WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground water systems

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  2. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  3. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  4. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  5. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  6. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  7. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  8. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  9. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  10. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  11. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  12. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  13. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  14. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  15. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for...

  16. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... requirements of this section. (3) When a significant deficiency is identified at a Subpart H public...

  17. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  18. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  19. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  20. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  1. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  2. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  3. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  4. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  5. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  6. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  7. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  8. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  9. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  10. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  11. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  12. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  13. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  14. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  15. Identification of septic system effluent in ground water using small catchment hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.B.J.; Alexander, E.C. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    In many areas the contribution of septic system effluent to ground water contamination is still uncertain because of ambiguous provenance of chemical constituents. The problem is to establish a diagnostic chemical signature for the septic system effluent. Chlorides, nitrogen isotopes and optical brighteners have all been used as single constituent tracers for this purpose. These tracers tend to have limited range of application and cannot resolve ambiguity in areas with multiple potential contaminant sources. The authors addressed this problem using eight major ions to characterize the ground water chemistry, graphically or statistically. They identify the chemical signatures of septic system effluent and other non-point source contamination from the ground water chemistry of small ground water catchments overlain by single or very restricted land use types. They studied five small catchments near Rochester, Minnesota to isolate pre-development and non-septic system components of the ground water chemistry. Five small isolated hills were selected each with a distinct land-use type; natural forest, agricultural, unsewered residential, mixed agricultural/residential and fully sewered residential. The results show that Piper diagrams and statistical analysis can be used to define chemical signatures for the unsewered residential area using septic systems, the natural forest, and the agricultural catchments. The signatures of the mixed agriculture/residential and the fully sewered catchments are very similar to that of the agricultural catchment.

  16. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  19. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  20. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  1. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  2. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  3. Thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone in southeastern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a regional study of thermal and non-thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone of southern Idaho and western Wyoming are presented. The study involved hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data collection and interpretation. Particular emphasis was placed on analyzing the role that thrust zones play in controlling the movement of thermal and non-thermal fluids.

  4. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  5. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  6. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  7. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  8. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  9. Geographic Information System technology applications to Ground-Water Management Program, EPA Region 3. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clibanoff, A.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. GIS technology is a computer informational system that stores, analyzes, and manipulates both spatial and non-spatial data. Base map information for the GIS has come primarily from the USGS. Data for the entire Region at the 1:2,000,000 scale and for some of the Region at the 1:100,000 scale is currently being used. Data from GIRAS, a land use Database, at the 1:250,000 also exists for much of the Region. Information is contributed to the GIS from various sources including but not limited to RCRA, CERCLA, UIC, and UST programs. The WHP program is also being tapped to identify locations of public water supply wells. Region III is interested in any data that accurately describes the ground water condition in a given area. In Regional pilot studies being conducted, GIS is being employed at both the regional and county level. The goals of the pilot studies include the identification of areas of ground water susceptibility and major sources of ground water contamination, and prioritizing the Region's ground water supplies in terms of vulnerability to pollution and risk to the population.

  10. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  11. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  12. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  13. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  14. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  15. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141..., and alternative treatment operating criteria, if operation in accordance with the criteria or... specified by the State for State-approved alternative treatment and records of the date and duration of any...

  16. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the perched ground water under seepage-irrigated potato cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Arboleda, F; Mylavarapu, R; Hutchinson, C; Portier, K

    2008-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen rates for potato production in northeast Florida have been declared as a potential source of nitrate pollution in the St. Johns River watershed. This 3-yr study examined the effect of N rates (0, 168, and 280 kg ha(-1)) split between planting and 40 d after planting on the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Atlantic) in rotation with sorghum sudan grass hybrid (Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese, cv. SX17), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), and greenbean (Phaseolus vulgare cv. Espada). Soil solution from the root zone and water from the perched ground water under potato were sampled periodically using lysimeters and wells, respectively. Fertilization at planting increased the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water, but no effect of the legumes in rotation with potatoes on nitrate leaching was detected. Fertilization of green bean increased NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato planted in the following season. The NO(3)-N concentration in the soil solution within the potato root zone followed a similar pattern to that of the perched ground water but with higher initial values. The NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water was proportional to the rainfall magnitude after potato planting. A significant increase in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under cowpea planted in summer after potato was detected for the side-dressing of 168 kg ha(-1) N applied to potato 40 d after planting but not at the 56 kg ha(-1) N side-dress. Elevation in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under sorghum was not significant, supporting its use as an effective N catch crop.

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  18. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  19. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  20. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  1. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  2. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  3. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  4. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  5. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  6. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons,

  7. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D' Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  8. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  9. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  10. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  11. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  12. Apparent chlorofluorocarbon age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Brockman, Allen R.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent ages of ground water are useful in the analysis of various components of flow systems, and results of this analysis can be incorporated into investigations of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This report presents the results of a study in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Base Civil Engineer, Environmental Directorate, to describe the apparent age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system at the Station. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and water-quality field properties were measured in samples from 14 wells and 16 springs on the Station in March 1997.Nitrogen-argon recharge temperatures range from 5.9°C to 17.3°C with a median temperature of 10.9°C, which indicates that ground-water recharge predominantly occurs in the cold months of the year. Concentrations of excess air vary depending upon geohydrologic setting (recharge and discharge areas). Apparent ground-water ages using a CFC-based dating technique range from 1 to 48 years with a median age of 10 years. The oldest apparent CFC ages occur in the upper parts of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, whereas the youngest apparent ages occur in the Columbia aquifer and the upper parts of the discharge area setting, especially springs. The vertical distribution of apparent CFC ages indicates that groundwater movement between aquifers is somewhat retarded by the leaky confining units, but the elapsed time is relatively short (generally less than 35 years), as evidenced by the presence of CFCs at depth. The identification of binary mixtures by CFC-based dating indicates that convergence of flow lines occurs not only at the actual point of discharge, but also in the subsurface.The CFC-based recharge dates are consistent with expected 3H concentrations measured in the water samples from the Station. The concentration of 3H in ground water ranges from below the USGS laboratory minimum

  13. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  14. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  15. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  16. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  17. Design Approach for Solar Photovoltaic Ground Water Pumping System for Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern India has rich resource base for intensive and diversified agriculture, but the production and productivity of this region is quite low due to lack of assured irrigation as even a short dry spell of drought adversely affects the stability of agricultural production. The foremost reason energy squeeze in terms of lack of electricity and substantial increase in diesel price, which refrain farmers from operating required number hours of diesel pumps. This region is endowed with enormous solar energy potential with solar radiation of 4 - 6.4 kWh/m2/day and 250 - 300 bright sunshine days. Therefore, it can be a year round reliable source of energy for ground water pumpingto meet supplementary irrigation requirement. In addition to reliability,environmental pollution would also be reduced. However,in view of initial investment cost, cropping pattern and land holding sizes of the region,solar photovoltaic pumping system should be of appropriatesize and it should be designed keeping in view the solar irradianceround the year and water requirement in different seasons. This technical discusses few important aspects to fulfilthis proposition.

  18. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  19. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  20. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  1. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  2. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  3. Responses of woody species to spatial and temporal ground water changes in coastal sand dune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Máguas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the relative importance of groundwater in costal dune systems, studies concerning the responses of vegetation to ground water (GW availability variations, particularly in Mediterranean regions, are scarce. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to compare the responses of co-occurring species possessing different functional traits, to changes in GW levels (i.e. the lowering of GW levels in a sand dune ecosystem. For that, five sites were established within a 1 km2 area in a meso-mediterranean sand dune ecosystem dominated by a Pinus pinaster forest. Due to natural topographic variability and anthropogenic GW exploitation, substantial variability in depth to GW between sites was found. Under these conditions it was possible to identify the degree of usage and dependence on GW of different plant species (two deep-rooted trees, a drought adapted shrub, a phreatophyte and a non-native woody invader and how GW dependence varied seasonally and between the heterogeneous sites. Results indicated that the plant species had differential responses to changes in GW depth according to specific functional traits (i.e. rooting depth, leaf morphology, and water use strategy. Species comparison revealed that variability in pre-dawn water potential (Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C was related to site differences in GW use in the deep-rooted (Pinus pinaster, Myrica faya and phreatophyte (Salix repens species. However, such variation was more evident during spring than during summer drought. The exotic invader, Acacia longifolia, which does not possess a very deep root system, presented the largest seasonal variability in Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C. In contrast, the response of Corema album, an endemic understory drought-adapted shrub, seemed to be independent of water availability across seasons and sites. Thus, the susceptibility to lowering of GW due to anthropogenic

  4. Flow system boundary by D'Agnese and others (1997) for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the flow-system boundary encompassing the regional ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (1997). The boundary encompasses an...

  5. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton,Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Regan, C.P.; Lamb, J.A.; Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area was located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consisted of 73 observation wells and 25 multiport wells. The primary objectives of the ground-water monitoring program at the Minnesota MSEA were to: (1) determine the effects of three farming systems on ground-water quality, and (2) understand the processes and factors affecting the loading, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals in ground water at the site. This report presents well construction, geologic, water-level, chemical application, water-quality, and quality-assurance data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality during 1991-95.

  6. Quantifying Systemic Efficiency using Exergy and Energy Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pumps: Domestic Space Conditioning and Water Heating Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Although air temperatures over land surfaces show wide seasonal and daily variations, the ground, approximately 10 meters below the earth s surface, remains relatively stable in temperature thereby serving as an energy source or sink. Ground source heat pumps can heat, cool, and supply homes with hot water efficiently by utilizing the earth s renewable and essentially inexhaustible energy resources, saving fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering the environmental footprint. In this paper, evidence is shown that ground source heat pumps can provide up to 79%-87% of domestic hot water energy needs, and up to 77% of space heating needs with the ground s thermal energy resources. The case refers to a 12-month study conducted at a 253 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days and CDD of 723 C-days under simulated occupancy conditions. A single 94.5m vertical bore interfaced the heat pump with the ground. The research shows that this technology is capable of achieving US DOE targets of 25 % and 35% energy savings in HVAC, and in water heating, respectively by 2030. It is also a viable technology to meet greenhouse gas target emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources. The paper quantifies systemic efficiencies using Exergy analysis of the major components, clearly pointing areas for further improvement.

  7. Hydrogeologic analysis of the saturated-zone ground-water system, under Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, C. J.; Dudley, W. W.; Stuckless, J. S.

    1994-02-01

    The configuration of the southward-sloping water table under Yucca Mountain is dominated by an abrupt decline of 300 m over a distance of less than 2 km. This northeast-striking zone of large hydraulic gradient (of 0.15 or more) separates an area of moderate gradient (of about 0.015) to the north from an area of very small gradient (0.0001) to the south. The position of the large gradient does not correlate well with any evident geologic feature in the upper 0.5 km of the mountain, but we suggest that buried geologic features are present that can explain all the geohydrologic observations. The three areas of differing hydraulic gradient under Yucca Mountain are parts of hydrogeologic domains that extend more than 70 km to the northeast. On a regional basis, the moderate and very small gradients generally correspond to areas underlain by exceptionally thick Tertiary volcanic sections and a highly transmissive Paleozoic carbonate aquifer, respectively. The regional large gradient and water-table decline are spatially associated with a contact in the Paleozoic rocks between clastic rocks and carbonates. This contact marks a large abrupt drop in the effective base of the hydrologic system because it is the upgradient boundary of the deep carbonate aquifer, which has a thickness of 5 km. An aeromagnetic high follows the regional-scale domain of large gradient under northern Yucca Mountain from outcrops of a magnetite-bearing clastic confining unit to the east, indicating that the regional correlation of the steep water-table decline with the upgradient boundary of the deep carbonate aquifer may extend to Yucca Mountain. Five additional features may be related to an explanation for the large hydraulic gradient: (1) anomalously low heat flow has been measured deep in the volcanic section south of the water-table decline, suggesting underflow of cool water in the deep carbonate aquifer; (2) the lower tuff sequence, of 0.5-1 km in thickness, which underlies most of Yucca

  8. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  9. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  10. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  11. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  12. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  13. Teale Ground Water Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  14. Ground-water hydraulics, regional flow, and ground-water development of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is one of the major sources of groundwater supplies in the United States. This productive aquifer system underlies all of Florida, southeast Georgia, and small parts of adjoining Alabama and South Carolina, for a total area of about 100,000 square miles. About 3 billion gallons of water per day were withdrawn from the aquifer system in 1980, and in many areas the Floridan is the sole source of freshwater.

  15. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  16. Fate and transport of pesticides in the ground water systems of southwest Georgia, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.S.; Frick, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern agricultural practices in the United States have resulted in nearly unrivaled efficiency and productivity. Unfortunately, there is also the potential for release of these compounds to the environment and consequent adverse affects on wildlife and human populations. Since 1993, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated water quality in agricultural areas to address these concerns. The objective of this study is to evaluate trends in pesticide concentrations from 1993-2005 in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers of southwest Georgia using pesticide and pesticide degradate data collected for the NAWQA program. There were six compounds - five herbicides and one degradate - that were detected in more than 20% of samples: atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), metolachlor, alachlor, floumeturon, and tebuthiuron. Of the 128 wells sampled during the study, only eight wells had pesticide concentrations that either increased (7) or decreased (1) on a decadal time scale. Most of the significant trends were increasing concentrations of pesticides in older water; median pesticide concentrations did not differ between the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers from 1993 and 2005. Deethylatrazine, in the Upper Floridan aquifer, was the only compound that had a significant change (increase) in concentration during the study. The limited number of wells with increases in pesticide concentrations suggest that ground-water sources of these compounds are not increasing in concentration over the time scale represented in this study. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  18. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  19. EFFECT OF NATURAL AND COMMERCIAL SURFACTANTS ON THE SURVIVAL AND SORPTION OF BACTERIOPHAGES IN GROUND WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing concern about the protection of ground water from contamination by enteric viruses and the prevention of outbreaks of waterborne diseases. This study was undertaken to determine the processes that control viral transport in soil and ground water. In this ...

  20. EFFECT OF NATURAL AND COMMERCIAL SURFACTANTS ON THE SURVIVAL AND SORPTION OF BACTERIOPHAGES IN GROUND WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing concern about the protection of ground water from contamination by enteric viruses and the prevention of outbreaks of waterborne diseases. This study was undertaken to determine the processes that control viral transport in soil and ground water. In this ...

  1. Membrane-Based Gas Traps for Ammonia, Freon-21, and Water Systems to Simplify Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Gas traps are critical for the smooth operation of coolant loops because gas bubbles can cause loss of centrifugal pump prime, interference with sensor readings, inhibition of heat transfer, and blockage of passages to remote systems. Coolant loops are ubiquitous in space flight hardware, and thus there is a great need for this technology. Conventional gas traps will not function in micro-gravity due to the absence of buoyancy forces. Therefore, clever designs that make use of adhesion and momentum are required for adequate separation, preferable in a single pass. The gas traps currently used in water coolant loops on the International Space Station are composed of membrane tube sets in a shell. Each tube set is composed of a hydrophilic membrane (used for water transport and capture of bubbles) and a hydrophobic membrane (used for venting of air bubbles). For the hydrophilic membrane, there are two critical pressures, the pressure drop and the bubble pressure. The pressure drop is the decrease in system pressure across the gas trap. The bubble pressure is the pressure required for air bubbles to pass across the water filled membrane. A significant difference between these pressures is needed to ensure complete capture of air bubbles in a single pass. Bubbles trapped by the device adsorb on the hydrophobic membrane in the interior of the hydrophilic membrane tube. After adsorption, the air is vented due to a pressure drop of approximately 1 atmosphere across the membrane. For water systems, the air is vented to the ambient (cabin). Because water vapor can also transport across the hydrophobic membrane, it is critical that a minimum surface area is used to avoid excessive water loss (would like to have a closed loop for the coolant). The currently used gas traps only provide a difference in pressure drop and bubble pressure of 3-4 psid. This makes the gas traps susceptible to failure at high bubble loading and if gas venting is impaired. One mechanism for the latter

  2. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  3. Estimated potentiometric surface by D'Agnese and others (1998), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — D'Agnese and others (1998) developed a potentiometric surface to conceptualize the regional ground-water flow system and to construct numerical flow models of the...

  4. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  5. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  6. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  7. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  8. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, Frank A.; O'Brien, G. M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this 'second-generation' regional model was to enhance the knowledge an understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-state representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is situated within the southern Great Basin, a subprovince of the Basin and Range physiographic province, bounded by latitudes 35 degrees north and 38 degrees 15 minutes north and by longitudes 115 and 118 degrees west. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the arid climatic conditions and the complex geology. Ground-water flow generally can be described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as

  9. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, J.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kroitoru, L. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Ronen, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)]|[Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel); Magaritz, M. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1992-10-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient ({minus}0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient ({minus}0.10) and a 0. 83{minus}meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone.

  10. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Recycling water within the local ground-water system can increase the quantity of water available for use, control or avoid environmental pollution, and control temperature of the water supply. Pumped ground water supplied a fish-rearing facility for 15 months, and the waste water recharged the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond. Eighty-three percent of the recharged water returned to the well (recycled). Make-up water from the ground-water system provided the remaining 17 percent.

  11. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  12. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  13. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  14. CHEMICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TEHRAN GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of Tehran ground water, samples were taken randomly from 340 out of 655 deep & semi deep wells in 1993, which dug by Tehran Water Supply and Sewage Engineering Company. 260 Water specimens were examined chemically and physically and compared with the 1993 World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO criteria and analyzed statistically. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 53 deep wells which are now connected to Tehran water supply system showed Sodium- Sulphate category. Main chemical components of water are closely adjusted to the international standards and no overdoses were observed in any cases. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 72 deep wells, which were rsed for the Tehran’s orbital town's drinking water, showed that chemical components of the water were Calcic-Chloride category and there were not observed any increases within the other compounds.

  15. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  16. Topographic reference points in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in California that...

  17. Topographic reference points in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in California that were...

  18. Topographic reference points in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in Nevada that were...

  19. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  20. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (1997), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (1997). This steady-state, 3-layer ground-water flow model was...

  1. Lateral boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (2002), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary of the area simulated by the steady-state ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  2. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  3. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  4. Ground state analytical ab initio intermolecular potential for the Cl{sub 2}-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormain, Laureline; Monnerville, Maurice, E-mail: maurice.monnerville@univ-lille1.fr; Toubin, Céline; Duflot, Denis; Pouilly, Brigitte; Briquez, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 8523, Université Lille I, Bât. P5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I.; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón [Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca 62209, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-14

    The chlorine/water interface is of crucial importance in the context of atmospheric chemistry. Modeling the structure and dynamics at this interface requires an accurate description of the interaction potential energy surfaces. We propose here an analytical intermolecular potential that reproduces the interaction between the Cl{sub 2} molecule and a water molecule. Our functional form is fitted to a set of high level ab initio data using the coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aug-cc-p-VTZ level of electronic structure theory for the Cl{sub 2} − H{sub 2}O complex. The potential fitted to reproduce the three minima structures of 1:1 complex is validated by the comparison of ab initio results of Cl{sub 2} interacting with an increasing number of water molecules. Finally, the model potential is used to study the physisorption of Cl{sub 2} on a perfectly ordered hexagonal ice slab. The calculated adsorption energy, in the range 0.27 eV, shows a good agreement with previous experimental results.

  5. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs.

  6. Hydrogeology of, and ground-water flow in, a valley-fill and carbonate-rock aquifer system near Long Valley in the New Jersey Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, R.S.; McAuley, S.D.; Barringer, J.L.; Gordon, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogeology of and ground-water flow in a valley-fill and carbonate-rock aquifer system were evaluated by using numerical-modeling techniques and geochemical interpretations to address concerns about the adequacy of the aquifer system to meet increasing demand for water. The study was conducted during 1987-90 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy. The effects of recent and anticipated ground-water withdrawals on water levels, stream base flows, and water budgets were estimated. Simulation results indicate that recent withdrawals of 4.7 million gallons per day have resulted in water-level declines of up to 35 feet. Under conditions of increases in withdrawals of 121 percent, water levels would decline up to an additional 28 feet. The magnitude of predicted average base-flow depletion, when compared with historic low flows, indicates that projected increases in withdrawals may substantially deplete seasonal low flow of Drakes Brook and South Branch Raritan River. Results of a water-budget analysis indicate that the sources of water to additional supply wells would include leakage from the overlying valley-fill aquifer and induced leakage of surface water into the aquifer system. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that human activities are affecting the quality of the ground water. With the exception of an elevated iron concentration in water from one well, concentrations of inorganic constituents in water from 75 wells did not exceed New Jersey primary or secondary drinking-water regulations. Volatile organic compounds were detected in water from several wells; in two samples, concentrations of specific compounds exceeded drinking-water regulations.

  7. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agnese, F.A.; O' Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  9. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  10. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  11. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  12. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  13. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  14. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  15. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  16. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  17. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Spaulding, J.D. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Neary, M. P. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Wasyl, M.S. [Packard Instrument Company, , ()

    1996-06-20

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples.

  18. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  19. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  20. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  1. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  2. Future Performance of Ground-Based and Airborne Water-Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar. II. Simulations of the Precision of a Near-Infrared, High-Power System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V; Walther, C

    2001-10-20

    Taking into account Poisson, background, amplifier, and speckle noise, we can simulate the precision of water-vapor measurements by using a 10-W average-power differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. This system is currently under development at Hohenheim University, Germany, and at the American National Center for Atmospheric Research. For operation in the 940-nm region, a large set of measurement situations is described, including configurations that are considered for the first time to the authors' knowledge. They include ultrahigh-resolution measurements in the surface layer (resolutions, 1.5 m and 0.1 s) and vertically pointing measurements (resolutions, 30 m and 1 s) from the ground to 2 km in the atmospheric boundary layer. Even during daytime, the DIAL system will have a measurement range from the ground to the upper troposphere (300 m, 10 min) that can be extended from a mountain site to the lower stratosphere. From the ground, for the first time of which the authors are aware, three-dimensional fields of water vapor in the boundary layer can be investigated within a range of the order of 15 km and with an averaging time of 10 min. From an aircraft, measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer (60 m, 1 s) can be performed from a height of 4 km to the ground. At higher altitudes, up to 18 km, water-vapor profiles can still be obtained from aircraft height level to the ground. When it is being flown either in the free troposphere or in the stratosphere, the system will measure horizontal water-vapor profiles up to 12 km. We are not aware of another remote-sensing technique that provides, simultaneously, such high resolution and accuracy.

  3. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  4. Geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water with emphasis on sources of sulfate in the upper Floridan Aquifer and intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Laura A.; Tihansky, Ann B.

    1996-01-01

    In southwest Florida, sulfate concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and overlying intermediate aquifer system are commonly above 250 milligrams per liter (the drinking water standard), particularly in coastal areas. Possible sources of sulfate include dissolution of gypsum from the deeper part of the Upper Floridan aquifer or the middle confining unit, saltwater in the aquifer, and saline waters from the middle confining unit and Lower Floridan aquifer. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated for the Peace and Myakka River Basins and adjacent coastal areas of southwest Florida. Samples were collected from 63 wells and a saline spring, including wells finished at different depth intervals of the Upper Floridan aquifer and intermediate aquifer system at about 25 locations. Sampling focused along three ground-water flow paths (selected based on a predevelopment potentiometric-surface map). Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (delta deuterium, oxygen-18, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, and sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide); the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 was analyzed for waters along one of the flow paths. Chemical and isotopic data indicate that dedolomitization reactions (gypsum and dolomite dissolution and calcite precipitation) control the chemical composition of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer in inland areas. This is confirmed by mass-balance modeling between wells in the shallowest interval in the aquifer along the flow paths. However, gypsum occurs deeper in the aquifer than these wells. Upwelling of sulfate-rich water that previously dissolved gypsum in deeper parts of the aquifer is a more likely source of sulfate than gypsum dissolution in shallow parts of the aquifer. This deep ground water moves to shallower zones in the aquifer discharge area. Saltwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer

  5. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  6. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  7. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  8. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system.

  9. On the ground state calculation of a many-body system using a self-consistent basis and quasi-Monte Carlo: an application to water hexamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ionuţ; Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A

    2013-11-28

    Given a quantum many-body system, the Self-Consistent Phonons (SCP) method provides an optimal harmonic approximation by minimizing the free energy. In particular, the SCP estimate for the vibrational ground state (zero temperature) appears to be surprisingly accurate. We explore the possibility of going beyond the SCP approximation by considering the system Hamiltonian evaluated in the harmonic eigenbasis of the SCP Hamiltonian. It appears that the SCP ground state is already uncoupled to all singly- and doubly-excited basis functions. So, in order to improve the SCP result at least triply-excited states must be included, which then reduces the error in the ground state estimate substantially. For a multidimensional system two numerical challenges arise, namely, evaluation of the potential energy matrix elements in the harmonic basis, and handling and diagonalizing the resulting Hamiltonian matrix, whose size grows rapidly with the dimensionality of the system. Using the example of water hexamer we demonstrate that such calculation is feasible, i.e., constructing and diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in a triply-excited SCP basis, without any additional assumptions or approximations. Our results indicate particularly that the ground state energy differences between different isomers (e.g., cage and prism) of water hexamer are already quite accurate within the SCP approximation.

  10. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  11. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  12. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  13. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  14. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  15. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  16. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  17. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  18. Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

    2007-01-01

    A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  20. Depth to ground water of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  1. Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

  2. Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

  3. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Squad Mission Support System SOC .............................. Special Operations Command SOFC ............................ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...technologies may be used to match a given Use Profile: Table 5. Power Use Profiles Energy Storage Energy Harvesting Fuel Cells Engines Lead Acid...significant amount of research and development in both Government and Industry have been devoted to the areas of energy storage, fuel cells , and small

  4. An updated numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system for the Castle Lake debris dam, Mount St. Helens, Washington, and implications for dam stability against heave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system in the Castle Lake debris dam, calibrated to data from the 1991 and 1992 water years, was used to estimate factors of safety against heave and internal erosion. The Castle Lake debris dam, 5 miles northwest of the summit of Mount St. Helens, impounds 19,000 acre-ft of water that could pose a flood hazard in the event of a lake breakout. A new topographic map of the Castle Lake area prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was prepared and used to calculate the thickness of the debris avalanche deposits that compose the dam. Water levels in 22 piezometers and discharges from seeps on the dam face measured several times per year beginning in 1990 supplemented measurements in 11 piezometers and less frequent seep discharge measurements made since 1983. Observations in one group of piezometers reveal heads above the land surface and head gradients favoring upward flow that correspond to factors of safety only slightly greater than 2. The steady-state ground-water flow system in the debris dam was simulated using a threedimensional finite difference computer program. A uniform, isotropic model having the same shape as the dam and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.55 ft/day simulates the correct water level at half the observation points, but is in error by 10 ft or more at other points. Spatial variations of hydraulic conductivity were required to calibrate the model. The model analysis suggests that ground water flows in both directions between the debris dam and Castle Lake. Factors of safety against heave and internal erosion were calculated where the model simulated upward flow of ground water. A critical gradient analysis yields factors of safety as low as 2 near the piezometers where water level observations indicate low factors of safety. Low safety factors are also computed near Castle Creek where slumping was caused by a storm in January, 1990. If hydraulic property contrasts are present in areas of the

  5. Applied research of a ground water thermoelectric heat pump system%地下水源热电热泵的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国远

    2001-01-01

    Develops a mathematical model of the system and simulates it with computer based on the state-of-the-art performance of the thermoelectric material, compares the results with those of a conventional ground water heat pump system under the identical inlet water temperature and water flow rate and finds that the thermoelectric system is more competitive especially when the ground water temperature is under 18 ℃ but much poorer in heating performance leading it to be suitable for applications with primary heating demand.%建立了以地下水为热源的热电热泵系统的数学模型,并根据热电材料的技术性能对该系统作了计算机模拟分析,比较计算结果与进水温度和流量相同的传统地下水源热泵系统发现,热电热泵在制冷工况特别是地下水温低于18 ℃时具有很强的竞争力,但制热性能较差,因此适用于全年以制冷负荷为主的场合。

  6. Isotopic composition of ground waters from Kufra (Lybia) as indicator for ground water formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swailem, F.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M. (Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo (Egypt))

    1984-02-01

    The results of the isotopic composition of shallow and deep ground waters from the Kufra region indicate the fossil origin of these waters and that they are not recharged under the present climatic conditions. The virtual absence of tritium and the radiocarbon ages of these waters show that they were formed mainly in the past pluvial periods. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicate that the ground waters were recharged under cooler climatic conditions. These results may explain the origin of the large amounts of ground water which existed in the region.

  7. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  8. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  10. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  11. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  12. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  13. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  14. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  15. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  16. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN and GCRPS (GUN and GNN, solely chicken manure (GCM and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN. The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of −1.33 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80–11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05–9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS

  17. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  18. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Iron, Manganese, and Selected Trace Elements in Ground Water in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, George E.; Arnold, Terri L.; Morrow, William S.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved trace elements, including iron and manganese, are often an important factor in use of ground water for drinking-water supplies in the glacial aquifer system of the United States. The glacial aquifer system underlies most of New England, extends through the Midwest, and underlies portions of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements in ground water can vary over several orders of magnitude across local well networks as well as across regions of the United States. Characterization of this variability is a step toward a regional screening-level assessment of potential human-health implications. Ground-water sampling, from 1991 through 2003, of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey determined trace element concentrations in water from 847 wells in the glacial aquifer system. Dissolved iron and manganese concentrations were analyzed in those well samples and in water from an additional 743 NAWQA land-use and major-aquifer survey wells. The samples are from monitoring and water-supply wells. Concentrations of antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, thallium, uranium, and zinc vary as much within NAWQA study units (local scale; ranging in size from a few thousand to tens of thousands of square miles) as over the entire glacial aquifer system. Patterns of trace element concentrations in glacial aquifer system ground water were examined by using techniques suitable for a dataset with zero to 80 percent of analytical results reported as below detection. During the period of sampling, the analytical techniques changed, which generally improved the analytical sensitivity. Multiple reporting limits complicated the comparison of detections and concentrations. Regression on Order Statistics was used to model probability distributions and estimate the medians and other quantiles of the trace element

  20. Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive recharge a year.

  1. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  2. THE DYNAMICS OF WATER RESERVES ON POST MINING GROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stachowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The report shows the results of investigations and analyses on four experimental areas located at the “Kazimierz” quarry (in Pojezierze Kujawskie latitude 52o20’ N, longitude 18o05’ E. The results of the investigations show the dynamics of moisture in the upper layer of post mining grounds are formed under metrological conditions. It shows that the most important dynamic of water retention occurred on the upper cultivated layer of post mining grounds in which there was a moisture reaction to the water precipitation. An unprofitable distribution of precipitation during the vegetation period 2013 caused this water deficit to the plants cultivated on post mining grounds. The longest water deficit (63 days occurred in profiles typical to crop cultivation (average 12 mm. The results of the investigation confirm that post mining grounds should cultivate plants which are resistant to water deficit and which would benefit from the water reserves in the deeper layers of post mining grounds and which have deep roots system, such as lucerne.

  3. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  4. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  5. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  6. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  7. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  8. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  9. General database for ground water site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  10. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana. Water Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study to provide a quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills and provide a general description of the ground-water quality beneath and near the two landfills. These objectives provide the information necessary to evaluate the effects of the landfills on ground-water quality. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected in 1985 and 1986 at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills to fulfill the study objectives. Ground-water models were used to investigate the flow systems and estimate the volume of flow at the landfills. The report includes descriptions of the data collection, geologic and hydrologic descriptions of the two landfills, and brief histories of trash and sludge disposal. Ground-water-flow models are described and estimates of the volume of flow are discussed. A description of the quality-assurance plan used in conjunction with the water-quality data collection and analysis is included. Water-quality data are presented with statistical summaries of ground-water quality related to well depth and position in the flow system.

  11. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  12. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  13. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  14. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  16. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  17. Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is the first of three phases of a ground-water management study. In this report, effects of irrigation and drought on the ground-water resources of Salem are examined. Irrigation water use for five soil types is estimated from a monthly water budget model on the basis of precipitation and temperature data from the last 30 years at selected weather stations across Salem. Moisture deficits are computed for each soil type on the basis of the water requirements of a corn crop. It is assumed that irrigation is used to make up the moisture deficit in those places where irrigation systems already exist. Irrigation water use from each township with irrigated acreage is added to municipal and industrial ground-water use data and then compared to aquifer potential yields. The spatial analysis is accomplished with a statewide geographic information system. An important distinction is made between the seasonal effects of irrigation water use and the annual or long-term effects.

  18. A Grey Hazy Differential Equation of Ground Water Flow System%地下水流系统的灰朦胧微分方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树文; 王若男; 张昌建; 崔月娥; 王云峰; 张大龙; 王平

    2013-01-01

    The grey characters of ground water flow system were analyzed based on grey hazy set and hazy element.Grey hazy hydraulic conductivity and grey hazy storativity was defined.Grey hazy differential equation was established.Grey hazy modeling thought was explained in objectivity and rationality.The model will play an important role in developing the idea of ground water modeling and promoting the progress of modeling theory and method.%以灰朦胧集和朦胧型灰元为基础,分析了地下水流系统的灰性,定义了含水层的灰朦胧渗透系数和灰朦胧贮水系数;构建了地下水流系统的灰朦胧微分方程,说明了灰朦胧建模思想的客观性和合理性.这对开拓地下水模拟的思路,促进地下水模拟理论与方法的进展,具有重要意义.

  19. 某商业建筑地下水源热泵系统设计%The System Design of Ground Water Heat Pumps in a Commercial Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮

    2014-01-01

    地下水源热泵是地源热泵的一种形式。与土壤源热泵比,其具有投资小、运行费用低的特点,因此在工程实际中可推广性更强。文章以某商业建筑为例,以建筑形式、面积为基础,进行了水源热泵系统设计,并对工程投资和运行费用进行了估算。%Ground water heat pump is a form of ground source heat pumps, and compare with the soil source heat pump, its investment smal and operating cost low, so it has stronger generalization in engineering practice. This article takes a commercial building as example and based on the architectural form and area, designs the water heat pump system and estimate the engineering investment and operation cost.

  20. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  1. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long Valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. Early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by groundwater or geothermal development.

  2. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  3. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  4. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  5. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  6. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  7. Monitoring System for Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Ground-Based Multi-Band Radiometer: Meteorological Application of Radio Astronomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, T.; Araki, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Kominami, K.; Tajima, O.

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution estimation of thermodynamic properties in the atmosphere can help to predict and mitigate meteorological disasters, such as local heavy rainfall and tornadic storms. For the purposes of short-term forecasting and nowcasting of severe storms, we propose a novel ground-based measurement system, which observes the intensity of atmospheric radiation in the microwave range. Our multi-band receiver system is designed to identify a rapid increase in water vapor before clouds are generated. At frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz, our system simultaneously measures water vapor as a broad absorption peak at 22 GHz as well as cloud liquid water. Another band at 50-60 GHz provides supplementary information from oxygen radiation to give vertical profiles of physical temperature. For the construction of this cold receiver system, novel technologies originally developed for observations of cosmic microwave background radiation were applied. The input atmospheric signal is amplified by a cold low-noise amplifier maintained below 10 K, while the spectrum of this amplified signal is measured using a signal analyzer under ambient conditions. The cryostat also contains a cold black body at 40 K to act as a calibration signal. This calibration signal is transported to each of the receivers via a wire grid. We can select either the atmospheric signal or the calibration signal by changing the orientation of this wire. Each receiver can be calibrated using this setup. Our system is designed to be compact (<1 m3), with low power consumption (˜ 1.5 kW). Therefore, it is easy to deploy on top of high buildings, mountains, and ship decks.

  8. Strontium isotopic identification of water-rock interaction and ground water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Carol D; Toner, Rachel N

    2004-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of ground waters in the Bighorn and Laramie basins' carbonate and carbonate-cemented aquifer systems, Wyoming, United States, reflect the distinctive strontium isotope signatures of the minerals in their respective aquifers. Well water samples from the Madison Aquifer (Bighorn Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that match their carbonate host rocks. Casper Aquifer ground waters (Laramie Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that differ from the bulk host rock; however, stepwise leaching of Casper Sandstone indicates that most of the strontium in Casper Aquifer ground waters is acquired from preferential dissolution of carbonate cement. Strontium isotope data from both Bighorn and Laramie basins, along with dye tracing experiments in the Bighorn Basin and tritium data from the Laramie Basin, suggest that waters in carbonate or carbonate-cemented aquifers acquire their strontium isotope composition very quickly--on the order of decades. Strontium isotopes were also used successfully to verify previously identified mixed Redbeds-Casper ground waters in the Laramie Basin. The strontium isotopic compositions of ground waters near Precambrian outcrops also suggest previously unrecognized mixing between Casper and Precambrian aquifers. These results demonstrate the utility of strontium isotopic ratio data in identifying ground water sources and aquifer interactions.

  9. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data.

  10. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  11. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  12. Discontinuous drainage systems formed by highland precipitation and ground-water outflow in the Navua Valles and southwest Hadriacus Mons regions, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H. I.; Gulick, V. C.; Glines, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    The Navua Valles are systems of paleodrainages located north of Dao Vallis, which empty into Hellas Planitia, the largest impact basin on Mars. In this study, we mapped and characterized the Navua Valles Region's individual drainage systems, including drainages along the southwestern flank of Hadriacus Mons, and one valley network from the same source as Navua Valles but flowing in the opposite direction. The major drainage systems share morphological characteristics common to both outflow channels and valley networks. The slopes in this region are dissected by two major Navua drainage systems (here Navua A* and B*) and several shorter, sub-parallel valleys formed on the highest gradient (approximately 20 m/km [1.15°]) slopes, at the lowest part of Hellas Basin's rim. The two major drainage systems originate in the highlands, and empty into the basin. Our mapping suggests that water in Navua Valles reached the basin floor in a complicated descent and included several episodes of surface ponding, surface runoff, infiltration, subsurface flow and subsequent outflow. The most prominent channel system, Navua A, forms a repetitive sequence of deep incision into bedrock, followed by a transition into broad channels in erodible materials, and then into unconfined deposits. This successive erosion-transport-deposition sequence continues to repeat along the valley's entire length forming a discontinuous pattern that is consistent with classical fluvial process models. The channels cut into volcanic plains likely emplaced from the formation of Tyrrhenus and Hadriacus Montes. The dendritic source valleys of Navua A originate from the rim of a highland crater while the rest of this subsystem consists of a single, discontinuous channel which is consistent with a single water source zone that likely supplied water for all channels downslope. These drainages may have formed as discontinuous channels, revealing the potential existence of subsurface drainage pathways located

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey ground-water studies in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of water supply in Illinois. The largest amount of ground*water withdrawal is in the northern one-third of the State where aquifers to a depth of about 1,500 feet below land surface contain large quantities of potable water. Approximately 74 percent of the public water-supply systems in Illinois use ground water to supply potable water to more than 5.5 million people. Ground-water withdrawals account for almost 25 percent of the total water withdrawn for public water supplies in Illinois. Many public water-supply systems in the Chicago area have recently changed from using ground water pumped from wells to using water delivered from Lake Michigan. The major issues related to ground water in Illinois are: Water- quality degradation or contamination from point and nonpoint sources, and Water availability, because of the lowering of ground-water levels in the bedrock aquifers in northeastern Illinois and elsewhere in the State where pumpage has exceeded aquifer recharge and the susceptibility of the limited surface-water supplies in central and southern Illinois to drought.

  15. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  16. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  17. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  18. Use of Tracer Dye Techniques Is Assessing Ground Water Availabilty and Quality in a Karst Aquifer System (Project Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem: The Leetown Science Center and ~ 500 acre research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Resources Division (BRD) In West Virginia investigates the health and habitats of aquatic species. Large quantities of good quality cold water are needed ...

  19. Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

    2014-04-01

    Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not

  20. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  1. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  2. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  3. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    OpenAIRE

    Venedam, Richard J.; Hartman, Mary J.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Scott R. Burge

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Si...

  4. Structure and application of an interface program between a geographic-information system and a ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computer-program interface between a geographic-information system and a groundwater flow model links two unrelated software systems for use in developing the flow models. The interface program allows the modeler to compile and manage geographic components of a groundwater model within the geographic information system. A significant savings of time and effort is realized in developing, calibrating, and displaying the groundwater flow model. Four major guidelines were followed in developing the interface program: (1) no changes to the groundwater flow model code were to be made; (2) a data structure was to be designed within the geographic information system that follows the same basic data structure as the groundwater flow model; (3) the interface program was to be flexible enough to support all basic data options available within the model; and (4) the interface program was to be as efficient as possible in terms of computer time used and online-storage space needed. Because some programs in the interface are written in control-program language, the interface will run only on a computer with the PRIMOS operating system. (USGS)

  5. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  6. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In ground water flow system models with hydraulic-head observations but without significant imposed or observed flows, extreme parameter correlation generally exists. As a result, hydraulic conductivity and recharge parameters cannot be uniquely estimated. In complicated problems, such correlation...... correlation coefficients, but it required sensitivities that were one to two significant digits less accurate than those that required using parameter correlation coefficients; and (3) both the SVD and parameter correlation coefficients identified extremely correlated parameters better when the parameters...

  7. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  8. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  9. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  10. Simple system for locating ground loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P M

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100 kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  11. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  12. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  13. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral..., circuit breaker, or fuse in the neutral conductor of the bus-tie feeder connecting the emergency... that aluminum grounding conductors must not be used....

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  15. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  16. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  17. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  18. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  19. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  20. Ground-water and precipitation data for South Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Jones, Kathy H.; Stringfield, Whitney J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous water-level data collected from 53 wells in South Carolina during 1990 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs are presented for selected wells to illustrate the effects that changes in ground-water recharge and artificial ground-water discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are listed in tables. Monthly mean water levels for 1990 and for the entire period of record at each monitoring well are depicted in hydrographs. Also included are precipitation records from ten National Weather Service stations in South Carolina.

  1. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  2. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  3. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  5. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  6. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  7. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  8. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  10. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  11. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  12. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  13. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  14. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  15. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  18. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  19. Isotopic evidence of complex ground-water flow at Yucca mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Stuckless, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Strontium isotopes (expressed as per mill deviation from mean sea water, ??87Sr) reflect interaction between ground water and the aquifer through which it is flowing. In the Cenozoic aquifer of the Yucca Mountain region, ??87Sr values increase from north to south downgradient in the flow system. The largest ??87Sr values occur in the Amargosa Desert where ground water probably encounters alluvial basin fill derived from Precambrian rocks in the Funeral Range. Similarly, large ??87Sr values for ground water in the Paleozoic aquifer at the western end of the Spring Mountains also probably reflect an encounter with Precambrian rocks. In several wells into the volcanic rocks, apparent isotopic disequilibrium between ground water and the producing units suggests that the ground water probably integrates over a substantial part of the saturated section in attaining its strontium isotope signature.

  20. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  1. Optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications. [Including ground coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water - source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed or modified to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost and the ground coil's performance. The life-cycle cost of a GCHP system (water-source heat pump with a horizontal ground coil) for an 1800 ft/sup 2/ (167 m/sup 2/) house in Pittsburgh, PA, was minimized over a 7 year economic life. Simple payback for the optimized GCHP system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps, was under 3 years. The water-source heat pump package resulting from this optimization is calculated to cost 21% more than its conventional counterpart with a heating coefficient of performance (COP) about 20% higher, and a cooling COP about 23% higher. In the GCHP system modeled, its annual energy savings are predicted to be about 11% compared to a system designed around the conventional heat pump while having about the same installation cost. The major conclusion of this study is - GCHP system performance improvement can be attained by improving the water-source heat pump package at less cost than by buying more ground coil. The following conclusions were drawn from the steady-state performance optimization results: (1) By adding about $100.00 to the manufacturer's cost off construction, both the heating and cooling COPs can be improved by 20% or more. (2) Cooling COP need not be sacrificed for the sake of heating performance and vice versa. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  3. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  4. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  5. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  6. Study on Recharge Ability of Ground Water Heat Pump System%地下水源热泵系统中回灌能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏亮

    2012-01-01

    近年,地下水源热泵技术在我国被广泛应用,并在节能、环保等方面取得了一定效益.但是,回灌问题仍是困扰我国地下水源热泵发展的瓶颈.以唐山市丰润区乡居假日住宅区A4区地下水源热泵系统的应用为例,从区域水文地质条件方面,对水源热泵系统中地下水回灌能力进行了分析,指出开展地下水源热泵项目时,掌握热源井所在区域水文地质条件的重要性.探讨了影响地下水回灌能力的关键因素,其中包括区域水文地质条件、热源井成井工艺、回灌井阻塞以及地下水回灌方式.%In recent years, ground water beat pump technology has been widely applied in China and has made certain benefits in energy saving and environmental protection. However, groundwater recharge is still the main difficulty. This paper studied on the recharge of ground water heat pump according to the local hydrogeologic conditions at A4 area in the Fengrun countryside holiday block in Tangshan City, pointed out that the local hydrogeological condition is very important, and discussed the key factors impacting the recharge ability of ground water heat pump, including local hydrogeologic conditions,heat source well completion technology, clogging problem of disposal well and groundwater recharge mode.

  7. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  9. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  10. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  11. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  13. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  14. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  15. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  16. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  17. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  18. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  19. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  20. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  1. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  2. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  3. Fracture control of ground water flow and water chemistry in a rock aquitard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Timothy T; Anderson, Mary P; Bradbury, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies on the hydrogeology of sedimentary rock aquitards although they are important controls in regional ground water flow systems. We formulate and test a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model of ground water flow and hydrochemistry in a fractured sedimentary rock aquitard to show that flow dynamics within the aquitard are more complex than previously believed. Similar conceptual models, based on regional observations and recently emerging principles of mechanical stratigraphy in heterogeneous sedimentary rocks, have previously been applied only to aquifers, but we show that they are potentially applicable to aquitards. The major elements of this conceptual model, which is based on detailed information from two sites in the Maquoketa Formation in southeastern Wisconsin, include orders of magnitude contrast between hydraulic diffusivity (K/S(s)) of fractured zones and relatively intact aquitard rock matrix, laterally extensive bedding-plane fracture zones extending over distances of over 10 km, very low vertical hydraulic conductivity of thick shale-rich intervals of the aquitard, and a vertical hydraulic head profile controlled by a lateral boundary at the aquitard subcrop, where numerous surface water bodies dominate the shallow aquifer system. Results from a 3D numerical flow model based on this conceptual model are consistent with field observations, which did not fit the typical conceptual model of strictly vertical flow through an aquitard. The 3D flow through an aquitard has implications for predicting ground water flow and for planning and protecting water supplies.

  4. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    . The average daily pumpage during periods of maximum production at the bomber plant has been 4.5 to 4.75 million gallons. On June 30, 1945, production of bombers was suspended, and the plant went on a. maintenance basis.The water supply of the bomber-plant well field is replenished by recharge from precipitation and from the Huron River. The evidence shows that recharge from the river is one of the principal sources of water and gives assurance both of the adequacy of the present supply and of the availability of additional water if needed. The safe yield of the three existing wells is estimated to be not less than 6 million gallons per day.The Ypsilanti public water supply is obtained from three tubular wells drilled in 1943, which replaced a number of suction-pumped tubular wells and one large dug well. All the wells penetrate sand and gravel in the bend of the Huron River in the southeastern part of Ypsilanti. The water is treated in a modern treatment plant completed in 1939. The average daily pumpage in million gallons was about 1.68 in 1942, 1.70 in 1943, and 1.66 in 1944. Considerable water was furnished to the Willow Run bomber plant from the Ypsilanti public-supply system during the period from August 1941 through March 1943.The available information indicates that the water pumped from the Ypsilanti well field is replenished by ground-water flow from adjacent stretches of the Huron Valley and from the upland areas outside the valley, from precipitation on the valley in the vicinity of the well field, and possibly from the Huron River. It is believed that sufficient water can be obtained from the well field to meet the expected demand for a considerable time. The safe yield of the present wells is estimated to be not less than 3 million gallons per day, and detailed pumping tests might show that still larger supplies could be safely developed.The water supply of the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from four wells in two well fields about 2 miles apart, one

  5. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley, located about 30 miles north of San Francisco, is one of several basins in Sonoma County that use a combination of ground water and water delivered from the Russian River for supply. Over the past 30 years, Sonoma Valley has experienced rapid population growth and land-use changes. In particular, there has been a significant increase in irrigated agriculture, predominantly vineyards. To provide a better understanding of the ground-water/surface-water system in Sonoma Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled and evaluated existing data, collected and analyzed new data, and developed a ground-water flow model to better understand and manage the ground-water system. The new data collected include subsurface lithology, gravity measurements, groundwater levels, streamflow gains and losses, temperature, water chemistry, and stable isotopes. Sonoma Valley is drained by Sonoma Creek, which discharges into San Pablo Bay. The long-term average annual volume of precipitation in the watershed is estimated to be 269,000 acre-feet. Recharge to the ground-water system is primarily from direct precipitation and Sonoma Creek. Discharge from the ground-water system is predominantly outflow to Sonoma Creek, pumpage, and outflow to marshlands and to San Pablo Bay. Geologic units of most importance for groundwater supply are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, the Huichica Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. In this report, the ground-water system is divided into three depth-based geohydrologic units: upper (less than 200 feet below land surface), middle (between 200 and 500 feet), and lower (greater than 500 feet). Synoptic streamflow measurements were made along Sonoma Creek and indicate those reaches with statistically significant gains or losses. Changes in ground-water levels in wells were analyzed by comparing historical contour maps with the contour map for 2003. In addition, individual hydrographs were evaluated to assess temporal

  6. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  7. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  8. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  9. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  10. Ground states of linearly coupled Schrodinger systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the standing waves of a linearly coupled Schrodinger system which arises from nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics. The coefficients of the system are spatially dependent and have a mixed behavior: they are periodic in some directions and tend to positive constants in other directions. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that the system has a positive ground state. In addition, when the L-infinity-norm of the coupling coefficient tends to zero, the asymptotic behavior of the ground states is also obtained.

  11. Nitrate removal using Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486 from ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Selvakumar, R; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Singh, A; Jain, S K

    2009-01-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486, isolated from marine soil of coastal area of Trivandrum, Kerala, was used for biological removal of nitrate from ground water collected from Kar village of Pali district, Rajasthan. The organism was found to be resistance for nitrate up to 10,000 mg L(-1). The optimum growth conditions for biological removal of nitrate were established in batch culture. The effect of carbon sources on nitrate removal was investigated using mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 500 mg L(-1) of nitrate to select the most effective carbon source. Among glucose and starch as carbon source, glucose at 1% concentration increased the growth (182+/-8.24 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) and induced maximum nitrate reduction (86.4%) at 72 h. The ground water collected from Kar village, Pali district of Rajasthan containing 460+/-5.92 mg L(-1) of nitrate was subjected to three different treatment processes in pilot scale (T1 to T3). Higher removal of nitrate was observed in T2 process (88%) supplemented with 1% glucose. The system was scaled up to 10 L pilot scale treatment plant. At 72 h the nitrate removal was observed to be 95% in pilot scale plant. The residual nitrate level (23+/-0.41 mg L(-1)) in pilot scale treatment process was found to be below the permissible limit of WHO.

  12. Interaction of ground water with the Rock River near Byron, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to the Rock River in the study area, estimated by three independent methods, ranged from 16,300 to 30,900 cubic feet per day; the low value, determined by the use of the modified Darcy equation, is an estimate only of ground-water discharge from the southern side of the Rock River. The vertical distribution of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water was determined at a test hole along the estimated centerline of the contaminant plume and as close to the river as property access would allow. The maximum concentrations of TCE of 3 micro- grams per liter were found at depths of 59 and 64 feet. The contaminant was dispersed across a verti- cal interval of about 75 feet at depths of 19 and 94 feet. All of the TCE in ground water discharges to the Rock River because no TCE was detected below a depth of 109 feet, and increasing vertical head gradients with depth indicate ground-water flow from a depth of 119 feet is to the river. The maximum possible discharge of TCE is estimated to be about 1.7 grams per day. A finite-difference numerical model was used to simulate ground-water flow along a vertical section through the ground-water system from the Byron Superfund site to the Rock River. Results of the ground-water flow simulation indicate that, if underflow in the St. Peter aquifer occurs beneath the Rock River, it would be water that was present at depth in the flow system at the Byron Superfund site rather than contaminated water that had recharged the system in the vicinity of the Byron Superfund site. (USGS)

  13. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  14. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  15. Ground-Water Resources in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawaii, and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Tribble, Gordon W.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, which was established in 1978, the ground-water flow system is composed of brackish water overlying saltwater. Ground-water levels measured in the Park range from about 1 to 2 feet above mean sea level, and fluctuate daily by about 0.5 to 1.5 feet in response to ocean tides. The brackish water is formed by mixing of seaward flowing fresh ground water with underlying saltwater from the ocean. The major source of fresh ground water is from subsurface flow originating from inland areas to the east of the Park. Ground-water recharge from the direct infiltration of precipitation within the Park area, which has land-surface altitudes less than 100 feet, is small because of low rainfall and high rates of evaporation. Brackish water flowing through the Park ultimately discharges to the fishponds in the Park or to the ocean. The ground water, fishponds, and anchialine ponds in the Park are hydrologically connected; thus, the water levels in the ponds mark the local position of the water table. Within the Park, ground water near the water table is brackish; measured chloride concentrations of water samples from three exploratory wells in the Park range from 2,610 to 5,910 milligrams per liter. Chromium and copper were detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park and one well upgradient of the Park at concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per liter. One semi-volatile organic compound, phenol, was detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park at concentrations between 4 and 10 micrograms per liter. A regional, two-dimensional (areal), freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of regional withdrawals on ground-water flow within the Park. For average 1978 withdrawal rates, the estimated rate of fresh ground-water discharge to the ocean within the Park is about 6.48 million gallons per day, or about 3 million gallons per day per mile of coastline

  16. Simulation of regional ground-water flow in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model that simulates regional ground-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon. Ground water and surface water are intimately connected in the upper Deschutes Basin and most of the flow of the Deschutes River is supplied by ground water. Because of this connection, ground-water pumping and reduction of artificial recharge by lining leaking irrigation canals can reduce the amount of ground water discharging to streams and, consequently, streamflow. The model described in this report is intended to help water-management agencies and the public evaluate how the regional ground-water system and streamflow will respond to ground-water pumping, canal lining, drought, and other stresses. Ground-water flow is simulated in the model by the finite-difference method using MODFLOW and MODFLOWP. The finite-difference grid consists of 8 layers, 127 rows, and 87 columns. All major streams and most principal tributaries in the upper Deschutes Basin are included. Ground-water recharge from precipitation was estimated using a daily water-balance approach. Artificial recharge from leaking irrigation canals and on-farm losses was estimated from diversion and delivery records, seepage studies, and crop data. Ground-water pumpage for irrigation and public water supplies, and evapotranspiration are also included in the model. The model was calibrated to mean annual (1993-95) steady-state conditions using parameter-estimation techniques employing nonlinear regression. Fourteen hydraulic-conductivity parameters and two vertical conductance parameters were determined using nonlinear regression. Final parameter values are all within expected ranges. The general shape and slope of the simulated water-table surface and overall hydraulic-head distribution match the geometry determined from field measurements. The fitted standard deviation for hydraulic head is about 76 feet. The general magnitude and distribution of ground-water discharge to

  17. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  19. Bioremediation of organic solvents in ground water: A case study--Grandview, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humenik, J.A. (American Compliance Technologies, Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Organic solvents leaking from underground storage tanks or from spillage pose a serious threat to ground-water quality. Chemicals such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methyl-methacrylate are commonly associated with the manufacturing of plastics and fiberglass. After pump-and-treat operations were unsuccessful in remediating ground water contaminated with ethylbenzene and styrene resulting from leaking underground chemical storage tanks, bioremediation was implemented to degrade the contaminants to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources target cleanup limits. Due to low permeability clays and anaerobic subsurface conditions, the bioremediation design consisted of a ground-water recovery system, an aboveground bioreactor to treat ground water, and a recharge network to introduce acclimated microbes, nutrients, and oxygen to the subsurface. Commercially prepared microbial strains and nutrients were utilized for the close-loop system, as insufficient indigenous microbes and nutrients were present in subsurface matrix.

  20. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999).In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns.As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of collecting

  1. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  2. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  3. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  4. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    selected samplings. One set of ground-water samples was collected for helium-3/tritium and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) age dating. Several lines of evidence indicate that surface water is the primary input to the Straight Creek ground-water system. Straight Creek streamflow and water levels in wells closest to the apex of the Straight Creek debris fan and closest to Straight Creek itself appear to respond to the same seasonal inputs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in Straight Creek surface water and ground water are similar, and concentrations of most dissolved constituents in most Straight Creek surface-water and shallow (debris-flow and alluvial) aquifer ground-water samples correlate strongly with sulfate (concentrations decrease linearly with sulfate in a downgradient direction). After infiltration of surface water, dilution along the flow path is the dominant mechanism controlling ground-water chemistry. However, concentrations of some constituents can be higher in ground water than can be accounted for by concentrations in Straight Creek surface water, and additional sources of these constituents must therefore be inferred. Constituents for which concentrations in ground water can be high relative to surface water include calcium, magnesium, strontium, silica, sodium, and potassium in ground water from debris-flow and alluvial aquifers and manganese, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium, and potassium in ground water from the bedrock aquifer. All ground water is a calcium sulfate type, often at or near gypsum saturation because of abundant gypsum in the aquifer material developed from co-existing calcite and pyrite mineralization. Calcite dissolution, the major buffering mechanism for bedrock aquifer ground water, also contributes to relatively higher calcium concentrations in some ground water. The main source of the second most abundant cation, magnesium, is probably dissolution of magnesium-rich carbonates or silicates. Strontium may also be

  6. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

  7. Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durao, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

  8. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed.

  9. Distributed intelligence for ground/space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarup, Mads; Munch, Klaus Heje; Fuchs, Joachim; Hartmann, Ralf; Baud, Tim

    1994-01-01

    DI is short for Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems and the DI Study is one in a series of ESA projects concerned with the development of new concepts and architectures for future autonomous spacecraft systems. The kick-off of DI was in January 1994 and the planned duration is three years. The background of DI is the desire to design future ground/space systems with a higher degree of autonomy than seen in today's missions. The aim of introducing autonomy in spacecraft systems is to: (1) lift the role of the spacecraft operators from routine work and basic troubleshooting to supervision; (2) ease access to and increase availability of spacecraft resources; (3) carry out basic mission planning for users; (4) enable missions which have not yet been feasible due to eg. propagation delays, insufficient ground station coverage etc.; and (5) possibly reduce mission cost. The study serves to identify the feasibility of using state-of-the-art technologies in the area of planning, scheduling, fault detection using model-based diagnosis and knowledge processing to obtain a higher level of autonomy in ground/space systems.

  10. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  11. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Everglades restoration. A century of water management for flood control and water storage in the Everglades resulted in the creation of the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). Construction of the major canals began in the 1910s and the systems of levees that enclose the basins and structures that move water between basins were largely completed by the 1950s. The abandoned wetlands that remained outside of the Water Conservation areas tended to dry out and subside by 10 feet or more, which created abrupt transitions in land-surface elevations and water levels across the levees. The increases in topographic and hydraulic gradients near the margins of the WCAs, along with rapid pumping of water between basins to achieve management objectives, have together altered the patterns of recharge and discharge in the Everglades. The most evident change is the increase in the magnitude of recharge (on the upgradient side) and discharge (on the downgradient side) of levees separating WCA-2A from other basins or areas outside. Recharge and discharge in the vast interior of WCA-2A also likely have increased, but fluxes in the interior wetlands are more subtle and more difficult to quantify compared with areas close to the levees. Surface-water and ground-water interactions differ in fundamental ways between wetlands near WCA-2A's boundaries and wetlands in the basin's interior. The levees that form the WCA's boundaries have introduced step functions in the topographic and hydraulic gradients that are important as a force to drive water flow across the wetland ground surface. The resulting recharge and discharge fluxes tend to be unidirectional (connecting points of recharge on the upgradient side of the levee with points of discharge on the downgradient side), and fluxes are also relatively steady in magnitude compared with fluxes in the interior. Recharge flow paths are also relatively deep in their extent near levees, with fluxes passing entirely through the 1-m peat layer and inte

  12. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  13. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    identified from aerial thermal imagery during flights in May and December 2003 in both estuaries. The occurrence of ground-water seeps was confirmed using continuous and discrete measurements of temperature and specific conductance in selected seeps and in the adjacent estuaries that showed salinity anomalies reflecting the input of freshwater in these complex tidal systems. Analysis of water samples from shallow ground water in the hyporheic zone and from ground-water seeps indicated the presence of elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, compared to concentrations in the adjacent estuaries and surface-water tributaries draining into the estuaries. These findings indicate that shallow ground water is a source of dissolved nitrogen to the estuaries. Orthophosphate levels were low in ground water in the hyporheic zone in Bass Harbor Marsh, but somewhat higher in one hyporheic-zone well in Northeast Creek compared with the concentrations in both estuaries that were at or below detection limits. Household wastewater-related compounds were not detected in ground water in the hyporheic zone. Analysis of water samples from domestic and bedrock monitoring wells developed in fractured bedrock indicated that concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus, and household wastewater-related compounds were typically at or below detection, suggesting that the aquifers sampled had not been contaminated from septic sources.

  14. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  16. Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-ping; CAO Lian-hai; CHEN Xiao-gang; SHEN Zhao-li; ZHONG Zuo-shen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption sa-turation on the 17th day in coarse sand and on the 130~140th day in medium sand, then had a higher effluent concentration because of desorption. It is concluded that NH4-N eas-ily moved to ground water. When the concentration of NH4-N in Liangshui River were 46.86, 26.95 mg/L, that in groundwater are less than 1.10 mg/L. It is found that Liangshui River have a little influence on groundwater because of bottom mud, thickness and char-acter of the infiltration medium under the river bed and seepage quantity of river water.Clean water leaching test states that after the silt is cleared away and clean water is poured, NH4-N in the penetration media under the polluted river is obviously carried into ground water, and ground water is polluted secondly.

  17. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  18. The Use Of Permeable Concrete For Ground Water Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Tejankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop Smart Cities in India, we need to develop smart technologies and smart construction materials. Permeable concrete an innovative material is environment friendly and a smart material which can be used for construction of several structures. In India, the ground water table is decreasing at a faster rate due to reduction in ground water recharge. These days, the vegetation cover is replaced by infrastructure hence the water gets very less opportunity to infiltrate itself into the soil. If the permeable concrete which has a high porosity is used for the construction of pavements, walking tracks, parking lots, well lining, etc. then it can reduce the runoff from the site and help in the ground water recharge. Such type of smart materials will play an important role for Indian conditions where government is putting lot of efforts to implement ground water recharging techniques. During the research work, the runoff for a particular storm was calculated for a bitumen pavement on a sloping ground. Later after studying the various topographical features, the traffic intensity and the rainfall for that particular area, the concrete was designed and tested for the different proportion and thus the mix design for the permeable concrete was finalized based upon its permeability and strength characteristics. Later by using this permeable concrete the infiltration and runoff for the same storm was compared and studied. The research paper will thus give an account of the properties of permeable concrete where it can be used over an existing road.

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  20. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  1. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J K; O'Connell, Michael E; Prestegaard, Karen L

    2007-01-01

    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr(-1)) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds.

  2. Understanding the Impact of Ground Water Treatment and Evapotranspiration Parameterizations in the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) on Warm Season Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Yang, R.

    2016-12-01

    coupled to the Noah Multiple-Parameterization (Noah-MP) land model. The Noah-MP has different options for ground water and evaporation control parameterizations. The differences will be presented and results will be discussed.

  3. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  4. 地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统运行性能的影响因素%Influencing factors of operating performance of ground-source heat pump hot water supply systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成勇; 雷俊; 王雁生; 宋月贤

    2012-01-01

    建立了地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统实验平台,研究了环境温度、间歇/连续运行工况、管内循环液流速等对地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,并研究了地埋管换热器周围土壤温度场的变化.结果表明,地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统基本不受环境温度的影响;采用间歇运行,有利于提高地埋管换热器的换热能力;地埋管换热器平均单位井深换热量随管内循环液流速的增大而增大,但当流速增大到一定程度时,其增幅趋于平缓.%Establishes an experimental platform for ground-source heat pump system (GCHP) hot water supply system. Studies the influences of ambient temperature, intermittent or continuous operation mode and flow rate of circulating fluid on the heat exchange efficiency, and studies the variation of soil temperature field around ground heat exchangers. The results show that the GSHP hot water supply system is little influenced by the ambient temperature; intermittent operation mode is conducive to improving the heat exchange capacity of the ground heat exchanger; the heat flow of unit borehole depth of the ground heat exchanger increases along with the fluid flow rate until the fluid flow rate rises to a certain extent when the increasing trends became flat.

  5. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  6. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  7. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured

  8. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  9. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  11. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  12. Cleaning of polluted water using biological techniques. [Ground water]. Rensning af forurenet vand ved biologisk teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. (Hedeselskabet (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water at many Danish locations has been polluted by organic substances. This pollution has taken place in relation to leaks or spills of, for example, petrol from leaky tanks or oil separators. The article describes a new biological technique for the purification of ground-water polluted by petrol and diesel oils leaked at a petrol station. The technique involves decompostion by bacteria. During decompostion the biomass in the filter increases and carbon dioxide and water is produced, so there is no waste product from this process. The two units consist of an oil-separator which separates the diesel oil and petrol from the water, and a bio-filter which is constructed as an aired-through inverted filter to which nutrient salts are continually added. The filter-material used is in the form of plastic rings on which the oil-decomposing bacteria grow and reproduce themselves. The system is further described. It is claimed that the bio-filter can decompose 7 kg of petrol and diesel oil in one week, larger ones decompose more. The servicelife of the system is expected to be 4-6 years. Current installation costs are 20.000 - 100.000 Danish kroner, according to size. (AB).

  13. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Coplen, T.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Hal, Davis J.

    1997-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida, the water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer is influenced by the degree of connectivity between the aquifer and the surface. Chemical and isotopic analyses [18O/16O (??18O), 2H/1H (??D), 13C/12C (??13C), tritium(3H), and strontium-87/strontium-86(87Sr/86Sr)]along with geochemical mass-balance modeling were used to identify the dominant hydrochemical processes that control the composition of ground water as it evolves downgradient in two systems. In one system, surface water enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through a sinkhole located in the Northern Highlands physiographic unit. In the other system, surface water enters the aquifer through a sinkhole lake (Lake Bradford) in the Woodville Karst Plain. Differences in the composition of water isotopes (??18O and ??D) in rainfall, ground water, and surface water were used to develop mixing models of surface water (leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer from a sinkhole lake and a sinkhole) and ground water. Using mass-balance calculations, based on differences in ??18O and ??D, the proportion of lake water that mixed with meteoric water ranged from 7 to 86% in water from wells located in close proximity to Lake Bradford. In deeper parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, water enriched in 18O and D from five of 12 sampled municipal wells indicated that recharge from a sinkhole (1 to 24%) and surface water with an evaporated isotopic signature (2 to 32%) was mixing with ground water. The solute isotopes, ??13C and 87Sr/86Sr, were used to test the sensitivity of binary and ternary mixing models, and to estimate the amount of mass transfer of carbon and other dissolved species in geochemical reactions. In ground water downgradient from Lake Bradford, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water were dissolution of carbonate minerals, aerobic degradation of organic matter, and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. In the deeper parts of the Upper

  14. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  15. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  16. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  18. Thermal ground-water discharge and associated convective heat flux, Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Backsen, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho. The area has a rural population dependent on ground-water irrigation. Temperature of the ground water ranges from 15 C to more than 80 C. Ground water for irrigation is obtained from flowing and pumped wells. Discharge of thermal ground water from 104 irrigation wells and from 5 hot springs in 1978 was about 50,500 acre-feet. Convective heat flux from the geothermal system associated with this discharge was 4.97 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. 蒸渗仪地下水位自动平衡系统设计%An automatic balancing system design to ground water table of lysimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭相平; 陆红飞; 陈盛

    2014-01-01

    为准确保持大田水位与蒸渗仪水位的实时相平,并测定地下水补给量和深层渗漏量,提出了一种蒸渗仪水位自动平衡系统的设计方法。该系统基于连通器原理,并利用水、汞的导电性差异而设计,由3部分组成:淤水位监测装置,包括蒸渗仪和大田的地下水位观测井及连接管;于水位感应和控制装置,由内盛液态汞的U形管以及控制电路组成,能比较大田和蒸渗仪的水位差,并通过电磁继电器打开/关闭供排水电磁阀;盂供(排)水与量测装置,由供水装置、排水装置及其电磁阀和量测装置组成。该系统结构简单,造价低廉,易于维护和管理;初步测试表明,该系统具有较好的控制精度,适于地下水位变化较大的地区使用。%In order to synchronize the water table of a lysimeter with that of farmland, and measure the amount of recharge of groundwater and deep percolation, a design method for an automatic balancing system of the water table of a lysimeter is put forward. Based on the principle of a communicating vessel, and designed according to the electrical conductivity differences between water and mercury, the system consists of three parts:(1) water level detecting equipment, consisting of two observation wells and connecting pipes, (2) a water level sensor and controlling equipment, composed of a U-shape glass filled with mercury and control circuits, which can compare the difference of groundwater level between farmland and a lysimeter, and can switch on/off solenoid valves for water supply and drainage through electromagnetic relays; and (3) various equipment, including water supply and drainage equipment, solenoid valves, and measurement devices. The system is simple in construction, cheap, and easy to maintain and manage. The initial testing results indicate that the system has good accuracy, and is appropriate for application in areas where the water table varies

  20. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  1. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  2. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  3. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  4. [Metal contamination of the ground water in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, Amal; Fekhaoui, Mohammed; El Abidi, Abdellah; Tahri, Latifa; Bouissi, Mostafa; El Houssine, Zaid

    2003-01-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal contamination of the ground water in the Moroccan city of Mohammedia and its relation to the highly developed industrial and domestic activities in the region. Six heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Fe and Pb, were assayed in the waters of 19 wells throughout the city, in industrial areas, public landfills, and residential zones. Four sampling campaigns were conducted between January and May 1999. Analysis of the heavy metal levels revealed a causal relation between the human activities at the sites studied and the degree of contamination recorded. The sites in the industrial areas had elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu or Pb and most often a combination of at least two of these at a single site. Moreover, the spatial distribution of this pollution showed water in S7 areas to be high in iron and that in S5 and S7 (industrial) areas high in mercury. The concentrations measured are respectively 2.5 and 3-5 times greater than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) recommended by WHO for potable water. This work has conclusively proven the presence of dangerous heavy metal contamination of the ground water supply in the area of Mohammedia; it demonstrates the need for conservation and antipollution measures aimed against heavy metal contamination of the overall water supply and in particular the ground water.

  5. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  6. EFFECT OF SANTA ROSA LAKE ON GROUND WATER FLOW TO THE PECOS RIVER, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980, Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles (11 kilometers) north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the ground water flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow-gaging stations, which are used to administer water rights along the Pecos River. The effect of the lake on streamflow was investigated using a three-dimensional ground water flow model. These simulations indicated that the net change in ground water flow to the river would be almost zero if the lake were maintained at its flood control pool for 90 days.

  7. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  8. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  9. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  10. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  11. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    , selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

  12. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  13. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  14. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  15. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  16. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  17. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  18. Application of GIS and MODFLOW to Ground Water Hydrology- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singha Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Due to over exploitation, the ground water systems are affected and require management to maintain the conditions of ground water resources within acceptable limits. With the development of computers and advances in information technology, efficient techniques for water management has evolved. The main intent of the paper is to present a comprehensive review on application of GIS (Geographic Information System followed by coupling with MODFLOW package for ground water management and development. Two major areas are discussed stating GIS applications in ground water hydrology. (i GIS based subsurface flow and pollution modelling (ii Selection of artificial recharge sites. Although the use of these techniques in groundwater studies has rapidly increased since last decade the sucess rate is very limited. Based on this review , it is concluded that integation of GIS and MODFLOW have great potential to revolutionize the monitoring and management of vital ground water resources in the future.

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  20. Influence of heat storage mode of domestic hot water on the performance of ground heat exchanger in ground-source heat pump system%卫生热水蓄热方式对地埋管换热性能的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 唐曦

    2012-01-01

    竖埋管地源热泵系统为室内环境控制提供冷热量。在空调工况下,热回收机组可以提供卫生热水。卫生热水的供应在冬夏不同的运行模式下,对地埋管的换热性能影响不同。通过某地源热泵工程设计,分析了冬夏季卫生热水系统在蓄热方式下对地源热泵系统地埋管换热性能的影响。利用卫生热水的蓄热能力,对地埋管换热器在不同工况下的动态换热性能进行了对比分析,并通过数值计算得到了不同运行模式下地埋管的换热性能参数。根据计算结果提出了在该工程负荷特性下的系统调节方式。%The vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system provides cold and heat for the controlling of indoor environment.Under the air-conditioning condition,the vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system with heat recovery can provide domestic hot water.The influence of supplying domestic hot water on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers is different under different operating modes in summer and winter.Through a project design of ground-source heat pump system,the influence of supplying domestic hot water under heat storage mode on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in summer and winter is respectively analyzed.The dynamic performance of heat exchangers under different working conditions is analyzed,and through numerical calculation,the heat transfer performance parameters of ground heat exchangers under different operating modes are obtained.From the calculation results,the adjusting methods based on the load characteristics of this project represent.

  1. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  2. An assessment of aquifer storage recovery using ground water flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Christopher S; Anderson, Mary P

    2006-01-01

    Owing to increased demands on ground water accompanied by increased drawdowns, technologies that use recharge options, such as aquifer storage recovery (ASR), are being used to optimize available water resources and reduce adverse effects of pumping. In this paper, three representative ground water flow models were created to assess the impact of hydrogeologic and operational parameters/factors on recovery efficiency of ASR systems. Flow/particle tracking and solute transport models were used to track the movement of water during injection, storage, and recovery. Results from particle tracking models consistently produced higher recovery efficiency than the solute transport models for the parameters/properties examined because the particle tracking models neglected mixing of the injected and ambient water. Mixing between injected and ambient water affected recovery efficiency. Results from this study demonstrate the interactions between hydrogeologic and operational parameters on predictions of recovery efficiency. These interactions are best simulated using coupled numerical ground water flow and transport models that include the effects of mixing of injected water and ambient ground water.

  3. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  4. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  5. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  6. Practical Guidelines for Water Percolation Capacity Determination of the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water infiltration capacity of ground soils and rocks represents important part of design and construction procedures of the facilities for the infiltration of clean precipitation water. With their help percolation capacity of ground as well as response of the infiltration facilities to the inflowing precipitation water is estimated.Comparing to other in situ hydrogeological tests they can be understood as simple. However, in every day’s practiceseveral problems during their on site application and desk interpretation can arise. Paper represents review of existingpractical engineering procedures during the performance of percolation tests. Procedures are described for the borehole and shaft percolation tests execution and calculation theory for stationary and non‑stationary percolation tests are given. Theory is illustrated with practical exercises. Interpretations of typical departures from theoretical presumptions according to Hvorslev test of non-stationary test are illustrated.

  7. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  8. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    Washington County, in northeastern Colorado, has an area of 2,520 square miles. The eastern two-thirds of the county, part of the High Plains physiographic section, is relatively flat and has been moderately altered by the deposition of loess and dune sand, and by stream erosion. The western one-third is a part of the South Platte River basin and has been deeply dissected by tributary streams. The soils and climate of the county are generally suited for agriculture, which is the principal industry. The rocks that crop out in the county influence the availability of ground water. The Pierre Shale, of Late Cretaceous age, underlies the entire area and ranges in thickness from 2,000 to 4,500 feet. This dense shale is a barrier to the downward movement of water and yields little or no water to wells. The Chadron Formation, of Oligocene age, overlies the Pierre Shale in the northern and central parts of the area. The thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. Small to moderate quantities of water are available from the scattered sand lenses and from the highly fractured zones of the siltstone. The Ogallala Formation, of Pliocene age, overlies the Chadron Formation and in Washington County forms the High Plains section of the Great Plains province. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation ranges from 0 to about 400 feet, and the yield from wells ranges from a few gallons per hour to about 1,500 gpm. Peorian loess, of Pleistocene age, and dune sand, of Pleistocene to Recent age, mantle a large pan of the county and range in thickness from a few inches to about 120 feet Although the loess and dune sand yield little water to wells, they absorb much of the precipitation and conduct the water to underlying formations. Alluvium, of Pleistocene and Recent age, occupies most of the major stream valleys in thicknesses of a few feet to about 250 feet. The yield of wells tapping the alluvium ranges from a few gallons per minute to about 3,000 gpm, according

  10. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  11. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor...

  12. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  13. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, K.R.; Shelton, James L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinisation of land and rivers is a problem of national importance in India. Appropriate land management options to alleviate salinisation should be chosen with knowledge of the effects of land management on stream flow, stream salinity, stream salt load and land productivity. The Management of Catchment Salinisation (MCS modelling approach has been described in earlier work. It links a one-dimensional soil water model with a groundwater model to investigate the effects of management options in study areas of approximately 50 km2. The one dimensional model is used to characterize the annual soil water balance as a function of underlying aquifer Vpotential for all required combinations of soil, vegetation and groundwater salinity. It includes the effect of salt accumulation on plant water use. A groundwater model is then used to estimate the depth to water table across the study area that reflects the topography, hydrogeology and the distribution of vegetation. The MCS model is used to investigate the potential effects of future land use scenarios on catchment salt and water balance. Land use scenarios that have been considered include: forest plantations, revegetation with native trees and shrubs, and development of small areas of crops (10 to 20 ha irrigated with groundwater. This project focuses on the development of small crop areas irrigated with groundwater and investigates the sustainability of these schemes. It also compares the reduction of catchment salt load export under irrigation development with the reduction under afforestation

  15. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  16. Tomography of ground water flow from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Jardani, A.

    2007-12-01

    An inversion algorithm is developed to interpret self-potential (SP) data in terms of distribution of the seepage velocity of the ground water. The model is based on the proportionality existing between the electrokinetic source current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase. As the inverse problem is underdetermined, we use a Tikhonov regularization method with a smoothness constraint based on the differential Laplacian operator to solve the inverse problem. The regularization parameter is determined by the L-shape method. The recovery of the distribution of the seepage velocity vector of the ground water flow depends on the localization and number of non-polarizing electrodes and information relative to the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground. The inversion method is tested on two 2D synthetic cases and on two real SP data. The first field test corresponds to the infiltration of water from a ditch. The second one corresponds to large flow at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California.

  17. Ground-water geology of the Bruneau-Grand View area, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert Thomas; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1957-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area is part of an artesian basin in northern Owyhee County, Idaho. The area described in this report comprises about 600 square miles, largely of undeveloped public domain, much of which is open, or may be opened, for desert-entry filing. Many irrigation-entry applications to the Federal Government are pending, and information about ground-water geology is needed by local citizens and well drillers, by Federal agencies that have custody of the land, and by local and State agencies that administer water rights. The areal geology and ground-water conditions in the Bruneau-Grand View area seemingly typify several basins in southwestern Idaho, and this study is a step toward definition and analysis of regional problems in ground-water geology and the occurrence and availability of ground water for irrigation or other large-scale uses. Owyhee County is subdivided physiographically into a plateau area, the Owyhee uplift, and the Snake River valley. The Bruneau-Grand View area is largely within the Snake River valley. The climate is arid and irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. Nearly all usable indigenous surface water in the area is appropriated, including freshet flow in the Bruneau River, which is used for power generation at the C. J. Strike Dam. However, with storage facilities additional land could be irrigated, and some land may be irrigated with Snake River water if suitable reclamation projects are constructed. Sedimentary and igneous rocks exposed in the area range in age from Miocene to Recent. The igneous rocks include silicic and basic intrusive and extrusive bodies, and the sedimentary rocks are compacted stream and lake sediments. The rocks contain economically important artesian aquifers; the principal ones are volcanic rocks in which ground water is imperfectly confined beneath sediments of the Idaho formation, thus forming a leaky artesian system. The altitude of the piezometric surface of the artesian

  18. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  19. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  20. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  1. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in Kamas Valley, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L.E.; Stolp, B.J.; Spangler, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Kamas Valley, Utah, is located about 50 miles east of Salt Lake City and is undergoing residential development. The increasing number of wells and septic systems raised concerns of water managers and prompted this hydrologic study. About 350,000 acre-feet per year of surface water flows through Kamas Valley in the Weber River, Beaver Creek, and Provo River, which originate in the Uinta Mountains east of the study area. The ground-water system in this area consists of water in unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock; water budgets indicate very little interaction between consolidated rock and unconsolidated deposits. Most recharge to consolidated rock occurs at higher altitudes in the mountains and discharges to streams and springs upgradient of Kamas Valley. About 38,000 acre-feet per year of water flows through the unconsolidated deposits in Kamas Valley. Most recharge is from irrigation and seepage from major streams; most discharge is to Beaver Creek in the middle part of the valley. Long-term water-level fluctuations range from about 3 to 17 feet. Seasonal fluctuations exceed 50 feet. Transmissivity varies over four orders of magnitude in both the unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock and is typically 1,000 to 10,000 feet squared per day in unconsolidated deposits and 100 feet squared per day in consolidated rock as determined from specific capacity. Water samples collected from wells, streams, and springs had nitrate plus nitrite concentrations (as N) substantially less than 10 mg/L. Total and fecal coliform bacteria were detected in some surface-water samples and probably originate from livestock. Septic systems do not appear to be degrading water quality. A numerical ground-water flow model developed to test the conceptual understanding of the ground-water system adequately simulates water levels and flow in the unconsolidated deposits. Analyses of model fit and sensitivity were used to refine the conceptual and numerical models.

  2. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    . This sandstone also yields some water to uncased wells that tap the deeper rocks of the Upper Cambrian series. East of the Rock River the Platteville, Decorah, and Galena formations undifferentiated, or Platteville-Galena unit, is the principal source of water for domestic and stock wells. Unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin cover most of Rock County and supply water to many small wells. In the outwash deposits along the Rock River, wells of extremely high capacity have been developed for industrial and municipal use. The most significant feature of the bedrock surface in Rock County is the ancestral Rock River valley, which has been filled with glacial outwash to a depth of at least 396 feet below the present land surface. East of the buried valley the bedrock has a fiat, relatively undissected surface. West of the valley the bedrock surface is rugged and greatly dissected. Ground water in Rock County occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions; however, because of the interconnection and close relation of all ground water in the county, the entire system is considered to be a single groundwater body whose surface may be represented by one piezometric map. Recharge occurs locally, throughout the county. Nearly all recharge is derived directly from precipitation that percolates downward to become a part of the groundwater body. Natural movement of water in the consolidated water-bearing units is generally toward the buried Rock and Sugar River valleys. Movement of water in the sandstones of Cambrian age was calculated to be about 44 million gallons a day toward the Rock River. Discharge from wells in Rock County in 1957 was about 23 million gallons a day. Nearly 90 percent of this water was drawn from the area along the Rock River. Drilled wells, most of which were drilled by the cable-tool method, range in diameter from 3 to 26 inches, and in depth from 46 to 1,225 feet. Driven wells in alluvium and glacial drift are usually 1? to 2? in

  4. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  5. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  6. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  7. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  8. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  9. Physical and chemical data for ground water in the Michigan basin, 1986-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, G.T.; Baltusis, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 459 wells located in the Michigan basin as part of a Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. Data on the physical and chemical characteristics of 476 ground-water samples from these wells represent ground-water characteristics in the Berea Sandstone, Coldwater Shale, Marshall Sandstone, Michigan Formation, Bayport Limestone, Saginaw Formation, Grand River Formation, and glacial deposits. Ground-water samples were measured in the Geld for specific conductance, temperature, and alkalinity. Analyses of ground water for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, total iron, and sulfide were also done in the field. Additional laboratory analysis provided data on eight major and 18 minor inorganic constituents. Twenty-one samples were analyzed for tritium, 140 samples were analyzed for carbon-13, and 19 samples were analyzed for carbon-14. The stable-isotope ratio of deuterium to hydrogen was determined for 408 samples; the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 was determined for 433 samples; and the ratio of sulfur-34 to sulfur-32 was determined for 20 samples. Sixteen samples were analyzed for the unstable isotopes of uranium; 13 samples were analyzed for radium-226; and the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 was determined for 13 samples.

  10. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  11. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  12. Photodegradation of dimethenamid-P in deionised and ground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavaški O.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photodegradation of dimethenamid-P herbicide was performed in deionised and ground water using TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. The effect of electron acceptor (H2O2, scavenger of •OH radicals (C2H5OH and scavenger of holes (NaCl and Na2SO4 as well as solution pH was analyzed. The photodegradation of dimethenamid-P was followed by HPLC. The formation of transformation products was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Ion chromatography and total organic carbon measurements were used for the determination of the mineralization level. HPLC analysis showed the almost complete removal of herbicide after 90 min in deionised and ground water, while total organic carbon analysis showed that dimethenamid-P was mineralized 64 and 50 % in deionised and ground water, respectively. The ion chromatography results showed that the mineralization process leads to the formation of chloride, sulphate and nitrate anions during the process. Transformation products were identified and the degradation mechanism was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  13. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  14. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  15. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  16. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  17. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  18. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  19. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  20. Distinguishing sources of ground water recharge by using delta2H and delta18O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W; Bryson, Jeannie R

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope values of hydrogen and oxygen from precipitation and ground water samples were compared by using a volumetrically based mixing equation and stable isotope gradient to estimate the season and location of recharge in four basins. Stable isotopes were sampled at 11 precipitation sites of differing elevation during a 2-year period to quantify seasonal stable isotope contributions as a function of elevation. Supplemental stable isotope data collected by the International Atomic Energy Association during a 14-year period were used to reduce annual variability of the mean seasonal stable isotope data. The stable isotope elevation relationships and local precipitation elevation relationships were combined by using a digital elevation model to calculate the total volumetric contribution of water and stable isotope values as a function of elevation within the basins. The results of these precipitation calculations were compared to measured ground water stable isotope values at the major discharge points near the terminus of the basins. Volumetric precipitation contributions to recharge were adjusted to isolate contributing elevations. This procedure provides an improved representation of recharge contributions within the basins over conventional stable isotope methods. Stable isotope values from wells and springs at the terminus of each basin were used to infer the elevations of precipitation important for recharge of the regional ground water flow system. Ancillary climatic, geologic, and stable isotope values were used to further constrain the location where precipitation is entering the ground water flow system.

  1. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    direction, although the direction of groundwater movement locally is influenced by water -supply wells and by groundwater extraction and treatment systems...Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device June 2011 i COST & PERFORMANCE REPORT Project: ER-200630 TABLE OF CONTENTS...range of analyte types. These included dissolved and total inorganics (including non-metal anions, metalloids , and metals) and four volatile organic

  2. Simulated ground-water flow and water quality of the Mississippi River alluvium near Burlington, Iowa, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The City of Burlington, Iowa, obtains some of its public water supply by withdrawing ground water from the Mississippi River alluvium, an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Burlington, conducted a hydrologic study of the Mississippi River alluvium near Burlington in 1999 to improve understanding of the flow system, evaluate the effects of hypothetical pumping scenarios on the flow system, and evaluate selected water-quality constituents in parts of the alluvium.

  3. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  4. Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Zamora, C.; Essaid, H.; Wilson, J.T.; Johnson, H.M.; Brayton, M.J.; Vogel, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A combination of hydrologic, mineralogical, chemical, dissolved gas, and isotopic data, were used to determine the processes controlling transport and fate of NO3- in streambeds at five sites across the USA. Water samples were collected from streambeds at depths ranging from 0.3 to 3 m at three to five points across the stream and in two to five separate transects. Residence times of water ranging from 0.28 to 34.7 d m-1 in the streambeds of N-rich watersheds played an important role in allowing denitrification to decrease NO3- concentrations. Where potential electron donors were limited and residence times were short, denitrification was limited. Consequently, in spite of reducing conditions at some sites, NO3- was transported into the stream. At two of the five study sites, NO3- in surface water infiltrated the streambeds and concentrations decreased, supporting current models that NO3- would be retained in N-rich streams. At the other three study sites, hydrogeologic controls limited or prevented infiltration of surface water into the streambed, and ground-water discharge contributed to NO 3- loads. Our results also show that in these low hydrologic-gradient systems, storm and other high-flow events can be important factors for increasing surface-water movement into streambeds. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  6. Depth to ground water contours of hydrographic area 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of depth to ground water contours for hydrographic-area (HA) 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada. These data represent static ground-water levels...

  7. Digital data set describing ground-water regions with unconsolidated watercourses in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes ground-water regions in the United States defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ground-water regions are useful for dividing the...

  8. Ground-based Remote Sensing of Cloud Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewell, S.; Loehnert, U.

    Within the BALTEX Cloud LIquid WAter NETwork (CLIWA-NET) measurements of cloud parameters were performed to improve/evaluate cloud parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The key variable is the cloud liq- uid water path (LWP) which is measured by passive microwave radiometry from the ground during three two-month CLIWA-NET observational periods. Additionally to the high temporal resolution time series from the ground, LWP fields are derived from satellite measurements. During the first two campaigns a continental scale network consisting of 12 stations was established. Most stations included further cloud sen- sitive instruments like infrared radiometer and lidar ceilometer. The third campaign started with a two-week long microwave intercomparison campaign (MICAM) in Cabauw, The Netherlands, and proceeded with a regional network within a 100 by 100 km area. The presentation will focus on the accuracy of LWP derived from the ground by in- vestigating the accuracy of the microwave brightness temperature measurement and examining the LWP retrieval uncertainty. Up to now microwave radiometer are no standard instruments and the seven radiometer involved in MICAM differ in frequen- cies, bandwidths, angular resolution, integration time etc. The influence of this instru- ment specifications on the LWP retrieval will be discussed.

  9. Ground-water resources of Pavant Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1965-01-01

    Pavant Valley, in eastern Millard County in west-central Utah, is in the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range province. The area of investigation is 34 miles long from north to south and 9 miles wide from east to west and comprises about 300 square miles. Agriculture, tourist trade, and mining are the principal industries. The population of the valley is about 3,500, of which about half live in Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County. The climate is semiarid and temperatures are moderate. Average normal annual precipitation in the lowlands is estimated to range from 10 to 14 inches. Precipitation is heaviest during the late winter and spring, January through May. The average monthly temperature at Fillmore ranges from 29?F in January to 76?F in July; the average annual temperature is 52?F. Because of the aridity, most crops cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Irrigation requirements were satisfied for about 60 years after the valley was settled by diverting streams tributary to the valley. Artesian water was discovered near Flowell in 1915. By 1920 flowing artesian wells supplied about 10 percent of the irrigation water used in the valley, not including water from the Central Utah Canal. The Central Utah Canal was constructed in 1916 to convey water to the Pavant Valley from the Sevier River. Especially since 1916, the quantity of surface water available each year for irrigation has changed with the vagaries of nature. The total percentage of irrigation water contributed by ground water, on the other hand, gradually increased to about 15 percent in 1945 and then increased rapidly to 45 percent in 1960; it will probably stabilize at about 50 percent. Sand and gravel deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age are the principal aquifers in Pavant Valley. These deposits are coarser, more extensive, and more permeable near the mountains and become progressively finer .and less .permeable westward away from the mountains. As ground water moves westward

  10. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  11. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  12. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  13. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ??g/L. The wells are finished in the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of New Jersey's Coastal Plain; background concentrations of Hg in water from this system are point sources of Hg, such as landfills or commercial and industrial hazardous-waste sites, is lacking. During 1996-2003, the USGS collected water samples from 203 domestic, irrigation, observation, and production wells using ultraclean techniques; septage, leach-field effluent, soils, and aquifer sediments also were sampled. Elevated concentrations of NH4, B, Cl, NO3, and Na and presence of surfactants in domestic-well water indicate that septic-system effluent can affect water quality in unsewered residential areas, but neither septage nor effluent appears to be a major Hg source. Detections of hydrogen sulfide in ground water at a residential area indicate localized reducing conditions; undetectable SO4 concentrations in water from other residential areas indicate that reducing conditions, which could be conducive to Hg methylation, may be common locally. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly chlorinated solvents, also are found in ground water at the affected areas, but statistically significant associations between presence of Hg and VOCs were absent for most areas evaluated. Hg concentrations are lower in some filtered water samples than in paired unfiltered samples, likely indicating that some Hg is associated with particles or colloids. The source of colloids may be soils, which, when undisturbed, contain higher concentrations of Hg than do disturbed soils and aquifer sediments. Soil disturbance during residential development and

  14. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  15. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  17. Renaissance architecture for Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) has embarked on a new approach for developing and operating Ground Data Systems (GDS) for flight mission support. This approach is driven by the goals of minimizing cost and maximizing customer satisfaction. Achievement of these goals is realized through the use of a standard set of capabilities which can be modified to meet specific user needs. This approach, which is called the Renaissance architecture, stresses the engineering of integrated systems, based upon workstation/local area network (LAN)/fileserver technology and reusable hardware and software components called 'building blocks.' These building blocks are integrated with mission specific capabilities to build the GDS for each individual mission. The building block approach is key to the reduction of development costs and schedules. Also, the Renaissance approach allows the integration of GDS functions that were previously provided via separate multi-mission facilities. With the Renaissance architecture, the GDS can be developed by the MO&DSD or all, or part, of the GDS can be operated by the user at their facility. Flexibility in operation configuration allows both selection of a cost-effective operations approach and the capability for customizing operations to user needs. Thus the focus of the MO&DSD is shifted from operating systems that we have built to building systems and, optionally, operations as separate services. Renaissance is actually a continuous process. Both the building blocks and the system architecture will evolve as user needs and technology change. Providing GDS on a per user basis enables this continuous refinement of the development process and product and allows the MO&DSD to remain a customer-focused organization. This paper will present the activities and results of the MO&DSD initial efforts toward the establishment of the Renaissance approach for the development of GDS, with a particular focus on both the technical

  18. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other

  19. Estimated Depth to Ground Water and Configuration of the Water Table in the Portland, Oregon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable information on the configuration of the water table in the Portland metropolitan area is needed to address concerns about various water-resource issues, especially with regard to potential effects from stormwater injection systems such as UIC (underground injection control) systems that are either existing or planned. To help address these concerns, this report presents the estimated depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps for the Portland area, along with estimates of the relative uncertainty of the maps and seasonal water-table fluctuations. The method of analysis used to determine the water-table configuration in the Portland area relied on water-level data from shallow wells and surface-water features that are representative of the water table. However, the largest source of available well data is water-level measurements in reports filed by well constructors at the time of new well installation, but these data frequently were not representative of static water-level conditions. Depth-to-water measurements reported in well-construction records generally were shallower than measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the same or nearby wells, although many depth-to-water measurements were substantially deeper than USGS measurements. Magnitudes of differences in depth-to-water measurements reported in well records and those measured by the USGS in the same or nearby wells ranged from -119 to 156 feet with a mean of the absolute value of the differences of 36 feet. One possible cause for the differences is that water levels in many wells reported in well records were not at equilibrium at the time of measurement. As a result, the analysis of the water-table configuration relied on water levels measured during the current study or used in previous USGS investigations in the Portland area. Because of the scarcity of well data in some areas, the locations of select surface-water features including major rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and

  20. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  1. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  2. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  4. U and sr isotopes in ground water and calcite, yucca mountain, nevada: evidence against upwelling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J S; Peterman, Z E; Muhs, D R

    1991-10-25

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  5. Kinetic modeling of water sorption by roasted and ground coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to model the kinetics of water sorption in roasted and ground coffee. Crude Arabica coffee beans with an initial moisture content of 0.1234 kgwkgdm-1 were used. These beans were roasted to a medium roast level (SCCA # 55 and ground at three particle sizes: coarse (1.19 mm, medium (0.84 mm and fine (0.59 mm. To obtain the water sorption isotherms and the isosteric heat, different conditions of temperature and relative humidity were analyzed using the dynamic method at 25ºC (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and 30°C (0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and using the static method at 25ºC (0.332 and 0.438 of RH. The GAB model best represented the hygroscopic equilibrium of roasted coffee at every particle size. Isosteric heat of sorption for the fine particle size increased with increments of equilibrium moisture content, indicating a strong bond energy between water molecules and the product components. The Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in equilibrium moisture content and with temperature.

  6. Sustainable water demand management in the face of rapid urbanization and ground water depletion for social–ecological resilience building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arfanuzzaman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of Sustainable water demand management (SWDM is immensely higher in the rapidly urbanized mega cities of the world where groundwater depletion and water deficit are taking place perilously. This paper focuses on the present condition of water demand, supply, system loss, pricing strategy, groundwater level, and per capita water consumption of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The study founds population growth has a large influence on water demand to rise and demand of water is not responsive to the existing pricing rule adopted by DWASA. It emerges that, water demand is increasing at 4% rate an average in the Dhaka city since 1990 and groundwater table goes more than 70 m down in central capital due to extensive withdrawal of water. The study suggests an integrated SWDM approach, which incorporates optimum pricing, ground and surface water regulation, water conservation, sustainable water consumption and less water foot print to ease groundwater depletion. In order to attain sustainability in water demand management (WDM the study recommends certain criteria under economic, social and environmental segment to administer the increasing water demand of growing population and conserve the fresh water resources of the world’s mega cities for social–ecological resilience building.

  7. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  8. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  9. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  10. Expertise in exploiting ground water in Australian prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, H. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of human beings on the Australian continent has been established to go back to at least 40 000 years. Recent research has put this back to about 60 000 years B.P. (Before Present). With the awareness of living on an extremely arid continent, the need to satisfy water demands was a constant concern. Finding water for all members of the various groups, but especially for those living in the Australian inland with extremely low precipitation, was a perpetual challenge. Thus, in desert areas seeking, finding and protecting ground water was demanded continuously. Native wells were established and used for many centuries often when surface water had dried in nearby watercourses. A number of wells found in the Simpson Desert, with habitation around them until recently, are most interesting. In Central Australia, in the Cleland Hills, the location of habitation has been found at a huge rock shelter close to a rock hole providing permanent ground water when all other sources in the vicinity have dried out. It was scientifically established that this occupation goes back 22 000 years. These examples of obtaining ground water in Australian prehistory many thousands of years ago by Aborigines show a highly developed culture. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die Besiedelung des australischen Kontinents durch den Menschen vor 40 000 Jahren begann. Neueste Untersuchungen datieren diesen Zeitpunkt jedoch auf 60 000 Jahre zurueck. Fuer das Leben auf diesem extrem trockenen Erdteil war die Sicherung des Wasserbedarfs von jeher existenziell. Lebenswichtiges Wasser zu finden war fuer alle Mitglieder der verschiedenen Bevoelkerungsgruppen, vor allem aber fuer diejenigen, die sich im australischen Hinterland ansiedelten, von hoechster Bedeutung. Grundwasser in der Wueste zu suchen, zu finden und zu schuetzen war oberstes Ziel. Urspruengliche Brunnen wurden errichtet und ueber Jahrhunderte hindurch genutzt, wenn alle anderen Wasserressourcen versiegten. Hierbei

  11. Analysis of the ground-water flow system, geochemistry, and underseepage in the vicinity of the Red Rock Dam near Pella, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the Red Rock Dam on the Des Moines River in Marion County, Iowa. The dam consists of a gravity concrete control structure between two earthen embankments and has an impoundment storage capacity of 1,700,000 acre-feet. Since the impoundment of Lake Red Rock commenced during 1969, water seepage beneath the dam has been significant enough to cause continuing investigation by the Corps of Engineers of its source and implications.

  12. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    report includes an analysis of test drilling costs leading to a production well field. The discussion shows that test drilling is a relatively low cost item and that more than a minimum of test holes in a previously unexplored area is, above all, simple insurance in keeping down costs and may easily result in final lower costs for the system. Use of the jet drill for testing is considered short sighted and may result in higher total costs and possibly failure to discover good aquifers. Economic development of ground water supplies will depend on obtaining qualified hydrologic and engineering advice, on carrying out adequate test drilling, and on utilizing high-quality (at times, more costly) material.

  13. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Jointly acquired by NOAA & NASA, the next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES satellites and the ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)(DMSP replacement). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data. The ground system, or JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), has 6 integrated product teams/segments: Command, Control & Communications (C3S); Interface Data Processing (IDPS); Field Terminal (FTS); Systems Engineering, Integration & Test (SEIT); Operations & Support (O&S); and Sustainment developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. The IDPS will process JPSS data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA & DoD processing centers beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through JPSS & DWSS eras. C3S will: manage overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control/status of space/ground assets to ensure timely delivery of high-quality data to IDPS; provide globally-distributed ground assets to collect/transport mission, telemetry and command data between satellites & processing locations; provide all commanding & state-of-health monitoring functions of NPP, JPSS and DWSS satellites, and delivery of mission data to each Central IDP and monitor/report system-wide health/status and data communications with external systems and between CGS segments. SEIT leads the overall effort, including: manage/coordinate/execute JPSS CGS activities with NASA participation/oversight; plan/conduct all activities related to systems engineering, develop & ensure completeness of JPSS CGS functional & technical baselines and perform integration, deployment, testing and verification; sponsor/support modeling & simulation, performance analysis and trade studies; provide engineering for the product

  14. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    , and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

  15. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  16. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway - from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 ??g L-1, in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows

  17. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of

  18. Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Stream temperature has long been recognized as an important water quality parameter. Temperature plays a key role in the health of a stream?s aquatic life, both in the water column and in the benthic habitat of streambed sediments. Many fish are sensitive to temperature. For example, anadromous salmon require specific temperature ranges to successfully develop, migrate, and spawn [see Halupka and others, 2000]. Metabolic rates, oxygen requirements and availability, predation patterns, and susceptibility of organisms to contaminants are but a few of the many environmental responses regulated by temperature. Hydrologists traditionally treated streams and ground water as distinct, independent resources to be utilized and managed separately. With increasing demands on water supplies, however, hydrologists realized that streams and ground water are parts of a single, interconnected resource [see Winter and others, 1998]. Attempts to distinguish these resources for analytical or regulatory purposes are fraught with difficulty because each domain can supply (or drain) the other, with attendant possibilities for contamination exchange. Sustained depletion of one resource usually results in depletion of the other, propagating adverse effects within the watershed. An understanding of the interconnections between surface water and ground water is therefore essential. This understanding is still incomplete, but receiving growing attention from the research community. Exchanges between streams and shallow ground-water systems play a key role in controlling temperatures not only in streams, but also in their underlying sediments. As a result, analyses of subsurface temperature patterns provide information about surface-water/ground-water interactions. Chemical tracers are commonly used for tracing flow between streams and ground water. Introduction of chemical tracers in near-stream environments is, however, limited by real and perceived issues regarding introduced contamination

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-WATER LEVEL BY MODERN NON-DISTRUCTIVE METHODS (GPR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. NICU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ground-water level by modern non-dis¬tructive methods (ground-penetrating radar technology. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is now a well-accepted geophysical technique, which unfortunately in our country its less used. Historically, the development of GPR comes from the use of radio echosounding to determine ice thickness and it was only a short step to enlarge the domain of research such as permafrost, geological investigation (bedrock, sedimentology, environmental assessment and hydrogeophysical studies (under-ground water location, soil water content. The GPR method measures the travel time of electromagnetic impulses in subsurface materials. An impulse radar system radiates repetitive electromagnetic impulses into the soil. A bandwidth antenna is usually placed in close proximity and electromagnetic coupled to the ground surface. It detects and measures the depth of reflecting discontinuities in subsurface soils and other earth materials to within a few centimeters depending of antenna frequency. For over 30 years, GPR has been used extensively for hydropedological investigations. Our research aims to determine the groundwater to estimate the degree of evolution of hydro-geomorphological processes.

  20. The hydrogeologic framework and a reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, with a design for future study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the relation of ground- water quality and land use in the regolith and fractured rock ground-water system of the North Carolina Piedmont. The initial phase of this study provides a description of the ground-water flow system and a review of available ground-water data and formulates hypotheses that guide the design of a water-quality monitoring network for study of selected areas. In the Piedmont, the solid igneous and metamorphic bedrock grades upward into unweathered fractured rock that is covered by a transition zone of highly-fractured, partially weathered rock, clay-rich saprolite, and the soil. The fractured bedrock, transition zone, saprolite, and soil make up a complex flow system. A review of available ground-water quality data shows a lack of information about organic compounds and trace metals and changes in ground- water quality with depth. Land use, soils, and geology significantly influence ground-water quality. The hypotheses that need to be tested in the next study phase are: (1) that ground-water contamination can be related to land use, and (2) that the transition zone between bedrock and regolith serves as a primary transmitter of contaminants. Monitoring of basins containing industrial, urban, residential, and agricultural land uses in future studies will help define the relation of ground-water quality to land use. Water quality at different depths in the flow system and in streams during base flow needs to be identified.

  1. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  2. Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Novič, Marjana; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sovič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controll...

  3. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  4. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  5. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  6. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  7. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  8. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  10. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  11. Numerical simulation of vertical ground-water flux of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    An important gap in the understanding of the hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, is the rate at which water from the Rio Grande recharges the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Several methodologies-including use of the Glover-Balmer equation, flood pulses, and channel permeameters- have been applied to this problem in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In the work presented here, ground-water temperature profiles and ground-water levels beneath the Rio Grande were measured and numerically simulated at four sites. The direction and rate of vertical ground-water flux between the river and underlying aquifer was simulated and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying the river was estimated through model calibration. Seven sets of nested piezometers were installed during July and August 1996 at four sites along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area, though only four of the piezometer nests were simulated. In downstream order, these four sites are (1) the Bernalillo site, upstream from the New Mexico State Highway 44 bridge in Bernalillo (piezometer nest BRN02); (2) the Corrales site, upstream from the Rio Rancho sewage treatment plant in Rio Rancho (COR01); (3) the Paseo del Norte site, upstream from the Paseo del Norte bridge in Albuquerque (PDN01); and (4) the Rio Bravo site, upstream from the Rio Bravo bridge in Albuquerque (RBR01). All piezometers were completed in the inner-valley alluvium of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Ground-water levels and temperatures were measured in the four piezometer nests a total of seven times in the 24-month period from September 1996 through August 1998. The flux between the surface- and ground-water systems at each of the field sites was quantified by one-dimensional numerical simulation of the water and heat exchange in the subsurface using the heat and water transport model VS2DH. Model calibration was aided by the use of PEST, a model-independent computer program that uses

  12. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  13. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  14. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  15. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  16. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  17. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  18. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  19. Construction and Application about the Monitoring System of Water Vapor Derived from Ground-based GPS in Chengdu%成都地基的GPS水汽监测系统建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓; 李国平

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor plays a very important role in weather and climate changes. Though water vapor is very little in the atmosphere, but its change, in the atmosphere, is very obvious. Water vapor is also an important kind of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere whose spatial distribution is extremely uneven and time variation is very fast. It is not only the main driving force of weather and climate changes, but also an important formation and evolution reason for disastrous weather, especially medium or small scale disastrous weather. In satellite geodesy, GPS positioning accuracy was primarily affected by water vapor.Therefore, people learn from the elimination of noise in the measurement process, gradually to develop out of a new discipline—GPS meteorology (GPS/MET). Along with the development of GPS meteorology, people start to utilize ground-based GPS technology in order to effectively compensate for the defects of traditional detection technologies spatially and temporally and obtain water vapor information with high-precision, high-capacity and high space-time resolution ratio through ground-based GPS water vapor monitoring network. How to measure water vapor content in the atmosphere, to monitor the distribution of water vapor and its trends, which have an important practical significance to meteorological department, especially in monitoring and forecasting disastrous weather on a medium or small scale. The main content of this paper is to launch the development of ground-based GPS water vapor monitoring system;the purpose is to make this system fill in the blank of the application of GPS inversion water vapor technology in Sichuan and even the southwest areas of China, and also enhance the capacities of meteorological department on forecasting and monitoring of medium or small scale disastrous weather, as well as promote the work of many related meteorological operations.%水汽尽管在大气中的含量很少,但是其在大气中的变化却十分剧烈.其空

  20. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The study area occupies about 14,500 square miles in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada. Thermal ground water occurs under artesian conditions, in discontinuous or compartmented zones, in igneous or sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age. Ground-water movement is generally northward. Temperatures of the ground water range from about 30/sup 0/ to more than 80/sup 0/C. Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/C. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water water is near zero.

  1. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  2. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  3. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  4. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in the Wichita River basin includes the construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of the North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to: (1) Define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow fresh-water system of the project area; and (2) project the post-construction effects of the proposed lake on the fresh-water aquifer, especially in relation to hydraulic-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  5. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.676 Grounded electrical systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  6. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  7. Land management impacts on dairy-derived dissolved organic carbon in ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomycia, Jill C; Hernes, Peter J; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    Dairy operations have the potential to elevate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in ground water, where it may interact with organic and inorganic contaminants, fuel denitrification, and may present problems for drinking water treatment. Total and percent bioavailable DOC and total and carbon-specific trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (TTHMFP and STHMFP, respectively) were determined for shallow ground water samples from beneath a dairy farm in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sixteen wells influenced by specific land management areas were sampled over 3 yr. Measured DOC concentrations were significantly elevated over the background as measured at an upgradient monitoring well, ranging from 13 to 55 mg L(-1) in wells downgradient from wastewater ponds, 8 to 30 mg L(-1) in corral wells, 5 to 12 mg L(-1) in tile drains, and 4 to 15 mg L(-1) in wells associated with manured fields. These DOC concentrations were at the upper range or greatly exceeded concentrations in most surface water bodies used as drinking water sources in California. DOC concentrations in individual wells varied by up to a factor of two over the duration of this study, indicating a dynamic system of sources and degradation. DOC bioavailability over 21 d ranged from 3 to 10%, comparable to surface water systems and demonstrating the potential for dairy-derived DOC to influence dissolved oxygen concentrations (nearly all wells were hypoxic to anoxic) and denitrification. TTHMFP measurements across all management units ranged from 141 to 1731 microg L(-1), well in excess of the maximum contaminant level of 80 microg L(-1) established by the Environmental Protection Agency. STHMFP measurements demonstrated over twofold variation ( approximately 4 to approximately 8 mmol total THM/mol DOC) across the management areas, indicating the dependence of reactivity on DOC composition. The results indicate that land management strongly controls the quantity and quality of DOC to reach shallow

  8. Land management impacts on dairy-derived dissolved organic carbon in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomycia, J.C.; Hernes, P.J.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dairy operations have the potential to elevate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in ground water, where it may interact with organic and inorganic contaminants, fuel denitrification, and may present problems for drinking water treatment. Total and percent bioavailable DOC and total and carbon-specific trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (TTHMFP and STHMFP, respectively) were determined for shallow ground water samples from beneath a dairy farm in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sixteen wells influenced by specific land management areas were sampled over 3 yr. Measured DOC concentrations were significantly elevated over the background as measured at an upgradient monitoring well, ranging from 13 to 55 mg L-1 in wells downgradient from wastewater ponds, 8 to 30 mg L-1 in corral wells, 5 to 12 mg L-1 in tile drains, and 4 to 15 mg L-1 in wells associated with manured fields. These DOC concentrations were at the upper range or greatly exceeded concentrations in most surface water bodies used as drinking water sources in California. DOC concentrations in individual wells varied by up to a factor of two over the duration of this study, indicating a dynamic system of sources and degradation. DOC bioavailability over 21 d ranged from 3 to 10%, comparable to surface water systems and demonstrating the potential for dairy-derived DOC to influence dissolved oxygen concentrations (nearly all wells were hypoxic to anoxic) and denitrification. TTHMFP measurements across all management units ranged from 141 to 1731 ??g L-1, well in excess of the maximum contaminant level of 80 ??g L-1 established by the Environmental Protection Agency. STHMFP measurements demonstrated over twofold variation (???4 to ???8 mmol total THM/mol DOC) across the management areas, indicating the dependence of reactivity on DOC composition. The results indicate that land management strongly controls the quantity and quality of DOC to reach shallow ground water and hence should be considered

  9. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  10. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  11. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage, resistance grounded systems shall include a fail safe ground check circuit or other no less effective device... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on...

  12. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  13. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The JPSS CGS currently provides data processing for Suomi NPP, generating multiple terabytes per day across over two dozen environmental data products; that workload will be multiplied by two when the JPSS-1 satellite is

  14. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  15. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  16. PRO-GRADE: GIS toolkits for ground water recharge and discharge estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wang, Jihua; Valocchi, Albert J

    2009-01-01

    PRO-GRADE is an ESRI ArcGIS 9.2 plug-in package that consists of two separate toolkits: (1) the pattern recognition organizer for geographic information system (PRO-GIS) and (2) the ground water recharge and discharge estimator for GIS (GRADE-GIS). PRO-GIS is a collection of several existing image-processing algorithms into one user interface to offer the flexibility to extract spatial patterns according to the user's needs. GRADE-GIS is a ground water recharge and discharge estimation interface using a mass balance method that requires only hydraulic conductivity, water table, and bedrock elevation data for simulating two-dimensional steady-state unconfined aquifers. PRO-GRADE was developed to assist ongoing assessments of the water resources in Illinois and Wisconsin, and is being used to assist several ground water resource studies in several locations in the United States. The advantage of using PRO-GRADE is to enable fast production of initial recharge and discharge maps that can be further enhanced by using a follow-up ground water flow model with parameter estimation codes. PRO-GRADE leverages ArcGIS to provide a computer-assisted framework to support expert judgment in order to efficiently select alternative recharge and discharge maps that can be used as (1) guidelines for field study planning and decision making; (2) initial conditions for numerical simulation; and (3) screening for alternative model selection and prediction/parameter uncertainty evaluation. In addition, PRO-GRADE allows for more easy and rapid correlation of those maps with other hydrologically relevant geospatial data.

  17. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    ). Recharge (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) to the Upper Floridan aquifer consists of vertical leakage through the surficial deposits. Discharge is primarily through springs and diffuse upward leakage that maintains the extensive swamps along the Gulf of Mexico. The ground-water basins had slightly different partitioning of hydrologic components, reflecting variation among the regions. Trends in hydrologic data were identified using nonparametric statistical techniques to infer long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and yielded mixed results. No trend in rainfall was detected during the past century. No trend in spring flow was detected in 1931-98. Although monotonic trends were not detected, rainfall patterns are naturally variable from month to month and year to year; this variability is reflected in ground-water levels and spring flows. A decreasing trend in ground-water levels was detected in the Weeki Wachee well (1966-98), but the trend was statistically weak. At current ground-water withdrawal rates, there is no discernible affect on ground-water levels and spring flows. Sporadic data records, lack of continuous data, and inconsistent periods of record among the hydrologic components impeded analysis of long-term changes to the hydrologic system and interrelations among components. The ongoing collection of hydrologic data from index sites could provide much needed information to assess the hydrologic factors affecting the quantity and quality of spring flow in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin.

  18. Geochemistry of ground