in the sedimentary rocks. Estimated depth to water ranges from less than 250 feet to more than 750 feet, as shown in an accompanying map. The eastern part of the area appears to be more favorable for the development of ground water for irrigation than the western part because of better aquifers at shallower depth.

  5. Availability and chemical characteristics of ground water in central La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The central part of La Plata County, Colo., has undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in central La Plata County include: alluvium, Animas Formation of Quaternary and Tertiary age, Fruitland Formation, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, three formations of the Mesa Verde Group, the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation of Cretaceous and Jurassic age, and undifferentiated formations. Well yields generally are low, usually less than 25 gallons per minute. However, higher yields, 25 to 50 gallons per minute may be found locally in aquifers in the alluvium and the Animas Formation. The quality of water from the aquifers is dependent on rock type. Most of the water is a calcium bicarbonate type. However, aquifers that are predominantly fine-grained or contain interbeds of shale may contain sodium bicarbonate type water. The dissolution of minerals in the coal beds, which are present in the Mesa Verde Group and the Dakota Sandstone, can contribute high concentrations of iron, sulfate, and chloride to ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  7. Nitrate removal using Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486 from ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Selvakumar, R; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Singh, A; Jain, S K

    2009-01-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486, isolated from marine soil of coastal area of Trivandrum, Kerala, was used for biological removal of nitrate from ground water collected from Kar village of Pali district, Rajasthan. The organism was found to be resistance for nitrate up to 10,000 mg L(-1). The optimum growth conditions for biological removal of nitrate were established in batch culture. The effect of carbon sources on nitrate removal was investigated using mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 500 mg L(-1) of nitrate to select the most effective carbon source. Among glucose and starch as carbon source, glucose at 1% concentration increased the growth (182+/-8.24 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) and induced maximum nitrate reduction (86.4%) at 72 h. The ground water collected from Kar village, Pali district of Rajasthan containing 460+/-5.92 mg L(-1) of nitrate was subjected to three different treatment processes in pilot scale (T1 to T3). Higher removal of nitrate was observed in T2 process (88%) supplemented with 1% glucose. The system was scaled up to 10 L pilot scale treatment plant. At 72 h the nitrate removal was observed to be 95% in pilot scale plant. The residual nitrate level (23+/-0.41 mg L(-1)) in pilot scale treatment process was found to be below the permissible limit of WHO.

  8. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  9. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  13. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data.

  14. Irrigation Area Ground Water Balance Analysis%塔河灌区地下水均衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐尔洪·艾力

    2015-01-01

    水资源是西部地区战略性经济资源,加强水资源管理、实现水资源可持续性是西部地区的战略目标. 近年来,我国干旱天气频繁,西北地区水资源极度匮乏,加之水资源利用效率较低,严重阻碍了当地农业经济的发展. 灌区是塔里木河流域经济发展的重要部分,也是区域环境保护的重要依靠. 地下水是水资源的重要组成部分,由于当地缺乏科学的地下水开采规划,导致地下水过度开发,甚至出现了一系列恶劣的环境问题. 因此,对灌区地下水进行均衡分析,并计算地下水补给量和排泄量具有重要意义. 通过对灌区地下水进行科学计算,并进行了供需水量平衡分析. 分析表明,塔河灌区地下水处于负均衡状态.%Water resource is the strategic economic resources , strengthen the management of water resources and realize the sustainability of water resources is the strategic target in the western region . Dry weather frequently in our country in recent years , there was a terrible shortage of water resources in northwest China , combined with the water resource utilization efficiency is low , seriously hindered the development of local agricultural economy .Irrigation area is an important part of the tarim river basin economic development , is also important to rely on the regional environmental protection . Groundwater is an important part of water resources , because of the lack of scientific planning of groundwater exploitation , groundwater overexploitation , and even appeared in a series of severe envi-ronmental problems.So on irrigation area ground water balance analysis and calculation of groundwa-ter recharge and excretion is of great significance .Through the study of the scientific computing of groundwater in the irrigation district , and analyzed the water balance between supply and demand , it is concluded that Tahe irrigation area of groundwater in a state of negative balance .

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY IMPROVEMENT OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE AIRPORT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  16. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  17. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  18. Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined

  19. Chemistry of ground water in the Silver Springs basin, Florida, with an emphasis on nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Springs group, in central Marion County, Florida, has a combined average discharge rate of 796 cubic feet per second and forms the headwaters of the Silver River. The springs support a diverse ecosystem and are an important cultural and economic resource. Concentrations of nitrite-plus-nitrate (nitrate-N) in water from the Main Spring increased from less than 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the 1960s to about 1.0 mg/L in 2003. The Upper Floridan aquifer supplies the ground water to support spring discharge. This aquifer is at or near land surface in much of the ground-water basin; nutrients leached at land surface can easily percolate downward into the aquifer. Sources of nitrogen in ground water in the Silver Springs basin include atmospheric deposition, fertilizers used by agricultural and urban activities, and human and animal wastes. During 2000-2001, 56 wells in the area contributing recharge to Silver Springs were sampled for major ions, nutrients, and some trace constituents. Selected wells also were sampled for a suite of organic constituents commonly found in domestic and industrial wastewater and for the ratio of nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) to better understand the sources of nitrate. Wells were selected to be representative of both confined and unconfined conditions of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as well as a variety of land-use types. Data from this study were compared to data collected from 25 wells in 1989-90. Concentrations of nitrate-N in ground water during this study ranged from less than the detection limit of 0.02 to 12 mg/L, with a median of 1.2 mg/L. For data from 1989-90, the range was from less than 0.02 to 3.6 mg/L, with a median of 1.04 mg/L. Water from wells in agricultural land-use areas had the highest median nitrate-N concentration (1.7 mg/L), although it is uncertain if the 12 mg/L maximum concentration was influenced by land-use activities or proximity to a septic tank. The median value for all urban land-use areas was

  20. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  1. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Spaulding, J.D. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Neary, M. P. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Wasyl, M.S. [Packard Instrument Company, , ()

    1996-06-20

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples.

  2. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica

    2015-07-01

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  3. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  4. Definitions of selected ground-water terms, revisions and conceptual refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1972-01-01

    For many years there has been a need for redefinition or more precise definition of certain ground-water terms used in publications by members of the U.S . Geological Survey. Another problem has been the expression of the coefficient of permeability (herein redefined as hydraulic conductivity) and the coefficient of transmissibility (herein redefined as transmissivity) in inconsistent units that included the U.S . gallon, the foot, and in some expressions, the mile. Such inconsistent units and the attendant confusing numerical conversion factors used in flow equations, such as 527.7, 264, and 114.6, makes it unnecessarily difficult for hydrologists, especially in foreign countries, to follow and use our published results. Because of this it is advisable that basic ground-water flow equations in publications by members of the Geological Survey contain only the pure dimensionless numbers that result from the derivation of the equations, such as 2, 2.30, e, π , and 4, and that numerical results having dimensions should be expressed in consistent units of measurement.

  5. Expertise in exploiting ground water in Australian prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, H. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of human beings on the Australian continent has been established to go back to at least 40 000 years. Recent research has put this back to about 60 000 years B.P. (Before Present). With the awareness of living on an extremely arid continent, the need to satisfy water demands was a constant concern. Finding water for all members of the various groups, but especially for those living in the Australian inland with extremely low precipitation, was a perpetual challenge. Thus, in desert areas seeking, finding and protecting ground water was demanded continuously. Native wells were established and used for many centuries often when surface water had dried in nearby watercourses. A number of wells found in the Simpson Desert, with habitation around them until recently, are most interesting. In Central Australia, in the Cleland Hills, the location of habitation has been found at a huge rock shelter close to a rock hole providing permanent ground water when all other sources in the vicinity have dried out. It was scientifically established that this occupation goes back 22 000 years. These examples of obtaining ground water in Australian prehistory many thousands of years ago by Aborigines show a highly developed culture. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die Besiedelung des australischen Kontinents durch den Menschen vor 40 000 Jahren begann. Neueste Untersuchungen datieren diesen Zeitpunkt jedoch auf 60 000 Jahre zurueck. Fuer das Leben auf diesem extrem trockenen Erdteil war die Sicherung des Wasserbedarfs von jeher existenziell. Lebenswichtiges Wasser zu finden war fuer alle Mitglieder der verschiedenen Bevoelkerungsgruppen, vor allem aber fuer diejenigen, die sich im australischen Hinterland ansiedelten, von hoechster Bedeutung. Grundwasser in der Wueste zu suchen, zu finden und zu schuetzen war oberstes Ziel. Urspruengliche Brunnen wurden errichtet und ueber Jahrhunderte hindurch genutzt, wenn alle anderen Wasserressourcen versiegten. Hierbei

  6. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  7. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  8. Characterization of ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers, Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to characterize ground-water flow conditions between the Canisteo Mine Pit, Bovey, Minnesota, and surrounding aquifers following mine abandonment. The objective of the study was to estimate the amount of steady-state, ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers at pit water-level altitudes below the level at which surface-water discharge from the pit may occur. Single-well hydraulic tests and stream-hydrograph analyses were conducted to estimate horizontal hydraulic conductivities and ground-water recharge rates, respectively, for glacial aquifers surrounding the mine pit. Average hydraulic conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 ft/day for sands and clays and from 0.01 to 121 ft/day for coarse sands, gravels, and boulders. The 15-year averages for the estimated annual recharge using the winter records and the entire years of record for defining baseflow recession rates were 7.07 and 7.58 in., respectively. These recharge estimates accounted for 25 and 27 percent, respectively, of the average annual precipitation for the 1968-82 streamflow monitoring period. Ground-water flow rates into and out of the mine pit were estimated using a calibrated steady-state, ground-water flow model simulating an area of approximately 75 mi2 surrounding the mine pit. The model residuals, or difference between simulated and measured water levels, for 15 monitoring wells adjacent to the mine pit varied between +28.65 and –3.78 ft. The best-match simulated water levels were within 4 ft of measured water levels for 9 of the 15 wells, and within 2 ft for 4 of the wells. The simulated net ground-water flow into the Canisteo Mine Pit was +1.34 ft3/s, and the net ground-water flow calculated from pit water levels measured between July 5, 1999 and February 25, 2001 was +5.4 ft3/s. Simulated water levels and ground-water flow to and from the mine

  9. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  10. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  11. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  12. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  14. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  15. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on soil, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    in soil slightly exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-derived ecological soil-screening levels for avian wildlife. Plutonium concentration in the soil was near zero. Wheat-grain data were insufficient to determine any measurable effects from biosolids. Comparison with similar data from other parts of North America where biosolids were not applied indicates similar concentrations. However, the Deer Trail study area had higher nickel concentrations in wheat from both the biosolids-applied fields and the control fields. Plutonium content of the wheat was near zero. Ground-water levels generally declined at most wells during 1999 through 2003. Ground-water quality did not correlate with ground-water levels. Vertical ground-water gradients during 1999 through 2003 indicate that bedrock ground-water resources downgradient from the biosolids-applied areas are not likely to be contaminated by biosolids applications unless the gradients change as a result of pumping. Ground-water quality throughout the study area varied over time at each site and from site to site at the same time, but plutonium concentrations in the ground water always were near zero. Inorganic concentrations at well D6 were relatively high compared to other ground-water sites studied. Ground-water pH and concentrations of fluoride, nitrite, aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, zinc, and plutonium in the ground water of the study area met Colorado standards. Concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, boron, iron, manganese, and selenium exceeded Colorado ground-water standards at one or more wells. Nitrate concentrations at well D6 significantly (alpha = 0.05) exceeded the Colorado regulatory standard. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in ground water had no significant (alpha = 0.05) upward trends. During 1999-2003, concentrations of nitrate, copper, molybdenum, and selenium

  16. A Branch-and-Cut Algorithm for Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    The elementary shortest path with resource constraints are commonly solved with dynamic programming algorithms. We present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the undirected version. Two types of resources are discussed: A capacity and a fixed charge resource. The former is the subproblem of the capac...... of the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the latter is for the split delivery version....

  17. Geothermal resources in California: the problems and the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    The report is presented under the following section headings: introduction; conclusions and recommendations; legislative activity in 1973; United Nations Geothermal Conference; International Geothermal Conference--1975; National Conference on Geothermal Energy, May 10--11, Palm Springs, Calif.; Imperial Valley field trip and joint interim hearing October 16--17, 1973 (Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife on Senate Bill 577 in San Diego); hearing of the Subcommittee on Geothermal Resources and the Senate Committee on Public Utilities and Corporations, Nov. 12, 1973 in San Francisco (public access to steam at The Geysers); hearing of the Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife on the continued availability of natural gas and other sources of energy, Nov. 15, 1973, in Martinez, Calif; and Appendix. (JGB)

  18. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.

  19. A Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Resource Allocation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    algorithm and presents some numerical results in [5]. Matlin [6] provides a review of the literature on weapon-target allocation problems. Several...weapon, multi-target assignment problem," Working Paper 26957, MITRE, Feb. 1986. [6] S. M. Matlin , "A review of the literature on the missile

  20. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  1. Water Resources Investigations at Edwards Air Force Base since 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California (fig. 1) has relied on ground water to meet its water-supply needs. The extraction of ground water has led to two major problems that can directly affect the mission of EAFB: declining water levels (more than 120 ft since the 1920s) and land subsidence, a gradual downward movement of the land surface (more than 4 ft since the late 1920s). As water levels decline, this valuable resource becomes depleted, thus requiring mitigating measures. Land subsidence has caused cracked (fissured) runways and accelerated erosion on Rogers lakebed. In 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began investigations of the effects of declining water levels and land subsidence at EAFB and possible mitigation measures, such as the injection of imported surface water into the ground-water system. The cooperative investigations included data collection and analyses, numerical simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence, and development of a preliminary simulation-optimization model. The results of these investigations indicate that the injection of imported water may help to control land subsidence; however, the potential ground-water-quality impacts are unknown.

  2. Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Novič, Marjana; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sovič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controll...

  3. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  4. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    The elementary shortest path with resource constraints have commonly been solved with dynamic programming algorithms. Assuming an undirected graph, we present a compact formulation of this problem and a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve it. Two types of resources are discussed: a capacity...... and a fixed charge resource. The former is the subproblem of the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the latter is from the split delivery version. Computational results are presented and compared to dynamic programming algorithms....

  5. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  6. Resources of coal methane and problems in their development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.V.Andreev

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coal deposits methane is one of the type ecological mineral-raw materials resources. The methane reasonable extract from coal-methane deposits at the same time with mining of coal. This is the most economical way of the coal methane mining.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  8. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  9. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  10. [The natural therapeutic resources of Russia: the topical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilov, V B; L'vova, N V; Morozova, E Yu

    Mineral water, therapeutic peloids, favorable landscape and climatic conditions make up the main basis for the creation and development of the health resort business. Mineral water and therapeutic peloids are mineral resources, their prospecting, discovery, exploration and stock assessment of the responsibility of the Geological Survey of the country while the exploration and practical exploitation of the natural medicinal resources is the prerogative of the users of subsurface resources. At present, there are over 1200 deposits of mineral waters as well as more than 260 sources of therapeutic peloids at the territory of the Russian Federation; the include almost all hydrochemical species and types known and exploited in the world's practice The overall picture of the distribution of the potential and developed deposits of mineral waters and therapeutic peloids of the territory of this country is highly non-uniform and depends on the extent of the economic development of different regions, their geographical and climatic conditions as well as the state and availability of the spa and health resort infrastructure. The natural therapeutic resources, territories suitable for the organization and realization of health promoting activities, setting up new spa and health resort facilities are highly vulnerable to any external impact. We possess the scientifically grounded and practice-proven methods for the search, prospecting, practical development, and medical utilization of various natural therapeutic resources as well as technologies for their conservation, restoration, and protection from damages and overexploitation. The rational use and development of the territories promising for the extension of health resort business imply the necessity of the systemic approach in a consistent stage by stage manner based of the reliable prognoses.

  11. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  12. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  13. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  14. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  15. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  16. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  17. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  18. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  19. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  20. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  1. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  2. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  3. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs.

  5. STUDY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SURFACE AND GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Ghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6 and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7, Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

  6. A regression model to estimate regional ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, David L; Delin, Geoffrey N

    2007-01-01

    A regional regression model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution of ground water recharge in subhumid regions. The regional regression recharge (RRR) model was based on a regression of basin-wide estimates of recharge from surface water drainage basins, precipitation, growing degree days (GDD), and average basin specific yield (SY). Decadal average recharge, precipitation, and GDD were used in the RRR model. The RRR estimates were derived from analysis of stream base flow using a computer program that was based on the Rorabaugh method. As expected, there was a strong correlation between recharge and precipitation. The model was applied to statewide data in Minnesota. Where precipitation was least in the western and northwestern parts of the state (50 to 65 cm/year), recharge computed by the RRR model also was lowest (0 to 5 cm/year). A strong correlation also exists between recharge and SY. SY was least in areas where glacial lake clay occurs, primarily in the northwest part of the state; recharge estimates in these areas were in the 0- to 5-cm/year range. In sand-plain areas where SY is greatest, recharge estimates were in the 15- to 29-cm/year range on the basis of the RRR model. Recharge estimates that were based on the RRR model compared favorably with estimates made on the basis of other methods. The RRR model can be applied in other subhumid regions where region wide data sets of precipitation, streamflow, GDD, and soils data are available.

  7. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  8. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  9. Branch and Bound Algorithms for Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem Subject to Nonrenewable Resources with Prescheduled Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirzadeh Chaleshtarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of projects in real life are subject to some kinds of nonrenewable resources that are not exactly similar to the type defined in the project scheduling literature. The difference stems from the fact that, in those projects, contrary to the common assumption in the project scheduling literature, nonrenewable resources are not available in full amount at the beginning of the project, but they are procured along the project horizon. In this paper, we study this different type of nonrenewable resources. To that end, we extend the resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP by this resource type (RCPSP-NR and customize four basic branch and bound algorithms of RCPSP for it, including precedence tree, extension alternatives, minimal delaying alternatives, and minimal forbidden sets. Several bounding and fathoming rules are introduced to the algorithms to shorten the enumeration process. We perform comprehensive experimental analysis using the four customized algorithms and also CPLEX solver.

  10. The impact of municipal landfill on surface and ground water quality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nyengera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from Richmond municipal landfill, underlain by the Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer in Bulawayo city and its consequent water resource quality impacts are evaluated. Leachate samples from collection ponds and water samples from a stream, and up and down-gradient boreholes fromthe landfill were tested for nine pollutants. The leachate pollutants found in both surface and ground water included metals (Fe, Pb and Hg and organic compounds that are hazardous to both human and the environmental health. Borehole water quality compliance with the relevant national and international regulations is reported. From borehole water samples, only chloride and nitrate with concentrations of 56.9 mg/ℓ and 2.26 mg/ℓ, respectively, were within the World Health Organisation (WHO recommended limits for drinking water of 250 mg/ℓ and 10 mg/ℓ, respectively. Lead and mercury concentrations of 0.22 mg/ℓ and 0.04 mg/ℓ were 10 times higher than WHO guidelines of 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ℓ, respectively. Both landfill and informal settlement activities near the landfill impact negatively to water resources quality in the area. City council should minimize waste by recycling, pre-treat collected leachate and drill monitoring wells around the landfill to check possible leachate leaks to water resources and take remedial actions, such assubmerged leachate combustion and evaporation.

  11. Multi-agent Optimization Design for Multi-resource Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fan; Fan, Wei

    As a practical generalization of the job shop scheduling problem, multi-resource job shop scheduling problem (MRJSSP) is discussed in this paper. In this problem, operations may be processed by a type of resources and jobs have individual deadlines. How to design and optimize this problem with DSAFO, a novel multi-agent algorithm, is introduced in detail by a case study, including problem analysis, agent role specification, and parameter selection. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of designing and optimizing MRJSSPs with multi-agent.

  12. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  13. Researching Historical Problems. An Introduction to Basic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael Stuart

    The Dartmouth College Library has produced this slide/tape individualized instruction module to assist students in researching historical problems. The 79-slide lesson begins with methods of organizing a search and continues through collecting information and analyzing the utility of research strategy. Information sources cited include numerous…

  14. FRUSTRATION OF WORKING AS A PROBLEM OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ashtalkoska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of human resources that finds an important practical application in enterprises from the developed world, account facts which refer to the conclusion that satisfaction of employee can greatly contribute to increasing productivity in enterprises and in states from whole world.Enterprises should assume appropriate measures which will be concentrated on reviewing the toolkit related to management staff, especially systems of payment and organization culture if they want to avoid negative consequences caused by dissatisfaction of employees in the workplace.

  15. Legal problems inherent in the development of geopressured and geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.A.; Pike, R.W.; Wilkins, B.; Hill, T.M.

    1978-03-01

    The legal framework within which the geopressured resource will have to be developed in Louisiana is discussed generally. Those problems which may be created by its development within that framework are identified. Where possible, solutions are offered to those problems or at least techniques or devices are indicated which might be considered in their resolution. Finally, a compendium is assembled of those statutory or regulatory provisions which may regulate or affect the resource to the end that it might serve as a handbook for the evaluation of the legal and institutional problems which will face a prospective developer, when and if the resource development is undertaken in Louisiana. (MHR)

  16. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  17. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  19. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  20. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  1. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... requirements of this section. (3) When a significant deficiency is identified at a Subpart H public...

  3. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  4. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for...

  5. Combined ion exchange/biological denitrification for nitrate removal from ground water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for nitrate removal from ground water. High nitrate concentrations in ground water are a result of fertilization in agriculture. According to a directive of the European Community the maximum admissible concentration of nitrate in drinking wate

  6. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  7. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  9. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  10. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Ground-Water Plumes Discharging into Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    ground water in highly saline wetlands (Swanson et al., 1984), and the distribution of marsh marigold (Caltha palustris L.) has been used to map...seeps and springs next to a lake and in wetlands in Minnesota (Rosenberry et al., 2000). Marsh marigold favors ground-water discharge areas across the

  11. Carbon restricted newsvendor problem under CVAR objective and resource constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Özüm

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 183-188. Newsboy problem has been studied in the literature extensively. The classical newsvendor, representing the risk neutral decision maker, determines the optimal order/production quantity by maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected tota...

  12. Field Determination Of Ground Water Contamination Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Wolf, Lisa; Fordiani, Rita

    1990-02-01

    Experience at over sixteen sites containing over one hundred wells has shown the feasibility of using fiber optic systems for in situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants. Aromatic solvents, as well as the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, have been detected using a prototype field instrument. Well depths have varied from 5 m to 30 m, and limits of detection at 10 m have been in the ppb range. We are routinely using two separate clear tefzel-coated optical fibers bound in a black teflon tubing for in situ sensing of aromatic organic ground water contaminants via laser-induced fluorescence. One fiber, the excitation fiber, carries the 266 nm, 15 nanosecond, laser pulse down to the sensor. The other fiber, used for detection, carries collected fluorescence plus scattered laser light back up to the surface to the detector. Optical crosstalk has been observed to occur along the entire length of the sensor tubing. This may be due to fiber fluorescence. The fiber crosstalk is eliminated by use of a 320 nm cutoff filter in the detector optics. Black tefzel-coated fibers are also commercially available which could eliminate this potential problem. Evaluation of fluorescence emission versus concentration using serial dilution of standards shows that fluorescence lifetimes are important when evaluating different concentrations as well as in evaluation of mixtures. Minimization of signal-to-noise ratios in the detector electronics involves tuning the gate width used in measuring the fluorescent pulse, in order to include the full fluorescent signal returning from the contaminants. Field tests of the modular prototype instrument have been successful in their demonstration of the feasibility of this new technology. Results at a variety of types of sites are presented, showing the flexibility of the modular approach used in the design and operation of this new instrument.

  13. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  14. Depression in homebound older adults: problem-solving therapy and personal and social resourcefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Marti, C Nathan; Bruce, Martha L; Hegel, Mark T

    2013-09-01

    The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality.

  15. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  17. Isotopic evidence of complex ground-water flow at Yucca mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Stuckless, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Strontium isotopes (expressed as per mill deviation from mean sea water, ??87Sr) reflect interaction between ground water and the aquifer through which it is flowing. In the Cenozoic aquifer of the Yucca Mountain region, ??87Sr values increase from north to south downgradient in the flow system. The largest ??87Sr values occur in the Amargosa Desert where ground water probably encounters alluvial basin fill derived from Precambrian rocks in the Funeral Range. Similarly, large ??87Sr values for ground water in the Paleozoic aquifer at the western end of the Spring Mountains also probably reflect an encounter with Precambrian rocks. In several wells into the volcanic rocks, apparent isotopic disequilibrium between ground water and the producing units suggests that the ground water probably integrates over a substantial part of the saturated section in attaining its strontium isotope signature.

  18. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  19. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Moffett, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d-1. The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m3 d-1, a relatively low ground Water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models. The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore we]l sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay.

  20. Chemical reactions of uranium in ground water at a mill tailings site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelouas, A.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1998-11-01

    We studied soil and ground water samples from the tailings disposal site near Tuba City, AZ, located on Navajo sandstone, in terms of uranium adsorption and precipitation. The uranium concentration is up to 1 mg/l, 20 times the maximum concentration for ground water protection in the United States. The concentration of bicarbonate (HCO 3-) in the ground water increased from ≤7×10 -4 M, the background concentration, to 7×10 -3 M. Negatively charged uranium carbonate complexes prevail at high carbonate concentrations and uranium is not adsorbed on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. Leaching experiments using contaminated and uncontaminated sandstone and 1 N HCl show that adsorption of uranium from the ground water is negligible. Batch adsorption experiments with the sandstone and ground water at 16°C, the in situ ground water temperature, show that uranium is not adsorbed, in agreement with the results of the leaching experiments. Adsorption of uranium at 16°C is observed when the contaminated ground water is diluted with carbonate-free water. The observed increase in pH from 6.7 to 7.3 after dilution is too small to affect adsorption of uranium on the sandstone. Storage of undiluted ground water to 24°C, the temperature in the laboratory, causes coprecipitation of uranium with aragonite and calcite. Our study provides knowledge of the on-site uranium chemistry that can be used to select the optimum ground water remediation strategy. We discuss our results in terms of ground water remediation strategies such as pump and treat, in situ bioremediation, steam injection, and natural flushing.

  1. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  2. Distributing Working Memory Resources and the Use of External Representations on Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 一徳; 宮谷, 真人

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how problem solvers use distributing working memory resources over internal and external epresentations. Participants played three-dimensional versions of number guessing games. The playing of number guessing games is directly related to consumption of working memory resources. They could use arbitrarily the game record windows which are the external representations of these games and, thus, they could distribute working memory demands over internal working memory resource...

  3. Depression in Homebound Older Adults: Problem-Solving Therapy and Personal and Social Resourcefulness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nathan; Bruce, Martha L.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibi...

  4. Heuristic algorithm for single resource constrained project scheduling problem based on the dynamic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a heuristic method for the single resource constrained project scheduling problem, based on the dynamic programming solution of the knapsack problem. This method schedules projects with one type of resources, in the non-preemptive case: once started an activity is not interrupted and runs to completion. We compare the implementation of this method with well-known heuristic scheduling method, called Minimum Slack First (known also as Gray-Kidd algorithm, as well as with Microsoft Project.

  5. A New Algorithm for Resource Constraint Project Scheduling Problem Based on Multi-Agent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何曙光; 齐二石; 李钢

    2003-01-01

    The resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) and a decision-making model based on multi-agent systems (MAS) and general equilibrium marketing are proposed. An algorithm leading to the resource allocation decision involved in RCPSP has also been developed. And this algorithm can be used in the multi-project scheduling field as well.Finally, an illustration is given.

  6. Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a model that simulates solute transport in flowing ground water. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be applied to a wide range of problem types. It is applicable to one- or two-dimensional problems involving steady-state or transient flow. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, and mixing (or dilution) from fluid sources. The model assumes that the solute is non-reactive and that gradients of fluid density, viscosity, and temperature do not affect the velocity distribution. However, the aquifer may be heterogeneous and (or) anisotropic. The model couples the ground-water flow equation with the solute-transport equation. The digital computer program uses an alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve a finite-difference approximation to the ground-water flow equation, and it uses the method of characteristics to solve the solute-transport equation. The latter uses a particle- tracking procedure to represent convective transport and a two-step explicit procedure to solve a finite-difference equation that describes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, fluid sources and sinks, and divergence of velocity. This explicit procedure has several stability criteria, but the consequent time-step limitations are automatically determined by the program. The report includes a listing of the computer program, which is written in FORTRAN IV and contains about 2,000 lines. The model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite difference grid. It allows the specification of any number of injection or withdrawal wells and of spatially varying diffuse recharge or discharge, saturated thickness, transmissivity, boundary conditions, and initial heads and concentrations. The program also permits the designation of up to five nodes as observation points, for which a summary table of head and concentration versus time is printed at the end of the

  7. Ground-water geology and pump irrigation in Frenchman Creek Basin above Palisade, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, W.D.E.; Jenkins, Edward D.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of that part of the Frenchman Creek basin upstream from Palisade, Nebr., an area of about 4,900 square miles. The basin includes all of Phillips County, Colo., and Chase County, Nebr., and parts of Logan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma Counties, Colo., and Dundy, Hayes, Hitchcock, and Perkins Counties, Nebr. The land surface ranges from nearly flat to rolling; choppy hills and interdune saddles are common in the areas of dune sand, and steep bluffs and gullies cut the edges of the relatively flat loess plateaus. Most of the basin is drained by tributaries of Frenchman Creek, but parts of the sandhills are undrained. Farming and livestock raising are the principal industries. Irrigation with ground water has expanded rapidly since 1934. The rocks exposed in the basin are largely unconsolidated and range in age from Pliocene to Recent. They comprise the Ogallala formation (Pliocene), the Sanborn formation (Pleistocene and Recent?), dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent), and alluvium (Recent). The rocks underlying the Ogallala are the Pierre shale (Late Cretaceous) and the White River group (Oligocene). The Pierre shale is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells. The White River group also is relatively impermeable and yields little or no water to wells; however, small to moderate quantities of water possibly may be obtained from wells that penetrate fractured or 'porous' zones in the upper part of the White River group or permeable channel deposits within the group. The Ogallala formation is the main aquifer in the basin and yields moderate to large quantities of water to wells. The Sanborn formation and the dune sand generally lie above the water table, but in areas of high water table the dune sand yields small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock supplies. The alluvium, which includes the low terrace deposits bordering the major streams, yields small to large

  8. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

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