WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-based flight simulation

  1. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  2. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  3. Do the design concepts used for the space flight hardware directly affect cell structure and/or cell function ground based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David K.

    1989-01-01

    The use of clinostats and centrifuges to explore the hypogravity range between zero and 1 g is described. Different types of clinostat configurations and clinostat-centrifuge combinations are compared. Some examples selected from the literature and current research in gravitational physiology are presented to show plant responses in the simulated hypogravity region of the g-parameter (0 is greater than g is greater than 1). The validation of clinostat simulation is discussed. Examples in which flight data can be compared to clinostat data are presented. The data from 3 different laboratories using 3 different plant species indicate that clinostat simulation in some cases were qualitatively similar to flight data, but that in all cases were quantitatively different. The need to conduct additional tests in weightlessness is emphasized.

  4. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  5. Technical evaluation report on the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium on Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, important advances were made in technology both for ground-based and in-flight simulators. There was equally a broadening of the use of flight simulators for research, development, and training purposes. An up-to-date description of the state-of-the-art of technology and engineering was provided for both ground-based and in-flight simulators and their respective roles were placed in context within the aerospace scene.

  6. Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a

  7. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  8. Flight Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    G.B.Churchill 12 SIMULATION DES COMMANDES DE VOL ELECTRIQES AU CENTRE D’ESSAIS EN VOL FRANAIS (CEV) POUR LES AVIONS DE TRANSPORT CIVIL par R.Vadrot 13 Reference...rapid advancements in the state-of-the-art will have a positive impact on both civil and military aerospace planners. In summary, this conference clearly...pilotes at des inginieurs du Bureau d’Etudes Systime d’Aroes : l disposent anfin d’un mayan puissant de dialogue entre concapteurs at utilisateurs. La

  9. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  10. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, Stephen K; Ortega, M Teresa

    2013-06-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to "vertical" FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data.

  11. System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator Jae-Jun Kim∗ and Brij N. Agrawal † Department of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1997, pp. 625-632. 6Schwartz, J. L. and Hall, C. D., “ System Identification of a Spherical Air-Bearing

  12. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  13. Precision simulation of ground-based lensing data using observations from space

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Leauthaud, Alexie; Massey, Richard J; Rhodes, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current and upcoming wide-field, ground-based, broad-band imaging surveys promise to address a wide range of outstanding problems in galaxy formation and cosmology. Several such uses of ground-based data, especially weak gravitational lensing, require highly precise measurements of galaxy image statistics with careful correction for the effects of the point-spread function (PSF). In this paper, we introduce the SHERA (SHEar Reconvolution Analysis) software to simulate ground-based imaging data with realistic galaxy morphologies and observing conditions, starting from space-based data (from COSMOS, the Cosmological Evolution Survey) and accounting for the effects of the space-based PSF. This code simulates ground-based data, optionally with a weak lensing shear applied, in a model-independent way using a general Fourier space formalism. The utility of this pipeline is that it allows for a precise, realistic assessment of systematic errors due to the method of data processing, for example in extracting weak len...

  14. Simulation of the imaging quality of ground-based telescopes affected by atmospheric disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yubin; Kou, Songfeng; Gu, Bozhong

    2014-08-01

    Ground-based telescope imaging model is developed in this paper, the relationship between the atmospheric disturbances and the ground-based telescope image quality is studied. Simulation of the wave-front distortions caused by atmospheric turbulences has long been an important method in the study of the propagation of light through the atmosphere. The phase of the starlight wave-front is changed over time, but in an appropriate short exposure time, the atmospheric disturbances can be considered as "frozen". In accordance with Kolmogorov turbulence theory, simulating atmospheric disturbances of image model based on the phase screen distorted by atmospheric turbulences is achieved by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Geiger mode avalanche photodiode array (APD arrays) model is used for atmospheric wave-front detection, the image is achieved by inversion method of photon counting after the target starlight goes through phase screens and ground-based telescopes. Ground-based telescope imaging model is established in this paper can accurately achieve the relationship between the quality of telescope imaging and monolayer or multilayer atmosphere disturbances, and it is great significance for the wave-front detection and optical correction in a Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO).

  15. SCENARIO AND TARGET SIMULATION FOR A GROUND BASED MULTIFUNCTION PHASED ARRAY RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario and target simulation which operates in non real-time to provide full closed-loop operation of the ground based multifunction phased array radar simulation system in support of ballistic missile defence experiments against countermeasure.By simulating the target scattering signature and dynamical signature,this scenario and target simulation provide re- alistic scenario source to evaluate the system performance of multifunction phased array radar,and the key algorithms verification and validation such as target tracking,multi-target imaging and target recognition.

  16. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Schoeller, D. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight. Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.

  17. Simulations of Levy flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantaleo, E; Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: ester.pantaleo@ba.infn.it

    2009-07-15

    Levy flights, also known as {alpha}-stable Levy processes or heavy-tailed statistics, are becoming a commonly used tool in optics. Nonetheless, the different parametrizations and the absence of any analytic expression for the distribution functions (apart from some exceptions) makes it difficult to efficiently simulate such processes. We review and compare three algorithms for the generation of sequences of symmetric stable Levy random variables.

  18. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research Using Ground Based Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20% accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  19. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  20. Critical Evaluation of the ISCCP Simulator Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G G; Houser, S; Benson, S; Klein, S A; Min, Q

    2009-11-02

    Given the known shortcomings in representing clouds in Global Climate Models (GCM) comparisons with observations are critical. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) diagnostic products provide global descriptions of cloud top pressure and column optical depth that extends over multiple decades. The necessary limitations of the ISCCP retrieval algorithm require that before comparisons can be made between model output and ISCCP results the model output must be modified to simulate what ISCCP would diagnose under the simulated circumstances. We evaluate one component of the so-called ISCCP simulator in this study by comparing ISCCP and a similar algorithm with various long-term statistics derived from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility ground-based remote sensors. We find that were a model to simulate the cloud radiative profile with the same accuracy as can be derived from the ARM data, then the likelihood of that occurrence being placed in the same cloud top pressure and optical depth bin as ISCCP of the 9 bins that have become standard ranges from 30% to 70% depending on optical depth. While the ISCCP simulator improved the agreement of cloud-top pressure between ground-based remote sensors and satellite observations, we find minor discrepancies due to the parameterization of cloud top pressure in the ISCCP simulator. The primary source of error seems to be related to discrepancies in visible optical depth that are not accounted for in the ISCCP simulator. We show that the optical depth discrepancies are largest when the assumptions necessary for plane parallel radiative transfer optical depths retrievals are violated.

  1. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground Based Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Y Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR ground-based accelerators have been used for radiobiology research with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE particles. In this paper we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam-energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and 4He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving understanding of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology

  2. Ergonomic problems regarding the interactive touch input via screens in onboard and ground-based flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, K. P.; Gaertner, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    A significant problem concerning the integration of display and switching functions is related to the fact that numerous informative data which have to be processed by man must be read from only a few display devices. A satisfactory ergonomic design of integrated display devices and keyboards is in many cases difficult, because not all functions which can be displayed and selected are simultaneously available. A technical solution which provides an integration of display and functional elements on the basis of the highest flexibility is obtained by using a cathode ray tube with a touch-sensitive screen. The employment of an integrated data input/output system is demonstrated for the cases of onboard and ground-based flight control. Ergonomic studies conducted to investigate the suitability of an employment of touch-sensitive screens are also discussed.

  3. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  4. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegyu Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo. In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services SC (special committee-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  5. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human spaceflight, the value of understanding mechanisms of physiological adaptation to microgravity became apparent to life scientists who were interested in maintining crew health and developing countermeasures agains adverse effects of the mission. However, several characteristics associated the the logistics of spaceflight presented significant limitations to the scientific study of human adaptation to microgravity. Because space missions are so infrequent and involve minimal numbers of crewmembers, meaninful statistical analysis of data are limited. Reproducibility of results from spaceflight experiments is difficult to assess since there are few repeated space missions involving the same crewmembers. Since the emphasis of space missions is placed on operations, experiments are compromised without adequate control over various factors (e.g., time, diet, physical activities, etc.) that can impact measured responses. With the mimimal opportunity to collect spaceflight data, there is a high risk of experiments that simultaneously interfere with other experiments by the increasing demand on the crewmembers to participate in mumerous experiments proposed by multiple investigators. The technology and ability to measure physiological functions necessary to test specific hypotheses can be severely limited by physical space and power constraints of the space enviroment. Finally, technical and logistical aspects of space missions such as launch delays, extended missions, and inflight operational emergencies can significantly compromise the timing and control of experiments. These limitations have stimulated scientists to develop ground-based analogs of microgravity in an effort to investigate the effects of spaceflight on physiological function in a controlled experimental setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected comparison of data collected from ground-based experiments with those obtained from spaceflight in an effort to

  6. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  7. Precision in ground based solar polarimetry: Simulating the role of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaraju, K

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of polarization in spectral lines is important for the reliable inference of magnetic fields on the Sun. For ground based observations, polarimetric precision is severely limited by the presence of Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulence (seeing) produces signal fluctuations which combined with the non-simultaneous nature of the measurement process cause intermixing of the Stokes parameters known as seeing induced polarization cross-talk. Previous analysis of this effect (Judge et al., 2004) suggests that cross-talk is reduced not only with increase in modulation frequency but also by compensating the seeing induced image aberrations by an Adaptive Optics (AO) system. However, in those studies the effect of higher order image aberrations than those corrected by the AO system was not taken into account. We present in this paper an analysis of seeing induced cross-talk in the presence of higher order image aberrations through numerical simulation. In this analysis we find that the amount...

  8. 3D visual analysis tool in support of the SANDF's growing ground based air defence simulation capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3D visual analysis tool has been developed to add value to the SANDF's growing Ground Based Air Defence (GBAD) System of Systems simulation capability. A time based XML interface between the simulation and analysis tool, via a TCP connection or a...

  9. Simulation of submillimetre atmospheric spectra for characterising potential ground-based remote sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Emma C.; Withington, Stafford; Newnham, David A.; Wadhams, Peter; Jones, Anna E.; Clancy, Robin

    2016-11-01

    The submillimetre is an understudied region of the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic spectrum. Prior technological gaps and relatively high opacity due to the prevalence of rotational water vapour lines at these wavelengths have slowed progress from a ground-based remote sensing perspective; however, emerging superconducting detector technologies in the fields of astronomy offer the potential to address key atmospheric science challenges with new instrumental methods. A site study, with a focus on the polar regions, is performed to assess theoretical feasibility by simulating the downwelling (zenith angle = 0°) clear-sky submillimetre spectrum from 30 mm (10 GHz) to 150 µm (2000 GHz) at six locations under annual mean, summer, winter, daytime, night-time and low-humidity conditions. Vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and 28 atmospheric gases are constructed by combining radiosonde, meteorological reanalysis and atmospheric chemistry model data. The sensitivity of the simulated spectra to the choice of water vapour continuum model and spectroscopic line database is explored. For the atmospheric trace species hypobromous acid (HOBr), hydrogen bromide (HBr), perhydroxyl radical (HO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) the emission lines producing the largest change in brightness temperature are identified. Signal strengths, centre frequencies, bandwidths, estimated minimum integration times and maximum receiver noise temperatures are determined for all cases. HOBr, HBr and HO2 produce brightness temperature peaks in the mK to µK range, whereas the N2O peaks are in the K range. The optimal submillimetre remote sensing lines for the four species are shown to vary significantly between location and scenario, strengthening the case for future hyperspectral instruments that measure over a broad wavelength range. The techniques presented here provide a framework that can be applied to additional species of interest and taken forward to simulate retrievals and guide the

  10. Simulated forecasts for primordial B-mode searches in ground-based experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, David; Naess, Sigurd; Thorne, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves on the $B$-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is one of the main science cases for current and next-generation CMB experiments. In this work we explore some of the challenges that ground-based facilities will have to face in order to carry out this measurement in the presence of Galactic foregrounds and correlated atmospheric noise. We present forecasts for Stage-3 (S3) and planned Stage-4 (S4) experiments based on the analysis of simulated sky maps using a map-based Bayesian foreground cleaning method. Our results thus consistently propagate the uncertainties on foreground parameters such as spatially-varying spectral indices, as well as the bias on the measured tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ caused by an incorrect modelling of the foregrounds. We find that S3 and S4-like experiments should be able to put constraints on $r$ of the order $\\sigma(r)=(0.5-1.0)\\times10^{-2}$ and $\\sigma(r)=(0.5-1.0)\\times10^{-3}$ respectively, assuming...

  11. Simulated forecasts for primordial B -mode searches in ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Dunkley, Joanna; Thorne, Ben; Næss, Sigurd

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves on the B -mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the main science cases for current and next-generation CMB experiments. In this work we explore some of the challenges that ground-based facilities will have to face in order to carry out this measurement in the presence of galactic foregrounds and correlated atmospheric noise. We present forecasts for stage-3 (S3) and planned stage-4 (S4) experiments based on the analysis of simulated sky maps using a map-based Bayesian foreground-cleaning method. Our results thus consistently propagate the uncertainties on foreground parameters such as spatially varying spectral indices, as well as the bias on the measured tensor-to-scalar ratio r caused by an incorrect modeling of the foregrounds. We find that S3 and S4-like experiments should be able to put constraints on r of the order σ (r )=(0.5 - 1.0 )×10-2 and σ (r )=(0.5 - 1.0 )×10-3 respectively, assuming instrumental systematic effects are under control. We further study deviations from the fiducial foreground model, finding that, while the effects of a second polarized dust component would be minimal on both S3 and S4, a 2% polarized anomalous dust emission component would be clearly detectable by stage-4 experiments.

  12. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  13. Instrumentation for Ground-Based Testing in Simulated Space and Planetary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Horodetsky, Sergey; Issoupov, Vitali

    This paper is an overview of instrumentation developed and created by ITL Inc. for simulated testing and performance evaluation of spacecraft materials, structures, mechanisms, assemblies and components in different space and planetary environments. The LEO Space Environment Simulator allows simulation of the synergistic effect of ultra-high vacuum conditions, 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beams, Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) radiation, and temperature conditions. The simulated space environmental conditions can be controlled in-situ using a quadruple mass-spectrometer, Time-of-Flight technique, as well as Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensors. The new NUV System is capable of delivering an NUV power intensity of up to 10 Equivalent Suns. The design of the system uses horizontal orientation of the 5 kW Mercury lamp, focusing of NUV radiation is achieved due to a parabolic reflector. To address the Lunar/Martian surface environments, the Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility has been developed and built to allow for physical evaluation of the effects of the Lunar/Martian dust environments in conjunction with other factors (ultra-high vacuum or planetary atmospheric conditions, VUV/NUV radiation, thermal cycling, and darkness). The ASTM E 595/ASTM E 1559 Outgassing Test Facility provides the means for the outgassing test of materials with the objective to select materials with low outgassing properties for spacecraft use and allows to determine the following outgassing parameters: Total Mass Loss, Collected Volatile Condensable Materials, and Water Vapor Regained.

  14. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  15. The Business Flight Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, P.; Simpson, D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a simulation program based on a workshop approach designed for postsecondary business students. Features and benefits of the workshop technique are discussed. The authors cover practical aspects of designing and implementing simulation workshops. (CH)

  16. Laser Altimeter for Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Height of flight-simulator probe above model of terrain measured by automatic laser triangulation system. Airplane simulated by probe that moves over model of terrain. Altitude of airplane scaled from height of probe above model. Height measured by triangulation of laser beam aimed at intersection of model surface with plumb line of probe.

  17. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  18. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  19. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  20. Ground-based Simulation of Upset Recovery in DESDEMONA: Aspects of Motion Cueing and Motion Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Wentink, M.; Trujillo, M.; Huhne, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unsuccessful recovery from unusual flight attitudes, or “airplane upset”, is considered an important factor in civil aviation accidents. It is generally recognized that there is a clear need for enhanced training of recovery procedures from unusual flight attitudes, i.e. situations where an aircraft

  1. Dust aerosol characterization and transport features based on combined ground-based, satellite and model-simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study aerosol characteristics over an urban station in Western India, during a dust event that occurred between 19 and 26 March 2012, with the help of ground-based and satellite measurements and model simulation data. The aerosol parameters are found to change significantly during dust events and they suggest dominance of coarse mode aerosols. The fine mode fraction, size distribution and single scattering albedo reveal that dust (natural) aerosols dominate the anthropogenic aerosols over the study region. Ground-based measurements show drastic reduction in visibility on the dust-laden day (22 March 2012). Additionally, HYSPLIT model and satellite daily data have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of dust storm events. Most of the dust aerosols, during the study period, travel from west-to-east pathway from source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO and synoptic meteorological parameters from ECMWF re-analysis data reveal a layer of thick dust extending from surface to an altitude of about 4 km, and decrease in temperature and increase in specific humidity, respectively. The aerosol radiative forcing calculations indicate more cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere during dust event. The results of satellite observations are found to have good consistency with ground-based air quality measurements. Synthesis of satellite data integrated with ground-based observations, supplemented by model analysis, is found to be a promising technique for improved understanding of dust storm phenomenon and its impact on regional climate.

  2. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  3. Temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota in people sharing a confined environment, a 520-day ground-based space simulation, MARS500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turroni, Silvia; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Quercia, Sara; Soverini, Matteo; Carbonero, Franck G; Bianconi, Giovanna; Rettberg, Petra; Canganella, Francesco; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-03-24

    The intestinal microbial communities and their temporal dynamics are gaining increasing interest due to the significant implications for human health. Recent studies have shown the dynamic behavior of the gut microbiota in free-living, healthy persons. To date, it is not known whether these dynamics are applicable during prolonged life sharing in a confined and controlled environment. The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that faced by astronauts in real long-term interplanetary space flights, and after returning to regular life, for a total of 2 years. According to our data, even under the strictly controlled conditions of an enclosed environment, the human gut microbiota is inherently dynamic, capable of shifting between different steady states, typically with rearrangements of autochthonous members. Notwithstanding a strong individuality in the overall gut microbiota trajectory, some key microbial components showed conserved temporal dynamics, with potential implications for the maintenance of a health-promoting, mutualistic microbiota configuration. Sharing life in a confined habitat does not affect the resilience of the individual gut microbial ecosystem, even in the long term. However, the temporal dynamics of certain microbiota components should be monitored when programming future mission simulations and real space flights, to prevent breakdowns in the metabolic and immunological homeostasis of the crewmembers.

  4. Temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota in people sharing a confined environment, a 520-day ground-based space simulation, MARS500

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Turroni; Simone Rampelli; Elena Biagi; Clarissa Consolandi; Marco Severgnini; Clelia Peano; Sara Quercia; Matteo Soverini; Franck G Carbonero; Giovanna Bianconi; Petra Rettberg; Francesco Canganella; Patrizia Brigidi; Marco Candela

    2017-01-01

    .... Results The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that...

  5. Determining the transferability of flight simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    1992-01-01

    This paper presented a method for collecting and graphically correlating subjective ratings and objective flight test data. The method enables flight-simulation engineers to enhance the simulator characterization of rotor craft flight in order to achieve maximum transferability of simulator experience.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INSECT FLIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mu-lin; MIAO Wen-bo; ZHONG Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In the non-inertial coordinates attached to the model wing, the two-dimensional unsteady flow field triggered by the motion of the model wing, similar to the flapping of the insect wings, was numerically simulated. One of the advantages of our method is that it has avoided the difficulty related to the moving-boundary problem. Another advantage is that the model has three degrees of freedom and can be used to simulate arbitrary motions of a two-dimensional wing in plane only if the motion is known. Such flexibility allows us to study how insects control their flying. Our results show that there are two parameters that are possibly utilized by insects to control their flight: the phase difference between the wing translation and rotation, and the lateral amplitude of flapping along the direction perpendicular to the average flapping plane.

  7. Evaluation of Radar Vegetation Indices for Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using Data from a Ground-Based SMAP Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; O'Neill, Peggy; Cosh, Michael; Lang, Roger; Joseph, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important component of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. This paper aims to estimate VWC using L band active and passive radar/radiometer datasets obtained from a NASA ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator known as ComRAD (Combined Radar/Radiometer). Several approaches to derive vegetation information from radar and radiometer data such as HH, HV, VV, Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), HH/VV ratio, HV/(HH+VV), HV/(HH+HV+VV) and Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) are tested for VWC estimation through a generalized linear model (GLM). The overall analysis indicates that HV radar backscattering could be used for VWC content estimation with highest performance followed by HH, VV, MPDI, RVI, and other ratios.

  8. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  9. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  10. Ground Based Simulation Evaluation of the Effects of Time Delays and Motion on Rotorcraft Handling Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Simulation Facility B. MATH MODEL The mathematical model for the rotorcraft was a generic, uncoupled stability-derivative model that has been used for...5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Affiftu VCR Alti~de VCR Afttiue VCR a) Ho~w b) Vedical TAns/alon#)Pkue 5 5 5 12 "-i " -2 _ 3 3 3 3LC- L7 3______ i -1 1 1 eI 1...13-1 - 13-62. A-2. McRuer, D. T., and E. S. Krendel, Mathematical Models of Human Pilot Behavior. AGARD AG-188, Jan. 1974. A-3. Peters, Richard A

  11. Simulations of direct and reflected wave trajectories for ground-based GNSS-R experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, N.; Frappart, F.; Ramillien, G.; Darrozes, J.; Desjardins, C.; Gegout, P.; Pérosanz, F.; Biancale, R.

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals that are reflected off the surface, along with the reception of direct GNSS signals, offers a unique opportunity to monitor water level variations over land and ocean. The time delay between the reception of the direct and reflected signals gives access to the altitude of the receiver over the reflecting surface. The field of view of the receiver is highly dependent on both the orbits of the GNSS satellites and the configuration of the study site geometries. A simulator has been developed to determine the location of the reflection points on the surface accurately by modeling the trajectories of GNSS electromagnetic waves that are reflected by the surface of the Earth. Only the geometric problem was considered using a specular reflection assumption. The orbit of the GNSS constellation satellites (mainly GPS, GLONASS and Galileo), and the position of a fixed receiver, are used as inputs. Four different simulation modes are proposed, depending on the choice of the Earth surface model (local plane, osculating sphere or ellipsoid) and the consideration of topography likely to cause masking effects. Angular refraction effects derived from adaptive mapping functions are also taken into account. This simulator was developed to determine where the GNSS-R receivers should be located to monitor a given study area efficiently. In this study, two test sites were considered: the first one at the top of the 65 m Cordouan lighthouse in the Gironde estuary, France, and the second one on the shore of Lake Geneva (50 m above the reflecting surface), at the border between France and Switzerland. This site is hidden by mountains in the south (orthometric altitude up to 2000 m), and overlooking the lake in the north (orthometric altitude of 370 m). For this second test site configuration, reflections occur until 560 m from the receiver. The planimetric (arc length) differences (or altimetric difference as WGS84

  12. Humanoid Flight Metabolic Simulator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has identified several areas of technology that will require significant improvements in terms of performance, capacity, and efficiency, in order to make a manned mission to Mars possible. These include crew vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), EVA suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Information Systems, autonomous environmental monitoring, radiation exposure monitoring and protection, and vehicle thermal control systems (TCS). (MADMACS) in a Suit can be configured to simulate human metabolism, consuming crew resources (oxygen) in the process. In addition to providing support for testing Life Support on unmanned flights, MADMACS will also support testing of suit thermal controls, and monitor radiation exposure, body zone temperatures, moisture, and loads.

  13. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in training...

  14. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  15. The flight data monitoring method for the flight simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.П. Сердюк

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Submitted the monitoring of the flight data method  for a flight simulator, which is based on the analysis of probability density of distribution characteristics of the transport plane crew activity in tasks of the Capitan minimum  confirming at meteominimum that corresponding to 1-st and to 2-nd  ICAO  categories on a flight simulator in conditions of small volume of the experimental data. Complexitie degree of an density function estimation, i.e. number of the decompose members, depending on volume of sample and select with the help of a risk structural minimization method. 

  16. Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.

  17. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator for the airplane rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator for training or...

  18. Phase Coherence Zones in Flight Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonik, P.M.; Valente Pais, A.R.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    In flight simulation detailed knowledge of human motion perception is crucial. Phase differences between inertial and visual motion introduced by motion filters might have negative effects on the fidelity of flight simulation. This study investigated human visual- vestibular phase-error detection. A

  19. Perception coherence zones in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Wentink, M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of motion perception knowledge for flight simulation is widely recognized. The development and tuning of motion filters relies on understanding the human motion perception mechanisms and its limitations. Particularly interesting for flight simulation is the study of visual-vestibular

  20. Full Motion Flight Simulator in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Virtual flight can be very entertaining, and computer-based simulators can also be educational, if organized and used correctly. When Berea College decided to find a flight simulator suited to the school's educational goals, the faculty settled on an ANT-18 Link trainer. This article begins with a discussion of Link trainers' history, and then…

  1. Vertical profiling of atmospheric refractivity using GPS STD data from a single ground-based station: Simulations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zus, F.; Dick, G.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Ramatschi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a ray-tracing operator to compute the signal travel time delay due to the neutral atmosphere, known as Slant Total Delay (STD), between a GPS satellite and a ground-based receiving station. Having developed a rapid and precise forward operator we constructed the tangent-linear (adjoint) operator to estimate refractivity in the vicinity of a single station. The refractivity retrievals potentially complement refractivity retrievals from radio occultation data and can be considered a valuable input for Numerical Weather Prediction. In a first experiment (simulation) we study the feasibility for vertical profiling of refractivity using STDs from a single station. The simulation cycle consists of the computation of STDs given a refractivity profile, the addition of noise to mimic observation errors and the retrieval of a refractivity profile from the artificial STDs by a non-linear least-square analysis. Clearly, besides the noise level, the elevation range plays an important role regarding the quality of the refractivity retrieval; near-horizon STDs corrupted by noise allow a significantly better refractivity retrieval than STDs close to the zenith without any noise. The simulation study suggests that near-horizon STDs provide additional information when compared to Zenith Total Delays (ZTDs). In a second experiment (application) we replace the artificial STDs in the simulation by STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations. The procedure is repeated station-by-station for 200 stations in Germany. We do not find a significant benefit from STDs over ZTDs in the retrieved refractivity profile since near-horizon STDs are rarely available and representative errors due to asymmetry are non-negligable. We attempt to mitigate the latter problem by the additional estimation of horizontal gradients, and indeed, we find strong evidence that STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations contain asymmetric information. The former problem still poses a serious limitation

  2. Simulation of polar atmospheric microwave and sub-millimetre spectra for characterizing potential new ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, David; Turner, Emma; Ford, George; Pumphrey, Hugh; Withington, Stafford

    2016-04-01

    Advanced detector technologies from the fields of astronomy and telecommunications are offering the potential to address key atmospheric science challenges with new instrumental methods. Adoption of these technologies in ground-based passive microwave and sub-millimetre radiometry could allow new measurements of chemical species and winds in the polar middle atmosphere for verifying meteorological data-sets and atmospheric models. A site study to assess the feasibility of new polar observations is performed by simulating the downwelling clear-sky submillimetre spectrum over 10-2000 GHz (30 mm to 150 microns) at two Arctic and two Antarctic locations under different seasonal and diurnal conditions. Vertical profiles for temperature, pressure and 28 atmospheric gases are constructed by combining radiosonde, meteorological reanalysis, and atmospheric chemistry model data. The sensitivity of the simulated spectra to the choice of water vapour continuum model and spectroscopic line database is explored. For the atmospheric trace species hypobromous acid (HOBr), hydrogen bromide (HBr), perhydroxyl radical (HO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) the emission lines producing the largest change in brightness temperature are identified and minimum integration times and maximum receiver noise temperatures estimated. The optimal lines for all species are shown to vary significantly between location and scenario, strengthening the case for future hyperspectral instruments that measure over a broad frequency range. We also demonstrate the feasibility of measuring horizontal wind profiles above Halley station, Antarctica with time resolution as high as 0.5hr using simulated spectroradiometric observations of Doppler-shifted ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) lines in the 230-250 GHz region. The techniques presented provide a framework that can be applied to the retrieval of additional atmospheric parameters and be taken forward to simulate and guide the design of future microwave and sub

  3. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators, flight training devices..., Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.41 Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training... that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  4. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must show that each flight simulator and flight training device...

  5. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  6. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important element for weather and climate prediction, hydrological sciences, and applications. Hence, measurements of this hydrologic variable are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and the linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles (Srivastava et al. 2013). The retrieval of soil moisture depends not only on parameterizations in the retrieval algorithm but also on the soil dielectric mixing models used (Behari 2005). Although a number of soil dielectric mixing models have been developed, testing these models for soil moisture retrieval has still not been fully explored, especially with SMAP-like simulators. The main objective of this work focuses on testing different dielectric models for soil moisture retrieval using the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based L-band simulator developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and George Washington University (O'Neill et al., 2006). The ComRAD system was deployed during a field experiment in 2012 in order to provide long active/passive measurements of two crops under controlled conditions during an entire growing season. L-band passive data were acquired at a look angle of 40 degree from nadir at both horizontal & vertical polarization. Currently, there are many dielectric models available for soil moisture retrieval; however, four dielectric models (Mironov, Dobson, Wang & Schmugge and Hallikainen) were tested here and found to be promising for soil moisture retrieval (some with higher performances). All the above-mentioned dielectric models were integrated with Single Channel Algorithms using H (SCA-H) and V (SCA-V) polarizations for the soil moisture retrievals. All the ground-based observations were collected from test site-United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) OPE3, located a few miles away from NASA GSFC. Ground truth data were collected using a theta probe and in situ sensors which were then used for validation. Analysis

  7. Ground-based simulation of the Earth's upper atmosphere oxygen impact on polymer composites with nanosized fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chechenin, Nikolay; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bondarenko, Gennady G.; Gaidar, Anna I.; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Dmitrii V.; Chirskaya, Natalia P.

    The improvement of durability of polymer composites to the space environment impact is a very important task because these materials are considered currently as very promising type of materials for aerospace engineering. By embedding various nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix it is possible to obtain composites with required mechanical, thermal, electrical and optic properties. However, while developing such materials for operation in low Earth orbits (LEO), it is necessary to study thoroughly their durability to the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, because AO is the main factor that causes erosion and damage of spacecraft surface materials in LEO. Ground-based simulation of AO impact on polymer composites was performed on a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator developed at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Polymer composite samples which were prepared as films of 30-50 mum thickness with different amount (3-20 wt%) of various inorganic and organic nanofillers including nanoparticles of metal oxides and carbides as well as polyethoxysiloxanes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), were exposed to hyperthermal AO flow, and mass losses of samples were estimated. Changes in the structure of composite surface and in material optical properties were studied. The experiments demonstrated that embedding nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix can significantly reduced mass losses, and the good dispersion of fillers improves AO durability in comparison with initial polymers [1]. The computer simulation within the developed 2D Monte-Carlo model demonstrated a good agreement with the experimental data [2]. Special attention was given to the study of AO impact on aligned multiwalled CNTs and CNT-based composites [3]. Some results of computer simulation of hyperthermal oxygen atom interaction with CNT and graphene as well as with polymers are presented to discuss elementary processes which occur in nanostructures

  8. 14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section 91.1091 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this... aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or category...

  9. 14 CFR 61.4 - Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... simulators and flight training devices. 61.4 Section 61.4 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.4 Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, each flight simulator and flight...

  10. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test: Simulation Predictions Versus Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.

  11. Learning control of a flight simulator stick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, W.J.R.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Vrielink, Koen H.J.; Wierda, G.J.; Borghuis, André

    1998-01-01

    Aimportant part of a flight simulator is its control loading system, which is the part that emulates the behaviour of an aircraft as experienced by the pilot through the stick. Such a system consists of a model of the aircraft that is to be simulated and a stick that is driven by an electric motor.

  12. Vision Research for Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Whitman, Ed.; Dismukes, Key, Ed.

    Based on a workshop on vision research issues in flight-training simulators held in June 1980, this report focuses on approaches for the conduct of research on what visual information is needed for simulation and how it can best be presented. An introduction gives an overview of the workshop and describes the contents of the report. Section 1…

  13. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  14. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  15. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

  16. 14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 135.338 Section 135.338 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 135.340... flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or category aircraft. (2...

  17. A Flight Simulator Program Takes Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don

    2003-01-01

    Aviation concepts, including forces acting on an airplane, navigation, correct aircraft terminology, and general aviation vocabulary, are often part of a comprehensive fifth-grade aviation curriculum. But in one school district, students also learned about flying planes and even trained in a flight simulator. This article describes how industry…

  18. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  19. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  20. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets and Selected Super-Earths Discovered from K2 and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Albert, Loic; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    The 2018 launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), coupled with the 2017 launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), heralds a new era in Exoplanet Science, with TESS projected to detect over one thousand transiting sub-Neptune-sized planets (Ricker et al, 2014), and JWST offering unprecedented spectroscopic capabilities. Sullivan et al (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planets that TESS is likely to detect, and published a catalog of 962 simulated TESS planets. Prior to TESS launch, the re-scoped Kepler K2 mission and ground-based surveys such as MEarth continue to seek nearby Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarf host stars. The exoplanet community will undoubtedly employ JWST for atmospheric characterization follow-up studies of promising exoplanets, but the targeted planets for these studies must be chosen wisely to maximize JWST science return. The goal of this project is to estimate the capabilities of JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)—operating with the GR700XD grism in Single Object Slitless Spectrography (SOSS) mode—during observations of exoplanets transiting their host stars. We compare results obtained for the simulated TESS planets, confirmed K2-discovered super-Earths, and exoplanets discovered using ground-based surveys. By determining the target planet characteristics that result in the most favorable JWST observing conditions, we can optimize the choice of target planets in future JWST follow-on atmospheric characterization studies.

  1. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  2. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While modern ground-based flight simulators continue to improve in fidelity and effectiveness, there remains no substitute for flight test evaluations. In addition...

  3. In-Flight Simulator for IFR Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-controlled unit feeds navigation signals to airplane instruments. Electronic training system allows students to learn to fly according to instrument flight rules (IFR) in uncrowded airspace. New system self-contained IFR simulator carried aboard training plane. Generates signals and commands for standard instruments on airplane, including navigational receiver, distance-measuring equipment, automatic direction finder, a marker-beacon receiver, altimeter, airspeed indicator, and heading indicator.

  4. Simulator Motion as a Factor in Flight Simulator Training Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robert S.

    The document reviews the literature concerning the training effectiveness of flight simulators and describes an experiment in progress at the University of Illinois' Institute of Aviation which is an initial attempt to develop systematically the relationship between motion cue fidelity and resultant training effectiveness. The literature review…

  5. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  6. Flight Simulation for the Study of Skill Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Gavan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses skill transfer as a human performance issue based on experiences with computerized flight simulators. Highlights include the issue of similarity; simulation and the design of training devices; an information theory of transfer; invariants for flight control; and experiments involving the transfer of flight skills. (21 references) (LRW)

  7. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  8. Response of Flight Nurses in a Simulated Helicopter Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniecki, David M; Hickman, Ronald L; Alfes, Celeste M; Reimer, Andrew P

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a helicopter flight simulator could provide a useful educational platform by creating experiences similar to those encountered by actual flight nurses. Flight nurse (FN) and non-FN participants completed a simulated emergency scenario in a flight simulator. Physiologic and psychological stress during the simulation was measured using heart rate and perceived stress scores. A questionnaire was then administered to assess the realism of the flight simulator. Subjects reported that the overall experience in the flight simulator was comparable with a real helicopter. Sounds, communications, vibrations, and movements in the simulator most approximated those of a real-life helicopter environment. Perceived stress levels of all participants increased significantly from 27 (on a 0-100 scale) before simulation to 51 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 28 (P simulation to 54 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 30 (P simulation to 49 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 25 (P simulation. FNs' heart rates increased significantly from 77 before simulation to 100 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 72 (P simulation of a critical care scenario in a high-fidelity helicopter flight simulator can provide a realistic helicopter transport experience and create physiologic and psychological stress for participants. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Louis S.; Williams, Philip C.; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed. PMID:20052306

  10. Development of a virtual flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz Rangel, Rodrigo; Guimarães, Lamartine N F; de Assis Correa, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    We present the development of a flight simulator that allows the user to interact in a created environment by means of virtual reality devices. This environment simulates the sight of a pilot in an airplane cockpit. The environment is projected in a helmet visor and allows the pilot to see inside as well as outside the cockpit. The movement of the airplane is independent of the movement of the pilot's head, which means that the airplane might travel in one direction while the pilot is looking at a 30 degrees angle with respect to the traveled direction. In this environment, the pilot will be able to take off, fly, and land the airplane. So far, the objects in the environment are geometrical figures. This is an ongoing project, and only partial results are available now.

  11. Simulated Transmission of the Dengue Virus Across the US-Mexico Border Using Remotely Sensed and Ground Based Weather Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of dengue fever, caused by a mosquito transmitted virus, have increased in the Americas during recent decades. In the US, local transmission has been reported in southern Texas and Florida. However, despite its close proximity to dengue endemic areas in Mexico and the presence of a primary mosquito vector, there are no reports of local transmission in Arizona. Many studies have demonstrated that weather influences dengue virus transmission by regulating vector development rates, vector habitat availability, and the duration of the virus extrinsic incubation period (EIP). The EIP, the period between mosquito infection and the ability for it to retransmit the virus, is especially important given its high sensitivity to temperature and the short lifespan of mosquitoes. Other studies, however, have suggested that human related factors such as socioeconomic status and herd immunity may explain much of the disparity in dengue incidence in the US-Mexico border region. Using a meteorologically driven model of vector population dynamics and virus transmission we compare simulations of dengue fever cases in southern Arizona and northern Mexico. A Monte Carlo approach is employed to select parameter values by evaluating simulations in Hermosillo Mexico with reported dengue fever case data. Simulations that replicate the case data best are retained and rerun using remotely sensed climate data from other Arizona and Mexico locations to determine the relative influence of weather on virus transmission. Although human and environmental factors undoubtedly influence dengue transmission in the US-Mexico border regions, weather is a major facilitator of the transmission process.

  12. Flight Simulator and Training Human Factors Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Leland, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Loss of control has been identified as the leading cause of aircraft accidents in recent years. Efforts have been made to better equip pilots to deal with these types of events, commonly referred to as upsets. A major challenge in these endeavors has been recreating the motion environments found in flight as the majority of upsets take place well beyond the normal operating envelope of large aircraft. The Environmental Tectonics Corporation has developed a simulator motion base, called GYROLAB, that is capable of recreating the sustained accelerations, or G-forces, and motions of flight. A two part research study was accomplished that coupled NASA's Generic Transport Model with a GYROLAB device. The goal of the study was to characterize physiological effects of the upset environment and to demonstrate that a sustained motion based simulator can be an effective means for upset recovery training. Two groups of 25 Air Transport Pilots participated in the study. The results showed reliable signs of pilot arousal at specific stages of similar upsets. Further validation also demonstrated that sustained motion technology was successful in improving pilot performance during recovery following an extensive training program using GYROLAB technology.

  13. A ground-based radio frequency inductively coupled plasma apparatus for atomic oxygen simulation in low Earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxian; Tian, Xiubo; Yang, Shiqin; Chu, Paul K

    2007-10-01

    A radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma apparatus has been developed to simulate the atomic oxygen environment encountered in low Earth orbit (LEO). Basing on the novel design, the apparatus can achieve stable, long lasting operation, pure and high density oxygen plasma beam. Furthermore, the effective atomic oxygen flux can be regulated. The equivalent effective atomic oxygen flux may reach (2.289-2.984) x 10(16) at.cm(2) s at an oxygen pressure of 1.5 Pa and rf power of 400 W. The equivalent atomic oxygen flux is about 100 times than that in the LEO environment. The mass loss measured from the polyimide sample changes linearly with the exposure time, while the density of the eroded holes becomes smaller. The erosion mechanism of the polymeric materials by atomic oxygen is complex and involves initial reactions at the gas-surface interface as well as steady-state material removal.

  14. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  15. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, B.; Hendrick, F.; Van Roozendael, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Marais, E. A.; Bovy, B.; Bader, W.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Lejeune, B.; Pinardi, G.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2015-04-01

    As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) scans recorded during the July 2010-December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.). Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs), GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6-8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  16. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.. Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs, GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  17. Investigating the 90-day oscillations using ground-based, satellite and TIME-GCM model simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M.; Hagan, M. E.; Pautet, P. D.; Pugmire, J. R.; Pendleton, W. R., Jr.; Russell, J. M., III

    2016-12-01

    The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) is an upper atmospheric observatory located high in the Andes mountain range at Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W, 2530 m). The Utah State University (USU) Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) was deployed in August, 2009 collocated with a Na wind/temperature lidar and a meteor wind radar from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) as well as other optical instrumentation. In this presentation, we focus on the characteristics of a unique 90-day oscillation identified in the first 18 months in both the mesospheric wind and temperature data from ALO. This event appeared to be long-lived but transient, with similar amplitude to the AO and SAO at this location. Additional mesospheric temperature data from nearby El Leoncito Observatory (31.8°S, 69.3°W), Argentina also showed the same oscillation. The existence and extent of this oscillation are being further examined using SABER/TIMED temperature. The National Center for Atmosphere Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulation of 2009/10 results are utilized to investigate the possible source of this event and the spatial structures are compared with the results from the SABER temperature data.

  18. Self-Pressurization and Spray Cooling Simulations of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Ground-Based Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.; Agui, J.; Moder, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the self-pressurization of a large scale liquid hydrogen storage tank. In this model, the kinetics-based Schrage equation is used to account for the evaporative and condensing interfacial mass flows. Laminar and turbulent approaches to modeling natural convection in the tank and heat and mass transfer at the interface are compared. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass fluxes predicted by these two approaches during tank self-pressurization are compared against each other. The ullage pressure and vapor temperature evolutions are also compared against experimental data obtained from the MHTB (Multipuprpose Hydrogen Test Bed) self-pressurization experiment. A CFD model for cooling cryogenic storage tanks by spraying cold liquid in the ullage is also presented. The Euler- Lagrange approach is utilized for tracking the spray droplets and for modeling interaction between the droplets and the continuous phase (ullage). The spray model is coupled with the VOF (volume of fluid) model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. Droplet ullage heat and mass transfer are modeled. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass flux predicted by the model are presented. The ullage pressure is compared with experimental data obtained from the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment. The results of the models with only droplet/ullage heat transfer and with heat and mass transfer between the droplets and ullage are compared.

  19. Type-segregated aerosol effects on regional monsoon activity: A study using ground-based experiments and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Devara, P. C. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Classification of observed aerosols into key types [e.g., clean-maritime (CM), desert-dust (DD), urban-industrial/biomass-burning (UI/BB), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and mixed-type aerosols (MA)] would facilitate to infer aerosol sources, effects, and feedback mechanisms, not only to improve the accuracy of satellite retrievals but also to quantify the assessment of aerosol radiative impacts on climate. In this paper, we report the results of a study conducted in this direction, employing a Cimel Sun-sky radiometer at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India during 2008 and 2009, which represent two successive contrasting monsoon years. The study provided an observational evidence to show that the local sources are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon), with strong seasonality closely linked to the monsoon annual rainfall cycle over Pune, a tropical urban station in India. The results revealed the absence of CM aerosols in the pre-monsoon as well as in the monsoon seasons of 2009 as opposed to 2008. Higher loading of dust aerosols is observed in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2009; majority may be coated with fine BC aerosols from local emissions, leading to reduction in regional rainfall. Further, significant decrease in coarse-mode AOD and presence of carbonaceous aerosols, affecting the aerosol-cloud interaction and monsoon-rain processes via microphysics and dynamics, is considered responsible for the reduction in rainfall during 2009. Additionally, we discuss how optical depth, contributed by different types of aerosols, influences the distribution of monsoon rainfall over an urban region using the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) aerosol reanalysis. Furthermore, predictions of the Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) simulations combined with HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) cluster model are also discussed in support of the

  20. Information Security Plan for Flight Simulator Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slaughter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Defense has a need for an identity management system that uses two factor authentications to ensure that only the correct individuals get access to their top secret flight simulator program. Currently the Department of Defense does not have a web interface sign in system. We will be creating a system that will allow them to access their programs, back office and administrator functions remotely. A security plan outlining our security architecture will be delivered prior to the final code roll out. The plan will include responses to encryption used and the security architecture applied in the final documentation. The code will be delivered in phases to work out any issues that may occur during the implementation

  1. Comparing data obtained from ground-based measurements of the total contents of O3, HNO3,HCl, and NO2 and from their numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolainen, Ya. A.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Ionov, D. V.; Kirner, O.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Imhasin, H. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry climate models of the gas composition of the atmosphere make it possible to simulate both space and time variations in atmospheric trace-gas components (TGCs) and predict their changes. Both verification and improvement of such models on the basis of a comparison with experimental data are of great importance. Data obtained from the 2009-2012 ground-based spectrometric measurements of the total contents (TCs) of a number of TGCs (ozone, HNO3, HCl, and NO2) in the atmosphere over the St. Petersburg region (Petergof station, St. Petersburg State University) have been compared to analogous EMAC model data. Both daily and monthly means of their TCs for this period have been analyzed in detail. The seasonal dependences of the TCs of the gases under study are shown to be adequately reproduced by the EMAC model. At the same time, a number of disagreements (including systematic ones) have been revealed between model and measurement data. Thus, for example, the EMAC model underestimates the TCs of NO2, HCl, and HNO3, when compared to measurement data, on average, by 14, 22, and 35%, respectively. However, the TC of ozone is overestimated by the EMAC model (on average, by 12%) when compared to measurement data. In order to reveal the reasons for such disagreements between simulated and measured data on the TCs of TGCs, it is necessary to continue studies on comparisons of the contents of TGCs in different atmospheric layers.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Bird Flight Using Both CFD and Computational Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    A numerical simulation method taking into account both aerodynamics and flight dynamics has been developed to simulate the flight of a low speed flying object, where it undergoes unsteady deformation. This method can also be applied to simulate the unsteady motion of small vehicles such as micro air vehicles (MAV). In the present study, we take up a bird and demonstrate its flight in the air. In particular the effect of fluid forces on the bird's flying motion is examined in detail, based on CFD×CFD: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Flight Dynamics. It is found from simulated results that this bird can generate lift and thrust enough to fly by flapping its wing. In addition, it can make a level flight by adjusting its oscillation frequency. Thus, the present method is promising to study the aerodynamics and flight dynamics of a moving object with its shape morphing.

  3. Comparison of cytogenetic effects in bone marrow of mice after the flight on the biosatellite "BION-M1" and the ground-based radiobiological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Ivanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    During space flight, the astronauts are exposed to radiation exposure at low doses with low dose rates, so one of the actual areas of Radiobiology is research of action of ionizing radiation in low and ultra-low doses. Violation of the chromosome apparatus of living biosystems, ranging from viruses and bacteria to humans, is the most reliable evidence of exposure to ionizing radiation. In this regard, the study of cytogenetic damage in the cells of humans and animals is central to space radiobiology (Fedorenko B.S., 2006). In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" (Sychev V.N. et al., 2014) was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite by method of cervical dislocation. The level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. The content of animals in the experiment with onboard equipment led to some increase in aberrant mitosis (2,3 ± 0,4%) and reduction of the mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION-M1" was a statistically significant increase in level of chromosome aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). According to VA Shurshakova (2014), the radiation dose to mice ranged from 32 to 72 mGy and relate to a range of small doses (ICRP, 2012). In this connection we conducted a series of experiments in the ground conditions, the aim of which was the study of earliest effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in mice irradiated with low doses of γ-irradiation of 10 to 200 mGy in the first 24 hours after exposure, i.e. within the first post-radiation exposure cell cycle. Studies were carried out on adult female mice outbred ICR (CD-1) - SPF category at the age of 4-4.5 months with an average

  4. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. The modeling of miniature UAV flight visualization simulation platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-hui; Li, Xin; Yang, Le-le; Li, Xiong

    2015-12-01

    This paper combines virtual technology with visualization visual simulation theory, construct the framework of visual simulation platform, apply open source software FlightGear simulator combined with GoogleEarth design a small UAV flight visual simulation platform. Using software AC3D to build 3D models of aircraft and complete the model loading based on XML configuration, the design and simulation of visualization modeling visual platform is presented. By using model-driven and data transforming in FlightGear , the design of data transmission module is realized based on Visual Studio 2010 development platform. Finally combined with GoogleEarth it can achieve the tracking and display.

  6. Design and Implementation of Flight Visual Simulation System

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Feng; Chai, Wenjian; Wang, Chuanyun; Sun, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The design requirement for flight visual simulation system is studied and the overall structure and development process are proposed in this paper. Through the construction of 3D scene model library and aircraft model, the rendering and interaction of visual scene are implemented. The changes of aircraft flight attitude in visual system are controlled by real-time calculation of aircraft aerodynamic and dynamic equations and flight simulation effect is enhanced by this kind of control. Severa...

  7. Comparison of radiometric scaling laws and detailed wave-optics simulations for designing ground-based laser satellite-illumination and receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Keith A.

    2002-12-01

    Ground-based optical transmitter and receiver systems designed for active imaging, active tracking and laser ranging of satellites in Earth orbit are very sensitive to physical conditions limiting the radiometric returns for achieving these measurements. The initial design of these systems is often based on simple radiometric scaling laws that provide estimates of average radiometric returns and are derived from experimental data or from more complex theoretical calculations. While these laws are quite useful, it is often easy to lose sight of the initial assumptions made in their formulation, and hence, the limits of their accuracy for designing certain systems. The objective of this paper is to review some of the commonly used radiometric scaling laws for active systems and to establish guidelines for their use based on comparisons of their predictions with results from detailed wave-optics simulations for different system design requirements and physical conditions. The combined effects of laser and transmitter beam parameters, wave-front aberrations, atmospheric turbulence, and satellite optical cross-section are considered.

  8. Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon

    2007-01-01

    A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.

  9. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  10. Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

  11. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  12. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  13. Flight simulator evaluation of a novel flight instrument display to minimize the risks of spatial disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, M G; Durnford, S J; Groh, S L; Jones, H D; Higdon, A A; Estrada, A; Alvarez, E A

    1998-08-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) in flight remains a major source of attrition. Many SD accidents would occur regardless of the instrument display in use, since the aircrew are simply not looking at the instruments. However, there are a number of accidents which might be amenable to improved instrument displays. In an attempt to improve maintenance and reattainment of correct orientation with a reduced cognitive workload, a novel instrument display has been developed. This paper describes an assessment of the display in a UH-60 helicopter flight simulator. This study tested the hypothesis that during instrument flight and recovery from unusual attitudes, the novel display permits a more accurate maintenance and reestablishment of flight parameters than the standard flight instruments. There were 16 male aviators who flew a simulated instrument flight profile and recovery from unusual attitudes using both the standard flight instruments and the novel display. The two display formats were tested both with and without a secondary task. When compared with the standard instruments, both control of flight parameters and recovery from unusual attitudes were significantly improved when using the novel display. Analysis of the secondary task scores showed that cognitive workload was reduced when using the novel display compared with the standard instruments. Results from all aspects of the assessment indicated benefits of the new display. Future testing should be carried out during real flight, and the display should be further developed to be used in a head-up or helmet-mounted device.

  14. Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes a R&D effort to develop a Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator (UNFDAS) Tool that will combine...

  15. A Ground Control Station for the UAV Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper implementation of a ground control station for UAV flight simulator is shown. The ground control station software is in cooperation with flight simulator, displaying various aircraft flight parameters. The software is programmed in C++ language and utilizes the windows forms for implementing graphical content. One of the main aims of the design of the application was to simplify the interface, simultaneously maintaining the functionality and the eligibility. A mission can be planned and monitored using the implemented map control supported by waypoint list.

  16. Motion Factors in Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Sol; Gage, Howard

    The effect of different simulator motion conditions on pilot performance was investigated, and the cuing function of simulator motion was explored. Subjects were required to perform a simulated air-to-air gunnery task under four conditions of motion. While treatment effects did not meet the predetermined level of statistical significance,…

  17. Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smode, Alfred F.

    A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…

  18. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  19. 48 CFR 237.102-71 - Limitation on service contracts for military flight simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts for military flight simulators. 237.102-71 Section 237.102-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... flight simulators. (a) Definitions. As used in this subsection— (1) Military flight simulator means any... military department or defense agency acquiring a military flight simulator, the contracting officer shall...

  20. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-bin GU; Ming LU; Jian-qing LIU; Qin-xing DONG; Zhen-xiong WANG; Jiang-hai CHEN

    2014-01-01

    The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane’s method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  1. A methodology for the assessment of manned flight simulator fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Malsbury, Terry N.

    1989-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical methodology for assessing the fidelity of manned flight simulators for specific vehicles and tasks is offered. The methodology is based upon an application of a structural model of the human pilot, including motion cue effects. In particular, predicted pilot/vehicle dynamic characteristics are obtained with and without simulator limitations. A procedure for selecting model parameters can be implemented, given a probable pilot control strategy. In analyzing a pair of piloting tasks for which flight and simulation data are available, the methodology correctly predicted the existence of simulator fidelity problems. The methodology permitted the analytical evaluation of a change in simulator characteristics and indicated that a major source of the fidelity problems was a visual time delay in the simulation.

  2. Human Factors Topics in Flight Simulation: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    preliminary analysis). NTDC 20-RM-I -1 M, September 1958. TRAINING. RUOCCO, J.N., VITALE, P.A. and BENFARI, R.C. Kinetic cueing in simulated carrier...treatment of simulation along general lines. Use is made in this connection of the linearised control theory. Some typical examples of fixed-base, kinetic and...revision in a cinematic method of simulating low altitude flight. Cockpit instruments were synchronised with a motion picture scene. The throttle

  3. Spatial Disorientation Training in the Rotor Wing Flight Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Bushby, Alaistair; Leland, Richard A

    This study is intended to identify efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of spatial disorientation (SD) training in flight simulators for rotor wing pilots. Queries of a UK Ministry of Defense research database and Pub Med were undertaken using the search terms 'spatial disorientation,' 'rotor wing,' and 'flight simulator.' Efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of SD simulation for rotor wing pilots were also ascertained through discussion with subject matter experts and industrial partners. Expert opinions were solicited at the aeromedical physiologist, aeromedical psychologist, instructor pilot, aeromedical examiner, and corporate executive levels. Peer review literature search yielded 129 articles, with 5 relevant to the use of flight simulators for the spatial disorientation training of rotor wing pilots. Efficacy of such training was measured subjectively and objectively. A preponderance of anecdotal reports endorse the benefits of rotor wing simulator SD training, with a small trial substantiating performance improvement. Advancing technologies enable novel training applications. The mobile nature of flight students and concurrent anticollision technologies can make long-range assessment of SD training efficacy challenging. Costs of advanced technologies could limit the extent to which the most advanced simulators can be employed across the rotor wing community. Evidence suggests the excellent training value of rotor wing simulators for SD training. Objective data from further research, particularly with regards to evolving technologies, may justify further usage of advanced simulator platforms for SD training and research. Powell-Dunford N, Bushby A, Leland RA. Spatial disorientation training in the rotor wing flight simulator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(10):890-893.

  4. Hypoxia and flight performance of military instructor pilots in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L; Acromite, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Military aircrew and other operational personnel frequently perform their duties at altitudes posing a significant hypoxia risk, often with limited access to supplemental oxygen. Despite the significant risk hypoxia poses, there are few studies relating it to primary flight performance, which is the purpose of the present study. Objective, quantitative measures of aircraft control were collected from 14 experienced, active duty instructor pilot volunteers as they breathed an air/nitrogen mix that provided an oxygen partial pressure equivalent to the atmosphere at 18,000 ft (5486.4 m) above mean sea level. The flight task required holding a constant airspeed, altitude, and heading at an airspeed significantly slower than the aircraft's minimum drag speed. The simulated aircraft's inherent instability at the target speed challenged the pilot to maintain constant control of the aircraft in order to minimize deviations from the assigned flight parameters. Each pilot's flight performance was evaluated by measuring all deviations from assigned target values. Hypoxia degraded the pilot's precision of altitude and airspeed control by 53%, a statistically significant decrease in flight performance. The effect on heading control effects was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of performance differences when breathing room air pre- and post-hypoxia. Moderate levels of hypoxia degraded the ability of military instructor pilots to perform a precision slow flight task. This is one of a small number of studies to quantify an effect of hypoxia on primary flight performance.

  5. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  6. Simulation of flight-type engine fan noise in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the measurement of aircraft engine fan noise is the difficulty of simulating, in a ground-based facility, the noise that occurs during flight. Flight-type noise as contrasted to the usual ground-static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in both (1) the time unsteadiness of tone noise and (2) the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cut-off of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight-type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. The results imply that the excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities was substantially reduced with tunnel flow. The anechoic wind tunnel appears to be a useful facility for applied research on aircraft engine fan noise under conditions of simulated flight.

  7. Piloted Flight Simulator Developed for Icing Effects Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to expand pilot training methods to avoid icing-related accidents, the NASA Glenn Research Center and Bihrle Applied Research Inc. have developed the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEFTD simulates the flight characteristics of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft in a no-ice baseline and in two ice configurations simulating ice-protection-system failures. Key features of the training device are the force feedback in the yoke, the instrument panel and out-the-window graphics, the instructor s workstation, and the portability of the unit.

  8. Comparison of Flight Simulators Based on Human Motion Perception Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente Pais, Ana R.; Correia Gracio, Bruno J.; Kelly, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    In flight simulation, motion filters are used to transform aircraft motion into simulator motion. When looking for the best match between visual and inertial amplitude in a simulator, researchers have found that there is a range of inertial amplitudes, rather than a single inertial value, that is perceived by subjects as optimal. This zone, hereafter referred to as the optimal zone, seems to correlate to the perceptual coherence zones measured in flight simulators. However, no studies were found in which these two zones were compared. This study investigates the relation between the optimal and the coherence zone measurements within and between different simulators. Results show that for the sway axis, the optimal zone lies within the lower part of the coherence zone. In addition, it was found that, whereas the width of the coherence zone depends on the visual amplitude and frequency, the width of the optimal zone remains constant.

  9. Aeroelastic-Acoustics Simulation of Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, kajal K.; Choi, S.; Ibrahim, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the details of a numerical finite element (FE) based analysis procedure and a resulting code for the simulation of the acoustics phenomenon arising from aeroelastic interactions. Both CFD and structural simulations are based on FE discretization employing unstructured grids. The sound pressure level (SPL) on structural surfaces is calculated from the root mean square (RMS) of the unsteady pressure and the acoustic wave frequencies are computed from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the unsteady pressure distribution as a function of time. The resulting tool proves to be unique as it is designed to analyze complex practical problems, involving large scale computations, in a routine fashion.

  10. Wind Tunnel Tests Conducted to Develop an Icing Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program goals to reduce aviation accidents due to icing, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading a flight simulator development activity to improve pilot training for the adverse flying characteristics due to icing. Developing flight simulators that incorporate the aerodynamic effects of icing will provide a critical element in pilot training programs by giving pilots a pre-exposure of icing-related hazards, such as ice-contaminated roll upset or tailplane stall. Integrating these effects into training flight simulators will provide an accurate representation of scenarios to develop pilot skills in unusual attitudes and loss-of-control events that may result from airframe icing. In order to achieve a high level of fidelity in the flight simulation, a series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 6.5-percent-scale Twin Otter aircraft model. These wind tunnel tests were conducted at the Wichita State University 7- by 10-ft wind tunnel and Bihrle Applied Research's Large Amplitude Multiple Purpose Facility in Neuburg, Germany. The Twin Otter model was tested without ice (baseline), and with two ice configurations: 1) Ice on the horizontal tail only; 2) Ice on the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. These wind tunnel tests resulted in data bases of aerodynamic forces and moments as functions of angle of attack; sideslip; control surface deflections; forced oscillations in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes; and various rotational speeds. A limited amount of wing and tail surface pressure data were also measured for comparison with data taken at Wichita State and with flight data. The data bases from these tests will be the foundation for a PC-based Icing Flight Simulator to be delivered to Glenn in fiscal year 2001.

  11. Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight...

  12. Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight dynamics...

  13. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  14. Flying Boresight for Advanced Testing and Calibration of Tracking Antennas and Flight Path Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, D.

    2015-09-01

    The application of ground-based boresight sources for calibration and testing of tracking antennas usually entails various difficulties, mostly due to unwanted ground effects. To avoid this problem, DLR MORABA developed a small, lightweight, frequency-adjustable S-band boresight source, mounted on a small remote-controlled multirotor aircraft. Highly accurate GPS-supported, position and altitude control functions allow both, very steady positioning of the aircraft in mid-air, and precise waypoint-based, semi-autonomous flights. In contrast to fixed near-ground boresight sources this flying setup enables to avoid obstructions in the Fresnel zone between source and antenna. Further, it minimizes ground reflections and other multipath effects which can affect antenna calibration. In addition, the large operating range of a flying boresight simplifies measurements in the far field of the antenna and permits undisturbed antenna pattern tests. A unique application is the realistic simulation of sophisticated flight paths, including overhead tracking and demanding trajectories of fast objects such as sounding rockets. Likewise, dynamic tracking tests are feasible which provide crucial information about the antenna pedestal performance — particularly at high elevations — and reveal weaknesses in the autotrack control loop of tracking antenna systems. During acceptance tests of MORABA's new tracking antennas, a manned aircraft was never used, since the Flying Boresight surpassed all expectations regarding usability, efficiency, and precision. Hence, it became an integral part of MORABA's standard antenna setup and calibration procedures.

  15. Investigation of the flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimovich, M.; Rosen, A.; Rand, O.; Mansur, M. H.; Tischler, M. B.

    1992-01-01

    The flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter is investigated by comparing the results of two different numerical models with flight test data for a hovering AH-64 Apache. The two models are the U.S. Army BEMAP and the Technion model. These nonlinear models are linearized by applying a numerical linearization procedure. The results of the linear models are compared with identification results in terms of eigenvalues, stability and control derivatives, and frequency responses. Detailed time histories of the responses of the complete nonlinear models, as a result of various pilots' inputs, are compared with flight test results. In addition the sensitivity of the models to various effects are also investigated. The results are discussed and problematic aspects of the simulation are identified.

  16. Vestibular models for design and evaluation of flight simulator motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, S. R.; Sullivan, R. B.; Young, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of spatial orientation models in the design and evaluation of control systems for motion-base flight simulators is investigated experimentally. The development of a high-fidelity motion drive controller using an optimal control approach based on human vestibular models is described. The formulation and implementation of the optimal washout system are discussed. The effectiveness of the motion washout system was evaluated by studying the response of six motion washout systems to the NASA/AMES Vertical Motion Simulator for a single dash-quick-stop maneuver. The effects of the motion washout system on pilot performance and simulator acceptability are examined. The data reveal that human spatial orientation models are useful for the design and evaluation of flight simulator motion fidelity.

  17. Electrogastrographic and autonomic responses during oculovestibular recoupling in flight simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevette, Michael J; Pradhan, Gaurav N; Cocco, Daniela; Crowell, Michael D; Galea, Anna M; Bartlett, Jennifer; Stepanek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simulator sickness causes vestibulo-autonomic responses that increase sympathetic activity and decrease parasympathetic activity. The purpose of the study was to quantify these responses through electrogastrography and cardiac interbeat intervals during flight simulation. There were 29 subjects that were randomly assigned to 2 parallel arms: (1) oculovestibular recoupling, where galvanic vestibular stimulation was synchronous with the visual field; and (2) control. Electrogastrography and interbeat interval data were collected during baseline, simulation, and post-simulation periods. A simulator sickness questionnaire was administered. Statistically significant differences were observed in percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency of electrogastrography in normogastric and bradygastric domains between the oculovestibular recoupling and control groups. Normogastria was dominant during simulation in the oculovestibular recoupling group. In the control group, the percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency decreased by 22% in normogastria and increased by 20% in bradygastria. The percentage change of the dominant power instability coefficient from baseline to simulation was 26% in the oculovestibular recoupling group vs. 108% in the control group. The power of high-frequency components for interbeat intervals did not change significantly in the oculovestibular recoupling group and was decreased during simulation in the control group. Electrogastrography and interbeat intervals are sensitive indices of autonomic changes in subjects undergoing flight simulation. These data demonstrate the potential of oculovestibular recoupling to stabilize gastric activity and cardiac autonomic changes altered during simulator and motion sickness.

  18. Low-Level Flight Simulation: Vertical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    The ASPT visual s’ester Soiftware autoematic’ally droips the’m freim the scene- at altitudes above 2000 fe’et AGI.) In an attempt to make the cue’s...8217 vertical (V) field of view. The ASPT has a - 15’ view o er the nose. - 370 over the left side, and - 15’ over the right side. (The aircraft field of...simulation, the ASPT /F-16 provided several instructional features that were used in this study. A video display of the HUD (Figures 1 and 21 and forward

  19. Transferrable Learning of Multisensory Cues in Flight Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Flight simulators which provide visual, auditory, and kinematic (physical motion cues are increasingly used for pilot training. We have previously shown that kinematic cues, but not auditory cues, representing aircraft motion improve target tracking performance for novice ‘pilots’ in a simulated flying task (Meyer et al IMRF 2010. Here we explore the effect of learning on task performance. Our subjects were first tested on a target tracking task in a helicopter flight simulation. They were then trained in a simulator-simulator, which provided full audio, simplified visuals, but not kinematic signals to test whether learning of auditory cues is possible. After training we evaluated flight performance in the full simulator again. We show that after 2 hours training auditory cues are used by our participants as efficiently as kinematic cues to improve target tracking performance. The performance improvement relative to a condition where no audio signals are presented is robust if the sound environment used during training is replaced by a very different audio signal that is modulated in amplitude and pitch in the same way as the training signal. This shows that training is not signal specific but that our participants learn to extract transferrable information on sound pitch and amplitude to improve their flying performance.

  20. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  1. Simulator sickness in a helicopter flight training school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Catherine M; Bass, Julie M; Johnson, David M; Kelley, Amanda M; Martin, Christopher R; Wildzunas, Robert M

    2009-06-01

    Simulator sickness (SS) is a common problem during flight training and can affect both instructor pilots (IP) and student pilots (SP). This study was conducted in response to complaints about a high incidence of SS associated with use of new simulators for rotary-wing aircraft. The problem was evaluated using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) to collect data on 73 IP and 129 SP who used the new simulators. Based on analysis of these data, operator comments, and a search of the literature, we recommended limiting simulator flights to 2 h, removing unusual or unnatural maneuvers, turning off the sidescreens to reduce the field-of-view, avoiding use of improperly calibrated simulators until repaired, and stressing proper rest and health discipline among the pilots. The success of these measures was evaluated 1 yr later by collecting SSQ data on 25 IP and 50 SP. There was a main effect of time, in that after the recommendations were implemented, there was a significant reduction in nausea, oculomotor, and total SSQ scores from the pre-study to the post-study. There was also a main effect of experience, as IP reported significantly greater SS than SP for the same scores. Implementation of the recommendations reduced SS in the new simulators at the cost of limiting session duration and shutting down some simulator features. Although the optimal solution to the SS problem lies in addressing SS during a simulator's design stage, these recommendations can be used as interim solutions to reduce SS.

  2. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Martin S; Benowitz, Neal L; Taylor, Joy L; Friedman, Leah; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-07-01

    Most airlines enforce no-smoking policies, potentially causing flight performance decrements in pilots who are smokers. We tested the hypotheses that nicotine withdrawal affects aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that chewing nicotine gum leads to significant relief of these withdrawal effects. There were 29 pilots, regular smokers, who were tested in a Frasca 141 flight simulator on two 13-h test days, each including three 75-min flights (0 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr) in a randomized, controlled trial. On the first day (baseline), all pilots smoked one cigarette per hour. On the second day, pilots were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) nicotine cigarettes; (2) nicotine gum; (3) placebo gum; (4) no cigarettes/no gum. Flight Summary Scores (FSS) were compared between groups with repeated measures ANOVAs. No statistically significant differences in overall simulator flight performance were revealed between pilots who smoked cigarettes and pilots who were not allowed to smoke cigarettes or chew nicotine gum, but there was a trend for pilots who were not allowed to smoke to perform worse. However, pilots who chewed placebo gum performed significantly worse during the 6-h (FSS = -0.03) as well as during the 12-h flight (FSS = -0.08) than pilots who chewed nicotine gum (FSS = 0.15 / 0.30, respectively). Results suggest that nicotine withdrawal effects can impair aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that during smoking abstinence chewing one stick of 4-mg nicotine gum per hour may lead to significantly better overall flight performance compared to chewing placebo gum.

  3. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers.

  4. Problems Of The Visual Display In Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1985-07-01

    The visual display presents a major source of critical information to the pilot in a flight training simulator. At the same time, due to underspecification or underdesign of the visual display system, the information presented to the pilot is grossly incomplete. If the pilot saw in the real aircraft as well as he sees in the simulator, he would not be allowed to fly (or even drive a car): he would be legally blind! These problems in the visual display are the result of misapplication or misunderstanding of the pilots visual perceptions and the limitations of resolution and scene detail of the visual display. This paper presents a summary of the principles of limiting resolution and the definition of scene detail, as well as a discussion of other visual parameters; and the importance of these factors in obtaining satisfactory standards in initial and continuation training in a flight simulator.

  5. FLIGHT SIMULATORS – FROM ELECTROMECHANICAL ANALOGUE COMPUTERS TO MODERN LABORATORY OF FLYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zazula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents discussion about flight simulators starting from training simulators, applied in military and civil training tasks, up to the domestic simulators. Article describes history of development of flight simulation equipment. At the end of this paper new unit of Silesian University of Technology – Virtual Flight Laboratory – is presented.

  6. A Fast Method for Embattling Optimization of Ground-Based Radar Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.

    A growing number of space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flight. For the safety of in-orbit spacecraft, a lot of observation facilities are needed to catalog space objects, especially in low earth orbit. Surveillance of Low earth orbit objects are mainly rely on ground-based radar, due to the ability limitation of exist radar facilities, a large number of ground-based radar need to build in the next few years in order to meet the current space surveillance demands. How to optimize the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network is a problem to need to be solved. The traditional method for embattling optimization of ground-based radar surveillance network is mainly through to the detection simulation of all possible stations with cataloged data, and makes a comprehensive comparative analysis of various simulation results with the combinational method, and then selects an optimal result as station layout scheme. This method is time consuming for single simulation and high computational complexity for the combinational analysis, when the number of stations increases, the complexity of optimization problem will be increased exponentially, and cannot be solved with traditional method. There is no better way to solve this problem till now. In this paper, target detection procedure was simplified. Firstly, the space coverage of ground-based radar was simplified, a space coverage projection model of radar facilities in different orbit altitudes was built; then a simplified objects cross the radar coverage model was established according to the characteristics of space objects orbit motion; after two steps simplification, the computational complexity of the target detection was greatly simplified, and simulation results shown the correctness of the simplified results. In addition, the detection areas of ground-based radar network can be easily computed with the

  7. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability.

  8. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Methods Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. Results More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. Conclusions These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults’ skilled cognitive performances. PMID:17325270

  9. Age and expertise effects in aviation decision making and flight control in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-05-01

    Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19-79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects' flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots' mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults' real world decision making and performance.

  10. Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Int’l Expeditionary Educ & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical ...International Expeditionary Education & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical Skills Institute/C-STARS Cincinnati 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0008 Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight Thomas C. Blakeman

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Flight Simulator Training Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    some tasks. These results are inconsistent with findings from a recenu review of the flight simulation evaluation literature by Pfeiffer and Horsy ...1987), There are several obvious differences between the Pfeiffer and Horsy (1987) review and this review that help to explain theme contradictory...findings. First, Pfieffer and Horsy used as their research effect size metric, a transfer effectiveness ratio (see also Hays & Singer, 1989, pp. 133-134

  12. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts to Prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents, where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground. The major hypothesis for a simulation experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center was that a Primary Flight Display (PFD) with synthetic terrain will improve pilots ability to detect and avoid potential CFITs compared to conventional instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Each pilot flew twenty-two approach departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into terrain. All pilots with a synthetic vision system (SVS) PFD (twelve of sixteen pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. The four pilots who flew the anomaly with the conventional baseline PFD configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event. Additionally, all the SVS display concepts enhanced the pilot s situational awareness, decreased workload and improved flight technical error (FTE) compared to the baseline configuration.

  13. 14 CFR 60.35 - Specific full flight simulator compliance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific full flight simulator compliance... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.35 Specific full flight simulator compliance requirements. (a) No device will be eligible for...

  14. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  15. Aviation instruction through flight simulation and related learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mavis Frankel

    The use of simulation in General Aviation flight training is an emergent practice and promises to increase substantially. Training through simulation is not addressed in the primary publication used to train flight instructors, however. In effect, training devices have been added into the curriculum by those using the technology as a cross between flight and ground instruction. The significance of how one learns in a training device is the potential effect on both in-flight learning and normal practices. A review of the literature, document review, interviews with flight instructors and students, and observations of instructional sessions in training devices, provided data to answer the prime research question: (a) What type(s) of learning best explain how learners are socialized to aviation through the use of simulation technology? One segment of the general aviation population, college and university flight programs, was sampled. Four types of learning provided a conceptual framework: reception; autonomous; guided inquiry; and social cognitive operationalized as cognitive apprenticeship. A central dilemma was identified from the data collected. This dilemma is the extent to which aviation and aviation instruction in training devices is perceived by instructors as being either safe or risky. Two sub-dilemmas of the central dilemma are also identified: (1) whether the perception of aviation on the part of instructors is one of control or autonomy and (2) whether aviators use and should be taught routines or innovation;. Three ways of viewing the aviation environment were identified from the combination of these sub-dilemmas by instructors: (1) aviation as safe; (2) aviation as somewhat safe; and (3) aviation as risky. Resolution of the fundamental dilemma results in an emergent view of aviation as risky and the implications of this view are discussed. Social cognitive learning operationalized as cognitive apprenticeship as an appropriate type of learning for high

  16. Flight Controllability Limits and Related Human Transfer Functions as Determined from Simulator and Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Day, Richard E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study and flight tests were performed to determine the levels of static stability and damping necessary to enable a pilot to control the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics of a vehicle for short periods of time. Although a basic set of aerodynamic characteristics was used, the study was conducted so that the results would be applicable to a wide range of flight conditions and configurations. Novel piloting techniques were found which enabled the pilot to control the vehicle at conditions that were otherwise uncontrollable. The influence of several critical factors in altering the controllability limits was also investigated. Several human transfer functions were used which gave fairly good representations of the controllability limits determined experimentally for the short-period longitudinal, directional, and lateral modes. A transfer function with approximately the same gain and phase angle as the pilot at the controlling frequencies along the controllability limits was also derived.

  17. Correlating Computed and Flight Instructor Assessments of Straight-In Landing Approaches by Novice Pilots on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Ali, Syed Firasat

    2005-01-01

    The rising cost of flight training and the low cost of powerful computers have resulted in increasing use of PC-based flight simulators. This has prompted FAA standards regulating such use and allowing aspects of training on simulators meeting these standards to be substituted for flight time. However, the FAA regulations require an authorized flight instructor as part of the training environment. Thus, while costs associated with flight time have been reduced, the cost associated with the need for a flight instructor still remains. The obvious area of research, therefore, has been to develop intelligent simulators. However, the two main challenges of such attempts have been training strategies and assessment. The research reported in this paper was conducted to evaluate various performance metrics of a straight-in landing approach by 33 novice pilots flying a light single engine aircraft simulation. These metrics were compared to assessments of these flights by two flight instructors to establish a correlation between the two techniques in an attempt to determine a composite performance metric for this flight maneuver.

  18. Time-dependent radiation dose simulations during interplanetary space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Li, Ju

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation is one of the main concerns in planning long-term interplanetary human space missions. There are two main types of hazardous radiation - Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Their intensities and evolution depend on the solar activity. GCR activity is most enhanced during solar minimum, while the most intense SEPs usually occur during the solar maximum. SEPs are better shielded with thick shields, while GCR dose is less behind think shields. Time and thickness dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when radiation intensity and dose of SEP and GCR would be minimized. In this study we combine state-of-the-art space environment models with GEANT4 simulations to determine the optimal shielding, geometry of the spacecraft, and launch time with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. The radiation environment was described by the time-dependent GCR model, and the SEP spectra that were measured during the period from 1990 to 2010. We included gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and 27 fully ionized elements from hydrogen to nickel. We calculated the astronaut's radiation doses during interplanetary flights using the Monte-Carlo code that accounts for the primary and the secondary radiation. We also performed sensitivity simulations for the assumed spacecraft size and thickness to find an optimal shielding. In conclusion, we present the dependences of the radiation dose as a function of launch date from 1990 to 2010, for flight durations of up to 3 years.

  19. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (pmetabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing oxidation and metabolism stresses, but space radiation was a kind of direct effect leading to macromolecule (DNA and protein) damage and signal pathway disorders. This functional proteomic analysis work might provide a new evaluation method for further on-ground simulated HZE radiation experiments.

  20. Multi-Agent Flight Simulation with Robust Situation Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A robust situation generation architecture has been developed that generates multi-agent situations for human subjects. An implementation of this architecture was developed to support flight simulation tests of air transport cockpit systems. This system maneuvers pseudo-aircraft relative to the human subject's aircraft, generating specific situations for the subject to respond to. These pseudo-aircraft maneuver within reasonable performance constraints, interact in a realistic manner, and make pre-recorded voice radio communications. Use of this system minimizes the need for human experimenters to control the pseudo-agents and provides consistent interactions between the subject and the pseudo-agents. The achieved robustness of this system to typical variations in the subject's flight path was explored. It was found to successfully generate specific situations within the performance limitations of the subject-aircraft, pseudo-aircraft, and the script used.

  1. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  2. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  3. Control of radiation and evaporation on temperature variability in a WRF regional climate simulation: comparison with colocated long term ground based observations near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, S.; Chiriaco, M.; Drobinski, P.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand how large-scale processes, cloud cover and surface fluxes affect the temperature variability over the SIRTA site, near Paris, and in a regional climate simulation performed in the frame of HyMeX/Med-CORDEX programs. This site is located in a climatic transitional area where models usually show strong dispersions despite the significant influence of large scale on interannual variability due to its western location. At seasonal time scale, the temperature is mainly controlled by surface fluxes. In the model, the transition from radiation to soil moisture limited regime occurs earlier than in observations leading to an overestimate of summertime temperature. An overestimate of shortwave radiation (SW), consistent with a lack of low clouds, enhances the soil dryness. A simulation with a wet soil is used to better analyse the relationship between dry soil and clouds but while the wetter soil leads to colder temperature, the cloud cover during daytime is not increased due to the atmospheric stability. At shorter time scales, the control of surface radiation becomes higher. In the simulation, higher temperatures are associated with higher SW. A wet soil mitigates the effect of radiation due to modulation by evaporation. In observations, the variability of clouds and their effect on SW is stronger leading to a nearly constant mean SW when sorted by temperature quantile but a stronger impact of cloud cover on day-to-day temperature variability. Impact of cloud albedo effect on precipitation is also compared.

  4. Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

  5. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  6. Heart rate and performance during combat missions in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Taija M M; Koskelo, Jukka P; Laitinen, Tomi; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-04-01

    The psychological workload of flying has been shown to increase heart rate (HR) during flight simulator operation. The association between HR changes and flight performance remains unclear. There were 15 pilots who performed a combat flight mission in a Weapons Tactics Trainer simulator of an F-18 Hornet. An electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded, and individual incremental heart rates (deltaHR) from the HR during rest were calculated for each flight phase and used in statistical analyses. The combat flight period was divided into 13 phases, which were evaluated on a scale of 1 to 5 by the flight instructor. HR increased during interceptions (from a mean resting level of 79.0 to mean value of 96.7 bpm in one of the interception flight phases) and decreased during the return to base and slightly increased during the ILS approach and landing. DeltaHR appeared to be similar among experienced and less experienced pilots. DeltaHR responses during the flight phases did not correlate with simulator flight performance scores. Overall simulator flight performance correlated statistically significantly (r = 0.50) with the F-18 Hornet flight experience. HR reflected the amount of cognitive load during the simulated flight. Hence, HR analysis can be used in the evaluation of the psychological workload of military simulator flight phases. However, more detailed flight performance evaluation methods are needed for this kind of complex flight simulation to replace the traditional but rough interval scales. Use of a visual analog scale by the flight instructors is suggested for simulator flight performance evaluation.

  7. Online Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions in the NASA GEOS-4 Model and Comparisons to Satellite and Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented a module for tropospheric aerosols (GO CART) online in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 model and simulated global aerosol distributions for the period 2000-2006. The new online system offers several advantages over the previous offline version, providing a platform for aerosol data assimilation, aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction studies, and short-range chemical weather forecasting and climate prediction. We introduce as well a methodology for sampling model output consistently with satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals to facilitate model-satellite comparison. Our results are similar to the offline GOCART model and to the models participating in the AeroCom intercomparison. The simulated AOT has similar seasonal and regional variability and magnitude to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations. The model AOT and Angstrom parameter are consistently low relative to AERONET in biomass-burning-dominated regions, where emissions appear to be underestimated, consistent with the results of the offline GOCART model. In contrast, the model AOT is biased high in sulfate-dominated regions of North America and Europe. Our model-satellite comparison methodology shows that diurnal variability in aerosol loading is unimportant compared to sampling the model where the satellite has cloud-free observations, particularly in sulfate-dominated regions. Simulated sea salt burden and optical thickness are high by a factor of 2-3 relative to other models, and agreement between model and satellite over-ocean AOT is improved by reducing the model sea salt burden by a factor of 2. The best agreement in both AOT magnitude and variability occurs immediately downwind of the Saharan dust plume.

  8. Study of simulations using ECHAM-HAM and CAM5-MAM3 using ground-based and satellite data for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, D. S., Sr.; Nobre, P. N.; Nilo, S.; Correa, S. M.; Pendharkar, J.; Capistrano, V.; Dos Santos, A. F.; Kubota, P. Y.; Silva, J.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil is developing its own atmosphere-ocean-biosphere-cryosphere Global Circulation Model - the Brazilian Earth System Model (BESM). BESM simulations demonstrate potential results on global climate change. Brazilian climate modeling community can significantly contribute to the international efforts on global climate change research. Currently, the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies of the National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE), Brazil is implementing and testing the aerosol component in BESM. A priori knowledge of the overall performance of the existing state-of-the-art aerosol models is necessary for the implementation. This work analyzes the performance of the aerosol component, their distribution over Brazil in particular, of two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCM), the European Centre's Model - Hamburg Aerosol Model (ECHAM-HAM) and the Community Atmosphere Model - Modal Aerosol Model (CAM5-MAM3) against the observations. We evaluated the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from both the simulations and Angström exponent from ECHAM-HAM. The results are compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground station measurements, and satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study was done for four cities in Brazil - São Paulo, Cuiabá, Rio Branco, and Alta Floresta during 2001-2006. Both models underestimate AOD for all the four cities. However, CAM5-MAM3 has greater negative bias in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil where biomass burning is more frequent during the dry season. Better performance is seen during January-June and November-December, but not consistent during July to October (i.e., the dry season), when fire occurrences are more frequent. CAM5-MAM3 model has small negative bias for this period. The Angström parameter is reasonably reproduced by ECHAM-HAM, except for Cuiabá, indicating that the particle size distribution is correctly represented in most

  9. Simulated Radiative Transfer DOAS - A new method for improving volcanic SO2 emissions retrievals from ground-based UV-spectroscopic measurements of scattered solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, C.; Deutschmann, T.; Vogel, L.; Bobrowski, N.; Hoermann, C.; Werner, C. A.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2011-12-01

    Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a standard tool for measuring SO2 at volcanoes. More recently, ultra-violet (UV) cameras have also been applied to obtain 2D images of SO2-bearing plumes. Both techniques can be used to derive SO2 emission rates by measuring SO2 column densities, integrating these along the plume cross-section, and multiplying by the wind speed. Recent measurements and model studies have revealed that the dominating source of uncertainty in these techniques often originates from an inaccurate assessment of radiative transfer through the volcanic plume. The typical assumption that all detected radiation is scattered behind the volcanic plume and takes a straight path from there to the instrument is often incorrect. We recently showed that the straight path assumption can lead to column density errors of 50% or more in cases where plumes with high SO2 and aerosol concentrations are measured from several kilometers distance, or where the background atmosphere contains a large amount of scattering aerosols. Both under- and overestimation are possible depending on the atmospheric conditions and geometry during spectral acquisition. Simulated Radiative Transfer (SRT) DOAS is a new evaluation scheme that combines radiative transfer modeling with spectral analysis of passive DOAS measurements in the UV region to derive more accurate SO2 column densities than conventional DOAS retrievals, which in turn leads to considerably more accurate emission rates. A three-dimensional backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model is used to simulate realistic light paths in and around the volcanic plume containing variable amounts of SO2 and aerosols. An inversion algorithm is then applied to derive the true SO2 column density. For fast processing of large datasets, a linearized algorithm based on lookup tables was developed and tested on a number of example datasets. In some cases, the information content of the spectral data is

  10. Using flight simulators aboard ships: human side effects of an optimal scenario with smooth seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Eric R; Lawson, Ben

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Navy is considering placing flight simulators aboard ships. It is known that certain types of flight simulators can elicit motion adaptation syndrome (MAS), and also that certain types of ship motion can cause MAS. The goal of this study was to determine if using a flight simulator during ship motion would cause MAS, even when the simulator stimulus and the ship motion were both very mild. All participants in this study completed three conditions. Condition 1 (Sim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator situated on land. Condition 2 (Ship) involved riding aboard a U.S. Navy Yard Patrol boat. Condition 3 (ShipSim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator while riding aboard a Yard Patrol boat. Before and after each condition, participants' balance and dynamic visual acuity were assessed. After each condition, participants filled out the Nausea Profile and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Following exposure to a flight simulator aboard a ship, participants reported negligible symptoms of nausea and simulator sickness. However, participants exhibited a decrease in dynamic visual acuity after exposure to the flight simulator aboard ship (T[25] = 3.61, p flight simulators can be used aboard ship. As a minimal safety precaution, these simulators should be used according to current safety practices for land-based simulators. Optimally, these simulators should be designed to minimize MAS, located near the ship's center of rotation and used when ship motion is not provocative.

  11. Future Performance of Ground-Based and Airborne Water-Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar. II. Simulations of the Precision of a Near-Infrared, High-Power System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V; Walther, C

    2001-10-20

    Taking into account Poisson, background, amplifier, and speckle noise, we can simulate the precision of water-vapor measurements by using a 10-W average-power differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. This system is currently under development at Hohenheim University, Germany, and at the American National Center for Atmospheric Research. For operation in the 940-nm region, a large set of measurement situations is described, including configurations that are considered for the first time to the authors' knowledge. They include ultrahigh-resolution measurements in the surface layer (resolutions, 1.5 m and 0.1 s) and vertically pointing measurements (resolutions, 30 m and 1 s) from the ground to 2 km in the atmospheric boundary layer. Even during daytime, the DIAL system will have a measurement range from the ground to the upper troposphere (300 m, 10 min) that can be extended from a mountain site to the lower stratosphere. From the ground, for the first time of which the authors are aware, three-dimensional fields of water vapor in the boundary layer can be investigated within a range of the order of 15 km and with an averaging time of 10 min. From an aircraft, measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer (60 m, 1 s) can be performed from a height of 4 km to the ground. At higher altitudes, up to 18 km, water-vapor profiles can still be obtained from aircraft height level to the ground. When it is being flown either in the free troposphere or in the stratosphere, the system will measure horizontal water-vapor profiles up to 12 km. We are not aware of another remote-sensing technique that provides, simultaneously, such high resolution and accuracy.

  12. Cambridge Rocketry Simulator – A Stochastic Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Rocket Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Eerland

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Rocketry Simulator can be used to simulate the flight of unguided rockets for both design and operational applications. The software consists of three parts: The first part is a GUI that enables the user to design a rocket. The second part is a verified and peer-reviewed physics model that simulates the rocket flight. This includes a Monte Carlo wrapper to model the uncertainty in the rocket’s dynamics and the atmospheric conditions. The third part generates visualizations of the resulting trajectories, including nominal performance and uncertainty analysis, e.g. a splash-down region with confidence bounds. The project is available on SourceForge, and is written in Java (GUI, C++ (simulation core, and Python (visualization. While all parts can be executed from the GUI, the three components share information via XML, accommodating modifications, and re-use of individual components.

  13. MODELING OF THE FLIGHT CREW’S TRAINING PROCESSES ON SIMULATORS IN THE INTERESTS OF GUARANTEED Flight SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Sokhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the problem how to control flight crew training on simulators to ensure the fulfillment requirements for the quality of their activity in training non-standard situations which can happen in flight. It is shown that the existing methodology of training pilots on simulators does not ensure the quality of their activity in those non-standard situations. The paper puts forward an adaptive control method (АМC-method of the simulator training of flight crews using mathematical modeling the states of their operator competences. The main advantage of the new method is the possibility to obtain statistical quality indicators of flight crew activity in non-standard situations and, thereby, to control the fulfillment of prescribed requirements for safety and reliability of space missions.

  14. Pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance during flight simulation exposed to a 3810-m hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Corey A; Weber, Raymond; Sanders, Gabriel J; Seo, Yongsuk; Kean, David; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Cain, Mark; LaScola, Phillip; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is a physiological state defined as a reduction in the distribution of oxygen to the tissues of the body. It has been considered a major factor in aviation safety worldwide because of its potential for pilot disorientation. Pilots are able to operate aircrafts up to 3810 m without the use of supplemental oxygen and may exhibit symptoms associated with hypoxia. To determine the effects of 3810 m on physiology, cognition and performance in pilots during a flight simulation. Ten healthy male pilots engaged in a counterbalanced experimental protocol comparing a 0-m normoxic condition (NORM) with a 3810-m hypoxic condition (HYP) on pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) time by condition interaction for physiological and cognitive alterations during HYP. A paired-samples t test demonstrated no differences in pilot performance (p ≥ 0.05) between conditions. Pilots exhibited physiological and cognitive impairments; however, pilot performance was not affected by HYP.

  15. Pilot Control Behavior Discrepancies Between Real and Simulated Flight Caused by Limited Motion Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, P.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Flight simulators provide a flexible, efficient, and safe environment for research and training at much lower costs than real flight. The ultimate validity of any simulation would be achieved when – for a particular task – human cognitive and psychomotor behavior in the simulator corresponds precise

  16. Pilot Control Behavior Discrepancies Between Real and Simulated Flight Caused by Limited Motion Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, P.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Flight simulators provide a flexible, efficient, and safe environment for research and training at much lower costs than real flight. The ultimate validity of any simulation would be achieved when – for a particular task – human cognitive and psychomotor behavior in the simulator corresponds

  17. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USAARL Report No. 2016-07 Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test By...pilot evaluation of The Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) during simulated flight . The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve...summarizes recent findings obtained during a simulated helicopter flight employing TSAS. The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve a

  18. Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible Tiltrotor Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT CR-RDMR-AF-14-01 FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT...September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible...18 298-102 i/ii (Blank) FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT by Ondrej Juhasz Dissertation

  19. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  20. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  1. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  2. Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Smaili, M.H.; Stroosma, O.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.; Joosten, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity aircraft simulation model, reconstructed using the Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) of the 1992 Amsterdam Bijlmermeer aircraft accident (Flight 1862), has been used to evaluate a new Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm in an online piloted evaluation. This paper focuses on the

  3. Flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle and a study of NASP handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.; Deeb, Joseph M.; Kim, Jung H.

    1992-01-01

    The research goal of the Human-Machine Systems Engineering Group was to study the existing handling quality studies in aircraft with sonic to supersonic speeds and power in order to understand information requirements needed for a hypersonic vehicle flight simulator. This goal falls within the NASA task statements: (1) develop flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle; (2) study NASP handling qualities; and (3) study effects of flexibility on handling qualities and on control system performance. Following the above statement of work, the group has developed three research strategies. These are: (1) to study existing handling quality studies and the associated aircraft and develop flight simulation data characterization; (2) to develop a profile for flight simulation data acquisition based on objective statement no. 1 above; and (3) to develop a simulator and an embedded expert system platform which can be used in handling quality experiments for hypersonic aircraft/flight simulation training.

  4. Modeling and software implementation of flight system for simulator of a new fighter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Cheng-cheng; YANG Yong-tian; JIA Rong-zhen

    2004-01-01

    Real-time modeling and simulation of flight system are the key parts of simulator. After describing the architecture of simulator for a newer fighter, author presents the composition of flight system and its mathematic models. In this paper, aircraft is regarded as an elastic flight body. And a new integrated algorithm which can remedy the shortcoming of Euler method and four-element method is used to calculate the Eulerian angles of aircraft. Finally, the software implementation of the flight system is given in the paper.

  5. Objective Evaluation of Flight Simulator Motion Cueing Fidelity Through a Cybernetic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to aircraft, flight simulators are severely limited in their motion envelopes. Presenting the true aircraft motion one-to-one on flight simulators is generally impossible and it is therefore common practice that these motion stimuli are only presented in reduced and attenuated form. Because

  6. ECHAM5-wiso water vapour isotopologues simulation and its comparison with WS-CRDS measurements and retrievals from GOSAT and ground-based FTIR spectra in the atmosphere of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gribanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes provide integrated tracers of the atmospheric water cycle, affected by changes in air mass origin, non-convective and convective processes and continental recycling. Novel remote sensing and in situ measuring techniques have recently offered opportunities for monitoring atmospheric water vapour isotopic composition. Recently developed infrared laser spectrometers allow for continuous in situ measurements of surface water vapour δDv and δ18Ov. So far, very few intercomparison of measurements conducted using different techniques have been achieved at a given location, due to difficulties intrinsic to the comparison of integrated with local measurements. Nudged simulations conducted with high resolution isotopically enabled GCMs provide a consistent framework for comparison with the different types of observations. Here, we compare simulations conducted with the ECHAM5-wiso model with three types of water vapour isotopic data obtained during summer 2012 at the forest site of Kourovka, Western Siberia: daily mean GOSAT δDv soundings, hourly ground-based FTIR total atmospheric columnar δDv amounts, and in situ hourly Picarro δDv measurements. There is an excellent correlation between observed and predicted δDv at surface while the comparison between water column values derived from the model compares well with FTIR and GOSAT estimates.

    This research was supported by the grant of Russian government under the contract 11.G34.31.0064.

  7. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  8. Vertical flight training: An overview of training and flight simulator technology with emphasis on rotary-wing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Thomas S.; Ascencio-Lee, Carmen E.; Bray, Richard; Carlton, John; Dohme, Jack; Eshow, Michelle M.; Francis, Stephen; Lee, Owen M.; Lintern, Gavan; Lombardo, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The principal purpose of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the technology that is relevant to the design of aviation training systems and of the techniques applicable to the development, use, and evaluation of those systems. The issues addressed in our 11 chapters are, for the most part, those that would be expected to surface in any informed discussion of the major characterizing elements of aviation training systems. Indeed, many of the same facets of vertical-flight training discussed were recognized and, to some extent, dealt with at the 1991 NASA/FAA Helicopter Simulator Workshop. These generic topics are essential to a sound understanding of training and training systems, and they quite properly form the basis of any attempt to systematize the development and evaluation of more effective, more efficient, more productive, and more economical approaches to aircrew training. Individual chapters address the following topics: an overview of the vertical flight industry: the source of training requirements; training and training schools: meeting current requirements; training systems design and development; transfer of training and cost-effectiveness; the military quest for flight training effectiveness; alternative training systems; training device manufacturing; simulator aero model implementation; simulation validation in the frequency domain; cockpit motion in helicopter simulation; and visual space perception in flight simulators.

  9. Comparison of Different Methods of Grading a Level Turn Task on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Crier, tomyka

    2003-01-01

    With the advancements in the computing power of personal computers, pc-based flight simulators and trainers have opened new avenues in the training of airplane pilots. It may be desirable to have the flight simulator make a quantitative evaluation of the progress of a pilot's training thereby reducing the physical requirement of the flight instructor who must, in turn, watch every flight. In an experiment, University students conducted six different flights, each consisting of two level turns. The flights were three minutes in duration. By evaluating videotapes, two certified flight instructors provided separate letter grades for each turn. These level turns were also evaluated using two other computer based grading methods. One method determined automated grades based on prescribed tolerances in bank angle, airspeed and altitude. The other method used was deviations in altitude and bank angle for performance index and performance grades.

  10. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  11. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  12. A simulator-based study of in-flight auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Libert, Nicolas; Clapson, Patrick; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Jost, Daniel; Tazarourte, Karim; Astaud, Cécil-Emmanuel; Debien, Bruno; Auroy, Yves

    2014-04-01

    The use of a stethoscope is essential to the delivery of continuous, supportive en route care during aeromedical evacuations. We compared the capability of 2 stethoscopes (electronic, Litmann 3000; conventional, Litmann Cardiology III) at detecting pathologic heart and lung sounds, aboard a C135, a medical transport aircraft. Sounds were mimicked using a mannequin-based simulator SimMan. Five practitioners examined the mannequin during a fly, with a variety of abnormalities as follows: crackles, wheezing, right and left lung silence, as well as systolic, diastolic, and Austin-Flint murmur. The comparison for diagnosis assessed (correct or wrong) between using the electronic and conventional stethoscopes were performed as a McNemar test. A total of 70 evaluations were performed. For cardiac sounds, diagnosis was right in 0/15 and 4/15 auscultations, respectively, with conventional and electronic stethoscopes (McNemar test, P = 0.13). For lung sounds, right diagnosis was found with conventional stethoscope in 10/20 auscultations versus 18/20 with electronic stethoscope (P = 0.013). Flight practitioners involved in aeromedical evacuation on C135 plane are more able to practice lung auscultation on a mannequin with this amplified stethoscope than with the traditional one. No benefit was found for heart sounds.

  13. Simulation study for measurement of horizontal wind profiles in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using ground-based observations of ozone and carbon monoxide lines in the 230-250 GHz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, David A.; Ford, George P.; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Pumphrey, Hugh C.

    2016-07-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric models are being extended up to 80 km altitude but there are very few observing techniques that can measure stratospheric-mesospheric winds at altitudes between 20 and 80 km to verify model datasets. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of horizontal wind profile measurements using ground-based passive millimetre-wave spectroradiometric observations of ozone lines centred at 231.28, 249.79, and 249.96 GHz. Vertical profiles of horizontal winds are retrieved from forward and inverse modelling simulations of the line-of-sight Doppler-shifted atmospheric emission lines above Halley station (75°37' S, 26°14' W), Antarctica. For a radiometer with a system temperature of 1400 K and 30 kHz spectral resolution observing the ozone 231.28 GHz line we estimate that 12 h zonal and meridional wind profiles could be determined over the altitude range 25-74 km in winter, and 28-66 km in summer. Height-dependent measurement uncertainties are in the range 3-8 m s-1 and vertical resolution ˜ 8-16 km. Under optimum observing conditions at Halley a temporal resolution of 1.5 h for measuring either zonal or meridional winds is possible, reducing to 0.5 h for a radiometer with a 700 K system temperature. Combining observations of the 231.28 GHz ozone line and the 230.54 GHz carbon monoxide line gives additional altitude coverage at 85 ± 12 km. The effects of clear-sky seasonal mean winter/summer conditions, zenith angle of the received atmospheric emission, and spectrometer frequency resolution on the altitude coverage, measurement uncertainty, and height and time resolution of the retrieved wind profiles have been determined.

  14. Rapid development of the X-31 simulation to support flight-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale; Norlin, Kenneth; Cohen, Dorothea; Kellogg, Gary; Schilling, Lawrence; Sheen, John

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program has been recognized to form the International Test Organization, with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) as the responsible test organization. The two X-31 research aircraft and engineering support personnel were colocated at NASA-Dryden, with flight test operations beginning in Apr. 1992. Therefore, rapid development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation was needed to support the flight test operations at NASA-Dryden, and to perform verification and validation of flight control software. The X-31 simulation system requirements, distributed simulation system architecture, simulation components math models to the visual system, and the advanced capabilities the X-31 simulation provides. In addition, unique software tools and the methods used to rapidly develop this simulation system will be highlighted.

  15. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  16. Real-Time, Maneuvering Flight Noise Prediction for Rotorcraft Flight Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a plan for developing new technology to provide accurate real-time noise prediction for rotorcraft in steady and maneuvering flight. Main...

  17. A teaching experience using a flight simulator: Educational Simulation in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate Educational Simulation systems (software and hardware for learning purposes may contribute to the application of the “Learning by Doing” (LbD paradigm in classroom, thus helping the students to assimilate the theoretical concepts of a subject and acquire certain pre-defined competencies in a more didactical way. The main objective of this work is to conduct a teaching experience using a flight simulation environment so that the students of Aeronautical Management degree can assume the role of an aircraft pilot, in order to allow the students understanding the basic processes of the air navigation and observe how the new technologies can transform and improve these processes. This is especially helpful in classroom to teach the contents of the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR programme, an European project that introduces a new Air Traffic Management (ATM paradigm based on several relevant technological and procedural changes that will affect the entire air transportation system in the short and medium term. After the execution of several activities with a flight simulator in the classroom a short test and a satisfaction survey have been requested to the students in order to assess the teaching experience.

  18. Performance Assessment of Flight Simulator Servo System Based on LQG Performance Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huibo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight simulator is an important application in the field of aerospace as semi-physical simulation equipment. As it requires supreme control precision and stability, it is especially important to search the performance assessment of flight simulator servo system. The traditional researches on flight simulator control performance index is more about dynamic output tracking features but few on input characteristics and effects. Based on Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG performance benchmark, this paper makes analyses on high precision flight simulator in three kinds of controller while considering the influences of input and output signals’ effect on controllers. After processing the input and output data, combined with the linear fitting method, we can obtain LQG performance tradeoff curve. Through comparing the controller’s actual performance with the optimal performance, we’ll gain the controller’s control performance index and its potential.

  19. Computer program to simulate digital computer based longitudinal flight control laws in a high performance aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, James Robert

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The IEH Company's Continuous Systems Modeling Program was used to simulate the longitudinal flight control system of the F/A-18 aircraft. The model is intended for use in investigations cf aircraft response to flight conditions which approach spin or stall and is restricted to the automatic flaps up (AFU) flight mode. Program outputs include stabilator deflection, leading and trailing edge flap positions, and cress-ax...

  20. Realization of a Desktop Flight Simulation System for Motion-Cueing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Volkaner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel robotic mechanisms are generally used in flight simulators with a motion-cueing algorithm to create an unlimited motion feeling of a simulated medium in a bounded workspace of the simulator. A major problem in flight simulators is that the simulation has an unbounded space and the manipulator has a limited one. Using a washout filter in the motion-cueing algorithm overcomes this. In this study, a low-cost six degrees of freedom (DoF desktop parallel manipulator is used to test a classical motion-cueing algorithm; the algorithm's functionality is confirmed with a Simulink real-time environment. Translational accelerations and angular velocities of the simulated medium obtained from FlightGear flight simulation software are processed through a generated washout filter algorithm and the simulated medium's motion information is transmitted to the desktop parallel robotic mechanism as a set point for each leg. The major issues of this paper are designing a desktop simulation system, controlling the parallel manipulator, communicating between the flight simulation and the platform, designing a motion-cueing algorithm and determining the parameters of the washout filters.

  1. A comparative study of psychophysiological reactions during simulator and real flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    During selection tests in a flight simulator and a real aircraft, physiological workload measures were evaluated. The selection context guaranteed high motivation in the participant to exert additional effort during difficult flight tasks. The aim of the study was to obtain information about the sen

  2. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  3. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  4. The Role of Visual Occlusion in Altitude Maintenance during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R.; Geri, G. A.; Akhtar, S. C.; Covas, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of visual occlusion as a cue to altitude maintenance in low-altitude flight (LAF) was investigated. The extent to which the ground surface is occluded by 3-D objects varies with altitude and depends on the height, radius, and density of the objects. Participants attempted to maintain a constant altitude during simulated flight over an…

  5. A comparative study of psychophysiological reactions during simulator and real flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    During selection tests in a flight simulator and a real aircraft, physiological workload measures were evaluated. The selection context guaranteed high motivation in the participant to exert additional effort during difficult flight tasks. The aim of the study was to obtain information about the sen

  6. Expertise and responsibility effects on pilots' reactions to flight deck alerts in a simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiyuan; Lu, Yanyu; Yang, Zheng; Fu, Shan

    2014-11-01

    Flight deck alerts provide system malfunction information designed to lead corresponding pilot reactions aimed at guaranteeing flight safety. This study examined the roles of expertise and flight responsibility and their relationship to pilots' reactions to flight deck alerts. There were 17 pilots composing 12 flight crews that were assigned into pairs according to flight hours and responsibilities. The experiment included 9 flight scenarios and was carried out in a CRJ-200 flight simulator. Pilot performance was recorded by a wide angle video camera, and four kinds of reactions to alerts were defined for analysis. Pilots tended to have immediate reactions to uninterrupted cautions, with a turning off rate as high as 75%. However, this rate decreased sharply when pilots encountered interrupted cautions and warnings; they also exhibited many wrong reactions to warnings. Pilots with more expertise had more reactions to uninterrupted cautions than those with less expertise, both as pilot flying and pilot monitoring. Meanwhile, the pilot monitoring, regardless of level of expertise, exhibited more reactions than the pilot flying. In addition, more experienced pilots were more likely to have wrong reactions to warnings while acting as the monitoring pilot. These results suggest that both expertise and flight responsibility influence pilots' reactions to alerts. Considering crew pairing strategy, when a pilot flying is a less experienced pilot, a more experience pilot is suggested to be the monitoring pilot. The results of this study have implications for understanding pilots' behaviors to flight deck alerts, calling for specialized training and design of approach alarms on the flight deck.

  7. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  8. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  9. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  10. Numerical Algorithms for Steady and Unsteady Multi-Disciplinary Simulation of Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new multidisciplinary software environment ('MUSE') will be developed for the simulation of flight vehicles, drawing on the results of recent research on very fast...

  11. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  12. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  13. Parabolic Flights with Single-Engine Aerobatic Aircraft: Flight Profile and a Computer Simulator for its Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigos, Miguel; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Alpiste, Francesc; Torner, Jordi; González Alonso, Daniel Ventura

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of residual acceleration obtained from initial tests of parabolic flights (more than 100 hours) performed with a small single-engine aerobatic aircraft (CAP10B), and propose a method that improves these figures. Such aircraft have proved capable of providing researchers with periods of up to 8 seconds of reduced gravity in the cockpit, with a gravity quality in the range of 0.1 g 0, where g 0 is the gravitational acceleration of the Earth. Such parabolas may be of interest to experimenters in the reduced gravity field, when this range of reduced gravity is acceptable for the experiment undertaken. They have also proven to be useful for motivational and educational campaigns. Furthermore, these flights may be of interest to researchers as a test-bed for obtaining a proof-of-concept for subsequent access to parabolic flights with larger aircraft or other microgravity platforms. The limited cost of the operations with these small aircraft allows us to perform them as part of a non-commercial joint venture between the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - BarcelonaTech (UPC), the Barcelona cluster BAIE and the Aeroclub Barcelona-Sabadell. Any improvements in the length and quality of reduced gravity would increase the capabilities of these small aircraft. To that end, we have developed a method based on a simulator for training aerobatic pilots. The simulation is performed with the CAD software for mechanical design Solidworks Motion{circledR }, which is widely distributed in industry and in universities. It specifically simulates the parabolic flight manoeuvre for our small aircraft and enables us to improve different aspects of the manoeuvre. The simulator is first validated with experimental data from the test flights. We have conducted an initial intensive period of specific pilot training with the aid of the simulator output. After such initial simulation-aided training, results show that the reduced gravity quality has significantly

  14. Stability of simulated flight path control at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiera, Simon; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2010-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that naïve subjects and experienced jet pilots produce exaggerated manual forces when exposed to increased acceleration (+Gz). This study was designed to evaluate whether this exaggeration affects the stability of simulated flight path control. We evaluated naïve subjects' performance in a flight simulator which either remained stationary (+1 Gz), or rotated to induce an acceleration in accordance to the simulated flight path with a mean acceleration of about +3 Gz. In either case, subjects were requested to produce a series of altitude changes in pursuit of a visual target airplane. Resulting flight paths were analyzed to determine the largest oscillation after an altitude change (Oscillation) and the mean deviation between subject and target flight path (Tracking Error). Flight stability after an altitude change was degraded in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz, as evidenced by larger Oscillations (+11%) and increased Tracking Errors (+80%). These deficits correlated significantly with subjects' +3 Gz deficits in a manual-force production task. We conclude that force exaggeration in +3 Gz may impair flight stability during simulated jet maneuvers in naïve subjects, most likely as a consequence of vestibular stimulation.

  15. FLIGHT SIMULATION IN AIR FORCE TRAINING. A KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER EFICIENCY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For decades the issue of training through simulation has been discussed and studied to show its value and importance in fighter pilot training programs. Besides the fact that simulators are less expensive than a real airplane, and eliminate the operational risks that are present in a real flight they bring a significant contribution to the pilot training by their fidelity and realism that they show in such scenarios as in the reality. To measure the efficiency of training transfer from simulator to the aircraft, performance indicators were defined. The purpose of this article is to define these performance indicators and measurement of training transfer within the flight simulator involvement.

  16. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  17. A conceptual framework for using Doppler radar acquired atmospheric data for flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.

    1983-01-01

    A concept is presented which can permit turbulence simulation in the vicinity of microbursts. The method involves a large data base, but should be fast enough for use with flight simulators. The model permits any pilot to simulate any flight maneuver in any aircraft. The model simulates a wind field with three-component mean winds and three-component turbulent gusts, and gust variation over the body of an aircraft so that all aerodynamic loads and moments can be calculated. The time and space variation of mean winds and turbulent intensities associated with a particular atmospheric phenomenon such as a microburst is used in the model. In fact, Doppler radar data such as provided by JAWS is uniquely suited for use with the proposed model. The concept is completely general and is not restricted to microburst studies. Reentry and flight in terrestrial or planetary atmospheres could be realistically simulated if supporting data of sufficient resolution were available.

  18. The story of 520 days on a simulated flight to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva; Stuchlíková, Iva; Mazehóová, Yvona

    2016-09-01

    The project Mars-500 was the first long-term simulation of a manned flight to Mars. We examined the ways crew members described their experiences and their life during simulation, what they saw as key episodes and key topics in simulation, as well as key problems and key benefits. The aim of this paper is to present the Mars-500 simulation in its complexity, from beginning to end, as a one narrative story.

  19. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  20. Pressure effects on the nose by an in-flight oxygen mask during simulated flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemakers, J Rieneke C; Boer, C; van Amerongen, P C G M; Kon, M

    2016-12-01

    Dutch F-16 fighter pilots experience oxygen mask inflicted nasal trauma, including discomfort, pain, skin abrasions, bruises and bone remodelling. Pressure and shear forces on the nose might contribute to causing these adverse effects. In this study, it was evaluated how flight conditions affected the exerted pressure, and whether shear forces were present. The pressure exerted by the oxygen mask was measured in 20 volunteers by placing pressure sensors on the nose and chin underneath the mask. In the human centrifuge, the effects on the exerted pressure during different flight conditions were evaluated (+3Gz, +6Gz, +9Gz, protocolised head movements, mounted visor or night vision goggles, NVG). The runs were recorded to evaluate if the mask's position changed during the run, which would confirm the presence of shear forces. Head movements increased the median pressure on the nose by 50 mm Hg and on the chin by 37 mm Hg. NVG, a visor and accelerative forces also increased the median pressure on the nose. Pressure drops on the nose were also observed, during mounted NVG (-63 mm Hg). The recordings showed the mask slid downwards, especially during the acceleration phase of the centrifuge run, signifying the presence of shear forces. The exerted pressure by the oxygen mask changes during different flight conditions. Exposure to changing pressures and to shear forces probably contributes to mask-inflicted nasal trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Psychophysiological Assessment in Pilots Performing Challenging Simulated and Real Flight Maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Rothe, Stefanie; Gens, André; Westphal, Soeren; Birkenfeld, Katja; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Ledderhos, Carla

    2017-09-01

    The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions. The physiological data, as expected, revealed inter- and intra-individual differences for the various measurement conditions. As indicated by the PAV, air-to-air refueling (AAR) turned out to be the most challenging task. In general, arousal levels were comparable between simulator and real flight conditions. However, a distinct difference was observed when the pilots were divided by instructors into two groups based on their proficiency in AAR with AWACS (AAR-Novices vs. AAR-Professionals). AAR-Novices had on average more than 2000 flight hours on other aircrafts. They showed higher arousal reactions to AAR in real flight (contact: PAV score 8.4 ± 0.37) than under simulator conditions (7.1 ± 0.30), whereas AAR-Professionals did not (8.5 ± 0.46 vs. 8.8 ± 0.80). The psychophysiological arousal value assessment was tested in field measurements, yielding quantifiable arousal differences between proficiency groups of pilots during simulated and real flight conditions. The method used in this study allows an evaluation of the psychophysiological cost during a certain flying performance and thus is possibly a valuable tool for objectively evaluating the actual skill status of pilots.Johannes B, Rothe S, Gens A, Westphal S, Birkenfeld K, Mulder E, Rittweger J, Ledderhos C. Psychophysiological assessment in pilots performing challenging simulated and real flight maneuvers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):834-840.

  2. STS-31 crewmembers during simulation on the flight deck of JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    On the flight deck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS), Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley (left), on aft flight deck, looks over the shoulders of Commander Loren J. Shriver, seated at the commanders station (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden, seated at the pilots station and partially blocked by the seat's headrest (right). The three astronauts recently named to the STS-31 mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, go through a procedures checkout in the FB-SMS. The training simulation took place in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  3. Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high g threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, L.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Carlander, O.; Levin, B.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Veltman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In a TNO and FOI joint study, nine fighter pilots participated in a threat detection and intercept experiment in the Swedish Dynamic Flight Simulator. Visual threat cueing with a simulated Gripen aircraft head-up display (HUD) symbology was compared with combined visual and vibrotactile threat

  4. Perception model analysis of flight simulator motion for a decrab maneuver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Smaïli, M.H.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this flight simulator study, eleven pilots rated their motion perception during a series of decrab maneuvers of a twin-engine passenger aircraft. Simulator yaw, sway, and roll motion were varied independently to examine their relative contribution to the pilots’ judgments. In one set of condition

  5. STS-26 crew on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey review checklists in their respective stations on the foward flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  6. Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high g threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, L.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Carlander, O.; Levin, B.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Veltman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In a TNO and FOI joint study, nine fighter pilots participated in a threat detection and intercept experiment in the Swedish Dynamic Flight Simulator. Visual threat cueing with a simulated Gripen aircraft head-up display (HUD) symbology was compared with combined visual and vibrotactile threat cuein

  7. Research and Implementation of 3D Stereo Visual System for Flight Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄安祥; 于恒进; 陈宗基; 李明

    2002-01-01

    In military aircrafl fiight simulation, visual cues require depth sense,stereo sense and large field of view. To satisfy these requirements, we set up a space stereo visual system for flight simulation. This paper discusses the design issues of this visual system, including design principles, system implementations,as well as practical solutions to some key problems.

  8. The Virtual Flier: The Link Trainer, Flight Simulation, and Pilot Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chihyung

    2015-01-01

    The Link Trainer is often described as the first successful attempt at what we now recognize as flight simulation and even virtual reality. Instead of asking how well the device simulated flight conditions, this article shows that what the Link Trainer simulated was not the conditions of the air, but rather the conditions of the cockpit that was gradually filled with flight instruments. The article also considers the Link Trainer as a cultural space in which shifting ideas about what it meant to be a pilot were manifested. A pilot in the Link Trainer was trained into a new category of flier-the virtual flier-who was an avid reader of instruments and an attentive listener to signals. This article suggests that, by situating the pilot within new spaces, protocols, and relationships, technologies of simulation have constituted the identity of the modern pilot and other operators of machines.

  9. Piloted simulator investigation of helicopter control systems effects on handling qualities during instrument flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Alderete, T. S.; Gee, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory piloted simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the characteristics of helicopter flight control systems on instrument flight handling qualities. This joint FAA/NASA study was motivated by the need to improve instrument flight capability. A near-term objective is to assist in updating the airworthiness criteria for helicopter instrument flight. The experiment consisted of variations of single-rotor helicopter types and levels of stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS). These configurations were evaluated during an omnirange approach task under visual and instrument flight conditions. The levels of SCAS design included a simple rate damping system, collective decoupling plus rate damping, and an attitude command system with collective decoupling. A limited evaluation of stick force versus airspeed stability was accomplished. Some problems were experienced with control system mechanization which had a detrimental effect on longitudinal stability. Pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and performance data related to the task are presented.

  10. Flight Simulator: Field of View Utilized in Performing Tactical Maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    were taken in the Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC) and the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). During the air-to-ground data collection...ground maneuvers were performed In the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). The data collected provided an estimate of the FOV dimensions that a...tactical maneuvers were conducted in the AFHIRL ASPT located at Williams AFB. The ASPT had a fully instrumnted F-16 cockpit. The g-cueing was available

  11. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  12. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  13. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  14. Sliding Mode Controller Design for Position and Speed Control of Flight Simulator Servo System with Large Friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金琨; 尔联洁

    2003-01-01

    Flight simulator is an important device and a typical high-performance position and speed servo system used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flight control system. Friction is the main nonlinear resistance in the flight simulator servo system, especially in a low-speed state. Based on the description of dynamic and static models of a nonlinear Stribeck friction model, this paper puts forward sliding mode controller to overcome the friction, whose stability is proved. Simulation example indicates that the controller can guarantee a high robust performance and have a high precision of position tracking and speed tracking for a flight simulator servo system.

  15. The use of vestibular models for design and evaluation of flight simulator motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Young, Laurence R.; Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative models for the dynamics of the human vestibular system are applied to the design and evaluation of flight simulator platform motion. An optimal simulator motion control algorithm is generated to minimize the vector difference between perceived spatial orientation estimated in flight and in simulation. The motion controller has been implemented on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center and evaluated experimentally through measurement of pilot performance and subjective rating during VTOL aircraft simulation. In general, pilot performance in a longitudinal tracking task (formation flight) did not appear to be sensitive to variations in platform motion condition as long as motion was present. However, pilot assessment of motion fidelity by means of a rating scale designed for this purpose, were sensitive to motion controller design. Platform motion generated with the optimal motion controller was found to be generally equivalent to that generated by conventional linear crossfeed washout. The vestibular models are used to evaluate the motion fidelity of transport category aircraft (Boeing 727) simulation in a pilot performance and simulator acceptability study at the Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. Eighteen airline pilots, currently flying B-727, were given a series of flight scenarios in the simulator under various conditions of simulator motion. The scenarios were chosen to reflect the flight maneuvers that these pilots might expect to be given during a routine pilot proficiency check. Pilot performance and subjective rating of simulator fidelity was relatively insensitive to the motion condition, despite large differences in the amplitude of motion provided. This lack of sensitivity may be explained by means of the vestibular models, which predict little difference in the modeled motion sensations of the pilots when different motion conditions are imposed.

  16. Simulation validation and flight prediction of UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter/slung load characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Helicopter/slung load systems are two body systems in which the slung load adds its rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics, and sling stretching dynamics to the helicopter. The slung load can degrade helicopter handling qualities and reduce the flight envelope of the helicopter. Confirmation of system stability parameters and envelope is desired, but flight test evaluation is time consuming and costly. A simulation model validated for handling quality assessments would significantly reduce resourc...

  17. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training.

  18. Plant Closings and Capital Flight: A Computer-Assisted Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Stanley; Breitbart, Myrna M.

    1989-01-01

    A course at Hampshire College was designed to simulate the decision-making environment in which constituencies in a medium-sized city would respond to the closing and relocation of a major corporate plant. The project, constructed as a role simulation with a computer component, is described. (MLW)

  19. Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

    2006-12-01

    Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

  20. In-flight simulators and fly-by-wirelight demonstrators a historical account of international aeronautical research

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first complete account of more than sixty years of international research on In-Flight Simulation and related development of electronic and electro-optic flight control system technologies (“Fly-by-Wire” and “Fly-by-Light”). They have provided a versatile and experimental procedure that is of particular importance for verification, optimization, and evaluation of flying qualities and flight safety of manned or unmanned aircraft systems. Extensive coverage is given in the book to both fundamental information related to flight testing and state-of-the-art advances in the design and implementation of electronic and electro-optic flight control systems, which have made In-Flight Simulation possible. Written by experts, the respective chapters clearly show the interdependence between various aeronautical disciplines and in-flight simulation methods. Taken together, they form a truly multidisciplinary book that addresses the needs of not just flight test engineers, but also other aerona...

  1. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  2. A Discrete-Time Chattering Free Sliding Mode Control with Multirate Sampling Method for Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tracking accuracy of flight simulator and expend its frequency response, a multirate-sampling-method-based discrete-time chattering free sliding mode control is developed and imported into the systems. By constructing the multirate sampling sliding mode controller, the flight simulator can perfectly track a given reference signal with an arbitrarily small dynamic tracking error, and the problems caused by a contradiction of reference signal period and control period in traditional design method can be eliminated. It is proved by theoretical analysis that the extremely high dynamic tracking precision can be obtained. Meanwhile, the robustness is guaranteed by sliding mode control even though there are modeling mismatch, external disturbances and measure noise. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments on flight simulator.

  3. ISS emergency scenarios and a virtual training simulator for Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Thomas; Roshani, Frank-Cyrus; Amodio, Ciro; Rovera, Alessandro; Zekusic, Nikola; Helmholz, Hannes; Fairchild, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The current emergency response concept for the International Space Station (ISS) includes the support of the Flight Control Team. Therefore, the team members need to be trained in emergencies and the corresponding crew procedures to ensure a smooth collaboration between crew and ground. In the case where the astronaut and ground personnel training is not collocated it is a challenging endeavor to ensure and maintain proper knowledge and skills for the Flight Control Team. Therefore, a virtual 3D simulator at the Columbus Control Center (Col-CC) is presented, which is used for ground personnel training in the on-board emergency response. The paper briefly introduces the main ISS emergency scenarios and the corresponding response strategy, details the resulting learning objectives for the Flight Controllers and elaborates on the new simulation method, which will be used in the future. The status of the 3D simulator, first experiences and further plans are discussed.

  4. ZERO PHASE ERROR REAL TIME CONTROL FOR FLIGHT SIMULATOR SERVO SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; Liu Qiang; Er Lianjie

    2004-01-01

    Flight simulator is an important device and a typical high performance position servo system used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flight control system.Without using the future desired output, zero phase error controller makes the overall system's frequency response exhibit zero phase shift for all frequencies and a very small gain error at low frequency range can be achieved.A new algorithm to design the feedforward controller is presented, in order to reduce the phase error, the design of proposed feedforward controller uses a modified plant model, which is a closed loop transfer function, through which the system tracking precision performance can be improved greatly.Real-time control results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in flight simulator servo system.

  5. Modeling methods for high-fidelity rotorcraft flight mechanics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.; Chaimovich, Menahem; Rosen, Aviv; Rand, Omri

    1992-01-01

    The cooperative effort being carried out under the agreements of the United States-Israel Memorandum of Understanding is discussed. Two different models of the AH-64 Apache Helicopter, which may differ in their approach to modeling the main rotor, are presented. The first model, the Blade Element Model for the Apache (BEMAP), was developed at Ames Research Center, and is the only model of the Apache to employ a direct blade element approach to calculating the coupled flap-lag motion of the blades and the rotor force and moment. The second model was developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and uses an harmonic approach to analyze the rotor. The approach allows two different levels of approximation, ranging from the 'first harmonic' (similar to a tip-path-plane model) to 'complete high harmonics' (comparable to a blade element approach). The development of the two models is outlined and the two are compared using available flight test data.

  6. Motion sickness adaptation to Coriolis-inducing head movements in a sustained G flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michael C; McCarthy, Geoffrey W; Glaser, Scott T; Bonato, Frederick; Bubka, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Technological advances have allowed centrifuges to become more than physiological testing and training devices; sustained G, fully interactive flight simulation is now possible. However, head movements under G can result in vestibular stimulation that can lead to motion sickness (MS) symptoms that are potentially distracting, nauseogenic, and unpleasant. In the current study an MS adaptation protocol was tested for head movements under +Gz. Experienced pilots made 14 predetermined head movements in a sustained G flight simulator (at 3 +Gz) on 5 consecutive days and 17 d after training. Symptoms were measured after each head turn using a subjective 0-10 MS scale. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was also administered before and after each daily training session. After five daily training sessions, normalized mean MS scores were 58% lower than on Day 1. Mean total, nausea, and disorientation SSQ scores were 55%, 52%, and 78% lower, respectively. During retesting 17 d after training, nearly all scores indicated 90-100% retention of training benefits. The reduction of unpleasant effects associated with sustained G flight simulation using an adaptation training protocol may enhance the effectiveness of simulation. Practical use of sustained G simulators is also likely to be interspersed with other types of ground and in-flight training. Hence, it would be undesirable and unpleasant for trainees to lose adaptation benefits after a short gap in centrifuge use. However, current results suggest that training gaps in excess of 2 wk may be permissible with almost no loss of adaptation training benefits.

  7. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  8. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail: zhonghua-miao@163.com; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  9. 微重力下对流换热的地面缩比-减压模拟技术%Ground-based scale and pressure reduction technology for simulation of convection in micro-gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬朝玥; 任建勋; 梁新刚; 陈泽敬; 过增元

    2001-01-01

    A technique was developed and verified numerically to simulatemicro-gravity convection in spacecraft in normal gravity ground-based experiments.The technique suppresses the natural convection and eliminates or lessenes the influence of gravity by reducing the scale and pressure of the ground-based. The results show that the disadvantages of reducing the scale or reducing the pressure can be overcome by combining the two methods. Natural convection can be suppressed to the same extent by reducing the scale and pressure by the same ratio, regardless of the size of the reduction. For a prototype, the scale and pressure reduction ratio is more easily attained maintaining than Gr/Re2 in engineering applications. The model scale and working pressure in the ground-based experiment can be predicted from the scale and pressure reduction ratio.%为了地面模拟空间飞行器在微重力条件下的对流换热,抑制自然对流,消除或减小重力的影响,研究了将缩小尺寸和减小压力相结合的缩比-减压模拟技术,并通过数值计算对这一技术进行了验证。研究表明,缩比-减压法可以克服缩比法和减压法在应用时的不足。不论缩小尺寸和减小压力的程度如何,只要缩减比相等,自然对流的抑制效果就相同。在工程应用中,对一定的原型工况,采用缩减比参数比采用Gr/Re2参数更直观,可以指导对地面模拟实验中合适的模型尺寸和工作压力的确定。

  10. Selected information on flight simulators - main requirements, categories and their development, production and using for flight crew training in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana KOVÁČOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the selected information concerning the flight simulators. After some information from the general and historical point of views, the authors are focusing on main requirements for the flight simulators and their categorisation from different aspects, including outline of principal international documents published by ICAO, EASA (covering JAR regulation and FAA referring to and/or dealing with the use of Flight Simulators Training Devices (FSTD and technical and operational requirements in this area for aeroplanes. The concluding chapters of the paper introduce appropriate information on the development and manufacturing organizations in the flight simulators area and the using of this equipment in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic.

  11. An Integrated Approach for Entry Mission Design and Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Rao, Prabhakara

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach for entry trajectory design, guidance, and simulation is proposed. The key ingredients for this approach are an on-line 3 degree-of-freedom entry trajectory planning algorithm and the entry guidance algorithm that generates the guidance gains automatically. When fully developed, such a tool could enable end-bend entry mission design and simulations in 3DOF and 6DOF mode from de-orbit burn to the TAEM interface and beyond, all in one key stroke. Some preliminary examples of such a capability are presented in this paper that demonstrate the potential of this type of integrated environment.

  12. Validation of the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Program (C81) Using Operational Loads Survey Flight Test Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    could be improved by the use of one of the sensitive, accurate, cup - anemometer type of airspeed sensors that have recently been developed. 8.1.4...programs of this nature to enhance their use for the validation of simulation programs: - Remove the airspeed sensor from the boom and use a cup - anemometer ...transducers to allow access to the instrumentation. Hot-wire anemometers were then applied to the leading edge at the same five blade stations. 24 The

  13. Development of Ground-Based Plant Sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Planta . 217:767-775. De Moraes CM, Schultz JC, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH. (2004...09-30-2004 Final Technical _ April 2001 - April 2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing Plants as Ground-based Sentinels 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 9 "Z Plants emit volatile mixes characteristic of exposure to both plant and animal (insect) pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The

  14. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  15. Ground based spectroscopy of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I will present results using a novel spectral retrieval method for near to mid infra-red emission and transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres taken from the ground and discuss the feasibility of future ground-based spectroscopy in a broader context. My recently commenced PhD project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  16. Flight simulation visual requirements and a new display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amery, John G.; Streid, Harry R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the technical requirements for Out The Window (OTW) visual systems. Requirements for different modes of training and/or simulation will be stated. A new type of visual display will be described that provides improved, cost effective implementation and performance.

  17. Lessons Learned from Numerical Simulations of the F-16XL Aircraft at Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Jirasek, Adam; Lamar, John; Crippa, Simone; Badcock, Kenneth; Boelens, Oklo

    2009-01-01

    Nine groups participating in the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) project have contributed steady and unsteady viscous simulations of a full-scale, semi-span model of the F-16XL aircraft. Three different categories of flight Reynolds/Mach number combinations were computed and compared with flight-test measurements for the purpose of code validation and improved understanding of the flight physics. Steady-state simulations are done with several turbulence models of different complexity with no topology information required and which overcome Boussinesq-assumption problems in vortical flows. Detached-eddy simulation (DES) and its successor delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) have been used to compute the time accurate flow development. Common structured and unstructured grids as well as individually-adapted unstructured grids were used. Although discrepancies are observed in the comparisons, overall reasonable agreement is demonstrated for surface pressure distribution, local skin friction and boundary velocity profiles at subsonic speeds. The physical modeling, steady or unsteady, and the grid resolution both contribute to the discrepancies observed in the comparisons with flight data, but at this time it cannot be determined how much each part contributes to the whole. Overall it can be said that the technology readiness of CFD-simulation technology for the study of vehicle performance has matured since 2001 such that it can be used today with a reasonable level of confidence for complex configurations.

  18. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  19. Flight Simulator-Induced Sickness and Visual Displays Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    present. SITUATIONS SYWOI9IS AIRCRAFT FLIGHT SI.ULATOR ROLLER COASTER PERRY-GO-ROUND OTHER CARNIVAL DEVICES AUTOMOBILES LONG TRAIN OR BUS TRIPS WVINGS...0. 0 V4 4c v mN 0 wm 0 m W- r~rN w m m rIO - qw 0 1-4 N 0 0 m~ v.1 v4 V.4 v.4 w4 rIO rI 44 N a) 0 N o0 w NO 4 v ) w n m mI w ~ wmm 0 v mn ir- w 4 N .0...4.1 o v -0 o n v-4 NlNr 0 v0v0H cm40 rIO v-I (l i N 4 -H S0000 000000 00000 ~0 M0 .- lWI 04. W1 Kr 4 nI 00 toI 4 0 0 in 0$ O 4 4 NV N Q-I 0- v- .4 0 cc

  20. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  1. Helicopter Flight Control Research - A Demanding Application of Piloted Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Sigma-8 digital computer (used to run the aircraft mathematical model) and an Applied Dynamics AD-4 analogue computer (used principally as a flexible...interface to cockpit instruments, and for motion and visual systems operation) (Fig 4). The first helicopter simulation to use a digital aircraft...34 Control Technology for helicopters. For fixed-wing aircraft, impresive claims were being made for electrically (and later optically) signalled control

  2. Application of Flight Simulator Record/Playback Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    complex visual flying task in ASPT under one of three instructional conditions which differed in their use of an automated record/playback feature. The...Advanced Instructional Features and Methods in ASPT . The work unit supports project 1123, Flying Training Development; task 112302, Ivstructional...cloverleaf maneuver flown in the present study. Appwffaa. The study was conducted on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) located at the Flying

  3. Aerodynamic simulation strategies assessment for a fenestron in hover flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M.; Gourdain, N.; Legras, G.; Alfano, D.

    2017-06-01

    The Fenestron® has a crucial antitorque function and its sizing is a key point of the Helicopter design, especially regarding thrust and power predictions. This paper reports the investigations done on a full scale Dauphin Fenestron®. The objectives are, first, to evaluate the in§uence of some numerical parameters on the performance of the Fenestron®; and then, the flow is analyzed for a high incidence pitch, for which the rotor blade can experience massive boundary layer separations. Simulations are carried out on a single blade passage model. Several parameters are benched such as grid quality, numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. A comparison with test bench measurements is carried out to evaluate the capability of the numerical simulations to predict both global performance (thrust and power) and local flows (static pressure at the shroud and radial profiles inside the vein). The analysis demonstrates the capability of numerical simulations to accurately estimate the global performance of the Fenestron®, including at high pitch angles. However, some discrepancies remain on the local flow, especially in the vicinity of the rotor shroud. A more detailed analysis of the local flow is performed at a blade pitch angle of 35°, with a particular interest for the blade tip region.

  4. Pilot performance evaluation of simulated flight approach and landing manoeuvres using quantitative assessment tools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P ARCHANA HEBBAR; ABHAY A PASHILKAR

    2017-03-01

    This research work examines the application of different statistical and empirical analysis methods to quantify pilot performance. A realistic approach and landing flight scenario is executed using the reconfigurable flight simulator at National Aerospace Laboratories and both subjective and quantitative measures are applied to the pilot performance data. Simulations were repeated for different difficult landing conditions likelanding with degraded visibility, with crosswinds, with degraded aircraft handling qualities and with emergency conditions. Relative assessment of the different applicable metrics is made and significance of task difficulties on pilot performance is investigated. Changes in the pilot’s control strategy with respect to primary and secondary tasks are also discussed in detail. Results indicate that analysing pilot’s control strategy together with his/her deviations from predetermined flight profile provides a means to quantify pilot performance.

  5. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  6. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  7. Evaluation of the Course of the Flight Simulators from the Perspective of Students and University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Feyzi; Bavli, Bünyamin; Gürol, Aysun

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the flight simulators course which was opened to fulfill the intermediate staff need of the sector. To collect data, Qualitative techniques were applied. Within this scope, the case study method was employed in the study. The study group consisted of students and instructors. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted…

  8. Stall Recovery in a Centrifuge-Based Flight Simulator With an Extended Aerodynamic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledegang, W.D.; Groen, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the performance of 12 airline pilots in recovering from an asymmetrical stall in a flight simulator featuring an extended aerodynamic model of a transport-category aircraft, and a centrifuge-based motion platform capable of generating enhanced buffet motion and g-cueing. All pilots h

  9. Flight Simulator: Use of SpaceGraph Display in an Instructor/Operator Station. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence D.

    This report describes SpaceGraph, a new computer-driven display technology capable of showing space-filling images, i.e., true three dimensional displays, and discusses the advantages of this technology over flat displays for use with the instructor/operator station (IOS) of a flight simulator. Ideas resulting from 17 brainstorming sessions with…

  10. THE ALGORITHM OF FORMATION OF CONFLICTING SITUATIONS FOR FULL FLIGHT SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Akimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of formation of a conflicting situation for the Full Flight Simulator is described. The algorithm calculates the trajectory of the intruder that potentially can lead to the collision with "evading aircraft" - FFS. In case of near miss, traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS triggers, after which the crew trains collision avoidance techniques.

  11. Prediction and simulator verification of state-space rotor modelling on helicopter manoeuvring flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, R.; Gennaretti, M.; Pavel, M.D.; Stroosma, O.; Miletovic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the many fundamental components of a flight simulator, the mathematical representation of the vehicle dynamics stands out for complexity and importance. This is especially true for helicopters, for which the complex dynamics involved prevents simple models to be sufficiently accurate without t

  12. Use of an adjustable hand plate in studying the perceived horizontal plane during simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola; Lemming, Dag; Levin, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative data on spatial orientation would be valuable not only in assessing the fidelity of flight simulators, but also in evaluation of spatial orientation training. In this study a manual indicator was used for recording the subjective horizontal plane during simulated flight. In a six-degrees-of-freedom hexapod hydraulic motion platform simulator, simulating an F-16 aircraft, seven fixed-wing student pilots were passively exposed to two flight sequences. The first consisted in a number of coordinated turns with visual contact with the landscape below. The visually presented roll tilt was up to a maximum 670. The second was a takeoff with a cabin pitch up of 100, whereupon external visual references were lost. The subjects continuously indicated, with the left hand on an adjustable plate, what they perceived as horizontal in roll and pitch. There were two test occasions separated by a 3-d course on spatial disorientation. Responses to changes in simulated roll were, in general, instantaneous. The indicated roll tilt was approximately 30% of the visually presented roll. There was a considerable interindividual variability. However, for the roll response there was a correlation between the two occasions. The amplitude of the response to the pitch up of the cabin was approximately 75%; the response decayed much more slowly than the stimulus. With a manual indicator for recording the subjective horizontal plane, individual characteristics in the response to visual tilt stimuli may be detected, suggesting a potential for evaluation of simulation algorithms or training programs.

  13. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  14. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE simulated flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  15. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  16. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  17. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  18. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  19. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  20. An experimental analysis of situation awareness for cockpit display interface evaluation based on flight simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hengyang; Zhuang Damin; Wanyan Xiaoru; Wang Qun

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft cockpit display interface (CDI) is one of the most important human-machine interfaces for information perceiving.During the process of aircraft design,situation awareness (SA) is frequently considered to improve the design,as the CDI must provide enough SA for the pilot to maintain the flight safety.In order to study the SA in the pilot-aircraft system,a cockpit flight simulation environment is built up,which includes a virtual instrument panel,a flight visual display and the corresponding control system.Based on the simulation environment,a human-in-the-loop experiment is designed to measure the SA by the situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT).Through the experiment,the SA degrees and heart rate (HR) data of the subjects are obtained,and the SA levels under different CDI designs are analyzed.The results show that analyzing the SA can serve as an objective way to evaluate the design of CDI,which could be proved from the consistent HR data.With this method,evaluations of the CDI design are performed in the experimental flight simulation environment,and optimizations could be guided through the analysis.

  1. The effects of workload on respiratory variables in simulated flight: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated respiratory activity and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)) during exposure to varying levels of work load in a simulated flight environment. Seven pilots (age: 34-60) participated in a one-session test on the Boeing 737-800 simulator. Physiological data were collected while pilots wore an ambulatory multi-channel recording device. Respiratory variables, including inductance plethysmography (respiratory pattern) and pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)), were collected demonstrating change in CO(2) levels proportional to changes in flight task workload. Pilots performed a set of simulation flight tasks. Pilot performance was rated for each task by a test pilot; and self-report of workload was taken using the NASA-TLX scale. Mixed model analysis revealed that respiration rate and minute ventilation are significantly associated with workload levels and evaluator scores controlling for "vanilla baseline" condition. Hypocapnia exclusively occurred in tasks where pilots performed more poorly. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation in order to develop a psychophysiological assessment methodology, rather than to offer conclusive findings. The results show that the respiratory system is very reactive to high workload conditions in aviation and suggest that hypocapnia may pose a flight safety risk under some circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and implementation of a shaking seat system for flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Yu, Youzhi; Shen, Weiqun; Song, Zishan

    2006-11-01

    To a helicopter the shaking seat system can simulate the vibration caused by the main rotor, tail rotor, engine, weapon firing, landing, etc. This paper focuses on the research and analysis of the shaking system of a helicopter flight simulator. The vibration model of the seat is built and the system is also developed. According to different flight states of the helicopter the vibration states of the seat are classified based on real measurement data, and the spectra of the vibration are interpolated to model the vibration of the seat. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to drive the seat to shake along the direction that is parallel to the vertical body axis. The seat is shaken under the instructions at reference height with position close-loop control method, and the control law is PID algorithm. Running parameters of the system are configured by the software. The motional states of the shaking seat are displayed to the user through the visualization software. The main parts of the system and some key technologies of the implementation are also presented in the paper. The system can generate the special vibration environment in the helicopter flight process, and is successfully applied to the flight simulator. So the pilots' immersion feelings are increased.

  3. Model-Based GN and C Simulation and Flight Software Development for Orion Missions beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Milenkovic, Zoran; Henry, Joel; Buttacoli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For Orion missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system is being developed using a model-based approach for simulation and flight software. Lessons learned from the development of GN&C algorithms and flight software for the Orion Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) vehicle have been applied to the development of further capabilities for Orion GN&C beyond EFT-1. Continuing the use of a Model-Based Development (MBD) approach with the Matlab®/Simulink® tool suite, the process for GN&C development and analysis has been largely improved. Furthermore, a model-based simulation environment in Simulink, rather than an external C-based simulation, greatly eases the process for development of flight algorithms. The benefits seen by employing lessons learned from EFT-1 are described, as well as the approach for implementing additional MBD techniques. Also detailed are the key enablers for improvements to the MBD process, including enhanced configuration management techniques for model-based software systems, automated code and artifact generation, and automated testing and integration.

  4. Objective Fidelity Evaluation in Multisensory Virtual Environments: Auditory Cue Fidelity in Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F.; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues. PMID:22957068

  5. New Predictive Filters for Compensating the Transport Delay on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Wolters, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The problems of transport delay in a flight simulator, such as its sources and effects, are reviewed. Then their effects on a pilot-in-the-loop control system are investigated with simulations. Three current prominent delay compensators the lead/lag filter, McFarland filter, and the Sobiski/Cardullo filter were analyzed and compared. This paper introduces two novel delay compensation techniques an adaptive predictor using the Kalman estimator and a state space predictive filter using a reference aerodynamic model. Applications of these two new compensators on recorded data from the NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator show that they achieve better compensation over the current ones.

  6. In-flight simulation with pilot-center of gravity offset and velocity mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Similarity transformations which preserve modal characteristics and pilot's acceleration cues in in-flight simulation are presented. The model transformation for lateral acceleration matching is developed. A velocity-mismatch example, based on a VRA simulation of the Space Shuttle, illustrates that acceleration matching is achieved at the expense of mismatching in cues which are secondary to the simulated piloting task, while primarily cues are preserved. The approach is applicable for both implicit and explicit model-following, and it can easily be extended to the longitudinal case.

  7. Pitch Controllability Based on Airplane Model without Short-Period Approximation—Flight Simulator Experiment—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Pitch controllability of an airplane is very important for longitudinal flying qualities, therefore, much research has been conducted. However, it has not been clarified why pitch handling qualities degrades in the low speed, e.g. take-off and landing flight phases. On this topic, this paper investigates the effect of several parameters of the short-period mode and phugoid mode using a flight simulator. The results show the following conclusions: The difference between the initial phase angles in two modal components in the pitch attitude response to elevator step input plays the most important role in the pitch handling qualities among modal parameters; and the difference of the two modal natural frequencies has small effect on the pitch controllability even when flight speed decreases.

  8. A General Simulator Using State Estimation for a Space Tug Navigation System. [computerized simulation, orbital position estimation and flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1975-01-01

    A general simulation program is presented (GSP) involving nonlinear state estimation for space vehicle flight navigation systems. A complete explanation of the iterative guidance mode guidance law, derivation of the dynamics, coordinate frames, and state estimation routines are given so as to fully clarify the assumptions and approximations involved so that simulation results can be placed in their proper perspective. A complete set of computer acronyms and their definitions as well as explanations of the subroutines used in the GSP simulator are included. To facilitate input/output, a complete set of compatable numbers, with units, are included to aid in data development. Format specifications, output data phrase meanings and purposes, and computer card data input are clearly spelled out. A large number of simulation and analytical studies were used to determine the validity of the simulator itself as well as various data runs.

  9. Health Effects of Airline Cabin Environments in Simulated 8-Hour Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft. Biomarkers of thrombosis (D-Dimer), inflammation (interleukin-6), and respiratory dysfunction (FEV1) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured, as well as pulse and blood pressure. The wellbeing of the passengers was also monitored. During 36 flights, 1260 healthy subjects [626 women (F) and 634 men (M) (mean age = 43, SD = 16)] were assessed. Additionally, 72 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (F = 32, M = 40, mean age = 48, SD = 17) and 74 with heart failure (F = 50, M = 24, mean age = 54, SD = 14) contributed to 11 flights. Additionally, 76 normal controls were observed while engaged in a usual day's work (F = 38, M = 38, mean age = 39, SD = 15). There were no health-significant changes in D-Dimer, interleukin-6, or FEV1. Spo2 varied as expected, with lowest values at 8000 ft and in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The only differences from the controls were the loss of the normal diurnal variations in interleukin-6 and D-Dimer. This very large, comparative, controlled study provides much reassurance for the traveling public, who use airline flights of up to 8 h. We did not show evidence of the development of venous thrombosis, inflammation, respiratory embarrassment, nor passenger distress. No significant symptoms or adverse effects were reported.Ideal Cabin Environment (ICE) Research Consortium of the European Community 6th Framework Programme. Health effects of airline cabin environments in simulated 8-hour flights. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):651-656.

  10. Creating a Realistic Weather Environment for Motion-Based Piloted Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Evans, Emory T.; Neece, Robert T.; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight simulation environment is being enhanced to facilitate experiments that evaluate research prototypes of advanced onboard weather radar, hazard/integrity monitoring (HIM), and integrated alerting and notification (IAN) concepts in adverse weather conditions. The simulation environment uses weather data based on real weather events to support operational scenarios in a terminal area. A simulated atmospheric environment was realized by using numerical weather data sets. These were produced from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model hosted and run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To align with the planned flight simulation experiment requirements, several HRRR data sets were acquired courtesy of NOAA. These data sets coincided with severe weather events at the Memphis International Airport (MEM) in Memphis, TN. In addition, representative flight tracks for approaches and departures at MEM were generated and used to develop and test simulations of (1) what onboard sensors such as the weather radar would observe; (2) what datalinks of weather information would provide; and (3) what atmospheric conditions the aircraft would experience (e.g. turbulence, winds, and icing). The simulation includes a weather radar display that provides weather and turbulence modes, derived from the modeled weather along the flight track. The radar capabilities and the pilots controls simulate current-generation commercial weather radar systems. Appropriate data-linked weather advisories (e.g., SIGMET) were derived from the HRRR weather models and provided to the pilot consistent with NextGen concepts of use for Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) and Meteorological (MET) data link products. The net result of this simulation development was the creation of an environment that supports investigations of new flight deck information systems, methods for incorporation of better weather information, and pilot interface and operational improvements

  11. Understanding Crew Decision-Making in the Presence of Complexity: A Flight Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Evans, Emory; deHaag, Maarten Uijt; Duan, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Crew decision making and response have long been leading causal and contributing factors associated with aircraft accidents. Further, it is anticipated that future aircraft and operational environments will increase exposure to risks related to these factors if proactive steps are not taken to account for ever-increasing complexity. A flight simulation study was designed to collect data to help in understanding how complexity can, or may, be manifest. More specifically, an experimental apparatus was constructed that allowed for manipulation of information complexity and uncertainty, while also manipulating operational complexity and uncertainty. Through these manipulations, and the aid of experienced airline pilots, several issues have been discovered, related most prominently to the influence of information content, quality, and management. Flight crews were immersed in an environment that included new operational complexities suggested for the future air transportation system as well as new technological complexities (e.g. electronic flight bags, expanded data link services, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, and interval management automation). In addition, a set of off-nominal situations were emulated. These included, for example, adverse weather conditions, traffic deviations, equipment failures, poor data quality, communication errors, and unexpected clearances, or changes to flight plans. Each situation was based on one or more reference events from past accidents or incidents, or on a similar case that had been used in previous developmental tests or studies. Over the course of the study, 10 twopilot airline crews participated, completing over 230 flights. Each flight consisted of an approach beginning at 10,000 ft. Based on the recorded data and pilot and research observations, preliminary results are presented regarding decision-making issues in the presence of the operational and technological complexities encountered during the flights.

  12. Motions Recognized through Visual Scene by Pilots and Flight Simulator Tests with Only Lateral-Directional Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Osamu

    A flight simulator must exactly simulate the aircraft motion. So, engineers check if the solution of equations of motion, the calculation of flight positions and attitudes, and then, the drawn-up of visual scenery from cockpit windows according to the calculated positions and attitudes are correct. This paper proposes an additional check if the aircraft motion perceived from visual scenery by pilot is same as the calculated motion. This opinion is applied to the simulation case that just lateral-directional flying qualities are evaluated, and it is found that the pitching motion rate (q) and Euler’s pitch attitude rate (Θ) should not be perfectly neglected (i.e. q=Θ=0) but (q and Θ) should be given assuming steady level turn flight should be given. The flight simulator test showed that the pilot felt more real flight motion and controlled some harder than in the condition of q=Θ=0.

  13. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Flight Dynamics Simulations Using MATLAB (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, R. D.; Rowe, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study to verify onboard attitude control laws in the coarse Sun-pointing (CSP) mode by simulation and to develop procedures for operational support for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995, and the predictions of the simulation were verified with the flight data. This study used a commercial off the shelf product MATLAB(tm) to do the following: Develop procedures for computing the parasitic torques for orbital maneuvers; Simulate onboard attitude control of roll, pitch, and yaw during orbital maneuvers; Develop procedures for predicting firing time for both on- and off-modulated thrusters during orbital maneuvers; Investigate the use of feed forward or pre-bias torques to reduce the attitude handoff during orbit maneuvers - in particular, determine how to use the flight data to improve the feed forward torque estimates for use on future maneuvers. The study verified the stability of the attitude control during orbital maneuvers and the proposed use of feed forward torques to compensate for the attitude handoff. Comparison of the simulations with flight data showed: Parasitic torques provided a good estimate of the on- and off-modulation for attitude control; The feed forward torque compensation scheme worked well to reduce attitude handoff during the orbital maneuvers. The work has been extended to prototype calibration of thrusters from observed firing time and observed reaction wheel speed changes.

  14. Neck muscle activity in fighter pilots wearing night-vision equipment during simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Björn O; Kristoffersson, Mats

    2013-02-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVG) in jet fighter aircraft appear to increase the risk of neck strain due to increased neck loading. The present aim was, therefore, to evaluate the effect on neck-muscle activity and subjective ratings of head-worn night-vision (NV) equipment in controlled simulated flights. Five experienced fighter pilots twice flew a standardized 2.5-h program in a dynamic flight simulator; one session with NVG and one with standard helmet mockup (control session). Each session commenced with a 1-h simulation at 1 Gz followed by a 1.5-h dynamic flight with repeated Gz profiles varying between 3 and 7 Gz and including aerial combat maneuvers (ACM) at 3-5 Gz. Large head-and-neck movements under high G conditions were avoided. Surface electromyographic (EMG) data was simultaneously measured bilaterally from anterior neck, upper and lower posterior neck, and upper shoulder muscles. EMG activity was normalized as the percentage of pretest maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). Head-worn equipment (helmet comfort, balance, neck mobility, and discomfort) was rated subjectively immediately after flight. A trend emerged toward greater overall neck muscle activity in NV flight during sustained ACM episodes (10% vs. 8% MVC for the control session), but with no such effects for temporary 3-7 Gz profiles. Postflight ratings for NV sessions emerged as "unsatisfactory" for helmet comfort/neck discomfort. However, this was not significant compared to the control session. Helmet mounted NV equipment caused greater neck muscle activity during sustained combat maneuvers, indicating increased muscle strain due to increased neck loading. In addition, postflight ratings indicated neck discomfort after NV sessions, although not clearly increased compared to flying with standard helmet mockup.

  15. Prediction of Cognitive States During Flight Simulation Using Multimodal Psychophysiological Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Stephens, Chad L.; Milletich, Robert J.; Heinich, Christina M.; Last, Mary Carolyn; Napoli, Nicholas J.; Abraham, Nijo A.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Motter, Mark A.; Pope, Alan T.

    2017-01-01

    The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness (ASA), and distraction was involved in all of them. Research on attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) such as channelized attention, diverted attention, startle/surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors was implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during a high fidelity flight simulation human subject study. Twenty-four pilot participants were asked to wear the sensors while they performed benchmark tasks and motion-based flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to predict the occurrence of AHPLS during flight simulation also designed to induce those states. Classifier training data were collected during performance of the benchmark tasks. Multimodal classification was performed, using pre-processed electroencephalography, galvanic skin response, electrocardiogram, and respiration signals as input features. A combination of one, some or all modalities were used. Extreme gradient boosting, random forest and two support vector machine classifiers were implemented. The best accuracy for each modality-classifier combination is reported. Results using a select set of features and using the full set of available features are presented. Further, results are presented for training one classifier with the combined features and for training multiple classifiers with features from each modality separately. Using the select set of features and combined training, multistate prediction accuracy averaged 0.64 +/- 0.14 across thirteen participants and was significantly higher than that for the separate training

  16. Flight Test Identification and Simulation of a UH-60A Helicopter and Slung Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, Luigi S.; Sahai, Ranjana; Tucker, George E.; McCoy, Allen H.; Tyson, Peter H.; Tischler, Mark B.; Rosen, Aviv

    2001-01-01

    Helicopter slung-load operations are common in both military and civil contexts. Helicopters and loads are often qualified for these operations by means of flight tests, which can be expensive and time consuming. There is significant potential to reduce such costs both through revisions in flight-test methods and by using validated simulation models. To these ends, flight tests were conducted at Moffett Field to demonstrate the identification of key dynamic parameters during flight tests (aircraft stability margins and handling-qualities parameters, and load pendulum stability), and to accumulate a data base for simulation development and validation. The test aircraft was a UH-60A Black Hawk, and the primary test load was an instrumented 8- by 6- by 6-ft cargo container. Tests were focused on the lateral and longitudinal axes, which are the axes most affected by the load pendulum modes in the frequency range of interest for handling qualities; tests were conducted at airspeeds from hover to 80 knots. Using telemetered data, the dynamic parameters were evaluated in near real time after each test airspeed and before clearing the aircraft to the next test point. These computations were completed in under 1 min. A simulation model was implemented by integrating an advanced model of the UH-60A aerodynamics, dynamic equations for the two-body slung-load system, and load static aerodynamics obtained from wind-tunnel measurements. Comparisons with flight data for the helicopter alone and with a slung load showed good overall agreement for all parameters and test points; however, unmodeled secondary dynamic losses around 2 Hz were found in the helicopter model and they resulted in conservative stability margin estimates.

  17. A Compound Fuzzy Disturbance Observer Based on Sliding Modes and Its Application on Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compound fuzzy disturbance observer based on sliding modes is developed, and its application on flight simulator is presented. Fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO is an effective method in nonlinear control. However, traditional FDO is confined to monitor dynamic disturbance, and the frequency bandwidth of the system is restricted. Sliding mode control (SMC compensates the high-frequency component of disturbance while it is limited by the chattering phenomenon. The proposed method uses the sliding mode technique to deal with the uncompensated dynamic equivalent disturbance. The switching gain of sliding mode control designed according to the error of disturbance estimation is a small value. Therefore, the proposal also helps to decrease the chattering. The validity of the proposal method is confirmed by experiments on flight simulator.

  18. Postural instability and motion sickness in a fixed-based flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, T A; Hettinger, L J; Haas, M W; Roe, M M; Smart, L J

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the prediction that postural instability would precede the subjective symptoms of motion sickness in a fixed-base flight simulator. Participants sat in a cockpit in a video projection dome and were exposed to optical flow that oscillated in the roll axis with exposure durations typical of flight simulation. The frequencies of oscillation were those that characterize spontaneous postural sway during stance. Head motion was measured prior to and during exposure to imposed optical flow. Of 14 participants, 6 were classified as motion sick, either during or after exposure to the optical oscillation. Prior to the onset of subjective symptoms, head motion among participants who later became sick was significantly greater than among participants who did not become motion sick. We argue that the results support the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Actual or potential applications include the prevention or mitigation of motion sickness in virtual environments.

  19. An integrative approach to space-flight physiology using systems analysis and mathematical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.; White, R. J.; Rummel, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    An approach was developed to aid in the integration of many of the biomedical findings of space flight, using systems analysis. The mathematical tools used in accomplishing this task include an automated data base, a biostatistical and data analysis system, and a wide variety of mathematical simulation models of physiological systems. A keystone of this effort was the evaluation of physiological hypotheses using the simulation models and the prediction of the consequences of these hypotheses on many physiological quantities, some of which were not amenable to direct measurement. This approach led to improvements in the model, refinements of the hypotheses, a tentative integrated hypothesis for adaptation to weightlessness, and specific recommendations for new flight experiments.

  20. Predictability of Pilot Performance from Simulated to Real Flight in the UH-60 (Black Hawk) Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    making two 90-degree turns to the downwind leg of the traffic pattern, was required to hold the aircraft to straight and level flight at 1000 ft MSL and...simulator, there were no delays caused by heavy aircraft traffic in the area or maintenance delays from equipment malfunctions or failures. Despite all...vibration exposures, or true depth of field/ stereopsis , might only be meaningful in the real aircraft environment. Conclusions The use of operational

  1. A Compound Fuzzy Disturbance Observer Based on Sliding Modes and Its Application on Flight Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjie Wu; Youmin Liu; Dapeng Tian

    2013-01-01

    A compound fuzzy disturbance observer based on sliding modes is developed, and its application on flight simulator is presented. Fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO) is an effective method in nonlinear control. However, traditional FDO is confined to monitor dynamic disturbance, and the frequency bandwidth of the system is restricted. Sliding mode control (SMC) compensates the high-frequency component of disturbance while it is limited by the chattering phenomenon. The proposed method uses the sl...

  2. Effect of cognitive load on speech prosody in aviation: Evidence from military simulator flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Keränen, Heikki; Väyrynen, Eero; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Leino, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    Mental overload directly affects safety in aviation and needs to be alleviated. Speech recordings are obtained non-invasively and as such are feasible for monitoring cognitive load. We recorded speech of 13 military pilots while they were performing a simulator task. Three types of cognitive load (load on situation awareness, information processing and decision making) were rated by a flight instructor separately for each flight phase and participant. As a function of increased cognitive load, the mean utterance-level fundamental frequency (F0) increased, on average, by 7 Hz and the mean vocal intensity increased by 1 dB. In the most intensive simulator flight phases, mean F0 increased by 12 Hz and mean intensity, by 1.5 dB. At the same time, the mean F0 range decreased by 5 Hz, on average. Our results showed that prosodic features of speech can be used to monitor speaker state and support pilot training in a simulator environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissociation of visual associative and motor learning in Drosophila at the flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunpeng; Li, Yan; Feng, Chunhua; Guo, Aike

    2003-08-29

    Ever since operant conditioning was studied experimentally, the relationship between associative learning and possible motor learning has become controversial. Although motor learning and its underlying neural substrates have been extensively studied in mammals, it is still poorly understood in invertebrates. The visual discriminative avoidance paradigm of Drosophila at the flight simulator has been widely used to study the flies' visual associative learning and related functions, but it has not been used to study the motor learning process. In this study, newly-designed data analysis was employed to examine the flies' solitary behavioural variable that was recorded at the flight simulator-yaw torque. Analysis was conducted to explore torque distributions of both wild-type and mutant flies in conditioning, with the following results: (1) Wild-type Canton-S flies had motor learning performance in conditioning, which was proved by modifications of the animal's behavioural mode in conditioning. (2) Repetition of training improved the motor learning performance of wild-type Canton-S flies. (3) Although mutant dunce(1) flies were defective in visual associative learning, they showed essentially normal motor learning performance in terms of yaw torque distribution in conditioning. Finally, we tentatively proposed that both visual associative learning and motor learning were involved in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, that the two learning forms could be dissociated and they might have different neural bases.

  4. The Rufous Hummingbird in hovering flight -- full-body 3D immersed boundary simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo; Luo, Haoxiang; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto

    2009-11-01

    Hummingbirds are an interesting case study for the development of micro-air vehicles since they combine the high flight stability of insects with the low metabolic power per unit of body mass of bats, during hovering flight. In this study, simulations of a full-body hummingbird in hovering flight were performed at a Reynolds number around 3600. The simulations employ a versatile sharp-interface immersed boundary method recently enhanced at our lab that can treat thin membranes and solid bodies alike. Implemented on a Cartesian mesh, the numerical method allows us to capture the vortex dynamics of the wake accurately and efficiently. The whole-body simulation will allow us to clearly identify the three general patterns of flow velocity around the body of the hummingbird referred in Altshuler et al. (Exp Fluids 46 (5), 2009). One focus of the current study is to understand the interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and how the tail actively defects the flow to contribute to pitch stability. Another focus of the study will be to identify the pair of unconnected loops underneath each wing.

  5. First ground-based FTIR-observations of methane in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Petersen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Total column concentrations and volume mixing ratio profiles of methane have been retrieved from ground-based solar absorption FTIR spectra in the near-infrared recorded in Paramaribo (Suriname. The methane FTIR observations are compared with TM5 model simulations and satellite observations from SCIAMACHY, and represent the first validation of SCIAMACHY retrievals in the tropics using ground-based remote sensing techniques. Apart from local biomass burning features, our methane FTIR observations agree well with the SCIAMACHY retrievals and TM5 model simulations.

  6. Zero phase error control based on neural compensation for flight simulator servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; He Peng; Er Lianjie

    2006-01-01

    Using the future desired input value, zero phase error controller enables the overall system's frequency response exhibit zero phase shift for all frequencies and a small gain error at low frequency range, and based on this, a new algorithm is presented to design the feedforward controller. However, zero phase error controller is only suitable for certain linear system. To reduce the tracking error and improve robustness, the design of the proposed feedforward controller uses a neural compensation based on diagonal recurrent neural network. Simulation and real-time control results for flight simulator servo system show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Evaluation Model of Design for Operation and Architecture of Hierarchical Virtual Simulation for Flight Vehicle Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu; TIAN Yongliang; ZHANG Chaoying; YIN Jiao; SUN Yijie

    2012-01-01

    In order to take requirements for commercial operations or military missions into better consideration in new flight vehicle design,a tri-hierarchical task classification model of "design for operation" is proposed,which takes basic man-object interaction task,complex collaborative operation and large-scale joint operation into account.The corresponding general architecture of evaluation criteria is also depicted.Then a virtual simulation-based approach to implement the evaluations at three hierarchy levels is mainly analyzed with a detailed example,which validates the feasibility and effectiveness of evaluation architecture.Finally,extending the virtual simulation architecture from design to operation training is discussed.

  8. Effect of Above Real Time Training and Post Flight Feedback in Training of Novice Pilots in a PC-Based Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Heath, Bruce E.; Ali, Syed firasat; Crane, Peter; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2003-01-01

    The use of Post-Flight Feedback (PFFB) and Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) while training novice pilots to perform a coordinated level turn on a PC-based flight simulator was investigated. One group trained at 1.5 ARTT followed by an equal number of flights at 2.0 ARTT; the second group experienced Real Time Training (RTT). The total number of flights for both groups was equal. Each group was further subdivided into two groups one of which was provided PFFB while the other was not. Then, all participants experienced two challenging evaluation missions in real time. Performance was assessed by comparing root-mean-square error in bank-angle and altitude. Participants in the 1.512.0 ARTT No-PFFB sequence did not show improvement in performance across training sessions. An ANOVA on performance in evaluation flights found that the PFFB groups performed significantly better than those with No-PFFB. Also, the RTT groups performed significantly better than the ARTT groups. Data from two additional groups trained under a 2.011.5 ARTT PFFB and No-PFFB regimes were collected and combined with data from the previously Trainers, Real-time simulation, Personal studied groups and reanalyzed to study the computers, Man-in-the-loop simulation influence of sequence. An ANOVA on test trials found no significant effects between groups. Under training situations involving ARTT we recommend that appropriate PFFB be provided.

  9. Ground-based optical observation system for LEO objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a ground-based optical observation system for monitoring LEO objects, which uses numerous optical sensors to cover a vast region of the sky. Its potential in terms of detection and orbital determination were examined. About 30 cm LEO objects at 1000 km altitude are detectable using an 18 cm telescope, a CCD camera and the analysis software developed. Simulations and a test observation showed that two longitudinally separate observation sites with arrays of optical sensors can identify the same objects from numerous data sets and determine their orbits precisely. The proposed system may complement or replace the current radar observation system for monitoring LEO objects, like space-situation awareness, in the near future.

  10. Flight School in the Virtual Environment: Capabilities and Risks of Executing a Simulations-Based Flight Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    27 Kathy L. Nau, Sara K. Krondak, and Norma L Lewis, "Flight School XXI (FSXXI) Training...October 12, 2011). Nau, Kathy L., Sara K. Krondak, and Norma L Lewis. "Flight School XXI (FSXXI) Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA)." White

  11. Assessing the British Isles CH4 flux using aircraft and ground-based sampling: a case study on 12 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Aircraft and ground-based sampling of atmospheric greenhouse gas composition over the British Isles was conducted between 2014 and 2016 as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project. We report a case study focussing on two research aircraft flights conducted on 12 May 2015 to sample inflow and outflow across the British Isles. We have employed the NAME Lagrangian dispersion model to simulate CH4 mole fraction enhancements corresponding to aircraft and ground-based sample times and locations, using CH4 surface fluxes derived from a composite flux inventory, which included both anthropogenic and natural sources. For each sampling location, variations in the baseline CH4 mole fraction were derived using the MOZART global chemical transport model, and added to the NAME enhancements to produce a dataset of modelled CH4 mole fractions which can be compared to the measurements. Using a multiple variable regression technique, we derive CH4 fluxes for the British Isles region from both aircraft and ground-based datasets. We discuss the applicability of our approach for both datasets, and conclude that in this case the assumptions inherent in our method are much better satisfied for the aircraft data than for the ground-based data. Using the aircraft data we derive a possible range of scale factors for the prior inventory flux of 0.53 - 0.97, with a central estimate of 0.82 based on our assessment of the most likely apportionment of model uncertainty. This leads to a posterior estimate of the British Isles CH4 flux of 67 kg s-1 - 121 kg s-1, with a central value of 103 kg s-1.

  12. Female exposure to high G: performance of simulated flight after 24 hours of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelette, T L; Albery, W B; Esken, R L; Tripp, L D

    1998-09-01

    Ground-based research has investigated the loss of cognitive function in the extreme conditions of G-induced loss of consciousness, however, little is known about pilots' abilities to maintain cognitive performance throughout prolonged conscious exposure in the high-G environment. The effects of fatigue and G layoff on performance during exposure to high G are mostly unknown for the female population. This research was conducted on the centrifuge Dynamic Environment Simulator. Active-duty personnel (8 male and 8 female) were trained to fly the F-16 simulation while 30 performance measures were recorded. Performance was re-evaluated after 24 h of sleep deprivation. Neither male nor female overall performance was affected significantly by sleep status, although individual tasks showed sensitivity; call-sign reaction time was longer by 33%, and missile survival was less likely. Also, when sleep deprived, perceived effort and physical demand were higher while perceived performance was lower. No differences in performance were found in either gender due to lay-off, although some physiologic deconditioning was apparent. Women commanded and endured the same amount of G load as men, however, on average they could not perform the tracking task quite as well. Sleep deprivation (24 h) produced sensations of fatigue and frustration, but overall performance was not reduced. The ability of personnel to complete a complex defensive maneuver was reduced when they were sleep deprived. The women that we tested apparently could not optimize the tracking task as well as their male counterparts when Gz was in the simulation. None of these results were sufficient to suggest that women should not be allowed to compete for flying assignments in high-performance aircraft.

  13. Incorporation of EGPWS in the NASA Ames Research Center 747-400 Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallant, Ghislain; DeGennaro, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center CAE Boeing 747300 flight simulator is used primarily for the study of human factors in aviation safety. The simulator is constantly upgraded to maintain a configuration match to a specific United Airlines aircraft and maintains the highest level of FAA certification to ensure credibility to the results of research programs. United's 747-400 fleet and hence the simulator are transitioning from the older Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) to the state-of-the-art Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS). GPWS was an early attempt to reduce or eliminate Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). Basic GPWS alerting modes include: excessive descent rate, excessive terrain closure rate, altitude loss after takeoff, unsafe terrain clearance, excessive deviation below glideslope, advisory callouts and windshear alerting. However, since GPWS uses the radar altimeter which looks straight down, ample warning is not always provided. EGPWS retains all of the basic functions of GPWS but adds the ability to look ahead by comparing the aircraft position to an internal database and provide additional alerting and display capabilities. This paper evaluates three methods of incorporating EGPWS in the simulator and describes the implementation and architecture of the preferred option.

  14. High-order state space simulation models of helicopter flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation and validation of a high-order linearized mathematical model of helicopter flight mechanics, which includes rotor flap and lag degrees of freedom as well as inflow dynamics. The model is extracted numerically from an existing nonlinear, blade element, real-time simulation model. Extensive modifications in the formulation and solution process of the nonlinear model, required for a theoetically rigorous linearization, are described in detail. The validation results show that the linearized model successfully captures the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in the frequency band most critical for the design of advanced flight control systems. Additional results quantify the extent to which the order of the model can be reduced without loss of fidelity.

  15. Management Of Trainings With Use Of Flight Simulators In Compliance With Characteristic Parameters Of Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flights conditions of combat aircrafts subject to dynamic changes in variable environment, where properly trained and skilled pilots, capable of perceiving stimuli from outside, play key roles in the decision-making process. The study discloses analyses that have been completed on grounds of survey results carried out for a specific population of cadets and pilots that had practiced on flight simulators. The surveys consisted in measurements of the human response time to artificially arranged emergency circumstances with counting of misbehaviour and errors. Then, upon analysis of correlation between skill features demonstrated by pilot candidates (cadets and trained pilots and with consideration to functions of probability distribution of these features it is possible to estimate expected results that should be achieved by cadets for specific exercises to assess the training system as efficient and suitable to provide intended results when real tasks are assigned to trainees flying eventual aircrafts.

  16. Integrating Flight Dynamics & Control Analysis and Simulation in Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ben; Berger, Tom; Tischler, Mark B.; Theodore, Colin R; Elmore, Josh; Gallaher, Andrew; Tobias, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a toolset, SIMPLI-FLYD ('SIMPLIfied FLight dynamics for conceptual Design') is described. SIMPLI-FLYD is a collection of tools that perform flight dynamics and control modeling and analysis of rotorcraft conceptual designs including a capability to evaluate the designs in an X-Plane-based real-time simulation. The establishment of this framework is now facilitating the exploration of this new capability, in terms of modeling fidelity and data requirements, and the investigation of which stability and control and handling qualities requirements are appropriate for conceptual design. Illustrative design variation studies for single main rotor and tiltrotor vehicle configurations show sensitivity of the stability and control characteristics and an approach to highlight potential weight savings by identifying over-design.

  17. Simulation, flight performance and control of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappan, R. G.; Sen, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study conducted to evaluate the dynamic behavior of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft. The effects of environmental torques on the spacecraft motion, momentum buildup due to these torques, and the long appendages on the main body motion are studied using numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with flight data and are found to be in good agreement. A control philosophy for DE-B to minimize the pitch axis drift is developed. The performance of DE-B in inverted mode and during the inversion maneuver as well as in the normal mode are studied. The spin ripple effect on DE-A due to the long appendages is analyzed and the results are correlated with flight data.

  18. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a bird model in unsteady flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Lin, Zhu; Hui, Guan; Chui-Jie, Wu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a type of numerical simulation of a three-dimensional (3D) bionic bird with flapping wings in a viscous flow is studied. The model is a self-propelled flying bird capable of free rotation and translation whose flying motion follows the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. The bird is propelled and lifted through flapping and rotating wings and most of thrust force and lift force are exerted on both wings. Both the vortex structures and the flight characteristics are also presented. The relationship between both wings' movement and the vortex structures as well as that between both wings' movement and flight characteristics are also analyzed in this paper. The study uses a 3D computational fluid dynamics package that includes the combined immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, adaptive multigrid finite volume method, and control strategy for swimming and flying.

  19. Flight simulation using a Brain-Computer Interface: A pilot, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryger, Michael; Wester, Brock; Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Rich, Matthew; John, Brendan; Beaty, James; McLoughlin, Michael; Boninger, Michael; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    As Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems advance for uses such as robotic arm control it is postulated that the control paradigms could apply to other scenarios, such as control of video games, wheelchair movement or even flight. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether our BCI system, which involves decoding the signals of two 96-microelectrode arrays implanted into the motor cortex of a subject, could also be used to control an aircraft in a flight simulator environment. The study involved six sessions in which various parameters were modified in order to achieve the best flight control, including plane type, view, control paradigm, gains, and limits. Successful flight was determined qualitatively by evaluating the subject's ability to perform requested maneuvers, maintain flight paths, and avoid control losses such as dives, spins and crashes. By the end of the study, it was found that the subject could successfully control an aircraft. The subject could use both the jet and propeller plane with different views, adopting an intuitive control paradigm. From the subject's perspective, this was one of the most exciting and entertaining experiments she had performed in two years of research. In conclusion, this study provides a proof-of-concept that traditional motor cortex signals combined with a decoding paradigm can be used to control systems besides a robotic arm for which the decoder was developed. Aside from possible functional benefits, it also shows the potential for a new recreational activity for individuals with disabilities who are able to master BCI control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical Evaluation Report on the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium on Piloted Simulation Effectiveness (L’Efficacite de la Simulation Pilotee)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    d’importance. ,il Flight Mechanics Panel Chairman: ICA J.-M. Duc Deputy Chairman: Prof. L.M.B.da Costa Campos Directeur Pavilhio de Maquinas Affaires...that these programmes benefitted from having two levels of simulation: a simple standard, for preliminary investigations, and a more complete and...8217iISDaV. tocion syste’ rerormance, accuracy or odellinz, ano temporal rieiiCl’ All of tnese issues are complex and cona’z:onai. so -hac simple criteria

  1. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  2. Effects of Inboard Horizontal Field of View Display Limitations on Pilot Path Control During Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Lavell, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    A flight test was conducted aboard Calspan's Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft by researchers within the External Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research program. The purpose was to investigate the effects of inboard horizontal field of view (FOV) display limitations on pilot path control and to learn about the TIFS capabilities and limitations for possible use in future XVS flight tests. The TIFS cockpit windows were masked to represent the front XVS display area and the High-Speed Civil Transport side windows, as viewed by the pilot. Masking limited the forward FOV to 40 deg. horizontal and 50 deg. vertical for the basic flight condition, With an increase of 10 deg. horizontal in the inboard direction for the increased FOV flight condition. Two right-hand approach tasks (base-downwind-final) with a left crosswind on final were performed by three pilots using visual flight rules at Niagara Falls Airport. Each of the two tasks had three replicates for both horizontal FOV conditions, resulting in twelve approaches per test subject. Limited objective data showed that an increase of inboard FOV had no effect (deficiences in objective data measurement capabilities were noted). However, subjective results showed that a 50 deg. FOV was preferred over the 40 deg. FOV.

  3. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...... enables subjective assessments of the symptoms commonly experienced by passengers and crew during flights. Six investigations with subject exposure have subsequently been carried out in the aircraft cabin facility covering four environmental areas of study, i.e. humidity, air purification techniques......, ozone, and thermal effects. The humidity study, examining the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity, showed that increasing relative humidity in the aircraft cabin by reducing outside air flow did not reduce the intensity of symptoms typically experienced in the aircraft cabin...

  4. Investigation of the effect of EEG-BCI on the simultaneous execution of flight simulation and attentional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Graziani, Ilenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are widely used for clinical applications and exploited to design robotic and interactive systems for healthy people. We provide evidence to control a sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) BCI system while piloting a flight simulator and attending a double attentional task simultaneously. Ten healthy subjects were trained to learn how to manage a flight simulator, use the BCI system, and answer to the attentional tasks independently. Afterward, the EEG activity was collected during a first flight where subjects were required to concurrently use the BCI, and a second flight where they were required to simultaneously use the BCI and answer to the attentional tasks. Results showed that the concurrent use of the BCI system during the flight simulation does not affect the flight performances. However, BCI performances decrease from the 83 to 63 % while attending additional alertness and vigilance tasks. This work shows that it is possible to successfully control a BCI system during the execution of multiple tasks such as piloting a flight simulator with an extra cognitive load induced by attentional tasks. Such framework aims to foster the knowledge on BCI systems embedded into vehicles and robotic devices to allow the simultaneous execution of secondary tasks.

  5. Fuzzy robust nonlinear control approach for electro-hydraulic flight motion simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Songshan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy robust nonlinear controller for hydraulic rotary actuators in flight motion simulators is proposed. Compared with other three-order models of hydraulic rotary actuators, the proposed controller based on first-order nonlinear model is more easily applied in practice, whose control law is relatively simple. It not only does not need high-order derivative of desired command, but also does not require the feedback signals of velocity, acceleration and jerk of hydraulic rotary actuators. Another advantage is that it does not rely on any information of friction, inertia force and external disturbing force/torque, which are always difficult to resolve in flight motion simulators. Due to the special composite vane seals of rectangular cross-section and goalpost shape used in hydraulic rotary actuators, the leakage model is more complicated than that of traditional linear hydraulic cylinders. Adaptive multi-input single-output (MISO fuzzy compensators are introduced to estimate nonlinear uncertain functions about leakage and bulk modulus. Meanwhile, the decomposition of the uncertainties is used to reduce the total number of fuzzy rules. Different from other adaptive fuzzy compensators, a discontinuous projection mapping is employed to guarantee the estimation process to be bounded. Furthermore, with a sufficient number of fuzzy rules, the controller theoretically can guarantee asymptotic tracking performance in the presence of the above uncertainties, which is very important for high-accuracy tracking control of flight motion simulators. Comparative experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, which can guarantee transient performance and better final accurate tracking in the presence of uncertain nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties.

  6. Fuzzy robust nonlinear control approach for electro-hydraulic flight motion simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Songshan; Jiao Zongxia; Wang Chengwen; Shang Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    A fuzzy robust nonlinear controller for hydraulic rotary actuators in flight motion sim-ulators is proposed. Compared with other three-order models of hydraulic rotary actuators, the proposed controller based on first-order nonlinear model is more easily applied in practice, whose control law is relatively simple. It not only does not need high-order derivative of desired command, but also does not require the feedback signals of velocity, acceleration and jerk of hydraulic rotary actuators. Another advantage is that it does not rely on any information of friction, inertia force and external disturbing force/torque, which are always difficult to resolve in flight motion simula-tors. Due to the special composite vane seals of rectangular cross-section and goalpost shape used in hydraulic rotary actuators, the leakage model is more complicated than that of traditional linear hydraulic cylinders. Adaptive multi-input single-output (MISO) fuzzy compensators are introduced to estimate nonlinear uncertain functions about leakage and bulk modulus. Meanwhile, the decom-position of the uncertainties is used to reduce the total number of fuzzy rules. Different from other adaptive fuzzy compensators, a discontinuous projection mapping is employed to guarantee the estimation process to be bounded. Furthermore, with a sufficient number of fuzzy rules, the control-ler theoretically can guarantee asymptotic tracking performance in the presence of the above uncer-tainties, which is very important for high-accuracy tracking control of flight motion simulators. Comparative experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, which can guarantee transient performance and better final accurate tracking in the presence of uncertain nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties.

  7. Workload and cortisol levels in helicopter combat pilots during simulated flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Mas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.

  8. Incidence and possible causes of dental pain during simulated high altitude flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, W

    1993-03-01

    Of 11,617 personnel participating in simulated high altitude flights up to 43,000 feet, only 30 (0.26%) complained of toothache (barodontalgia). The cause of the barodontalgia in 28 episodes of pain in 25 of these subjects was investigated. Chronic pulpitis was suspected as the cause in 22 cases and maxillary sinusitis in 2. No pathosis was detected in the other four. In 10 cases in which the pulpitis was treated by root filling or replacing a deep filling, subsequent exposure to low pressure caused no pain.

  9. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  10. Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Maneuvering Envelope Information for Flight Crew Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John; Shish, Kimberlee; Martin, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The implementation and evaluation of an efficient method for estimating safe aircraft maneuvering envelopes are discussed. A Bayesian approach is used to produce a deterministic algorithm for estimating aerodynamic system parameters from existing noisy sensor measurements, which are then used to estimate the trim envelope through efficient high- fidelity model-based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. The safe maneuverability limitations are extended beyond the trim envelope through a robust reachability analysis derived from an optimal control formulation. The trim and maneuvering envelope limits are then conveyed to pilots through three axes on the primary flight display. To evaluate the new display features, commercial airline crews flew multiple challenging approach and landing scenarios in the full motion Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center, as part of a larger research initiative to investigate the impact on the energy state awareness of the crew. Results show that the additional display features have the potential to significantly improve situational awareness of the flight crew.

  11. Numerical simulation of base flow of a long range flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Rathod, S.; Chandra Murty, M. S. R.; Sinha, P. K.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2012-05-01

    Numerical exploration of base flow of a long range flight vehicle is presented for different flight conditions. Three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with k-ɛ turbulence model using commercial CFD software. Simulation captured all essential flow features including flow separation at base shoulder, shear layer formation at the jet boundary, recirculation at the base region etc. With the increase in altitude, the plume of the rocket exhaust is seen to bulge more and more and caused more intense free stream and rocket plume interaction leading to higher gas temperature in the base cavity. The flow field in the base cavity is investigated in more detail, which is found to be fairly uniform at different instant of time. Presence of the heat shield is seen to reduce the hot gas entry to the cavity region due to different recirculation pattern in the base region. Computed temperature history obtained from conjugate heat transfer analysis is found to compare very well with flight measured data.

  12. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  13. 微重力下固体材料燃烧特性的地面实验模拟方法研究%A Ground-based Experimental Method for Solid Material Flammability Simulation in Microgravity Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双峰; 肖原

    2012-01-01

    The flame spread characteristics over thermally thin solid materials and the flammability limits of such materials have been investigated in horizontal narrow channels by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. The mechanism of narrow channel device to produce a microgravity environment is discussed. For the low forced flow velocities typically expected in space facilities, flame spread characteristics in microgravity can be effectively reproduced in narrow channels with height of 10~14 mm. Moreover, the measured flammability data in the narrow channels are close to those obtained in microgravity environment. The maximum buoyant velocity is estimated to be about 5 cm/s in the narrow channels. Compared with typical normal gravity test channel with relatively large height, buoyant effect is essentially suppressed. Consequently, a simulated microgravity environment can be produced with the horizontal narrow channels.%在对水平窄通道内典型热薄固体材料的燃烧特性进行实验和数值模拟的基础上,分析了材料表面火焰传播、材料可燃极限与微重力实验结果的相似性,以及窄通道实验模拟微重力材料燃烧特性的机理。研究表明,在航天器舱内常见的低速气流条件下,高度为10mm~14mm的窄通道能较好地模拟微重力环境中材料表面火焰传播的特征,并复现材料的可燃极限曲线;窄通道内火焰诱导的浮力流动速度的最大值约为5cm/s,与常规实验通道(高度较大)相比,窄通道能够有效地限制自然对流,进而提供模拟微重力条件下材料燃烧特性的实验环境。

  14. Evaluation of Landing Characteristics Achieved by Simulations and Flight Tests on a Small-scaled Model Related to Magnetically Levitated Advanced Take-off and Landing Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Siepenkotter, N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate and measure on a small-scaled model the landing characteristics related to take-off and landing (TOL) operations supported by a magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) system as ground-based power supply. The technical feasibility and the potential benefits of using ground

  15. Evaluation of Landing Characteristics Achieved by Simulations and Flight Tests on a Small-scaled Model Related to Magnetically Levitated Advanced Take-off and Landing Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Siepenkotter, N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate and measure on a small-scaled model the landing characteristics related to take-off and landing (TOL) operations supported by a magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) system as ground-based power supply. The technical feasibility and the potential benefits of using ground

  16. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uyttterhoeven , K.; Karoff, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising...

  17. Real-Time Simulation Computation System. [for digital flight simulation of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Real-Time Simulation Computation System, which will provide the flexibility necessary for operation in the research environment at the Ames Research Center is discussed. Designing the system with common subcomponents and using modular construction techniques enhances expandability and maintainability qualities. The 10-MHz series transmission scheme is the basis of the Input/Output Unit System and is the driving force providing the system flexibility. Error checking and detection performed on the transmitted data provide reliability measurements and assurances that accurate data are received at the simulators.

  18. Ergonomic Evaluation of Simulation Flight Instruments%仿真飞行仪表的人机工效评价*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长元; 樊军

    2015-01-01

    Application software simulation technology ,the research how to evaluate ergonomic simulation of flight in‐struments .By building simulation platform for several flight attitude instrument flight simulation ,collecting flight simulation data and operating data after comparing ,and to test and evaluate ergonomics .Finally it is concluded that the degree of the merits of the two kinds of attitude indicator .Experimental results with real attitude indicator ergonomic evaluation results are similar ,suggesting that the flight simulation instrument for ergonomic evaluation is an effective approach .%应用软件仿真技术,研究如何对仿真的飞行仪表进行人机工效评价。通过搭建仿真飞行平台对几种飞行姿态仪进行仿真,采集模拟飞行数据和操作数据后比对,并进行人机工效学的实验和评价。最后得出了两种姿态仪的优劣度。实验结果与实物姿态仪的人机工效评价结果类似,由此表明对仿真飞行仪表进行人机工效评价是一种有效的研究途径。

  19. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  20. QFT control based on zero phase error compensation for flight simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; He Yuzhu

    2007-01-01

    To improve the robustness of high-precision servo systems, quantitative feedback theory (QFT) which aims to achieve a desired robust design over a specified region of plant uncertainty is proposed. The robust design problem can be solved using QFT but it fails to guarantee a high precision tracking. This problem is solved by a robust digital QFT control scheme based on zero phase error (ZPE) feed forward compensation. This scheme consists of two parts: a QFr controller in the closed-loop system and a ZPE feed-forward compensator. Digital QFT controller is designed to overcome the uncertainties in the system. Digital ZPE feed forward controller is used to improve the tracking precision. Simulation and real-time examples for flight simulator servo system indicate that this control scheme can guarantee both high robust performance and high position tracking precision.

  1. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  2. Educational Simulation in Practice: A Teaching Experience Using a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Aguado, Carlos; Moreno, Romualdo

    2014-01-01

    The use of appropriate Educational Simulation systems (software and hardware for learning purposes) may contribute to the application of the "Learning by Doing" (LbD) paradigm in classroom, thus helping the students to assimilate the theoretical concepts of a subject and acquire certain pre-defined competencies in a more didactical way.…

  3. Pilot expertise and hippocampal size: associations with longitudinal flight simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Maheen M; Bayley, Peter J; Scanlon, Blake K; Farrell, Michelle E; Hernandez, Beatriz; Weiner, Michael W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2012-09-01

    Previous research suggests that the size of the hippocampus can vary in response to intensive training (e.g., during the acquisition of expert knowledge). However, the role of the hippocampus in maintenance of skilled performance is not well understood. The Stanford/Veterans Affairs Aviation MRI Study offers a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of brain structure and multiple levels of expertise on longitudinal flight simulator performance. The current study examined the relationship between hippocampal volume and three levels of aviation expertise, defined by pilot proficiency ratings issued by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (11). At 3 annual time points, 60 pilots who varied in their level of aviation expertise (ages ranging from 45 to 69 yr) were tested. At baseline, higher expertise was associated with better flight simulator performance, but not with hippocampal volume. Longitudinally, there was an Expertise x Hippocampal volume interaction, in the direction that a larger hippocampus was associated with better performance at higher levels of expertise. These results are consistent with the notion that expertise in a cognitively demanding domain involves the interplay of acquired knowledge ('mental schemas') and basic hippocampal-dependent processes.

  4. Simulation of a new endcap time of flight system for the BESIII experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Matthias; Jifeng, Hu; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Soeren; Liang, Yutie; Spruck, Bjoern; Werner, Marcel [2. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: BES III-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The BESIII experiment is located at the BEPC II collider in Beijing, China at the Institute for High Energy Physics, commonly known as IHEP. The symmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} experiment optimized for the investigation of {tau} and charm physics has already collected over 220M J/{Psi}, 106M {Psi}(2S), about 1fb{sup -1}{Psi}(3770) and 0.5 fb{sup -1}{Psi}(4040) events. Finishing the next run period in June 2012 the total amount of J/{Psi}/{Psi}(2S) events is expected to be 1 billion/0.7 billion, respectively. The actual endcap time of flight detector has a total time resolution of about 138 ps and is discussed to be replaced by a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) providing a total time resolution of less than 80 ps. We report about the implementation of such type of detector into the BESIII offline software system (BOSS) as replacement of the actual endcap time of flight detector. A detailed simulation code based on Geant4 as well as a full reconstruction code has been implemented and can easily be utilized for event simulation and reconstruction.

  5. Motion Systems Role in Flight Simulators for Flying Training. Final Report for Period June 1977-June 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Michael L.

    This report reviews the literature as it relates to the use of platform motion systems in flight simulators for flying training. Motion is discussed in terms of its effect on compensatory, pursuit, and precognitive tasks, within both the simulator and transfer contexts. Although both skilled and unskilled behaviors are addressed, the former are…

  6. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2...

  7. Effects of helicopter noise and vibration on pilot performance (as measured in a fixed-base flight simulator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on pilot performance are described. Pilot subjects were required to fly VTOL commercial IFR schedules using the computer simulation facilities. The routes flown simulated closely metropolitan routes flown currently by a helicopter airline. The duration of simulator flights ranged from 3 to 8 hours. Subjects were exposed to noise sound pressure levels ranging from 74dB (ambient) to 100dB and 17 Hz vibration stimuli ranging from .1 g to .3 g measured at the floor directly beneath the pilot's seat. Despite subject reports of extreme fatigue in these long flights, performance did not degrade. A curve of performance shows a slow improvement for the first three hours of exposure and a slight loss in performance during the remainder of the flight. As environmental stress conditions (noise, vibration, and time in the simulator) increased, subject performance improved. Within the limits of this study, the higher the stress the better the performance.

  8. Contrail study with ground-based cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetric methods and analysis results for contrails observed with wide-angle cameras are described. Four cameras of two different types (view angle −1. With this information, the aircraft causing the contrails are identified by comparison to traffic waypoint data. The observations are compared with synthetic camera pictures of contrails simulated with the contrail prediction model CoCiP, a Lagrangian model using air traffic movement data and numerical weather prediction (NWP data as input. The results provide tests for the NWP and contrail models. The cameras show spreading and thickening contrails suggesting ice-supersaturation in the ambient air. The ice-supersaturated layer is found thicker and more humid in this case than predicted by the NWP model used. The simulated and observed contrail positions agree up to differences caused by uncertain wind data. The contrail widths, which depend on wake vortex spreading, ambient shear and turbulence, were partly wider than simulated.

  9. Investigation of estimating accuracy for aerodynamic characteristics of a scaled supersonic experimental airplane using IMU data based on flight simulation

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a pre-flight estimation method for aerodynamic characteristics and investigates the accuracy of the estimated aerodynamic characteristics of the scaled supersonic experimental airplane, using IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) data obtained in a flight simulation. The results demonstrate that the required accuracy is not achieved and that the main sources of error are in the estimation of dynamic pressure, misalignment between the body axis and IMU chassis axis, and IMU disc...

  10. Simulation and Flight Evaluation of a Parameter Estimation Input Design Method for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve emissions, noise, and performance of next generation aircraft, it is expected that future aircraft will make use of distributed, multi-objective control effectors in a closed-loop flight control system. Correlation challenges associated with parameter estimation will arise with this expected aircraft configuration. Research presented in this paper focuses on addressing the correlation problem with an appropriate input design technique and validating this technique through simulation and flight test of the X-48B aircraft. The X-48B aircraft is an 8.5 percent-scale hybrid wing body aircraft demonstrator designed by The Boeing Company (Chicago, Illinois, USA), built by Cranfield Aerospace Limited (Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom) and flight tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA). Based on data from flight test maneuvers performed at Dryden Flight Research Center, aerodynamic parameter estimation was performed using linear regression and output error techniques. An input design technique that uses temporal separation for de-correlation of control surfaces is proposed, and simulation and flight test results are compared with the aerodynamic database. This paper will present a method to determine individual control surface aerodynamic derivatives.

  11. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements During the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Timothy; Qian, Li; Kleidman, Richard; Stewart, Sebastian; Welton, Ellsworth; Li, Zhu; Holbem, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) field campaign was carried out between June 26th and August 29th of 2007 in the multi-state Maryland-Virginia-Pennsylvania region of the U.S. to study aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions during overpasses of the CALIPSO satellite. Field work was conducted on selected days when CALIPSO ground tracks occurred in the region. Ground-based measurements included data from multiple Cimel sunphotometers that were placed at intervals along a segment of the CALIPSO ground-track. These measurements provided sky radiance and AOD measurements to enable joints inversions and comparisons with CALIPSO retrievals. As part of this activity, four ground-based lidars provided backscatter measurements (at 523 nm) in the region. Lidars at University of Maryland Baltimore County (Catonsville, MD) and Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD) provided continuous data during the campaign, while two micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems were temporarily stationed at various field locations directly on CALIPSO ground-tracks. As a result, thirteen on-track ground-based lidar observations were obtained from eight different locations in the region. In some cases, nighttime CALIPSO coincident measurements were also obtained. In most studies reported to date, ground-based lidar validation efforts for CALIPSO rely on systems that are at fixed locations some distance away from the satellite ground-track. The CATZ ground-based lidar data provide an opportunity to examine vertical structure properties of aerosols and clouds both on and off-track simultaneously during a CALIPSO overpass. A table of available ground-based lidar measurements during this campaign will be presented, along with example backscatter imagery for a number of coincident cases with CALIPSO. Results indicate that even for a ground-based measurements directly on-track, comparisons can still pose a challenge due to the differing spatio-temporal properties of the ground and satellite

  12. Quality of resuscitation: flight attendants in an airplane simulator use a new mechanical resuscitation device--a randomized simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Neuhold, Stephanie; Hochbrugger, Eva; Steinlechner, Barbara; Koinig, Herbert; Milosevic, Ljubisa; Havel, Christof; Frantal, Sophie; Greif, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during flight is challenging and has to be sustained for long periods. In this setting a mechanical-resuscitation-device (MRD) might improve performance. In this study we compared the quality of resuscitation of trained flight attendants practicing either standard basic life support (BLS) or using a MRD in a cabin-simulator. Prospective, open, randomized and crossover simulation study. Study participants, competent in standard BLS were trained to use the MRD to deliver both chest compressions and ventilation. 39 teams of two rescuers resuscitated a manikin for 12 min in random order, standard BLS or mechanically assisted resuscitation. Primary outcome was "absolute hands-off time" (sum of all periods during which no hand was placed on the chest minus ventilation time). Various parameters describing the quality of chest compression and ventilation were analysed as secondary outcome parameters. Use of the MRD led to significantly less "absolute hands-off time" (164±33 s vs. 205±42 s, p<0.001). The quality of chest compression was comparable among groups, except for a higher compression rate in the standard BLS group (123±14 min(-1) vs. 95±11 min(-1), p<0.001). Tidal volume was higher in the standard BLS group (0.48±0.14 l vs. 0.34±0.13 l, p<0.001), but we registered fewer gastric inflations in the MRD group (0.4±0.3% vs. 16.6±16.9%, p<0.001). Using the MRD resulted in significantly less "absolute hands-off time", but less effective ventilation. The translation of higher chest compression rate into better outcome, as shown in other studies previously, has to be investigated in another human outcome study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  14. Novel SiL evaluation of an optimal H∞ controller on the stability of a MAV in flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rafael C. B.; Becker, Marcelo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Freschi, Leonardo W.; Montanher, Marcelo P.

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to assist the evaluation of control algorithms for MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) using Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) based flight simulation. The originality of this paper is to use © Microsoft Flight Simulator (MSFS) as the environment to embed both the dynamic and graphic models of © Ascending Technologies Pelican MAV flying robot. The resulting is a reliable model of the Pelican quadrotor. The full duplex communication between the virtual aircraft and the control algorithm is achieved by a custom C++/C software named FVMS (Flight Variables Management System), developed by Aerial Robots Team (ART), which is able to reach (read/write) a great number of flight variables from MSFS. To illustrate the effectiveness of such method, we first completely present FVMS architecture and main features. Later, the synthesis and then the application of the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm and its operation into the FVMS SiL context are explained. Regarding MAVs control evaluation, SiL simulation considerably contributes to save battery time, to ease control synthesis and prototyping and to prevent accidents during tests with the real robot. The final goal is to evaluate the stability of the Pelican platform in hovering tasks in flight simulation focusing on the efficiency of FVMS to properly run the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm. The SiL control of the MAV has proven FVMS capabilities, which may be extended to assist the design of other classes of controllers.

  15. Simulated flight path control of fighter pilots and novice subjects at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Guardiera, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that subjects produce exaggerated manual forces in +3 Gz. When subjects execute discrete flight path changes in a flight simulator, their performance is less stable in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz. Here we explore whether Gz-related deficits are found with continuous flight path changes. Novice subjects and fighter pilots sat in a high-fidelity flight simulator equipped with the reproduction of the Eurofighter 2000 cockpit, including the realistic flight stick, and pursued continuous altitude changes of a target airplane in +1 Gz and +3 Gz. Subjects also produced verbal responses in a Stroop task. Pursuit and Stroop tasks were administered alone and concurrently. Flight instability increased in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz in novices (+46%), but not in pilots (+3%), and even there only during the first minute. Flight performance improved after the first minute in both subject groups. Stroop reaction time was higher in novices (+5.27%) than in pilots (+3.77%) at +3 Gz. Dual-task costs did not differ between groups or Gz levels. Deficits of force production in high Gz are largely compensated for when subjects apply forces to produce a continuously changing flight path. This compensation seems not to require additional cognitive resources and may be achieved by using visual feedback. Force production deficits in high Gz seem to have no appreciable effects on flight performance and cognitive load of experienced pilots using a force-plus-displacement stick in +3 Gz. It remains to be shown whether this conclusion extends to purely isometric sticks and to higher Gz levels.

  16. The operant and the classical in conditioned orientation of Drosophila melanogaster at the flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, B; Heisenberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Ever since learning and memory have been studied experimentally, the relationship between operant and classical conditioning has been controversial. Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. It relies on operant behavior. A motor output is called operant if it controls a sensory variable. The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. In this paradigm a tethered fly learns, operantly or classically, to prefer and avoid certain flight orientations in relation to the surrounding panorama. Yaw torque is recorded and, in the operant mode, controls the panorama. Using a yoked control, we show that classical pattern learning necessitates more extensive training than operant pattern learning. We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. In addition, we show that an operantly learned stimulus is successfully transferred from the behavior of the training to a different behavior. This result unequivocally demonstrates that during operant conditioning classical associations can be formed.

  17. Real-time state estimation in a flight simulator using fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Gateau

    Full Text Available Working memory is a key executive function for flying an aircraft. This function is particularly critical when pilots have to recall series of air traffic control instructions. However, working memory limitations may jeopardize flight safety. Since the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method seems promising for assessing working memory load, our objective is to implement an on-line fNIRS-based inference system that integrates two complementary estimators. The first estimator is a real-time state estimation MACD-based algorithm dedicated to identifying the pilot's instantaneous mental state (not-on-task vs. on-task. It does not require a calibration process to perform its estimation. The second estimator is an on-line SVM-based classifier that is able to discriminate task difficulty (low working memory load vs. high working memory load. These two estimators were tested with 19 pilots who were placed in a realistic flight simulator and were asked to recall air traffic control instructions. We found that the estimated pilot's mental state matched significantly better than chance with the pilot's real state (62% global accuracy, 58% specificity, and 72% sensitivity. The second estimator, dedicated to assessing single trial working memory loads, led to 80% classification accuracy, 72% specificity, and 89% sensitivity. These two estimators establish reusable blocks for further fNIRS-based passive brain computer interface development.

  18. Real-time state estimation in a flight simulator using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Thibault; Durantin, Gautier; Lancelot, Francois; Scannella, Sebastien; Dehais, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a key executive function for flying an aircraft. This function is particularly critical when pilots have to recall series of air traffic control instructions. However, working memory limitations may jeopardize flight safety. Since the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) method seems promising for assessing working memory load, our objective is to implement an on-line fNIRS-based inference system that integrates two complementary estimators. The first estimator is a real-time state estimation MACD-based algorithm dedicated to identifying the pilot's instantaneous mental state (not-on-task vs. on-task). It does not require a calibration process to perform its estimation. The second estimator is an on-line SVM-based classifier that is able to discriminate task difficulty (low working memory load vs. high working memory load). These two estimators were tested with 19 pilots who were placed in a realistic flight simulator and were asked to recall air traffic control instructions. We found that the estimated pilot's mental state matched significantly better than chance with the pilot's real state (62% global accuracy, 58% specificity, and 72% sensitivity). The second estimator, dedicated to assessing single trial working memory loads, led to 80% classification accuracy, 72% specificity, and 89% sensitivity. These two estimators establish reusable blocks for further fNIRS-based passive brain computer interface development.

  19. The Operant and the Classical in Conditioned Orientation of Drosophila melanogaster at the Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn; Heisenberg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Ever since learning and memory have been studied experimentally, the relationship between operant and classical conditioning has been controversial. Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. It relies on operant behavior. A motor output is called operant if it controls a sensory variable. The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. In this paradigm a tethered fly learns, operantly or classically, to prefer and avoid certain flight orientations in relation to the surrounding panorama. Yaw torque is recorded and, in the operant mode, controls the panorama. Using a yoked control, we show that classical pattern learning necessitates more extensive training than operant pattern learning. We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. In addition, we show that an operantly learned stimulus is successfully transferred from the behavior of the training to a different behavior. This result unequivocally demonstrates that during operant conditioning classical associations can be formed. PMID:10753977

  20. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space Station) and thyroid cancer cells (SimBox/Shenzhou-8 space mission). The experiments enabled by the ESA-CORA-GBF programme gave us an optimal opportunity to study gravity-related cellular processes, validate ground-based facilities for our chosen cell system, and prepare long-term experiments under real microgravity conditions in space

  1. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  2. Simulation of the in-flight calibration of the collimator alignment and PSF for HXMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope(HXMT) is an X-ray astronomical satellite in 1-250 keV,consisting of three collimated instruments.We present the in-flight calibration approach of the collimator alignment and Point Spread Function(PSF) for HXMT,using both the direct fitting method and the imaging method.According to observational simulations of the Crab Nebula,we find that these two methods produce almost the same calibration accuracy of the alignment,and with a one-day scanning observation,the alignment can be calibrated to better than 0.45’ and 0.1’ along the wide and narrow directions of the Field of View(FOV) for a detector module,which corresponds to a localization accuracy of better than 0.1’ and meets the scientific requirement.

  3. Conditioning with compound stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster in the flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, B; Heisenberg, M

    2001-08-01

    Short-term memory in Drosophila melanogaster operant visual learning in the flight simulator is explored using patterns and colours as a compound stimulus. Presented together during training, the two stimuli accrue the same associative strength whether or not a prior training phase rendered one of the two stimuli a stronger predictor for the reinforcer than the other (no blocking). This result adds Drosophila to the list of other invertebrates that do not exhibit the robust vertebrate blocking phenomenon. Other forms of higher-order learning, however, were detected: a solid sensory preconditioning and a small second-order conditioning effect imply that associations between the two stimuli can be formed, even if the compound is not reinforced.

  4. Lateral dynamic flight stability of hovering insects:theory vs.numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Lai Zhang; Jiang-Hao Wu; Mao Sun

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper,the lateral dynamic flight stability properties of two hovering model insects are predicted by an approximate theory based on the averaged model,and computed by numerical simulation that solves the complete equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations.Comparison between the theoretical and simulational results provides a test to the validity of the assumptions made in the theory.One of the insects is a model dronefly which has relatively high wingbeat frequency (164Hz)and the other is a model hawkmoth which has relatively low wingbeat frequency (26 Hz).The following conclusion has been drawn.The theory based on the averaged model works well for the lateral motion of the dronefly.For the hawkmoth,relatively large quantitative differences exist between theory and simulation.This is because the lateral non-dimensional eigenvalues of the hawkmoth are not very small compared with the non-dimensional flapping frequency (the largest lateral non-dimensional eigenvalue is only about 10% smaller than the non-dimensional flapping frequency).Nevertheless,the theory can still correctly predict variational trends of the dynamic properties of the hawkmoth's lateral motion.

  5. Correlation of climbing perception and eye movements during daytime and nighttime takeoffs using a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Wada, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Inui, Takuo; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that the subjective climbing perception can be quantitatively evaluated using values calculated from induced eye movements, and the findings may aid in the detection of pilots who are susceptible to spatial disorientation in a screening test. The climbing perception experienced by a pilot during takeoff at night is stronger than that experienced during the day. To investigate this illusion, this study assessed eye movements and analyzed their correlation with subjective climbing perception during daytime and nighttime takeoffs. Eight male volunteers participated in this study. A simulated aircraft takeoff environment was created using a flight simulator and the maximum slow-phase velocities and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain of vertical eye movements were calculated during takeoff simulation. Four of the eight participants reported that their perception of climbing at night was stronger, while the other four reported that there was no difference between day and night. These perceptions were correlated with eye movements; participants with a small difference in the maximum slow-phase velocities of their downward eye movements between daytime and nighttime takeoffs indicated that their perception of climbing was the same under the two conditions.

  6. Simulation and analyses of the aeroassist flight experiment attitude update method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. R.

    1991-06-01

    A method which will be used to update the alignment of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment's Inertial Measuring Unit is simulated and analyzed. This method, the Star Line Maneuver, uses measurements from the Space Shuttle Orbiter star trackers along with an extended Kalman filter to estimate a correction to the attitude quaternion maintained by an Inertial Measuring Unit in the Orbiter's payload bay. This quaternion is corrupted by on-orbit bending of the Orbiter payload bay with respect to the Orbiter navigation base, which is incorporated into the payload quaternion when it is initialized via a direct transfer of the Orbiter attitude state. The method of updating this quaternion is examined through verification of baseline cases and Monte Carlo analysis using a simplified simulation, The simulation uses nominal state dynamics and measurement models from the Kalman filter as its real world models, and is programmed on Microvax minicomputer using Matlab, and interactive matrix analysis tool. Results are presented which confirm and augment previous performance studies, thereby enhancing confidence in the Star Line Maneuver design methodology.

  7. The effect of aircraft control forces on pilot performance during instrument landings in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2001-07-01

    Pilots may have difficulty controlling aircraft at both high and low force levels due to larger variability in force production at these force levels. The aim of this study was to measure the force variability and landing performance of pilots during an instrument landing in a flight simulator. There were 12 pilots who were tested while performing 5 instrument landings in a flight simulator, each of which required different control force inputs. Pilots can produce the least force when pushing the control column to the right, therefore the force levels for the landings were set relative to each pilot's maximum aileron-right force. The force levels for the landings were 90%, 60%, and 30% of maximal aileron-right force, normal force, and 25% of normal force. Variables recorded included electromyographic activity (EMG), aircraft control forces, aircraft attitude, perceived exertion and deviation from glide slope and heading. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for differences between landings. Pilots were least accurate in landing performance during the landing at 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). There was also a trend toward decreased landing performance during the landing at 25% of normal force. Pilots were more variable in force production during the landings at 60% and 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). Pilots are less accurate at performing instrument landings when control forces are high due to the increased variability of force production. The increase in variability at high force levels is most likely associated with motor unit recruitment, rather than rate coding. Aircraft designers need to consider the reduction in pilot performance at high force levels, as well as pilot strength limits when specifying new standards.

  8. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Marshall Space Flight Center Fault Detection Diagnosis and Recovery Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley T.; Gamble, Jonathan; Rabban, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Fault Detection Diagnosis and Recovery Lab (FDDR) has been developed to support development of,fault detection algorithms for the flight computer aboard the Ares I and follow-on vehicles. It consists of several workstations using Ethernet and TCP/IP to simulate communications between vehicle sensors, flight computers, and ground based support computers. Isolation of tasks between workstations was set up intentionally to limit information flow and provide a realistic simulation of communication channels within the vehicle and between the vehicle and ground station.

  10. Plotting of Flight Track for Flight Training Simulator%某飞行训练模拟器飞行轨迹绘制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢保川

    2011-01-01

    GDI + is a subsystem of windows operating system. It packs the API of plotting graph into library. It provides a uniform plot program model under tbe anvironment irrespective device. It achieves the alternation conveniently and quickly between application and graphics device. Flight track provides visual airplane position display for flight instructor. Combined the development of flight simulator,the flight track display system is developed with the use of GDI + under Visual C#. Net. The display of the flight track is based on the technique of dual-buffer. The technique of dual-buffer is that virtual canvas based on the memory on which the graph is plotted is plotted on thn form.%GDI+(图形设备接口)是Windows操作系统的一个子系统,它把Windows中关于绘制图形的API函数封装在一组类中,在一种与设备无关的环境下提供了一套统一的绘图编程模型,利用GDI+可方便快捷地实现应用程序与图形设备的交互.飞行模拟器的飞行轨迹为教员提供了直观的飞机位置显示,结合某型飞行模拟器的研制,采用GDI+,通过先在内存建立一块"虚拟画布",然后将需要画的图形先画在这块"虚拟画布"上,最后再一次性将整块"虚拟画布"画到真正的窗体上这样的"双缓冲"技术,在Visual C#.Net下对飞行模拟器的飞行轨迹进行了绘制.

  11. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  12. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring–gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m2. We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring–gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration. PMID:21471116

  13. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-11-22

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring-gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m(2). We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring-gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration.

  14. Hovering and targeting flight simulations of a dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model by IB-LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Hirohashi, Kensuke

    2016-11-01

    Hovering and targeting flights of the dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model are numerically investigated by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The governing parameters of the problem are the Reynolds number Re , the Froude number Fr , and the non-dimensional mass m. We set the parameters at Re = 200 , Fr = 15 , and m = 51 . First, we simulate free flights of the model for various values of the phase difference angle ϕ between the forewing and the hindwing motions and for various values of the stroke angle β between the stroke plane and the horizontal plane. We find that the vertical motion of the model depends on the phase difference angle ϕ, and the horizontal motion of the model depends on the stroke angle β. Secondly, using the above results we try to simulate the hovering flight by dynamically changing the phase difference angle ϕ and the stroke angle β. The hovering flight can be successfully simulated by a simple proportional controlleres of the phase difference angle and the stroke angle. Finally, we simualte targeting flight by dynamically changing the stroke angle β. The authors acknowledge the HPCI System Research Project (hp140025 and hp150087) and the Grants-in-Aid Scientific Research (No. 26420108) from JSPS.

  15. 3D simulation of A-SMGCS surface movement based on FlightGear%基于FlightGear的A-SMGCS场面活动三维仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 胡明华; 吴宏刚; 黄忠涛; 徐自励; 何东林

    2012-01-01

    针对A-SMGCS系统场面活动三维仿真问题,提出一种以开源模拟飞行器FlightGear为场景仿真平台,以实时ADS-B监视数据为驱动,以Linux为操作平台的机场场面活动三维仿真系统设计新方法.仿真系统按照实际机场模型进行机场布局设计,飞机、航站楼、塔台三维建模,地形数据生成,对真实机场环境进行了完整建模.由于ADS-B监视数据缺少飞机姿态信息,提出一种根据位置数据推算出姿态信息的新方法.首先把ADS-B监视数据进行航迹卡尔曼滤波,然后根据飞机前后两个位置的空间连线矢量计算飞行姿态.通过FlightGear多机网络数据接口导入飞机定位数据与姿态数据驱动飞机模型运动,实现了对飞机运动的六自由度仿真.仿真结果表明,该系统能逼真、准确再现真实机场飞机实时活动情况.由于完全基于开源软件设计,该系统低成本实现了对场面活动的实时三维仿真.%A new method to design a 3D surface movement simulation system for A-SMGCS based on Linux operation system and FilightGear flight simulator was proposed. The simulation system was driven by real-time track data of ADS-B. An airport model was built up according to a real airport prototype by modeling of aircrafts, airport layout, terminal, tower and terrain. Because ADS-B track data had no flight attitude data, an algorithm to extract flight attitude from a space vector, which was connected by two pre and post track points, was proposed. Six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) aircraft movement simulation was realized by importing position and attitude data into FlightGear through its multiplayer interface to drive aircraft models. The simulation results show that, the system can simulate surface movement accurately and realistically. The simulation system is low-cost because it is based on free, open source software.

  16. Documenting the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Oblate Earth Simulation Equations of Motion and Integration Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R.; Lintereur, L.; Bahm, C.

    2016-01-01

    A desire for more complete documentation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), Edwards, California legacy code used in the core simulation has led to this e ort to fully document the oblate Earth six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion and integration algorithm. The authors of this report have taken much of the earlier work of the simulation engineering group and used it as a jumping-o point for this report. The largest addition this report makes is that each element of the equations of motion is traced back to first principles and at no point is the reader forced to take an equation on faith alone. There are no discoveries of previously unknown principles contained in this report; this report is a collection and presentation of textbook principles. The value of this report is that those textbook principles are herein documented in standard nomenclature that matches the form of the computer code DERIVC. Previous handwritten notes are much of the backbone of this work, however, in almost every area, derivations are explicitly shown to assure the reader that the equations which make up the oblate Earth version of the computer routine, DERIVC, are correct.

  17. Evaluation of Two Unique Side Stick Controllers in a Fixed-Base Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jann; Cox, Timothy H.

    2003-01-01

    A handling qualities analysis has been performed on two unique side stick controllers in a fixed-base F-18 flight simulator. Each stick, which uses a larger range of motion than is common for similar controllers, has a moving elbow cup that accommodates movement of the entire arm for control. The sticks are compared to the standard center stick in several typical fighter aircraft tasks. Several trends are visible in the time histories, pilot ratings, and pilot comments. The aggressive pilots preferred the center stick, because the side sticks are underdamped, causing overshoots and oscillations when large motions are executed. The less aggressive pilots preferred the side sticks, because of the smooth motion and low breakout forces. The aggressive pilots collectively gave the worst ratings, probably because of increased sensitivity of the simulator (compared to the actual F-18 aircraft), which can cause pilot-induced oscillations when aggressive inputs are made. Overall, the elbow cup is not a positive feature, because using the entire arm for control inhibits precision. Pilots had difficulty measuring their performance, particularly during the offset landing task, and tended to overestimate.

  18. Two-and Three-Dimensional Simulations of Beetle Hind Wing Flapping during Free Forward Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuyen Quang Le; Tien Van Truong; Hieu Trung Tran; Soo Hyung Park; Jin Hwan Ko; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristic of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and hind wings,is numerically investigated.Based on the experimental results of wing kinematics,two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic simulations were carried out to reveal aerodynamic performance of the hind wing.The roles of the spiral Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and the spanwise flow were clarified by comparing 2D and 3D simulations.Mainly due to pitching down of chord line during downstroke in highly inclined stroke plane,relatively high averaged thrust was produced in the free forward flight of the beetle.The effects of the local corrugation and the camber variation were also investigated for the beetle's hind wings.Our results show that the camber variation plays a significant role in improving both lift and thrust in the flapping.On the other hand,the local corrugation pattern has no significant effect on the aerodynamic force due to large angle of attack during flapping.

  19. The Education of Attention as Explanation of Variability of Practice Effects : Learning the Final Approach Phase in a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Michael; Jacobs, David M.; Camachon, Cyril; Missenard, Olivier; Gray, Rob; Montagne, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports two experiments in which a total of 20 participants without prior flight experience practiced the final approach phase in a fixed-base simulator. All participants received self-controlled concurrent feedback during 180 practice trials. Experiment 1 shows that participants learn more quickly under variable practice…

  20. The Education of Attention as Explanation of Variability of Practice Effects : Learning the Final Approach Phase in a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Michael; Jacobs, David M.; Camachon, Cyril; Missenard, Olivier; Gray, Rob; Montagne, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports two experiments in which a total of 20 participants without prior flight experience practiced the final approach phase in a fixed-base simulator. All participants received self-controlled concurrent feedback during 180 practice trials. Experiment 1 shows that participants learn more quickly under variable practice…

  1. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  2. The Integrated Medical Model: A Probabilistic Simulation Model Predicting In-Flight Medical Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Alexandra; Young, Millennia; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Shah, Ronak; Goodenow, Debra A.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that uses simulation to predict mission medical risk. Given a specific mission and crew scenario, medical events are simulated using Monte Carlo methodology to provide estimates of resource utilization, probability of evacuation, probability of loss of crew, and the amount of mission time lost due to illness. Mission and crew scenarios are defined by mission length, extravehicular activity (EVA) schedule, and crew characteristics including: sex, coronary artery calcium score, contacts, dental crowns, history of abdominal surgery, and EVA eligibility. The Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) houses the model inputs for one hundred medical conditions using in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical data. Inputs include incidence, event durations, resource utilization, and crew functional impairment. Severity of conditions is addressed by defining statistical distributions on the dichotomized best and worst-case scenarios for each condition. The outcome distributions for conditions are bounded by the treatment extremes of the fully treated scenario in which all required resources are available and the untreated scenario in which no required resources are available. Upon occurrence of a simulated medical event, treatment availability is assessed, and outcomes are generated depending on the status of the affected crewmember at the time of onset, including any pre-existing functional impairments or ongoing treatment of concurrent conditions. The main IMM outcomes, including probability of evacuation and loss of crew life, time lost due to medical events, and resource utilization, are useful in informing mission planning decisions. To date, the IMM has been used to assess mission-specific risks with and without certain crewmember characteristics, to determine the impact of eliminating certain resources from the mission medical kit, and to design medical kits that maximally benefit crew health while meeting

  3. The Integrated Medical Model: A Probabilistic Simulation Model for Predicting In-Flight Medical Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Alexandra; Young, Millennia; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Shah, Ronak; Goodenow, Debra A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that uses simulation to predict mission medical risk. Given a specific mission and crew scenario, medical events are simulated using Monte Carlo methodology to provide estimates of resource utilization, probability of evacuation, probability of loss of crew, and the amount of mission time lost due to illness. Mission and crew scenarios are defined by mission length, extravehicular activity (EVA) schedule, and crew characteristics including: sex, coronary artery calcium score, contacts, dental crowns, history of abdominal surgery, and EVA eligibility. The Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) houses the model inputs for one hundred medical conditions using in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical data. Inputs include incidence, event durations, resource utilization, and crew functional impairment. Severity of conditions is addressed by defining statistical distributions on the dichotomized best and worst-case scenarios for each condition. The outcome distributions for conditions are bounded by the treatment extremes of the fully treated scenario in which all required resources are available and the untreated scenario in which no required resources are available. Upon occurrence of a simulated medical event, treatment availability is assessed, and outcomes are generated depending on the status of the affected crewmember at the time of onset, including any pre-existing functional impairments or ongoing treatment of concurrent conditions. The main IMM outcomes, including probability of evacuation and loss of crew life, time lost due to medical events, and resource utilization, are useful in informing mission planning decisions. To date, the IMM has been used to assess mission-specific risks with and without certain crewmember characteristics, to determine the impact of eliminating certain resources from the mission medical kit, and to design medical kits that maximally benefit crew health while meeting

  4. Effects of Self-Instructional Methods and Above Real Time Training (ARTT) for Maneuvering Tasks on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, Javed Khan; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Heath, Bruce E.; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer based flight simulators are expanding opportunities for providing low-cost pilot training. One advantage of these devices is the opportunity to incorporate instructional features into training scenarios that might not be cost effective with earlier systems. Research was conducted to evaluate the utility of different instructional features using a coordinated level turn as an aircraft maneuvering task. In study I, a comparison was made between automated computer grades of performance with certified flight instructors grades. Every one of the six student volunteers conducted a flight with level turns at two different bank angles. The automated computer grades were based on prescribed tolerances on bank angle, airspeed and altitude. Two certified flight instructors independently examined the video tapes of heads up and instrument displays of the flights and graded them. The comparison of automated grades with the instructors grades was based on correlations between them. In study II, a 2x2 between subjects factorial design was used to devise and conduct an experiment. Comparison was made between real time training and above real time training and between feedback and no feedback in training. The performance measure to monitor progress in training was based on deviations in bank angle and altitude. The performance measure was developed after completion of the experiment including the training and test flights. It was not envisaged before the experiment. The experiment did not include self- instructions as it was originally planned, although feedback by experimenter to the trainee was included in the study.

  5. Overview and Initial Results from the DEEPWAVE Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-propagating gravity wave experiment (DEEPWAVE) was performed on and over New Zealand, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean with core airborne measurements extending from 5 June to 21 July 2014 and supporting ground-based measurements spanning a longer interval. The NSF/NCAR GV employed standard flight-level measurements and new airborne lidar and imaging measurements of gravity waves (GWs) from sources at lower altitudes throughout the stratosphere and into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The new GV lidars included a Rayleigh lidar measuring atmospheric density and temperature from ~20-60 km and a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium density and temperature at ~75-105 km. An airborne Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper (AMTM) and two IR "wing" cameras imaged the OH airglow temperature and/or intensity fields extending ~900 km across the GV flight track. The DLR Falcon was equipped with its standard flight-level instruments and an aerosol Doppler lidar measuring radial winds below the Falcon. DEEPWAVE also included extensive ground-based measurements in New Zealand, Tasmania, and Southern Ocean Islands. DEEPWAVE performed 26 GV flights and 13 Falcon flights, and ground-based measurements occurred whether or not the aircraft were flying. Collectively, many diverse cases of GW forcing, propagation, refraction, and dissipation spanning altitudes of 0-100 km were observed. Examples include strong mountain wave (MW) forcing and breaking in the lower and middle stratosphere, weak MW forcing yielding MW penetration into the MLT having very large amplitudes and momentum fluxes, MW scales at higher altitudes ranging from ~10-250 km, large-scale trailing waves from orography refracting into the polar vortex and extending to high altitudes, GW generation by deep convection, large-scale GWs arising from jet stream sources, and strong MWs in the MLT arising from strong surface flow over a small island. DEEPWAVE yielded a number of surprises, among

  6. Impact of particles on the Planck HFI detectors: Ground-based measurements and physical interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, A; Atik, Y; Benoit, A; Bréele, E; Bock, J J; Camus, P; Chabot, M; Charra, M; Crill, B P; Coron, N; Coulais, A; Désert, F -X; Fauvet, L; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Guillaudin, O; Holmes, W; Jones, W C; Lamarre, J -M; Macías-Pérez, J; Martinez, M; Miniussi, A; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Pelissier, A; Piat, M; Puget, J -L; Renault, C; Rosset, C; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Spencer, L D; Sudiwala, R

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent, but the rate of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly high. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics. A study of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper presents an evaluation of the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. In order to better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact ener...

  7. Numerical Simulation of cardiovascular deconditioning in different reduced gravity exposure scenarios. Parabolic flight validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with

  8. High-Fidelity Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aircraft System Simulation Development for Trajectory Prediction Under Off-Nominal Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Hartman, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project is conducting research to enable civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. A goal of this project is to develop probabilistic methods to quantify risk during failures and off nominal flight conditions. An important part of this effort is the reliable prediction of feasible trajectories during off-nominal events such as control failure, atmospheric upsets, or navigation anomalies that can cause large deviations from the intended flight path or extreme vehicle upsets beyond the normal flight envelope. Few examples of high-fidelity modeling and prediction of off-nominal behavior for small UAS (sUAS) vehicles exist, and modeling requirements for accurately predicting flight dynamics for out-of-envelope or failure conditions are essentially undefined. In addition, the broad range of sUAS aircraft configurations already being fielded presents a significant modeling challenge, as these vehicles are often very different from one another and are likely to possess dramatically different flight dynamics and resultant trajectories and may require different modeling approaches to capture off-nominal behavior. NASA has undertaken an extensive research effort to define sUAS flight dynamics modeling requirements and develop preliminary high fidelity six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations capable of more closely predicting off-nominal flight dynamics and trajectories. This research has included a literature review of existing sUAS modeling and simulation work as well as development of experimental testing methods to measure and model key components of propulsion, airframe and control characteristics. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to develop tools to support UTM risk analyses and for the real-time prediction of off-nominal trajectories for use in the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF). This paper focuses on modeling and simulation efforts for a generic quad-rotor configuration typical

  9. SPINFIN: A computer program for trajectory simulation of flight vehicles with semi-passive roll control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruka, J.K.

    1972-07-01

    This report presents the trajectory computer program, SPINFIN. The program has been in use at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, for flight simulation of those reentry vehicles which utilize a class of semi-passive fin roll-control systems. As such, it has served as an important design tool for some time. The report includes a presentation of the prominent features of the mathematical model which describes the vehicle aero-, flight-, and control-system dynamics. Additionally, detailed descriptions of the program input and output are provided as a user`s guide.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around Forward Flight Helicopter with Coaxial Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Heyong; YE Zhengyin

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations are numerically solved to simulate the unsteady flows around forward flight helicopter with coaxial rotors based on unstructured dynamic overset grids. The performances of the two coaxial rotors both become worse because of the aerodynamic interaction between them, and the influence of the top rotor on the bottom rotor is greater than that of the bottom rotor on the top rotor. The downwash velocity at the bottom rotor plane is much larger than that at the top rotor plane, and the downwash velocity at the top rotor plane is a little larger than that at an individual rotor plane. The downwash velocity and thrust coefficient both become larger when the collective angle of blades is added. When the spacing between the two coaxial rotors increases, the thrust coefficient of the top rotor increases, but the total thrust coefficient reduces a little,because the decrease of the bottom rotor thrust coefficient is larger than the increase of the top rotor thrust coefficient.

  11. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Display Media Devices for Synthetic Vision Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents as well as enhance operational capabilities of all aircraft. To accomplish these safety and capacity improvements, the SVS concept is designed to provide a clear view of the world around the aircraft through the display of computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information. Display media devices with which to implement SVS technology that have been evaluated so far within the Project include fixed field of view head up displays and head down Primary Flight Displays with pilot-selectable field of view. A simulation experiment was conducted comparing these display devices to a fixed field of view, unlimited field of regard, full color Helmet-Mounted Display system. Subject pilots flew a visual circling maneuver in IMC at a terrain-challenged airport. The data collected for this experiment is compared to past SVS research studies.

  12. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance.

  13. Modeling simulation of the thermal radiation for high-speed flight vehicles' aero-optical windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Liqin; Guo, Mingjiang

    2015-10-01

    When high-speed flight vehicles fly in the atmosphere, they can generate serious aero-optical effect. The optical window temperature rises sharply because of aerodynamic heating. It will form radiation interference that can lead infrared detectors to producing non-uniform radiation backgrounds, decreasing system SNR and detection range. Besides, there exits temperature difference due to uneven heating. Under the thermo-optical and elastic-optical effects, optical windows change into inhomogeneous mediums which influence the ray propagation. In this paper, a model of thermal radiation effect was built by a finite element analysis method. Firstly, the optical window was divided into uniform grids. Then, radiation distribution on the focal planes at different angles of the window's normal line and optical axis was obtained by tracing light rays of each grid. Finally, simulation results indicate that radiation distribution reflects the two directions-the length and width-of temperature distribution, and the change of angle causes the center of radiation distribution to shift to one direction of the image surface under the same window temperature.

  14. Friction compensation for low velocity control of hydraulic flight motion simulator: A simple adaptive robust approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianyong; Jiao Zongxia; Han Songshan

    2013-01-01

    Low-velocity tracking capability is a key performance of flight motion simulator (FMS),which is mainly affected by the nonlinear friction force.Though many compensation schemes with ad hoc friction models have been proposed,this paper deals with low-velocity control without friction model,since it is easy to be implemented in practice.Firstly,a nonlinear model of the FMS middle frame,which is driven by a hydraulic rotary actuator,is built.Noting that in the low velocity region,the unmodeled friction force is mainly characterized by a changing-slowly part,thus a simple adaptive law can be employed to learn this changing-slowly part and compensate it.To guarantee the boundedness of adaptation process,a discontinuous projection is utilized and then a robust scheme is proposed.The controller achieves a prescribed output tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy in general while obtaining asymptotic output tracking in the absence of modeling errors.In addition,a saturated projection adaptive scheme is proposed to improve the globally learning capability when the velocity becomes large,which might make the previous proposed projection-based adaptive law be unstable.Theoretical and extensive experimental results are obtained to verify the high-performance nature of the proposed adaptive robust control strategy.

  15. DEM extraction and its accuracy analysis with ground-based SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Yue, J. P.; Li, L. H.

    2014-03-01

    Two altimetry models extracting DEM (Digital Elevation Model) with the GBSAR (Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology are studied and their accuracies are analyzed in detail. The approximate and improved altimetry models of GBSAR were derived from the spaceborne radar altimetry based on the principles of the GBSAR technology. The error caused by the parallel ray approximation in the approximate model was analyzed quantitatively, and the results show that the errors cannot be ignored for the ground-based radar system. For the improved altimetry model, the elevation error expression can be acquired by simulating and analyzing the error propagation coefficients of baseline length, wavelength, differential phase and range distance in the mathematical model. By analyzing the elevation error with the baseline and range distance, the results show that the improved altimetry model is suitable for high-precision DEM and the accuracy can be improved by adjusting baseline and shortening slant distance.

  16. A time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm influences the nest-exiting flight angles of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D M S; Corrêa, A A C; Vaillant, O S; de Melo, V Bandeira; Gouvêa, G S; Ferreira, C G; Ferreira, T A; Wajnberg, E

    2014-03-01

    Insects have been used as models for understanding animal orientation. It is well accepted that social insects such as honeybees and ants use different natural cues in their orientation mechanism. A magnetic sensitivity was suggested for the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, based on the observation of a surprising effect of a geomagnetic storm on the nest-exiting flight angles. Stimulated by this result, in this paper, the effects of a time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm (TC-SGS) on the nest-exiting flight angles of another stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, are presented. Under an applied SGS, either on the horizontal or vertical component of the geomagnetic field, both nest-exiting flight angles, dip and azimuth, are statistically different from those under geomagnetic conditions. The angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of whole stingless bees shows the presence of organized magnetic nanoparticles in their bodies, which indicates this material as a possible magnetic detector.

  17. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students

  18. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  19. Neurophysiologic monitoring of mental workload and fatigue during operation of a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    In one experiment, EEG recordings were made during a daytime session while 16 well-rested participants performed versions of a PC flight simulator task that were either low, moderate, or high in difficulty. In another experiment, the same subjects repeatedly performed high difficulty versions of the same task during an all night session with total sleep deprivation. Multivariate EEG metrics of cortical activation were derived for frontal brain regions essential for working memory and executive control processes that are presumably important for maintaining situational awareness, central brain regions essential for sensorimotor control, and posterior parietal and occipital regions essential for visuoperceptual processing. During the daytime session each of these regional measures displayed greater activation during the high difficulty task than during the low difficulty task, and degree of cortical activation was positively correlated with subjective workload ratings in these well-rested subjects. During the overnight session, cortical activation declined with time-on-task, and the degree of this decline over frontal regions was negatively correlated with subjective workload ratings. Since participants were already highly skilled in the task, such changes likely reflect fatigue-related diminishment of frontal executive capability rather than practice effects. These findings suggest that the success of efforts to gauge mental workload via proxy cortical activation measures in the context of adaptive automation systems will likely depend on use of user models that take both task demands and the operator"s state of alertness into account. Further methodological development of the measurement approach outlined here would be required to achieve a practical, effective objective means for monitoring transient changes in cognitive brain function during performance of complex real-world tasks.

  20. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  1. Interactive dynamic three-dimensional scene for the ground-based three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peining; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) displays provides valuable tools for many fields, such as scientific experiment, education, information transmission, medical imaging and physical simulation. Ground based 360° 3D display with dynamic and controllable scene can find some special applications, such as design and construction of buildings, aeronautics, military sand table and so on. It can be utilized to evaluate and visualize the dynamic scene of the battlefield, surgical operation and the 3D canvas of art. In order to achieve the ground based 3D display, the public focus plane should be parallel to the camera's imaging planes, and optical axes should be offset to the center of public focus plane in both vertical and horizontal directions. Virtual cameras are used to display 3D dynamic scene with Unity 3D engine. Parameters of virtual cameras for capturing scene are designed and analyzed, and locations of virtual cameras are determined by the observer's eye positions in the observing space world. An interactive dynamic 3D scene for ground based 360° 3D display is demonstrated, which provides high-immersion 3D visualization.

  2. 飞行管理数字仿真系统设计%Design of Flight Management Digital Simulation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁鹏; 胡士强

    2011-01-01

    Constructing the digital simulation system of Flight Management System (FMS) was gradually required with the deepening research of domestic large - type passenger plane. This paper designed and implemented a digital simulation system of FMS based on ARINC429 bus and object - oriented method according to the analysis of functions and interface of FMS which is defined in ARINC702 protocol. The four modules of flight management, communica-tion, flight simulation and flight display were constructed to constitute the system, and in it, an aircraft model of three - axis was built. The performance was optimized using Dynamic Programming and Energy State methods, and the information between the modules was interacted and transmitted by ARINC429 bus. The system can be used as the digital simulation platform for the systemic research of FMS and be used to verify and study the algorithms, just as performance optimization, four - dimensional guidance and so on. At last, an example of whole flight from Shanghai to Beijing indicates that FMES is able to verify main functions of FMS and achieves the main performances index. The platform has been handed over to an avionics laboratory for using.%随着国内大型客机研制的逐步深入,飞行管理(Flight Management System,FMS)数字仿真系统的建设也逐渐明确,通过分析ARINC702协议中对FMS功能和接口描述,基于ARINC429总线和面向对象方法构建了全数字FMS仿真系统.分别开发了飞行管理模块、飞行模拟模块、通讯模块和飞行显示模块,建立了飞机三自由度模型,利用动态规划法和能量状态法进行性能优化,通过429总线进行信息交互与传输.利用全数字仿真系统可为系统研究FMS提供数字仿真平台,进行性能优化、四维制导和飞行计划等算法的研究和验证.最后通过上海-北京航线全过程飞行表明,全数字仿真系统能够实现FMS的主要功能仿真,满足主要性能指标,并已经交付某航电实验室使用.

  3. Ability of automatic detection of conflict between planes in flight simulations with the help of expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naděžda Bartošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines options for applying expert systems for the needs of identification of conflict situations between planes in flight simulations, which are applied during basic training of air traffic controllers. It focuses on the conditions for basic training of military air traffic controllers and presents the use of rule systems to automatic detection of conflict between planes within a basic training polygon. The system of rules is a part of the expert system, consisting of realisation of tasks for identifying optimum resolution of conflict situations in selected types of simulations.

  4. Low-Cost, Integrated Ground Test, Simulation, and Flight Control Development Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (MAVs) and Mars...

  5. Photographer: N/A Boeing CH-47B (USA 66-19138 NASA-737) Chinook in-flight simulator with Moffet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Photographer: N/A Boeing CH-47B (USA 66-19138 NASA-737) Chinook in-flight simulator with Moffet Field Navy Hangar and Ames VMS in background. Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 133

  6. Coupled simulation of CFD-flight-mechanics with a two-species-gas-model for the hot rocket staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Reimann, Bodo; Eggers, Thino

    2016-11-01

    The hot rocket staging is to separate the lowest stage by directly ignite the continuing-stage-motor. During the hot staging, the rocket stages move in a harsh dynamic environment. In this work, the hot staging dynamics of a multistage rocket is studied using the coupled simulation of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flight Mechanics. Plume modeling is crucial for a coupled simulation with high fidelity. A 2-species-gas model is proposed to simulate the flow system of the rocket during the staging: the free-stream is modeled as "cold air" and the exhausted plume from the continuing-stage-motor is modeled with an equivalent calorically-perfect-gas that approximates the properties of the plume at the nozzle exit. This gas model can well comprise between the computation accuracy and efficiency. In the coupled simulations, the Navier-Stokes equations are time-accurately solved in moving system, with which the Flight Mechanics equations can be fully coupled. The Chimera mesh technique is utilized to deal with the relative motions of the separated stages. A few representative staging cases with different initial flight conditions of the rocket are studied with the coupled simulation. The torque led by the plume-induced-flow-separation at the aft-wall of the continuing-stage is captured during the staging, which can assist the design of the controller of the rocket. With the increasing of the initial angle-of-attack of the rocket, the staging quality becomes evidently poorer, but the separated stages are generally stable when the initial angle-of-attack of the rocket is small.

  7. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Southworth, J; Randall, S; Ostensen, R; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Marconi, M; Kurtz, D W; Kiss, L; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Frandsen, S; De Cat, P; Bruntt, H; Briquet, M; Zhang, X B; Telting, J H; Steslicki, M; Ripepi, V; Pigulski, A; Paparo, M; Oreiro, R; Choong, Ngeow Chow; Niemczura, E; Nemec, J; Narwid, A; Mathias, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Lehman, H; Kopacki, G; Karoff, C; Jackiewicz, J; Henden, A A; Handler, G; Grigachene, A; Green, E M; Garrido, R; Machado, L Fox; Debosscher, J; Creevey, O L; Catanzaro, G; Bognar, Z; Biazzo, K; Bernabei, S

    2010-01-01

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising Kepler pulsators. So far, 35 different instruments at 30 telescopes on 22 different observatories in 12 countries are in use, and a total of more than 530 observing nights has been awarded. (Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, William Herschel Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Mercator Telescope (La Palma, Spain), and IAC-80 (Tenerife, Spain). Also based on observations taken at the observatories of Sierra Nevada, San Pedro Martir, Vienna, Xinglong, Apache Point, Lulin, Tautenburg, Loiano, Serra la Nave, Asiago, McDonald, Skinakas, Pic du Midi, Mauna Kea, Steward Observatory, Bialkow Observatory of the Wroclaw University, Piszkesteto Mountain Station, Observato...

  8. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  9. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  10. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  11. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  12. Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

  13. Simulacioni model sistema za upravljanje letom protivbrodske rakete / Model for simulating the flight control system of a antiship missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša N. Gaćeša

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je analiziran program za simulaciju sistema za upravljanje letom protivbrodske rakete sa radarskom glavom za samonavođenje. Analiziran je matematički model rakete, model autopilota i model cilja. Ovakvim pristupom dobijen je rezultat koji omogućava uspostavljanje realnijeg procesa praćenja leta konkretne protivbrodske rakete, budući da upravljanje letom rakete na celoj trajektoriji ima znatne prednosti u odnosu na nevođene projektile, pre svega zbog mogućnosti gađanja pokretnih ciljeva. Simulacioni model upravljanja letom rakete pruža mogućnosti za dalje proučavanje ove klase raketa. / The paper analyzes a program for simulating the flight control of an antiship missile with the radar seeker. The paper analyzes a mathematic missile model an autopilot model and a target model. Thus obtained results enable a more realistic process of flight tracking of a particular antiship missile as the missile guidance along the whole trajectory provides many advantages over unguided projectiles, primarily because of the possibility to fire at moving targets. The flight control simulation model enables further study of this missile class.

  14. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  15. Simulation-To-Flight (STF-1): A Mission to Enable CubeSat Software-Based Validation and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Justin; Zemerick, Scott; Grubb, Matt; Lucas, John; Jaridi, Majid; Gross, Jason N.; Ohi, Nicholas; Christian, John A.; Vassiliadis, Dimitris; Kadiyala, Anand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Simulation-to-Flight 1 (STF-1) CubeSat mission aims to demonstrate how legacy simulation technologies may be adapted for flexible and effective use on missions using the CubeSat platform. These technologies, named NASA Operational Simulator (NOS), have demonstrated significant value on several missions such as James Webb Space Telescope, Global Precipitation Measurement, Juno, and Deep Space Climate Observatory in the areas of software development, mission operations/training, verification and validation (V&V), test procedure development and software systems check-out. STF-1 will demonstrate a highly portable simulation and test platform that allows seamless transition of mission development artifacts to flight products. This environment will decrease development time of future CubeSat missions by lessening the dependency on hardware resources. In addition, through a partnership between NASA GSFC, the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium and West Virginia University, the STF-1 CubeSat will hosts payloads for three secondary objectives that aim to advance engineering and physical-science research in the areas of navigation systems of small satellites, provide useful data for understanding magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and space weather, and verify the performance and durability of III-V Nitride-based materials.

  16. Chlorine oxide in the stratospheric ozone layer Ground-based detection and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, A.; De Zafra, R. L.; Solomon, P. M.; Barrett, J. W.; Carlson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric chlorine oxide, a significant intermediate product in the catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine, has been detected and measured by a ground-based 204 GHz, millimeter-wave receiver. Data taken at latitude 42 deg N on 17 days between January 10 and February 18, 1980 yield an average chlorine oxide column density of approximately 1.05 x 10 to the 14th/sq cm or approximately 2/3 that of the average of eight in situ balloon flight measurements (excluding the anomalously high data of July 14, 1977) made over the past four years at 32 deg N. Less chlorine oxide below 35 km and a larger vertical gradient than predicted by theoretical models of the stratospheric ozone layer are found.

  17. Simulation Evaluation of Pilot Inputs for Real Time Modeling During Commercial Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Borja; Ranaudo, Richard; Oltman, Ryan; Myhre, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft dynamics characteristics can only be identified from flight data when the aircraft dynamics are excited sufficiently. A preliminary study was conducted into what types and levels of manual piloted control excitation would be required for accurate Real-Time Parameter IDentification (RTPID) results by commercial airline pilots. This includes assessing the practicality for the pilot to provide this excitation when cued, and to further understand if pilot inputs during various phases of flight provide sufficient excitation naturally. An operationally representative task was evaluated by 5 commercial airline pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). Results showed that it is practical to use manual pilot inputs only as a means of achieving good RTPID in all phases of flight and in flight turbulence conditions. All pilots were effective in satisfying excitation requirements when cued. Much of the time, cueing was not even necessary, as just performing the required task provided enough excitation for accurate RTPID estimation. Pilot opinion surveys reported that the additional control inputs required when prompted by the excitation cueing were easy to make, quickly mastered, and required minimal training.

  18. Synergetic ground-based methods for remote measurements of ozone vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyev, Yuriy; Kostsov, Vladimir; Virolainen, Yana

    2013-05-01

    The technique of combining ground-based measurements in infrared and microwave spectral regions in order to achieve higher accuracy of ozone profile retrieval in extensive altitude ranges is described and analyzed. The information content, errors, altitude ranges and vertical resolution of ozone profile retrieval have been studied on the basis of numerical simulation of synergetic experiments. Optimal conditions of measurements are defined and requirements to additional information are formulated. The first results on ozone vertical profile retrieval using groundbased measurements of FTIR-spectrometer and microwave radiometer are given.

  19. Boost-Phase ballistic missile trajectory estimation with ground based radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuyan; Huang Peikang

    2006-01-01

    A conditional boost-phase trajectory estimation method based on ballistic missile (BM) information database and classification is developed to estimate and predict boos-phase BM trajectory. The main uncertain factors to describe BM dynamics equation are reduced to the control law of trajectory pitch angle in boost-phase. After the BM mass at the beginning of estimation, the BM attack angle and the modification of engine thrust denoting BM acceleration are modeled reasonably, the boost-phase BM trajectory estimation with ground based radar is well realized. The validity of this estimation method is testified by computer simulation with a typical example.

  20. FluSI: A novel parallel simulation tool for flapping insect flight using a Fourier method with volume penalization

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    FluSI, a fully parallel open source software for pseudo-spectral simulations of three-dimensional flapping flight in viscous flows, is presented. The computational framework runs on high performance computers with distributed memory architectures. The discretization of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier--Stokes equations is based on a Fourier pseudospectral method with adaptive time stepping. The complex time varying geometry of flapping insects with rigid wings is handled with the volume penalization method. The modules characterizing the insect geometry, the flight mechanics and the wing kinematics are described. Validation tests for different benchmarks illustrate the efficiency and precision of the approach. Finally, computations of a model insect in the turbulent regime give an outlook of the versatility of the software.

  1. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  2. Development of a mass spectrometer for planetary exosphere exploration: from simulations to a flight like design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The exploration of habitable environments around the gas giants in the Solar System is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA, which will characterise Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats [1], [2]. We developed a prototype of the Neutral gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission intended for composition measurements of neutral gas and thermal plasma [3]. NIM/PEP will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. Besides direct ion measurement, the NIM instrument is able to measure the inflowing neutral gas in two different modes: in neutral mode the gas enters directly the ion source (open source) and in thermal mode, the gas gets thermally accommodated to wall temperature by several collisions inside an equilibrium sphere before entering the ion source (closed source). We started the development of NIM with detailed ion-optical simulations and optimisations using SIMION software. Based on the ion-optical design we developed a prototype of NIM with several iterations. We tested the prototype NIM under realistic mission conditions and thereby successfully verified its required functionality. We will present the development process from ion-optical simulation up to NIM prototype test results and the concluded flight like design. Furthermore, we will provide an insight into the working principle of NIM and its performance, based on measurement data. References: 1) ESA, "JUICE assessment study report (Yellow Book)", ESA/SRE(2011)18, 2012. 2) O. Grasset, M.K. Dougherty, A. Coustenis, E.J. Bunce, C. Erd, D. Titov, M. Blanc, A. Coates, P. Drossart, L.N. Fletcher, H. Hussmann, R. Jaumann, N. Krupp, J.-P. Lebreton, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Tortora, F. Tosi, T. Van Hoolst, "JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA mission to orbit Ganymede

  3. Evaluation of brightness temperature from a forward model of ground-based microwave radiometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rambabu; J S Pillai; A Agarwal; G Pandithurai

    2014-06-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers are getting great attention in recent years due to their capability to profile the temperature and humidity at high temporal and vertical resolution in the lower troposphere. The process of retrieving these parameters from the measurements of radiometric brightness temperature () includes the inversion algorithm, which uses the background information from a forward model. In the present study, an algorithm development and evaluation of this forward model for a ground-based microwave radiometer, being developed by Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) of India, is presented. Initially, the analysis of absorption coefficient and weighting function at different frequencies was made to select the channels. Further the range of variation of for these selected channels for the year 2011, over the two stations Mumbai and Delhi is discussed. Finally the comparison between forward-model simulated s and radiometer measured s at Mahabaleshwar (73.66°E and 17.93°N) is done to evaluate the model. There is good agreement between model simulations and radiometer observations, which suggests that these forward model simulations can be used as background for inversion models for retrieving the temperature and humidity profiles.

  4. Mechatronic Design, Dynamic Modeling and Results of a Satellite Flight Simulator for Experimental Validation of Satellite Attitude Determination and Control Schemes in 3-Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mendoza-Bárcenas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration and implementation of a satellite flight simulator based on an air bearing system, which was designed and instrumented in our laboratory to evaluate and to perform research in the field of Attitude Determination and Control Systems for satellites, using the hardware-in-the-loop technique. The satellite flight simulator considers two main blocks: an instrumented mobile platform and an external computer executing costume-made Matlab® software. The first block is an air bearing system containing an FPGA based on-board computer with capabilities to integrate digital architectures for data acquisition from inertial navigation sensors, control of actuators and communications data handling. The second block is an external personal computer, which runs in parallel Matlab® based algorithms for attitude determination and control. Both blocks are linked by means of radio modems. The paper also presents the analysis of the satellite flight simulator dynamics in order to obtain its movement equation which allows a better understanding of the satellite flight simulator behavior. In addition, the paper shows experimental results about the automated tracking of the satellite flight simulator based a virtual reality model developed in Matlab®. It also depicts two different versions of FPGA based on-board computers developed in-house to integrate embedded and polymorphic digital architectures for spacecrafts applications. Finally, the paper shows successful experimental results for an attitude control test using the satellite flight simulator based on a linear control law.

  5. A Benefit Analysis of Using a Low-Cost Flight Simulator for the MH-60R

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SNAs are sent to Primary Flight Training in either Corpus Christi, Texas , or Milton, Florida, to learn how to fly the T-6 fixed wing training aircraft...more it will have the ability to be utilized, and the lower the utilization rate will be for the OFT and WTT. One way to gauge the effectiveness of...Naval Flight Manual Navy Model MH-60R Helicopter. A1-H60RA-NFM-000. Patuxent River , MD: Naval Air Systems Command. 58 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  6. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morgan

    Full Text Available Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and rat species (Rattus spp. are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080 has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational

  7. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Warburton, Bruce; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and rat species (Rattus spp.) are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080) has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits) would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational site, along with

  8. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  9. Parameter identification studies on the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckavitt, Thomas P., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results of an aircraft parameters identification study conducted on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) in conjunction with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics are given. The ACFS is a commercial airline simulator with a design based on future technology. The simulator is used as a laboratory for human factors research and engineering as applied to the commercial airline industry. Parametric areas examined were engine pressure ratio (EPR), optimum long range cruise Mach number, flap reference speed, and critical take-off speeds. Results were compared with corresponding parameters of the Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft. This comparison identified two areas where improvements can be made: (1) low maximum lift coefficients (on the order of 20-25 percent less than those of a 757); and (2) low optimum cruise Mach numbers. Recommendations were made to those anticipated with the application of future technologies.

  10. TOMS and Ground-based Measurements: Long-term Trends, Spatial Variability, Cloud Effects, and Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, H. A.; Dahlback, A.; Stamnes, K.; Høyskar, B.; Olsen, R.; Schmidlin, F.; Tsay, S.

    2003-12-01

    Ground-based measurements and TOMS measurements are mutually beneficial to each other. Ground-based measurements of UV radiation and total column ozone amounts are important for the validation of TOMS measurements. For example, it has been shown that TOMS measurements has a tendency to under-estimate ground UV exposure. Some of these effects can perhaps be ascribed to local cloud effects or choice of ozone profiles in the retrieval algorithm. More ground-based measurements are needed to establish the cause of these discrepancies. Recent technology advances have made ground-based measurements of UV doses and ozone column amounts with inexpensive multi-channel filter instruments not only possible, but also an attractive alternative to other more labor-intensive and weather dependent methods. Filter instruments can operate unattended for long periods of time, and it is possible to obtain accurate ozone column amounts even on cloudy days. We present results from extensive comparisons of the performance of several ground-based instruments (the NILU-UV and GUV filter instruments, as well as the Dobson and Brewer instruments) against the EP-TOMS instrument. The data used in the comparisons are from three different sites where we have had the opportunity to operate more than one type of UV instruments for extended periods of time. The sites include the University of Oslo, Norway, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center facilities at Wallops Island, VA, and Greenbelt, MD and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (during the TOMS3F campaign). Our results show that ozone column amounts obtained with current filter-type instruments are just as good as those obtained with the Dobson instrument, and might even out-perform the Dobson instrument on cloudy days. The TOMS measurements are shown to exhibit some more variability, but there is on average very good agreement with the ground- based measurements even for high solar zenith angles (SZA). Further more, our comparison shows that

  11. Development of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform: Modeling, Simulating, and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Shin-Ichiro Higashino of the Universities of Washington, Seattle, and Kyushu, Japan respectively. In 2003, Ly and Higashino conducted research similar...of Technology, MA. September 2004. Ly, L. and Higashino , S. “Development of a UAV-Flight Test Vehicle at the University of Washington.” Presented

  12. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... time required for an input signal from a pilot primary flight control until motion system, visual system, or instrument response. It is the overall time delay incurred from signal input to output... (degrees). OGEOut of ground effect. PAPIPrecision Approach Path Indicator System. PfImpact or Feel Pressure...

  13. Modeling and Simulation Technology A New Vector for Flight-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    control system failure also reminds us that further improvement in the design of the F-22’s digital flight control systems is Notes 37 Charles W. Brown...third the number of software applications in use today will be here in another fifteen years.63 Cristoph W. Klomp, who leads Boeing’s 737 software office

  14. Measuring Workload Differences Between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory Scenarios in a Simulated Flight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four highly experienced Air Force pilots each flew four simulated flight scenarios. Two scenarios required a great deal of aircraft maneuvering. The other two scenarios involved less maneuvering, but required remembering a number of items. All scenarios were designed to be equaly challenging. Pilot's Subjective Ratings for Activity-level, Complexity, Difficulty, Stress, and Workload were higher for the manuevering scenarios than the memory scenarios. At a moderate workload level, keeping the pilots active resulted in better aircraft control. When required to monitor and remember items, aircraft control tended to decrease. Pilots tended to weigh information about the spatial positioning and performance of their aircraft more heavily than other items.

  15. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  16. The STACEE-32 Ground Based Gamma-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hinton, J A; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment detector in its initial configuration (STACEE-32). STACEE is a new ground-based gamma ray detector using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In STACEE, the heliostats of a solar energy research array are used to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous detectors.

  17. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Bramel, D; Carson, J; Covault, C E; Fortin, P; Hanna, D S; Hinton, J A; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Theoret, C G; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) in its complete configuration. STACEE uses the heliostats of a solar energy research facility to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The light is concentrated onto an array of photomultiplier tubes located near the top of a tower. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous ground-based detectors. STACEE is being used to observe pulsars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Research on target accuracy for ground-based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Shi, Ruoming

    2009-05-01

    In ground based Lidar system, the targets are used in the process of registration, georeferencing for point cloud, and also can be used as check points. Generally, the accuracy of capturing the flat target center is influenced by scanning range and scanning angle. In this research, the experiments are designed to extract accuracy index of the target center with 0-90°scan angles and 100-195 meter scan ranges using a Leica HDS3000 laser scanner. The data of the experiments are listed in detail and the related results are analyzed.

  19. Flight dynamics analysis and simulation of heavy lift airships. Volume 2: Technical manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Emmen, R. D.; Ashkenas, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical models embodied in the simulation are described in considerable detail and with supporting evidence for the model forms chosen. In addition the trimming and linearization algorithms used in the simulation are described. Appendices to the manual identify reference material for estimating the needed coefficients for the input data and provide example simulation results.

  20. Determination of Motion and Visual System Requirements for Flight Training Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Indicated airspeed ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization K, kt Knot(s) IFR Instrument flight rules IMC Instrument meteorological conditions...inertial space are continually observed in uni-directional monocular viewing with the line of sight fixed (or continually moving) in a moving frame, the... monocular ,viewing a point set on a ground plane fixed in inertial space, a set of correlated streamers is generated which constitute the "expansion

  1. Preliminary design features of the RASCAL - A NASA/Army rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Hindson, William S.; Doane, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft - the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) - are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system, including safety-of-flight. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system and a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-latitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display.

  2. Preliminary design features of the RASCAL: A NASA /Army rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Hindson, William S.; Doane, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft - the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) - are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system, including safety-of-flight. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system and a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-altitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display.

  3. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  4. Simulation of vestibular flight illusions on the ground%前庭性飞行错觉地面模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炜; 于立身; 季思菊; 李交杰; 张刚林; 黄佳怡; 马志超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To promote the pilot's experience on vestibular flight illusions under simulated flying environment and to investigate the illusion induced rate and the result of vestibular illusion simulation on the ground.Methods Forty-six pilots experienced vestibular flight illusions by the simulator that was according to the mechanism of generating vestibular flight illusions.The orientation feeling,feedback of personal state,response of autonomic nervous system and the evaluation of training effect were recorded.Results The total vestibular illusion induced rate was 91.7%.The induced rate of absence of rotation illusion,opposite-rotation illusion,Coriolis illusion,somatogravic illusion,G-excess illusion and nystagmus effect was respectively 100.0%,100.0%,91.7%,78.6%,94.4% and 100.0%.All pilots reported experienced vestibular flight illusions.In the analysis of assessing induced acute motion sickness only 4 person-times showed transient reflex at MⅡ level,and no reflex more severe than M Ⅲ or MS level was observed.Pilots assessed such experience was helpful in knowing illusions and preventing spatial disorientation accidents.Conclusion The flight illusion simulator can effectively keep pilots experiencing flight vestibular illusions upon high induced rate,proper stimulation and notable effects.%目的 让飞行员在地面上体验模拟飞行条件下的前庭性飞行错觉,观察错觉的诱发率和地面模拟前庭性飞行错觉的效果. 方法 根据前庭性飞行错觉的发生机制,利用飞行错觉模拟器模拟飞行错觉.46名歼(强)击机飞行员进行错觉体验,记录其空间感觉主诉、对自身状态的反馈、自主神经反应及对训练效果的评价. 结果 前庭性错觉总诱发率为91.7%;不旋转错觉诱发率100.0%,反旋转错觉100.0%,Coriolis错觉91.7%,躯体重力错觉78.6%,超重错觉94.4%,眼震效应100.0%.本组飞行员错觉体验率为100.0%.在飞行错觉体验过程

  5. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  6. FUZZY GLOBAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM AND ITS APPLICATION FOR FLIGHT SIMULATOR SERVO SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinkun; HE Yuzhu

    2007-01-01

    To alleviate the chattering problem, a new type of fuzzy global sliding mode controller (FGSMC) is presented. In this controller, the switching gain is estimated by fuzzy logic system based on the reachable conditions of sliding mode controller(SMC), and genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize scaling factor of the switching gain, thus the switch chattering of SMC can be alleviated.Moreover, global sliding mode is realized by designing an exponential dynamic sliding surface.Simulation and real-time application for flight simulator servo system with Lugre friction are given to indicate that the proposed controller can guarantee high robust performance all the time and can alleviate chattering phenomenon effectively.

  7. Ground-Based Phase of Spaceflight Experiment "Biosignal" Using Autonomic Microflurimeter "Fluor-K"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, O. V.; Gal'chuk, S. V.; Rudimov, E. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2013-02-01

    The majority of flight experiments with the use of cell cultures and equipment like KUBIK and CRIOGEM carried out on board of the satellites (Bion, Foton) and ISS only allows the after-flight biosamples to be analyzed. As far as with few exceptions, the real-time cellular parameters registration for a long period is hard to be implemented. We developed the "Fluor-K" equipment - precision, small-sized, autonomous, two-channel, programmed fluorimeter. This device is designed for registration of differential fluorescent signal from organic and non-organic objects of microscale in small volumes (cellular organelles suspensions, animal and human cells, unicellular algae, bacteria, various fluorescent colloid solutions). Beside that, "Fluor-K" allows simultaneous detection of temperature. The ground-based tests of the device proved successful. The developed software can support experimental schedules while real-time data registration with the built-in storage device allows changes in selected parameters to be analyzed using wide range of fluorescent probes.

  8. An Evaluation of Training Interventions and Computed Scoring Techniques for Grading a Level Turn Task and a Straight In Landing Approach on a PC-Based Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    One result of the relatively recent advances in computing technology has been the decreasing cost of computers and increasing computational power. This has allowed high fidelity airplane simulations to be run on personal computers (PC). Thus, simulators are now used routinely by pilots to substitute real flight hours for simulated flight hours for training for an aircraft type rating thereby reducing the cost of flight training. However, FAA regulations require that such substitution training must be supervised by Certified Flight Instructors (CFI). If the CFI presence could be reduced or eliminated for certain tasks this would mean a further cost savings to the pilot. This would require that the flight simulator have a certain level of 'intelligence' in order to provide feedback on pilot perfolmance similar to that of a CFI. The 'intelligent' flight sinlulator would have at least the capability to use data gathered from the flight to create a measure for the performance of the student pilot. Also, to fully utilize the advances in computational power, the sinlulator would be capable of interacting with the student pilot using the best possible training interventions. This thesis reposts on the two studies conducted at Tuskegee University investigating the effects of interventions on the learning of two flight maneuvers on a flight sinlulator and the robustness and accuracy of calculated perfornlance indices as compared to CFI evaluations of performance. The intent of these studies is to take a step in the direction of creating an 'intelligent' flight simulator. The first study deals with the comparisons of novice pilot performance trained at different levels of above real-time to execute a level S-turn. The second study examined the effect of out-of-the-window (OTW) visual cues in the form of hoops on the performance of novice pilots learning to fly a landing approach on the flight simulator. The reliability/robustness of the computed performance metrics was

  9. Research on Visual Simulation of UAV Formation Flight Control Based on Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control method of UAV formation reconfiguration, and accomplishes simulation of the transformation of UAV formation from a defensive formation to an offensive one using MATLAB/Simulink. Then, a visual simulation platform is built to display the simulation process in the form of animation and make the results more intuitive. The platform is built by means of MFC, Vega API and MATLAB engine.

  10. Optical turbulence forecast: toward a new era of ground-based astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the optical turbulence (OT) for astronomical applications obtained with non-hydrostatic atmospherical models at meso-scale presents, with respect to measurements, some advantages. The future of the ground-based astronomy relies upon the potentialities and feasibility of the ELTs. Our ability in knowing, controlling and 'managing' the effects of the turbulence on such a new generation telescopes and facilities are determinant to assure their competitiveness with respect to the space astronomy. In the past several studies have been carried out proving the feasibility of the simulation of realistic Cn2 profiles above astronomical sites. The European Community (FP6 Program) decided recently to fund a Project aiming, from one side, to prove the feasibility of the OT forecasts and the ability of meso-scale models in discriminating astronomical sites from optical turbulence point of view and, from the other side, to boost the development of this discipline at the borderline between the astrophysics...

  11. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  12. Simulation and realization of 3D sound for flight simulator%飞行模拟器三维声音仿真及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛晓伟; 郑淑涛; 韩俊伟; 郝明晖

    2012-01-01

    为了使飞行仿真具有真实感和沉浸感,重现飞机座舱的三维声场环境是非常必要的.在确立飞行模拟器所要模拟的声音事件基础上,使用频谱分析和时频分析方法分析实际现场采集的声音数据,找出飞机各个部件声音的基本特征,再使用LMS自适应滤波及其他各种信号处理方法从原始录音中提取出用于仿真的声源.基于系统集成和性能的考虑,提出一种新的声音仿真系统组成方案,并在软件实现上使用面向对象的程序开发方法.详细讨论了研究开发三维声音仿真系统的关键技术,即声音实时合成技术和空间化技术.将开发出的三维声音仿真系统集成在实验室的波音737-800飞行模拟器中,经过大量试飞证明了该开发方法的可行性和有效性.%In order to obtain the sense of reality and immersion for flight simulation,it is very necessary to recur three dimensional(3D) sound field environment of aircraft cockpit.On the basis of determining the sound events to be simulated by a flight simulator,the frequency spectrum analysis and time-frequency analysis were used to analyze the sound data acquired from the pratical field to find out the basic sound characteristics of each component for an aircraft.And then the sound sources to be used in the simulation were extracted from the original sound record with LMS adaptive filtering and various methods for signal processing.Based on the consideration of both system integration and performance,a new component scheme for sound simulation system was proposed,and an object-oriented program development method was used for software realization.The key technologies for researching and developing 3D sound simulation system,namely sound real-time synthesis and spatialization technologies,were particularly discussed.The developed 3D sound simulation system was integrated in a Boeing 737-800 flight simulator in laboratory.A large amount of flight tests prove that

  13. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine.

  14. Improved ground-based FTS measurement for column abundance CO2 retrievals(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute of Meteorological Sciences has operated a ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Anmyeondo, Korea since December 2012. Anmyeondo FTS site is a designated operational station of Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and belongs to regional Global Atmosphere Watch observatory. A Bruker IFS-125HR model, which has a significantly high spectral resolution by 0.02 cm-1, is employed and instrument specification is almost same as the TCCON configuration. such as a spectrum range of 3,800 16,000 cm-1, a resolution of 1 cm-1, InGaAs and Si-Diode detectors and CaF2 beam splitter. It is found that measured spectra have a good agreement with simulated spectra. In order to improve the spectral accuracy and stability, The Operational Automatic System for Intensity of Sunray (OASIS) has been developed. The OASIS can provide consistent photon energy optimized to detector range by controlling the diameter of solar beam reflected from the mirror of suntracker. As a result, monthly modulation efficiency (ME), which indicates the spectral accuracy of FTS measurement, has been recorded the vicinity of 99.9% since Feb 2015. The ME of 98% is regarded as the error of 0.1% in the ground-based in-situ CO2 measurement. Total column abundances of CO2 and CH4 during 2015 are estimated by using GGG v14 and compared with ground-based in-situ CO2 and CH4 measurements at the height of 86 m above sea level. The seasonality of CO2 is well captured by both FTS and in-situ measurements while there is considerable difference on the amplitude of CO2 seasonal variation due to the insensitivity of column CO2 to the surface carbon cycle dynamics in nature as well as anthropogenic sources. Total column CO2 and CH4 approximately vary from 395 ppm to 405 ppm and from 1.82 ppm to 1.88 ppm, respectively. It should be noted that few measurements obtained in July to August because of a lot of cloud and fog. It is found that enhancement of CH4 from the FTS at Anmyeondo

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRAINING OF CIVIL AVIATHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Elisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the simulator training of the crew of civil aviation. It is noted that the particular attention of the simulator training is paid to practising flying skills, though more complex activity remains out of the sphere of the estimation of the results of training.

  16. Altered Gravity Simulated by Parabolic Flight and Water Immersion Leads to Decreased Trunk Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiliang Wang

    Full Text Available Gravity is one of the important environmental factors that influence the physiologies and behaviors of animals and humans, and changes in gravity elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral alterations that include impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions. To elucidate the effects of gravity on human physiology and behavior, we examined changes in wrist and trunk activities and heart rate during parabolic flight and the activity of wrist and trunk in water immersion experiments. Data from 195 person-time parabolas performed by eight subjects revealed that the trunk motion counts decreased by approximately half during ascending legs (hypergravity, relative to the data acquired before the parabolic flights. In contrast, the wrist activity remained unchanged. The results from the water immersion experiments demonstrated that in the underwater condition, both the wrist and trunk activities were significantly decreased but the latter decreased to a much lower level. Together, these data suggest that gravitational alterations can result in differential influences on the motions of the wrist and the trunk. These findings might be important for understanding the degeneration of skeleton and muscular system and performance of astronauts in microgravity.

  17. Altered Gravity Simulated by Parabolic Flight and Water Immersion Leads to Decreased Trunk Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Dongni; Tian, Yu; Li, Fan; Zhang, Shaoyao; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Yaoyu; Liu, Weibo; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Gravity is one of the important environmental factors that influence the physiologies and behaviors of animals and humans, and changes in gravity elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral alterations that include impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions. To elucidate the effects of gravity on human physiology and behavior, we examined changes in wrist and trunk activities and heart rate during parabolic flight and the activity of wrist and trunk in water immersion experiments. Data from 195 person-time parabolas performed by eight subjects revealed that the trunk motion counts decreased by approximately half during ascending legs (hypergravity), relative to the data acquired before the parabolic flights. In contrast, the wrist activity remained unchanged. The results from the water immersion experiments demonstrated that in the underwater condition, both the wrist and trunk activities were significantly decreased but the latter decreased to a much lower level. Together, these data suggest that gravitational alterations can result in differential influences on the motions of the wrist and the trunk. These findings might be important for understanding the degeneration of skeleton and muscular system and performance of astronauts in microgravity.

  18. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  19. a Universal De-Noising Algorithm for Ground-Based LIDAR Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based lidar, working as an effective remote sensing tool, plays an irreplaceable role in the study of atmosphere, since it has the ability to provide the atmospheric vertical profile. However, the appearance of noise in a lidar signal is unavoidable, which leads to difficulties and complexities when searching for more information. Every de-noising method has its own characteristic but with a certain limitation, since the lidar signal will vary with the atmosphere changes. In this paper, a universal de-noising algorithm is proposed to enhance the SNR of a ground-based lidar signal, which is based on signal segmentation and reconstruction. The signal segmentation serving as the keystone of the algorithm, segments the lidar signal into three different parts, which are processed by different de-noising method according to their own characteristics. The signal reconstruction is a relatively simple procedure that is to splice the signal sections end to end. Finally, a series of simulation signal tests and real dual field-of-view lidar signal shows the feasibility of the universal de-noising algorithm.

  20. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Ken

    2002-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based instrument designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma rays in the energy range from 50 to 500 GeV using an array of heliostat mirrors at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in New Mexico. The mirrors collect Cherenkov light generated by gamma-ray air showers and concentrate it onto cameras composed of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE instrument is now complete, and uses a total of 64 heliostats. Prototype instruments, using smaller numbers of heliostats, have previously detected gamma emission from both the Crab Nebula and the Active Galactic Nucleus Mrk421. The complete instrument has a lower threshold -- approximately 50 GeV -- than those prototypes due to superior triggering and electronics, including flash ADCs for every channel.We will discuss the performance of the complete instrument in its first full season of operation, and present preliminary results of selected observations.

  1. Atmospheric contamination for CMB ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Errard, J; Akiba, Y; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Baccigalupi, C; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; Delabrouille, J; Dobbs, M; Ducout, A; Elleflot, T; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Feeney, S; Gilbert, A; Goeckner-Wald, N; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A H; Jeong, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leon, D; Linder, E; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N J; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Okamura, T; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Tajima, O; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous st...

  2. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over $80\\%$ of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to $70\\%$. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can obser...

  3. Progress in the ULTRA 1-m ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Twarog, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Taghavi, Ray; Hale, Rick; Etzel, Paul; Fesen, Rob; Shawl, Steve

    2006-06-01

    We present the technical status of the Ultra Lightweight Telescope for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA) program. The program is a 3-year Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program funded by NSF. The MRI is a collaborative effort involving Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA), University of Kansas, San Diego State University and Dartmouth College. Objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite mirror technology for ground-based optical telescopes. CMA is spearheading the development of surface replication techniques to produce the optics, fabricating the 1m glass mandrel, and constructing the optical tube assembly (OTA). Presented will be an overview and status of the 1-m mandrel fabrication, optics development, telescope design and CFRP telescope fabrication by CMA for the ULTRA Telescope.

  4. Identification of rainy periods from ground based microwave radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Vittoria Bosisio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the results of a study aiming at detecting rainy data in measurements collected by a dual band ground-based radiometer. The proposed criterion is based on the ratio of the brightness temperatures observed in the 20-30 GHz band without need of any ancillary information. A major result obtained from the probability density of the ratio computed over one month of data is the identification of threshold values between clear sky, cloudy sky and rainy sky, respectively. A linear fit performed by using radiometric data and concurrent rain gauge measurements shows a correlation coefficient equal to 0.56 between the temperature ratio and the observed precipitation.

  5. Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The optical vortex coronagraph is potentially a remarkably effective device, at least for an ideal unobstructed telescope. Most ground-based telescopes however suffer from central obscuration and also have to operate through the aberrations of the turbulent atmosphere. This note analyzes the performance of the optical vortex in these circumstances and compares to some other designs, showing that it performs similarly in this situation. There is a large class of coronagraphs of this general type, and choosing between them in particular applications depends on details of performance at small off-axis distances and uniformity of response in the focal plane. Issues of manufacturability to the necessary tolerances are also likely to be important.

  6. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. These effects can inform electromagnetic follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  7. Spatial-angular modeling of ground-based biaxial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.

    1997-10-01

    Results of spatial-angular LIDAR modeling based on an efficiency criterion introduced are represented. Their analysis shows that a low spatial-angular efficiency of traditional VIS and NIR systems is a main cause of a low S/BR ratio at the photodetector input. It determines the considerable measurements errors and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters retrieval. As we have shown, the most effective protection against intensive sky background radiation for ground-based biaxial LIDAR's consist in forming of their angular field according to spatial-angular efficiency criterion G. Some effective approaches to high G-parameter value achievement to achieve the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  8. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  9. Initial Results from the DEEPWAVE Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement Program in New Zealand in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Dave; Smith, Ron; Taylor, Mike; Doyle, Jim; Eckermann, Steve; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Rapp, Markus; Williams, Biff; Bossert, Katrina; Pautet, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    The deep-propagating gravity wave experiment (DEEPWAVE) was performed on and over New Zealand, Tasmania, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean with core airborne measurements extending from 5 June to 21 July 2014 and supporting ground-based measurements beginning in late May and extending beyond the airborne component. DEEPWAVE employed two aircraft, the NSF/NCAR GV and the German DLR Falcon. The GV carried the standard flight-level instruments, dropsondes, and the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP). It also hosted new airborne lidar and imaging instruments built specifically to allow quantification of gravity waves (GWs) from sources at lower altitudes (e.g., orography, convection, jet streams, fronts, and secondary GW generation) throughout the stratosphere and into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The new GV lidars included a Rayleigh lidar measuring atmospheric density and temperature from ~20-60 km and a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium density and temperature at ~75-100 km. An airborne Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper (AMTM) was also developed for the GV, and together with additional IR "wing" cameras, imaged the OH airglow temperature and/or intensity fields extending ~900 km across the GV flight track. The DLR Falcon was equipped with its standard flight-level instruments and an aerosol Doppler lidar able to measure radial winds below the Falcon where aerosol backscatter was sufficient. Additional ground-based instruments included a 449 MHz boundary layer radar, balloons at multiple sites, two ground-based Rayleigh lidars, a second ground-based AMTM, a Fabry Perot interferometer measuring winds and temperatures at ~87 and 95 km, and a meteor radar measuring winds from ~80-100 km. DEEPWAVE performed 26 GV flights, 13 Falcon flights, and an extensive series of ground-based measurements whether or not the aircraft were flying. Together, these observed many diverse cases of GW forcing, propagation, refraction, and dissipation

  10. In-flight thermal experiments for LISA Pathfinder: Simulating temperature noise at the Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, F.; Nofrarias, M.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, Ll; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Maghami, P.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal Diagnostics experiments to be carried out on board LISA Pathfinder (LPF) will yield a detailed characterisation of how temperature fluctuations affect the LTP (LISA Technology Package) instrument performance, a crucial information for future space based gravitational wave detectors as the proposed eLISA. Amongst them, the study of temperature gradient fluctuations around the test masses of the Inertial Sensors will provide as well information regarding the contribution of the Brownian noise, which is expected to limit the LTP sensitivity at frequencies close to 1 mHz during some LTP experiments. In this paper we report on how these kind of Thermal Diagnostics experiments were simulated in the last LPF Simulation Campaign (November, 2013) involving all the LPF Data Analysis team and using an end-to-end simulator of the whole spacecraft. Such simulation campaign was conducted under the framework of the preparation for LPF operations.

  11. Red blood cell metabolism (M114), part D. [in Skylab space flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Statistically significant differences were found between Skylab simulation crews and controls for glycolytic enzymes. The absence of simultaneous controls for the pre- and postchamber analyses leaves the significance of the findings in the crew during these periods indeterminate.

  12. FMP (Flight Mechanics Panel) Working Group WG-12 on Validation of Missile System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    maintenance costs for weapon performance simulation programs (2) Fase of software maintenance during development ltem (2) is very important and needs...System simulation studies - if hinge moments have a sensible effect on system performance or if an estimate of overall power consumption during a mission...effects, deterioration of magnetic flux and the dynamics of the power amplifier should not have a sensible effect on the static and cyoamic behavior of

  13. Advanced Flight Simulator: Utilization in A-10 Conversion and Air-to-Surface Attack Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CLASSIFIC.TION OF THIS PAGE(1Whl Data Emiterd) Item 20 (Continued) -" blocks of instruction on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). The first...training, the transfer of training from the ASPT to the A-10 is nearly 100 percent. therefore, in the early phases of AiS training, one simulator... ASPT ) could be suitably modified, an alternative to initially dangerous and expensive aircraft training would exist which also offered considerable

  14. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  15. Hovering and targeting flight simulations of a dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model by the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Kensuke; Inamuro, Takaji

    2017-08-01

    Hovering and targeting flights of the dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model are numerically investigated by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The governing parameters of the problem are the Reynolds number Re, the Froude number Fr, and the non-dimensional mass m. We set the parameters at Re = 200, Fr = 15 and m = 51. First, we simulate free flights of the model for various values of the phase difference angle ϕ between the forewing and the hindwing motions and for various values of the stroke angle β between the stroke plane and the horizontal plane. We find that the vertical motion of the model depends on the phase difference angle ϕ, and the horizontal motion of the model depends on the stroke angle β. Secondly, using the above results we try to simulate the hovering flight by dynamically changing the phase difference angle ϕ and the stroke angle β. The hovering flight can be successfully simulated by a simple proportional controller of the phase difference angle and the stroke angle. Finally, we simulate a targeting flight by dynamically changing the stroke angle β.

  16. [Experiment with rats on a 22-day flight on the "Kosmos-605" biological satellite (objectives and methods)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Serova, L V; Noskin, A D

    1976-01-01

    In 1974 a rat experiment was carried out onboard the Cosmos-605 biosatellite. Inflight Wistar rats were kept unrestrained in small cages. The cages were equipped with a feeder, water supply, light source and a ventilation device. The state of the animals was assessed with respect to their motor activity. The flight experiment was preceded by a number of preparatory runs and testinns that were completed with an end-to-end experiment in a biosatellite mockup. The flight experiment was paralleled by the ground-based synchroneous experiment which simulated almost entirely the flight profile. For each experiment rats were selected and trained during a month's observation. Postflight rats were exposed to clinical, physiological, morphological, cytochemical and biochemical investigations. Tissue examinations were performed on the 2nd-3rd day (20 rats) and 26-27th day (12 rats) after flight. Four rats were kept to study remote aftereffects.

  17. Experiments Using a Ground-Based Electrostatic Levitator and Numerical Modeling of Melt Convection for the Iron-Cobalt System in Support of Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyun; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Materials research is being conducted using an electromagnetic levitator installed in the International Space Station. Various metallic alloys were tested to elucidate unknown links among the structures, processes, and properties. To accomplish the mission of these space experiments, several ground-based activities have been carried out. This article presents some of our ground-based supporting experiments and numerical modeling efforts. Mass evaporation of Fe50Co50, one of flight compositions, was predicted numerically and validated by the tests using an electrostatic levitator (ESL). The density of various compositions within the Fe-Co system was measured with ESL. These results are being served as reference data for the space experiments. The convection inside a electromagnetically-levitated droplet was also modeled to predict the flow status, shear rate, and convection velocity under various process parameters, which is essential information for designing and analyzing the space experiments of some flight compositions influenced by convection.

  18. A high-performance ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hui; Shao, Lingzhi; Wang, Minjuan; Berkovich, Yu A.; Erokhin, A. N.; Liu, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role in dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. Here we developed a ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility, named Horn-type Producer (HTP), which was capable of simulating the microgravity effect and the continuous cultivation of leaf-vegetables on root modules. The growth chamber of the facility had a volume of 0.12 m3, characterized by a three-stage space expansion with plant growth. The planting surface of 0.154 m2 was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved forward with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m2 was provided by a combination of red and white light emitting diodes on the internal surfaces. In tests with a 24-h photoperiod, the productivity of the HTP at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Long-term operation of the HTP did not alter vegetable nutrition composition to any great extent. Furthermore, the efficiency of the HTP, based on the Q-criterion, was 7 × 10-4 g2 m-3 J-1. These results show that the HTP exhibited high productivity, stable quality, and good efficiency in the process of planting lettuce, indicative of an interesting design for space vegetable production.

  19. A comparison of two position estimate algorithms that use ILS localizer and DME information. Simulation and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Scanlon, C.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation and flight tests were conducted to compare the accuracy of two algorithms designed to compute a position estimate with an airborne navigation computer. Both algorithms used ILS localizer and DME radio signals to compute a position difference vector to be used as an input to the navigation computer position estimate filter. The results of these tests show that the position estimate accuracy and response to artificially induced errors are improved when the position estimate is computed by an algorithm that geometrically combines DME and ILS localizer information to form a single component of error rather than by an algorithm that produces two independent components of error, one from a DMD input and the other from the ILS localizer input.

  20. Construction and simulation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the University of Notre Dame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, B.E., E-mail: bschult4@nd.edu; Kelly, J.M.; Nicoloff, C.; Long, J.; Ryan, S.; Brodeur, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant problems in the production of rare isotopes is the simultaneous production of contaminants, often time isobaric. Thus, a high-resolution beam purification method is required which needs to be compatible with both the low yield and short half-life of the desired radionuclide. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer meets all these criteria, in addition to boasting a smaller footprint relative to traditional separator dipole magnets. Such a device is currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame and is intended to be coupled to the IG-ISOL source of the planned cyclotron facility. The motivation and conceptual design are presented, as well as the status of simulations to determine the feasibility of using a Bradbury–Nielsen gate for bunching ion beams during initial system testing.

  1. Construction and simulation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the University of Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, B. E.; Kelly, J. M.; Nicoloff, C.; Long, J.; Ryan, S.; Brodeur, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant problems in the production of rare isotopes is the simultaneous production of contaminants, often time isobaric. Thus, a high-resolution beam purification method is required which needs to be compatible with both the low yield and short half-life of the desired radionuclide. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer meets all these criteria, in addition to boasting a smaller footprint relative to traditional separator dipole magnets. Such a device is currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame and is intended to be coupled to the IG-ISOL source of the planned cyclotron facility. The motivation and conceptual design are presented, as well as the status of simulations to determine the feasibility of using a Bradbury-Nielsen gate for bunching ion beams during initial system testing.

  2. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  3. Simulated flight acoustic investigation of treated ejector effectiveness on advanced mechanical suppresors for high velocity jet noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, J. F.; Motsinger, R. E.; Hoerst, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ten scale-model nozzles were tested in an anechoic free-jet facility to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a mechanically suppressed inverted-velocity-profile coannular nozzle with an accoustically treated ejector system. The nozzle system used was developed from aerodynamic flow lines evolved in a previous contract, defined to incorporate the restraints imposed by the aerodynamic performance requirements of an Advanced Supersonic Technology/Variable Cycle Engine system through all its mission phases. Accoustic data of 188 test points were obtained, 87 under static and 101 under simulated flight conditions. The tests investigated variables of hardwall ejector application to a coannular nozzle with 20-chute outer annular suppressor, ejector axial positioning, treatment application to ejector and plug surfaces, and treatment design. Laser velocimeter, shadowgraph photograph, aerodynamic static pressure, and temperature measurement were acquired on select models to yield diagnositc information regarding the flow field and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the nozzles.

  4. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-06-08

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  5. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  6. Preparing for the crewed Mars journey: microbiota dynamics in the confined Mars500 habitat during simulated Mars flight and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendner, Petra; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Barczyk, Simon; Wirth, Reinhard; Berg, Gabriele; Rettberg, Petra

    2017-10-04

    The Mars500 project was conceived as the first full duration simulation of a crewed return flight to Mars. For 520 days, six crew members lived confined in a specifically designed spacecraft mock-up. The herein described "MIcrobial ecology of Confined Habitats and humAn health" (MICHA) experiment was implemented to acquire comprehensive microbiota data from this unique, confined manned habitat, to retrieve important information on the occurring microbiota dynamics, the microbial load and diversity in the air and on various surfaces. In total, 360 samples from 20 (9 air, 11 surface) locations were taken at 18 time-points and processed by extensive cultivation, PhyloChip and next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Cultivation assays revealed a Staphylococcus and Bacillus-dominated microbial community on various surfaces, with an average microbial load that did not exceed the allowed limits for ISS in-flight requirements indicating adequate maintenance of the facility. Areas with high human activity were identified as hotspots for microbial accumulation. Despite substantial fluctuation with respect to microbial diversity and abundance throughout the experiment, the location within the facility and the confinement duration were identified as factors significantly shaping the microbial diversity and composition, with the crew representing the main source for microbial dispersal. Opportunistic pathogens, stress-tolerant or potentially mobile element-bearing microorganisms were predicted to be prevalent throughout the confinement, while the overall microbial diversity dropped significantly over time. Our findings clearly indicate that under confined conditions, the community structure remains a highly dynamic system which adapts to the prevailing habitat and micro-conditions. Since a sterile environment is not achievable, these dynamics need to be monitored to avoid spreading of highly resistant or potentially pathogenic microorganisms and a

  7. Development of the reentry flight dynamics simulator for evaluation of space shuttle orbiter entry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, L. F.; Powell, R. W.; Stone, H. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A nonlinear, six degree of freedom, digital computer simulation of a vehicle which has constant mass properties and whose attitudes are controlled by both aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control system thrusters was developed. A rotating, oblate Earth model was used to describe the gravitational forces which affect long duration Earth entry trajectories. The program is executed in a nonreal time mode or connected to a simulation cockpit to conduct piloted and autopilot studies. The program guidance and control software used by the space shuttle orbiter for its descent from approximately 121.9 km to touchdown on the runway.

  8. A systems analysis of the erythropoietic responses to weightlessness. Volume 1: Mathematical model simulations of the erythropoietic responses to weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical responses to weightlessness are summarized. The studies include development and validation of a model of erythropoiesis regulation, analysis of the behavior of erythropoiesis under a variety of conditions, simulations of bed rest and space flight, and an evaluation of ground-based animal studies which were conducted as analogs of zero-g. A review of all relevant space flight findings and a set of testable hypotheses which attempt to explain how red cell mass decreases in space flight are presented. An additional document describes details of the mathematical model used in these studies.

  9. Desdemona and a ticket to space; training for space flight in a 3g motion simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.

    2014-01-01

    On October 5, 2013, Marijn Wouters and two other contestants of a nation-wide competition ‘Nederland Innoveert’ underwent a space training exercise. One by one, the trainees were pushed to their limits in the Desdemona motion simulator, an experience that mimicked the Space Expedition Corporation (S

  10. Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Motion for C-17 Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    28 Availability of Simulator . ..................... 3 Summary of Costs ......................... 35 IV . CONCLUSIONS...Section II summarizes the assessment of benefits, Sec. III summar- izes the assessment of costs, and Sec. IV presents conclusions. Further supporting...differences in the availability of the three motion system alternatives are minor at best, the fiscal costo shown in Table 3.4 are the greatest cost

  11. Global impacts of a Foreshock Bubble: Magnetosheath, magnetopause and ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Martin; Eastwood, Jonathan; Schwartz, Steven; Horbury, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Using multipoint observations we show, for the first time, that Foreshock Bubbles (FBs) have a global impact on Earth's magnetosphere. We show that an FB, a transient kinetic phenomenon due to the interaction of backstreaming suprathermal ions with a discontinuity, modifies the total pressure upstream of the bow shock showing a decrease within the FB's core and sheath regions. Magnetosheath plasma is accelerated towards the the intersection of the FB's current sheet with the bow shock resulting in fast, sunward, flows as well as outward motion of the magnetopause. Ground-based magnetometers also show signatures of this magnetopause motion simultaneously across at least 7 hours of magnetic local time, corresponding to a distance of 21.5 RE transverse to the Sun-Earth line along the magnetopause. These observed global impacts of the FB are in agreement with previous simulations and in stark contrast to the known localised, smaller scale effects of Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs).

  12. On the Interpretation of Gravity Wave Measurements by Ground-Based Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dörnbrack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks the simple question: How can we interpret vertical time series of middle atmosphere gravity wave measurements by ground-based temperature lidars? Linear wave theory is used to show that the association of identified phase lines with quasi-monochromatic waves should be considered with great care. The ambient mean wind has a substantial effect on the inclination of the detected phase lines. The lack of knowledge about the wind might lead to a misinterpretation of the vertical propagation direction of the observed gravity waves. In particular, numerical simulations of three archetypal atmospheric mountain wave regimes show a sensitivity of virtual lidar observations on the position relative to the mountain and on the scale of the mountain.

  13. Space life sciences: ground-based iron-ion biology and physics, including shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This session of the 35th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR focuses on recent advances in ground-based studies of high-energy (mainly 1 GeV/nucleon) iron ions. The theme is interdisciplinary in nature and encompasses both physics and biology reports. Manned space missions, including those of the International Space Station and the planned Mars mission, will require the extended presence of crew members in space. As such, a better understanding in shielding design--in radiation detection as well as radio-protection based on simulating studies--is much needed. On the other hand, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that modulate radiation sensitivity; in determining DNA double strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and the induction of apoptosis, will provide important information for an interventional approach.

  14. Ground-based testing of the dynamics of flexible space structures using band mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. F.; Chew, Meng-Sang

    1991-01-01

    A suspension system based on a band mechanism is studied to provide the free-free conditions for ground based validation testing of flexible space structures. The band mechanism consists of a noncircular disk with a convex profile, preloaded by torsional springs at its center of rotation so that static equilibrium of the test structure is maintained at any vertical location; the gravitational force will be directly counteracted during dynamic testing of the space structure. This noncircular disk within the suspension system can be configured to remain unchanged for test articles with the different weights as long as the torsional spring is replaced to maintain the originally designed frequency ratio of W/k sub s. Simulations of test articles which are modeled as lumped parameter as well as continuous parameter systems, are also presented.

  15. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated Teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  16. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  17. 飞行错觉模拟训练系统的研究与开发%Research and Development of Simulation Training System of Flight Illusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程洪书; 赵保明; 张福; 赵高峰

    2012-01-01

    Flight illusion is one of the reasons that cause the severe flight accidents, so a simulation training system of flight illusion is developed with VC++ and ACCESS methods. The system can be used with any flight simulator. And the system sends the training data to system software of simulator such as flight control software. So the whole simulator has a actual environment from the way that the software drive hardware. Pilots flying in simulator can feel the complex illusions which can be took in flying in air. The complex illusions are overturning,rolling,rotating and so on . From the training the pilots can find the methods to counteract the flight illusions. So the cognizing ability of pilots in space can be improved, and so the aviation can be ensured safely and all right.%飞行错觉一直是造成严重飞行事故的主要原因之一,因此采用VC++和ACCESS相结合的方法开发了一套抗飞行错觉模拟训练系统,该系统可以与任何一台飞行模拟器相结合使用,通过网络将需要训练的数据传送给模拟器的飞控等系统软件,由软件驱动硬件,从而使整个模拟器具有一个逼真的环境,飞行员利用模拟器飞行,能体会空中飞行时翻、滚、转等产生的复合错觉,进而找到抗飞行错觉的有效办法,提高飞行员的空间认知能力水平,保障飞行顺利安全.

  18. Historical Review of Piloted Simulation at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Seth B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper traces the conception and development of in-flight and ground based simulators at NASA Ames Research Center, starting in 1947 and continuing to the early 1990's. Problems with their development and operation and how limitations were handled are recounted. Advances needed in simulator equipment to improve performance and fidelity to gain pilot acceptance are discussed. The uses of these simulators in various aircraft research and development programs and their importance to aircraft design and flight testing are reviewed. Challenges remaining include a better understanding of the tradeoff between motion cues and visual cues, the importance of simulation sophistication when examining aircraft with marginal handling qualities characteristics, and the continuing need for upgrading simulation technology as more complex problems are encountered. Additional research is needed to understand the human behavior aspect in the pilot/simulator system.

  19. Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers - Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, O; Gondoin, P; Fabry, P; Wilhelm, R; Gitton, P; Puech, F

    2005-01-01

    Nulling interferometry, a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of the close neighbourhood of bright astrophysical objets, is currently considered for future space missions such as Darwin or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I), both aiming at Earth-like planet detection and characterization. Ground-based nulling interferometers are being studied for both technology demonstration and scientific preparation of the Darwin/TPF-I missions through a systematic survey of circumstellar dust disks around nearby stars. In this paper, we investigate the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the performance of ground-based nulling instruments, and deduce the major design guidelines for such instruments. End-to-end numerical simulations allow us to estimate the performance of the main subsystems and thereby the actual sensitivity of the nuller to faint exozodiacal disks. Particular attention is also given to the important question of stellar leakage calibration. This study is illustrated in the ...

  20. Mountain wave PSC dynamics and microphysics from ground-based lidar measurements and meteorological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reichardt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The day-long observation of a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC by two co-located ground-based lidars at the Swedish research facility Esrange (67.9° N, 21.1° E on 16 January 1997 is analyzed in terms of PSC dynamics and microphysics. Mesoscale modeling is utilized to simulate the meteorological setting of the lidar measurements. Microphysical properties of the PSC particles are retrieved by comparing the measured particle depolarization ratio and the PSC-averaged lidar ratio with theoretical optical data derived for different particle shapes. In the morning, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles and then increasingly coexisting liquid ternary aerosol (LTA were detected as outflow from a mountain wave-induced ice PSC upwind Esrange. The NAT PSC is in good agreement with simulations for irregular-shaped particles with length-to-diameter ratios between 0.75 and 1.25, maximum dimensions from 0.7 to 0.9 µm, and a number density from 8 to 12 cm-3 and the coexisting LTA droplets had diameters from 0.7 to 0.9 µm, a refractive index of 1.39 and a number density from 7 to 11 cm-3. The total amount of condensed HNO3 was in the range of 8–12 ppbv. The data provide further observational evidence that NAT forms via deposition nucleation on ice particles as a number of recently published papers suggest. By early afternoon the mountain-wave ice PSC expanded above the lidar site. Its optical data indicate a decrease in minimum particle size from 3 to 1.9 µm with time. Later on, following the weakening of the mountain wave, wave-induced LTA was observed only. Our study demonstrates that ground-based lidar measurements of PSCs can be comprehensively interpreted if combined with mesoscale meteorological data.