WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground water soil

  1. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  2. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  3. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  4. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  5. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  6. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  7. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  8. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  9. Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs) - Soil water movement and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-01-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is presented that includes the processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM were used as inputs for off-line tests of the model in four 8 x 10 deg regions, including Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India. Soil and vegetation input parameters were caculated as area-weighted means over the 8 x 10 deg gridbox; the resulting hydrological quantities were compared to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1 x 1 deg cells which comprise the 8 x 10 deg gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure worked well except in the Sahel, where low soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce high variability in hydrological quantities; for that region, a resolution better than 8 x 10 deg is needed.

  10. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m 3 /min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 microg/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented

  11. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  12. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  13. TCE REMOVAL FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread use of trichloroethylene (TEE) in the U.S. has resulted in its frequent detection in soil and groundwater. EE can become a health hazard after being processed in the human liver; or reductive dehalogenation in the environment may result in production of vinyl chloride,...

  14. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  15. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  16. Soils and ground waters cleaning; Depollution des sols et des eaux souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberentz, P. [ANTEA, 45 - Orleans (France); Cazenove, A. de [Ecole Superieure de l' Energie et des Materiaux ESEM, 45 - Orleans (France); Darmendrail, D. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, BRGM, 45 - Orleans (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    By seven presentations of case studies and researches, this colloquium takes stock on the natural pollution control mechanisms and technic and also on the economic and juridical stakes. Many french sites, concerning the soils and the ground waters are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Bioremediation of soil and ground water impacted with organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Two case studies demonstrate the controlled use of micro-organisms to degrade organic contaminants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The aerobic study illustrates the degradation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix. Data are presented that show a two-phase degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from about 1,300 ppm TPH to cleanup levels of 100 ppm or less in two months. Total aerobic microorganism and substate-specific degrader counts were tracked throughout the study. Typical total aerobic counts of 10 6 colony forming units (CFU)/g and hydrocarbon degrader counts of 10 4 CFU/g were observed. Hydrocarbon degraders were enumerated on minimal salts media incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon vapors. The anaerobic study documents the successful use of a supplemental carbon source and fertilizers to stimulate indigenous microbe to degrade ketones. A nutrient mix of s polysaccharide, a nitrate electron acceptor and an inorganic orthophosphate was used to augment 100,000 yd 3 of soil contaminated with ketones at about 1,000 ppm. The key elements of a biotreatment project are discussed (i.e., site characterization, treatability studies, biotreatment design, site construction, system maintenance, final disposal and site closure). Lastly, the benefits of bioremediation vs. other remediation alternatives such as landfill disposal, incineration, and stabilization/fixation are discussed in terms of cost and liability

  18. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute

  19. Investigation of counter-measures in the case of radioactive materials penetration in soils and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, G.; Anders, G.; Puehrer, H.; Stohn, W.

    1975-03-01

    Proceeding from the methods known from hydraulic engineering for the protection of ground waters from penetrating noxious substances, suitable measures for preventing the contamination of ground waters and soils are discussed. Since preventive measures are always of priority, a facility using concrete containers with double walls is considered to be an appropriate method for temporary storage of low and medium activity waste waters. (author)

  20. Effect of soap industry effluents on soil and ground water in Albageir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, S. O.

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect on soil and ground water produced by the effluent from soap industry discharged from Alsheikh Mustafa Alamin (SMA) factory, in Albageir industrial area, located 45 Km south of Khartoum. Soil samples were taken from the periphery of the effluent pond and from 25 and 50 cm depths from pits at different distances from the pond.The samples were analyzed for the following chemical and physical characteristics PH, EC, sodium, chloride ions and their grain size, in order to investigate any possible soil degradation. The results showed that there is an increase in soil salinity and sodicity resulting from the improper discharge of the liquid waste, and from lack of treatment before the discharge. Hence, there are definitive signs for soil degradation in the study area, which could reach a high magnitude in the long.This situation could be rectified by adopting updated techniques for treatment and disposal of effluent, and by regular inspection, by the authorities in order to make sure that the regulations are not violated. Chemical and physical analyses of ground water samples showed no signs of pollution. However, if the disposal practices are not revised, the possibility of pollution in the near future is likely to occur. A package of measurements is proposed in order to curb the impact of the industry on the environment. (Author)

  1. Improved Ground Hydrology Calculations for Global Climate Models (GCMs): Soil Water Movement and Evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-09-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is developed to improve the land-surface sensible and latent heat calculations in global climate models (GCMs). The processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff are explicitly included in the model. The amount of detail in the hydrologic calculations is restricted to a level appropriate for use in a GCM, but each of the aforementioned processes is modeled on the basis of the underlying physical principles. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM are used as inputs for off-line tests of the ground hydrology model in four 8° × 10° regions (Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India). Soil and vegetation input parameters are calculated as area-weighted means over the 8° × 10° gridhox. This compositing procedure is tested by comparing resulting hydrological quantities to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1° × 1° cells which comprise the 8° × 10° gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure works well except in the Sahel where lower soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce more variability in hydrological quantities, indicating that a resolution better than 8° × 10° is needed for that region. Modeled annual and diurnal hydrological cycles compare well with observations for Brazil, where real world data are available. The sensitivity of the ground hydrology model to several of its input parameters was tested; it was found to be most sensitive to the fraction of land covered by vegetation and least sensitive to the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential.

  2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  3. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  4. Intrinsic remediation of JP-4 fuel in soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithorst, W.L. Jr.; Vardy, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic remediation methods were employed to remediate soil and ground water contaminated by JP-4 fuel at the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center facility in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. By the time the release was discovered, non-aqueous phase JP-4 fuel was detected in ground water over an area of approximately 8,000 square feet. In addition, concentrations of dissolved BTEX in ground water exceeded 5,000 microg/L. Tight clays present in the upper two meters of the aquifer, underlain by highly transmissive sands, prevented remediation of the JP-4 by conventional treatment methods. Therefore, a system of air injection and air extraction wells were installed that simultaneously depressed the water table and extracted hydrocarbon vapors. The conceptual idea, developed by the EPA RS Kerr Environmental Laboratory (RSKERL) in Ada, Oklahoma, is to stimulate rapid intrinsic biodegradation of the JP-4 fuel compounds. Subsequent biorespiration measurements indicated that the fuel compounds were being rapidly biodegraded. Upon removal of the non aqueous JP-4 compounds, an investigation was conducted to determine if the aquifer had an adequate assimilative capacity to support natural aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of the contaminants. Analysis of ground water samples collected using a cone penetrometer and a direct-push sampling device indicate a sufficient concentration of electron acceptors to support natural biodegradation of the JP-4 compounds

  5. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  6. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  7. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Hazebrouck, D.J.; Walsh, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  8. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  9. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  10. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefy, S.A.; Ali, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Reefy, S A; Ali, A [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Application of a soil and ground-water pollutant-transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Duguid, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A general two-dimensional model was developed for simulation of saturated-unsaturated transport of radionuclides in ground water. This model is being applied to the transport of radionuclides from waste-disposal sites, where field investigations are currently under way to obtain the necessary parameters. A zero-order simulation of a waste-disposal trench is presented. Estimated values of the soil properties have been used since very limited experimental information is available at the present time. However, as more measured values become available from field studies, the simulation will be updated. The end product of this research will be a reliable computer model useful both in predicting future transport of radionuclides from buried waste and in examining control measures if they are shown to be necessary. (U.S.)

  13. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test

  14. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  15. Shallow soil moisture – ground thaw interactions and controls – Part 2: Influences of water and energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper (Guan et al., 2010 demonstrated variable interactions and correlations between shallow soil moisture and ground thaw in soil filled areas along a wetness spectrum in a subarctic Canadian Precambrian Shield landscape. From wetter to drier, these included a wetland, peatland and soil filled valley. Herein, water and energy fluxes were examined for these same subarctic study sites to discern the key controlling processes on the found patterns. Results showed the presence of surface water was the key control in variable soil moisture and frost table interactions among sites. At the peatland and wetland sites, accumulated water in depressions and flow paths maintained soil moisture for a longer duration than at the hummock tops. These wet areas were often locations of deepest thaw depth due to the transfer of latent heat accompanying lateral surface runoff. Although the peatland and wetland sites had large inundation extent, modified Péclet numbers indicated the relative influence of external and internal hydrological and energy processes at each site were different. Continuous inflow from an upstream lake into the wetland site caused advective and conductive thermal energies to be of equal importance to ground thaw. The absence of continuous surface flow at the peatland and valley sites led to dominance of conductive thermal energy over advective energy for ground thaw. The results suggest that the modified Péclet number could be a very useful parameter to differentiate landscape components in modeling frost table heterogeneity. The calculated water and energy fluxes, and the modified Péclet number provide quantitative explanations for the shallow soil moisture-ground thaw patterns by linking them with hydrological processes and hillslope storage capacity.

  16. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  17. Studies on radiation dose due to radioactive elements present in ground water and soil samples around Mysore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M S; Veda, S M; Paramesh, L

    2012-04-01

    A systematic study of the ground water and soil samples collected from different locations around Mysore city (12(°)N and 76(°)E) has been carried out. (226)Ra activity concentration in water samples varies from 0.28 to 189 mBq l(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 4.75 mBq l(-1) and (222)Rn concentration in ground water varies from 4.25 to 435 Bq l(-1) with a GM of 25.9 Bq l(-1). The GM of inhalation and ingestion doses due to (222)Rn in water is 65.2 and 5.43, µSv y(-1), respectively. The measured GM gamma dose rate in air is 85.4 nGy h(-1) and absorbed dose rate estimated from the measured activity of radionuclides is 92.6 nGy h(-1).

  18. Influence of Roads on the Surrounding Natural Environment - Vegetation, Soil, and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    lands. The spreading of salt to combat slipperiness and to hold down the dust results in the pollution of the ground water near the highways under...Among meadow-type forests elm , ash, and alder forests are particularly sensitive to reduced water availability, while meadow-oak, meadow-beech, and... slipperiness on more heavily travelled roads (primarily K_ _ - -41- NaCi), dust-binding on gravel roads (road salt/CaClg/ and previouslv road lye

  19. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for Measurement of Integral Soil Water Content at the Small Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. One largest initiative to cover the measuring gap of soil moisture between point scale and remote sensing observations is the COSMOS network (Zreda et al., 2012). Here, cosmic-ray neutron sensing, which may be more precisely named ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS), is applied. The measuring principle is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. Soil water content contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters is inversely correlated to the neutron flux at the air-ground interface. This approach is now implemented, e.g. in USA (Zreda et al., 2012) and Germany (Rivera Villarreyes et al., 2011), based on its simple installation and integral measurement of soil moisture at the small catchment scale. The present study performed Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing on farmland at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam and Berlin cropped with corn in 2010, sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. In order to test this methodology, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, several calibration approaches, role of vegetation cover and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations were also evaluated. Observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil moisture from GANS compared quantitatively with mean values derived from a network of classical devices under vegetated and non- vegetated conditions. The GANS approach responded well

  20. Analysis of ground water and soil samples from severely arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Biswas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of groundwater and soil by arsenic is a serious threat to existence of mankind on the globe. Arsenic contaminates soil and groundwater by natural biogeochemical cycles. However, due to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminant use of arsenic in disinfectants, weedicides, medicines and fertilizers, arsenic toxicity is a severe environmental issue, both at national and global level. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization prescribed the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to be 10 µg/l. Exposure to arsenic at higher levels over a considerable period of time leads to skin lesions and cancer, disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal systems. Murshidabad is one of the severely arsenic affected districts of West Bengal. We have analyzed soil and groundwater samples from some of the highly arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district. Both the soil and groundwater samples have an alkaline pH, a characteristic of the presence of arsenic in the tested samples. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions of these villages force the residents to use groundwater as the source of drinking water. Presence of considerably high amount of total dissolved solids in water samples make them further unfit for consumption. High amount of phosphate and iron present in some of the water samples takes a toll on the detoxification and excretory system of the body, if those water samples are consumed on a regular manner. Contamination of soil by the aforesaid contaminants results in biomagnification of these pollutants in the food chain. We could also isolate certain potentially arsenic resistant bacteria from the contaminated soil and water samples. At the next level we have surveyed an arsenic affected village to analyze the clinical manifestation of arsenic poisoning. In this village subjects developed rampant skin lesions throughout the body due to exposure to arsenic

  1. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2002-2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yager, Tracy J; Smith, David B; Crock, James G

    2004-01-01

    .... Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediments. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area...

  2. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for A Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yager, Tracy J; Smith, David B; Crock, James G

    2004-01-01

    .... Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area...

  3. Dynamics And Remediation Of Fine Textured Soils And Ground Water Contaminated With Salts And Chlorinated Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Alison; Naeth, M. Anne

    2017-04-01

    Soil and ground water are frequently contaminated by industrial activities, posing a potential risk to human and environmental health and limiting land use. Proper site management and remediation treatments can return contaminated areas to safe and useful states. Most remediation research focuses on single contaminants in coarse and medium textured soils. Contaminant mixtures are common and make remediation efforts complex due to differing chemical properties. Remediation in fine textured soils is difficult since their low hydraulic conductivities hinder addition of amendments into and removal of contaminated media out of the impacted zone. The objective of this research is to assess contaminant dynamics and potential remediation techniques for fine textured soil and ground water impacted by multiple contaminants in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The University of Alberta's Ellerslie Waste Management Facility was used to process liquid laboratory waste from 1972 to 2007. A waste water pond leak prior to 1984 resulted in salt and chlorinated organic compound contamination. An extensive annual ground water monitoring data set for the site is available since 1988. Analytical parameters include pH, electrical conductivity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, and metals. Data have been compared to Alberta Tier 1 Soil and Groundwater Remediation Guidelines to identify exceedances. The parameters of greatest concern, based on magnitude and frequency of detection, are electrical conductivity, sodium, chloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane. Spatial analyses of the data show that the contamination is focused in and down gradient of the former waste water pond. Temporal analyses show different trends depending on monitoring well location. Laboratory column experiments were used to assess leaching as a potential treatment for salt contamination in fine textured soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured for seven soils from two depth intervals with or without

  4. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  5. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  6. Estimation of the near surface soil water content during evaporation using air-launched ground-penetrating radar

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is an important process in the global water cycle and its variation affects the near sur-face soil water content, which is crucial for surface hydrology and climate modelling. Soil evaporation rate is often characterized by two distinct phases, namely, the energy limited phase (stage-I) and the soil hydraulic limited period (stage-II). In this paper, a laboratory experiment was conducted using a sand box filled with fine sand, which was subject to evaporation for a period of twenty three days. The setup was equipped with a weighting system to record automatically the weight of the sand box with a constant time-step. Furthermore, time-lapse air-launched ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were performed to monitor the evaporation process. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The accuracy of the full-waveform GPR forward modelling with respect to three different petrophysical models was investigated. Moreover, full-waveform inversion of the GPR data was used to estimate the quantitative information, such as near surface soil water content. The two stages of evaporation can be clearly observed in the radargram, which indicates qualitatively that enough information is contained in the GPR data. The full-waveform GPR inversion allows for accurate estimation of the near surface soil water content during extended evaporation phases, when a wide frequency range of GPR (0.8-5.0 GHz) is taken into account. In addition, the results indicate that the CRIM model may constitute a relevant alternative in solving the frequency-dependency issue for full waveform GPR modelling.

  7. Technique of tritium-tagging of soil moisture for determination of ground water recharge. Some results from north eastern region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of reactor produced tritium for tracing downward movement of soil moisture and its application for detemination of ground water recharge is described. Data of rainfall infiltration and the consequent recharge in purely sandy sites and one clayey site of semi-arid climate are described. Tritiated water was injected below 70-90 cm ground surface in five radially concentric points 10 cm appart. Sampling of soil was carried out after one year, at every 10 cm depth interval. Soil samples were vacuum distilled and tritium in distilled moisture was determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author) [pt

  8. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on soil, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District, studied natural geochemical effects and the effects of biosolids applications to the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 1999 through 2003 because of public concern about potential contamination of soil, crops, ground water, and surface water from biosolids applications. Parameters analyzed for each monitoring component included arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc (the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids), gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, and plutonium, as well as other parameters. Concentrations of the nine regulated trace elements in biosolids were relatively uniform and did not exceed applicable regulatory standards. All plutonium concentrations in biosolids were below the minimum detectable level and were near zero. The most soluble elements in biosolids were arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium. Elevated concentrations of bismuth, mercury, phosphorus, and silver would be the most likely inorganic biosolids signature to indicate that soil or streambed sediment has been affected by biosolids. Molybdenum and tungsten, and to a lesser degree antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium, would be the most likely inorganic 'biosolids signature' to indicate ground water or surface water has been affected by biosolids. Soil data indicate that biosolids have had no measurable effect on the concentration of the constituents monitored. Arsenic concentrations in soil of both Arapahoe and Elbert County monitoring sites (like soil from all parts of Colorado) exceed the Colorado soil remediation objectives and soil cleanup standards, which were determined by back-calculating a soil concentration equivalent to a one-in-a-million cumulative cancer risk. Lead concentrations

  9. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  11. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  12. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2 area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 0.12×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min, the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 4.91×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  13. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  14. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  15. TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM THROUGH SOILS AND INTO GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils of a chrome-plating shop was performed to provide information on the extent of soil and aquifer contamination at the site and on the potential for off-site migration and environmental impact. Intact, moist cores wer...

  16. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.

  17. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  18. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  19. Ground water level, Water storage, Soil moisture, Precipitation Variability Using Multi Satellite Data during 2003-2016 Associated with California Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. W.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural market of California is a multi-billion-dollar industry, however in the recent years, the state is facing severe drought. It is important to have a deeper understanding of how the agriculture is affected by the amount of rainfall as well as the ground conditions in California. We have considered 5 regions (each 2 degree by 2 degree) covering whole of California. Multi satellite (MODIS Terra, GRACE, GLDAS) data through NASA Giovanni portal were used to study long period variability 2003 - 2016 of ground water level and storage, soil moisture, root zone moisture level, precipitation and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) in these 5 regions. Our detailed analysis of these parameters show a strong correlation between the NDVI and some of these parameters. NDVI represents greenness showing strong drought conditions during the period 2011-2016 due to poor rainfall and recharge of ground water in the mid and southern parts of California. Effect of ground water level and underground storage will be also discussed on the frequency of earthquakes in five regions of California. The mid and southern parts of California show increasing frequency of small earthquakes during drought periods.

  20. Soil chemistry and ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, 1998 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Navy, began an investigation to determine background ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer and soil chemistry at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, and to compare these data to two abandoned solid- waste disposal areas (referred to by the U.S. Navy as Sites 5 and 16). The quality of water in the water-table zone generally is within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water regulation. The pH of ground water in the study area ranged from 4.0 to 7.6 standard units, with a median value of 5.4. Water from 29 wells is above the pH range and 3 wells are within the range of the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation (formerly known as the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level or SMCL) of 6.5 to 8.5 standard units. Also, water from one well at Site 5 had a chloride concentration of 570 milligrams per liter (mg/L,), which is above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Sulfate concentrations in water from two wells at Site 5 are above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Of 22 soil-sampling locations for this study, 4 locations had concentrations above the detection limit for either volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral acids (BNAs), or pesticides. VOCs detected in the study area include toluene in one background sample; and acetone in one background sample and one sample from Site 16--however, detection of these two compounds may be a laboratory artifact. Pesticides detected in soil at the Submarine Base include two degradates of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT): 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD) in one background sample, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4'-DDE) in one background sample and one sample from Site 16; and dibenzofuran in one sample from Site 16. BNAs were detected in one background sample and in two

  1. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  2. Determination of the radon concentration in soil and ground water and its association with the seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Azorin, J.

    2003-01-01

    The coast of the Mexican Pacific is one of the seismic areas more active of the world due to the subduction of the badges of Coconuts and Rivera under the badge of North America. The earthquakes that happen in this part of Mexico they are of great magnitude and they affect to the central plateau of the country where finds the biggest population density. On the other hand the coast of the Gulf of Mexico presents one relatively low seismic activity. It is in this region where it is the nuclear plant of Laguna Verde (PNLV) and the studies of seismicity of the area should be carried out for questions of nuclear security. One carries out a study of fluctuations of the concentration of the radon in floor and it dilutes underground in the mentioned areas using accustomed to detectors of nuclear appearances (LR-115). Possibly they were also used detecting automatic (Clipperton sounds out). In some cases it was analysed the gamma radiation in soil using thermoluminescent dosemeters (CaSO 4 : Dy + Ptfe). The mineralogical composition of rock samples was obtained, by means of technical conventional and Electron scanning microscopy and an X-ray diffractometer. The study one carries out along the coast of Guerrero, from Guacamayas, Mich. until Marquelia, Gro., of 1993 at 1998 and in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in the PNLV and their surroundings, of 1994 at 1996. The fluctuations of the radon concentration and of the gamma radiation, were analysed in function of the local seismic activity, the meteorological parameters and those characteristic geologic. In the area of the PNLV, the results showed that in general the averages of those value of the radon concentration, as much in floor as in water, they were low. A station located in a flaw area (New Ranch) the one that I present the values was but high of radon concentration, corresponding those but first floor to the PNLV. The seismic activity during the one period of sampling was sporadic and of low intensity and alone one

  3. Mass separation and risk assessment of commingled contamination in soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Q.L.; Chau, T.S. [Alberta Environment, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gasoline service stations in urban areas may be sources of groundwater pollution if petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were to leak from underground storage tanks. Depending on the site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, the PHC could be retained in the soil, float on top of the groundwater table, dissolve in the groundwater or partition into soil vapour. This study focused on risk assessment and and management of soil and groundwater pollution caused by PHC releases from multiple sources which lead to commingling of subsurface plumes that require identification, assessment and control. Risk management decisions are made according to the different protection zones corresponding to different exposure pathways into which the commingled groundwater plume is divided, such as inhalation, ingestion and freshwater aquatic life. In order to effectively evaluate and manage commingled plumes, responsible parties must cooperate in sharing information on contaminated sites and developing joint programs for investigation, monitoring, remediation and risk management. This study proposed methodologies for determining mass contribution to a commingled plume from multiple contaminant sources. It was concluded that the levels of risk to human and environmental health can be determined by considering contaminant sources, migration pathways and potential receptors. Migration of PHCs in the subsurface is influenced by several uncertainties such as pollutant release and remediation histories, preferential pathways and hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Proper site characterization is necessary for reliable mass separation and to delineate contaminant plumes. Mathematical models can be used to simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  5. Fiber-optic sensors for rapid, inexpensive characterization of soil and ground water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The extent and complexity of worldwide environmental contamination are great enough that characterization, remediation, and performance monitoring will be extremely costly and lengthy. Characterization techniques that are rapid, inexpensive, and simple and that do not generate waste are urgently needed. Towards this end LLNL is developing a fiber-optic chemical sensor technology for use in groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring. We use a colorimetric detection technique, based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The accuracy and sensitivity of the sensor (<5 ppb by weight in water, determined by comparison with gas chromatographic standard measurements) are sufficient for environmental monitoring of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform

  6. A stochastic analysis of the influence of soil and climatic variability on the estimate of pesticide ground water polution potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, William A.; Gruber, Joachim

    1989-12-01

    Soil and climatic variability contribute in an unknown manner to the leaching of pesticides below the surface soil zone where degradation occurs at maximum levels. In this paper we couple the climatic variability model of Eagleson (1978) to the soil variability transport model of Jury (1982) to produce a probability density distribution of residual mass fraction (RMF) remaining after leaching below the surface degradation zone. Estimates of the RMF distribution are shown to be much more sensitive to soil variability than climatic variability, except when the residence time of the chemical is shorter than one year. When soil variability dominates climatic variability, the applied water distribution may be replaced by a constant average water application rate without serious error. Simulations of leaching are run with 10 pesticides in two climates and in two representative soil types with a range of soil variability. Variability in soil or climate act to produce a nonnegligible probability of survival of a small value of residual mass even for relatively immobile compounds which are predicted to degrade completely by a simple model which neglects variability. However, the simpler model may still be useful for screening pesticides for groundwater pollution potential if somewhat larger residual masses of a given compound are tolerated. Monte Carlo simulations of the RMF distribution agreed well with model predictions over a wide range of pesticide properties.

  7. The role of soil layers in preventing ground water pollution with 17ß-estradiol hormone (E 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A’zam Golzari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estrogens include estoril (E3, estradiol and estrone (E1. These chemicals are produced in human and animal bodies as well as in synthetic chemicals (drugs. Estrogens can enter water sources in different ways. When these chemicals enter the human body through water and wastewater, they have the ability to mimic or disrupt the normal estrogen activities in humans and animals. Estrogens in wastewater are able to pass soil layers and contaminate groundwater. Therefore, in this study, the removal of the hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2 as a representative of estrogens in three types of soils was studied. The selection was chosen in respect to the importance of entering the hormone into groundwater through the soil. Methods: This study was an experimental study in which the removal of the hormone E2 from different depths of three types of soils was experimented. The soils were consisted of two different textures, the silty sandy clay and the silty sand with gravel. The hormone E2 was diluted and injected into the drilled holes. Soils were characterized in the soil mechanics laboratory. Hormone extraction from the soils was performed using a centrifuge and analyzed with the Elecsys device. The results were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 22 software. Results: The results showed that the removal rates of hormone E2 in the three types of soils were higher than 99.5%, and the removal rate in the silty sand was more than the others. In all three soil samples, the removal rates in the first layer were high. The average injected hormone in the soil decreased from 3500 to 3112 ng/l. The results showed that the adhesion and plasticity of the soil had also affected the removal rates. Conclusion: Results showed that the soil plays a significant role in the removal of E2 hormone and this hormone was reduced or eliminated in the first layers of the soils. Thus, the risk of groundwater contamination is low.

  8. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant. Nikola Tesla A in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Z.; Madic, M.; Vukovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-11-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and {sup 40}K has been investigated in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). Using alpha and gamma spectrometry, luminescence spectrophotometry, it was found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series; and these radionuclides were found in the ground water up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity was minimal.

  9. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  10. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  11. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  13. Monitoring Cs-134 and 137 released by Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in ground, soil, and stream waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Hada, Manami; Ishwar, Pun; Abe, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant accident occurred in March 2011, large amount of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and was fallen onto ground by rainfall. Few researches have monitored radioactive cesium dynamics in whole hydrological cycle system such as groundwater, soil water, spring water and stream water. Thus, the purpose of this study is to monitor concentration of radioactive cesium in those waters in time series in the headwaters. We have performed an intensive monitoring at three small mountainous catchments in Yamakiya district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture, locating 35 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant since June 2011, also we consider the movement of radioactive cesium and its relation with the hydrological cycle.

  14. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  15. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  16. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  17. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  18. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  19. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  20. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  1. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  2. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  3. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant ''Nikola Tesla'' A - Obrenovac (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Z.; Mandic, M.; Vukovic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and 40 K has been tested in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired power plant ''Nikola Tesla'' A in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). By using the methods of alpha and gamma spectrometry, as well as luminescence spectrophotometry, it has been found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series and spreads direction of ground waters up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity has been found to be minimal, whereas the balance of the first members of series ( 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th; 232 Th- 228 Th) has not been disturbed. (Author)

  4. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  5. Remediation of Soil and Ground Water Contaminated with PAH using Heat and Fe(II)-EDTA Catalyzed Persulfate Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadim, Farhad; Huang, Kun-Chang; Dahmani, Amine M.

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated the feasibility of degrading PAHs in aqueous systems with persulfate oxidation. Additional tests are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of treating PAHs in soils and obtaining the rate of degradation of PAHs with persulfate oxidation.Two sets of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of sodium persulfate in oxidizing real world PAH-contaminated soils collected from a Superfund site in Connecticut. The first set of soil sample were treated only with persulfate and to the second batch, mixture of persulfate and Fe(II)-EDTA solutions were added. The results of the second test showed that within 24 hours, 75% to 100% of the initial concentrations of seven PAH compounds detected in the soil samples were degraded by sodium persulfate mixed with FE(II)-EDTA

  6. Determination of total arsenic in soil and arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected ground water in Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Wong, K.K.; Hasan, F.N.; Mustafa, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia has geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic groundwater and people are at high risk of chronic arsenic exposure. The aims of this study are to investigate the concentration of total arsenic and to isolate and identify arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected locations in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The INAA technique was used to measure the concentration of total arsenic in soils. The arsenic concentrations in soils were above permissible 5 mg/kg, ranging from 5.34 to 27.81 mg/kg. Bacteria resistant to arsenic from two arsenic-contaminated wells in Preak Russey were isolated by enrichment method in nutrient broth (NB). Colonies isolated from NB was then grown on minimal salt media (MSM) added with arsenic at increasing concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm. Two isolates that can tolerate 750 ppm of arsenic were identified as Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter lwoffii based on a series of biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Optimum growth of both isolates ranged from pH 6.6 to 7.0 and 30-35 deg C. E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii were able to remove 66.4 and 64.1 % of arsenic, respectively at the initial concentration of 750 ppm, within 72 h of incubation. Using energy dispersive X-ray technique, the percentage of arsenic absorbed by E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii was 0.09 and 0.15 %, respectively. This study suggested that arsenic-resistant E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii removed arsenic from media due to their ability to absorb arsenic. (author)

  7. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  8. Potential denitrification rates of subsurface soil under paddy fields receiving ground water with high nitrate concentration; Konodo shosantai chisso gan`yu chikasui no ryunyusuru suiden kasodo ni okeru dacchitsu kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, H [Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, Shizuoka (Japan); Hidaka, S [Saitama Agricultural Experiment Station, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-02-10

    It is well known that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the surface water decreases as it flows downward in rice paddies irrigated with water high in nitrate nitrogen concentration. The decrease is attributed to absorption by rice plants and algae adherent thereto and denitrification in the reduction layer well developed in the rice paddy surface soil. In paddy fields downstream of the Kushibiki plateau in the northwestern part of Saitama Prefecture, it is occasionally observed that nitrate nitrogen concentration in the ground water decreases as it flows down (farther from the plateau) not only in the flooded period but also in the non-flooded period. This suggests that in the said paddy field denitrification takes place not only in the rice paddy surface layer soil but also in the lower layer soil. Under the circumstances, the denitrification rate in the rice paddy lower layer soil was measured using the acetylene inhibition method under anaerobic and added nitrate conditions. A denitrification rate of 0.4-46ngN/g{sup -1} wet soil/h{sup -1} was obtained from a 40-150cm deep layer soil, smaller by the order of 1-2 than that in the surface layer soil. This suggests that the lower layer soil contributes to denitrification. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  10. Experimental investigation of long-lived radionuclide migration in floodplain soils of Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone and risk estimation of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnov, V.G.; Popov, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    Heavily polluted with long-lived radionuclides, the floodplain soils of Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone is a potential danger for the river system and reservoirs of the Ukraine. In 1991, the building of a dam along the river left bank was started to isolate the river-bed. However, during the spring rise of water in the river body, the water will all the same infiltrate through the soil to the floodplain because of hydraulic pressure. The main goal of this work was to estimate the strontium 90 content in the top water and it's dependence on the depth of water over the soil surface. We studied the strontium 90 different chemical forms distribution in the left bank part of the floodplain and experimentally determined the strontium 90 washing out by river water taken into account it's upward flow

  11. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  12. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  14. The influence of ground heterogeneity on the migration of radionuclides in the soil and soil-water system. Numerical and laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxham, M.; van Meurs, G.A.M.; Weststrate, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of macro scale soil structures, such as lenses and inclusions, on the migration patterns of leached components from a shallow burial trench for radioactive waste, a theoretical and experimental study has been carried out. In the study the unsaturated as well as the saturated zone has been considered. The objectives of the study are two-fold: 1. to assess the importance of macro-structure in the soil for typical parameter choices associated with a generic shallow burial site. 2. to examine various models for predicting the migration patterns in the light of the soil macro-structure. For the saturated aquifer pathways fully determinate calculations have been made, using the preverified numerical contaminant transport code VERA. Laboratory experiments on thin-slit models resulted in substantial qualitative and reasonable conformation of the numerical results. As for the unsaturated pathway no such determinate numerical model is available, several statistic and analytical models have been used to achieve the first objective. In this case the second objective cannot be achieved without recourse to an experimental program. The unsaturated thin-slit laboratory experiments, however, have not met with experimental success to date. The report presents the results of the theoretical and laboratory experiments. Furthermore a short analysis of the practical consequences of these results is given

  15. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  16. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  17. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  19. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  20. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  1. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDING RESISTANCE VALUE IN SOIL AND SEPTICTANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of grounding system to protect of electrical equipment and instrumentation system and peopletogether. The lightning stroke near the strucutre of building can damage of equipment and instrumentationsystem. Therefore, it is very important to protect theese electrical and electronic equipment from lightningstrike uses lightning protection system and grounding system.This paper presents kind of grounding system at type of soil and place. The measurement of groundingresistance in soil and septictank have done. Types of soil for grounding resistance measuring aremarshland, clay and rockland.The measurement results of grounding resistance show that value of grounding resistance depend ondeepness of electrode and kind of soil and septictank. Grounding resistance value in septictank is morelower than soil.

  3. Evaluation of available data on the geohydrology, soil chemistry, and ground-water chemistry of Gas Works Park and surrounding region, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, M.A.; Turney, G.L.; Ryals, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located at the site of an abandon gasification plant on Lake Union. Wastes deposited during 50 years of plant operations (1906-1956) have extended the shore line 100 ft and left the park soil contaminated with a number of hazardous material. Soil contaminants include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, cyanide, and metals. PAHs and metals have been detected in Lake Union sediments. Maximum total PAH concentrations exceeded 100 million micrograms/kilogram in some places in the soils of the park at 6-inch depths and in some lake sediments. Other contaminants present are much lower in concentrations. The park is on glacial drift overlain by gasification waste materials and clean fill. Waste materials include sand and gravels, mixed with lampblack, oil, bricks, and other industrial wastes. Groundwater flows through the soils and waste toward Lake Union. Vertical groundwater movement is uncertain, but is assumed to be upward near Lake Union. Concentrations of most soil contaminants are probably low in the groundwater and in Lake Union due to the low solubilities and high sorptive characteristics of these contaminants. However, no water quality data are available to confirm this premise. (USGS)

  4. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  5. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  6. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  8. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  9. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  10. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens

    2012-07-15

    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  12. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  13. Soils and water [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  14. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  15. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  16. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  17. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  18. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  19. Pollution of south of Tehran ground waters with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in wastewater sludge via on agricultural lands application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phyto toxicity from land application. The aim of this research is possibility of ground water pollution of south of Tehran because of ten years irrigation with Ni, Cd and Pb borne waste water. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. The soils differed in their texture from sandy to clayey. Each soil sample in duplicate and uniformly packed into PVC columns. Soil samples were irrigated with Cd, Pb and Ni-added wastewater. After irrigating, the columns were cut and the soils separated from sectioned pieces and their heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd and Ni) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer y use of HNO 3 , 4N solution. Because of high sorption capacity of these elements by soils, these metals were accumulated in surface layer of the soils. Movement in the soils without lime and organic matter were as low as other samples. Ni has had the most accumulation or the least vertical movement, and Pb the opposite ones

  20. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  1. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  2. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  3. Connections among soil, ground, and surface water chemistries characterize nitrogen loss from an agricultural landscape in the upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, W. Adam; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Jones, Clain A.; Payn, Robert A.; Brookshire, E. N. Jack; Klassen, Jane K.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated nitrate in shallow aquifers is common in agricultural areas and remediation requires an understanding of nitrogen (N) leaching at a variety of spatial scales. Characterization of the drivers of nitrate leaching at the mesoscale level (102-103 km2) is needed to bridge from field-scale observations to the landscape-scale context, allowing informed water resource management decisions. Here we explore patterns in nitrate leaching rates across a depositional landform in the northern Great Plains within the Upper Missouri Basin, where the predominant land use is non-irrigated small grain production, and nitrate-N concentrations above 10 mg L-1 are common. The shallow Moccasin terrace (260 km2) aquifer is bounded in vertical extent by underlying shale and is isolated from mountain front stream recharge, such that aquifer recharge is dominated by infiltration of precipitation through agricultural soils. This configuration presents a simple landform-scale water balance that we leveraged to estimate leaching rates using groundwater nitrate concentrations and surface water discharge, and quantify uncertainty using a Monte Carlo approach based on spatial variation in observations of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A participatory research approach allowed local farmer knowledge of the landscape to be incorporated into the study design, improved selection of and access to sample sites, and enhanced prospects for addressing nitrate leaching through collaborative understanding of system hydrology. Mean landform-scale nitrate-N leaching rates were 11 and 18 kg ha-1 yr-1 during the 2012-2014 study for the two largest catchments draining the terrace. Over a standard three-year crop rotation, these leaching rates represent 19-31% of typical fertilizer N application rates; however, leaching losses are likely derived not only from fertilizer but also from soil organic N mineralization, and are apparently higher during the post-fallow phase of the crop rotation. Groundwater

  4. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  5. Radioactivity monitoring of fallout, water and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, R.

    1961-01-01

    During 1961, the radioactivity monitoring of the Boris Kidric Institute site covered monitoring of the total β activity of the fallout and water on the site. Activity of the fallout was monitored by measuring the activity of the rain and collected sedimented dust form the atmosphere. Water monitored was the water from Danube and river Mlaka, technical and drinking water. Plants and soil activity were not measured although sample were taken and the total β activity will be measured and analysed later

  6. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  7. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  8. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report. In-Situ Bioremediation of MTBE in Ground Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Karen

    2003-01-01

    ... (methyl-tert-butyl-ether) and other dissolved gasoline components. It was implemented at the Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, CA to prevent further contamination of ground water by MTBE leaching from gasoline contaminated soils...

  9. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  10. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  11. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  12. Practical Guidelines for Water Percolation Capacity Determination of the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water infiltration capacity of ground soils and rocks represents important part of design and construction procedures of the facilities for the infiltration of clean precipitation water. With their help percolation capacity of ground as well as response of the infiltration facilities to the inflowing precipitation water is estimated.Comparing to other in situ hydrogeological tests they can be understood as simple. However, in every day’s practiceseveral problems during their on site application and desk interpretation can arise. Paper represents review of existingpractical engineering procedures during the performance of percolation tests. Procedures are described for the borehole and shaft percolation tests execution and calculation theory for stationary and non‑stationary percolation tests are given. Theory is illustrated with practical exercises. Interpretations of typical departures from theoretical presumptions according to Hvorslev test of non-stationary test are illustrated.

  13. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  14. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  15. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  16. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  17. Ground freezing effects on soil erosion of army training lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halvorson, Jonathan J

    1998-01-01

    .... Rut edges were zones of erosion and sidewall bases were zones of deposition. Ksubfs values were similar in and out of ruts formed on soil with 0-5 percent water by volume, but were lower in ruts formed on soil with about 15 percent water...

  18. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  19. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  20. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  1. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  2. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  3. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  4. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  5. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  6. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  7. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities

  8. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  9. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  10. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Young Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively. Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  11. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  12. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  13. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  14. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  15. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  16. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  17. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  18. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  19. Monitoring of radon variation in both ground water and soil gas along Al-Ghab fault from 15 February to 23 June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M..; Al-Hent, R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to check the possibility of using radon monitoring technique which has been established as an additional aid for earthquake prediction elsewhere in the world, and to indicate whether radon measurements will frequently be useful in allowing the prediction of earthquakes along the seismically active Al-Ghab fault, in the western side of Syria. A network of ten sampling stations were setup along Al-Ghab fault segment for monitoring radon variations in both groundwater and soil gas. Sampling frequency was about once every three weeks. The overall results of this scientific study suggest the possibility of employing radon technique as a fairly good precursor in the Syrian earthquake prediction programme. To achieve this, however, a continuous monitoring of radon changes is required in groundwater and soil gas as well as other environmental variable especially air temperature, barometric pressure and wind velocity. Suitable grid patterns over the major seismic zones in Syria are necessary for obtaining the most reliable radon data. The establishment of seismic network in the region is extremely important for correlating radon data with the seismic activity records. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  2. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large

  3. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large.

  4. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  5. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  6. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  7. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  8. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  9. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  10. Resources sustainable management of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation executive interinstitutional of the state of knowledge of the Raigon aquifer in the mark of the Project RLA/8/031 (sustainable Administration of Resources of groundwaters), elaborate of an I diagnose and definition of the necessities with a view to the formulation of the plan of activities of the project to develop. In the development of this work shop they were the following topics: Geology and hidrogeology, numeric modelation of the Aquifer and letter of vulnerability of the Aquifer Raigon. soils, quality and water demand, juridical and institutionals aspects

  11. Quantification of the soil-water balance under different veld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly herbage production, water-use efficiency (WUE: above-ground phytomass production per unit of evapotranspiration), surface runoff and soil loss were determined on grassland in three different ecological conditions, viz. poor, moderate and good, over a four year (1995/1996 to 1998/1999) period. In addition ...

  12. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, P R [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil); Salati, E; Matsui, E [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1974-07-01

    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water was extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by decomposition of the water and was analyzed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ value during evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ of the remaining water.

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  14. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  15. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  16. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  17. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  18. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  19. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  20. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  1. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  2. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  3. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  4. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  5. Ground-water activation from the upcoming operation of MI40 beam absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Read, A.L.

    1996-09-01

    During the course of normal operation, a particle accelerator can produce radionuclides in the adjacent soil and in the beam line elements through the interactions of accelerated particles and/or secondary particles produced in the beam absorbers, targets, and sometimes elsewhere through routine beam losses. The production and concentration of these radionuclides depends on the beam parameters such as energy, intensity, particle type, and target configuration. The radionuclides produced in the soil can potentially migrate to the ground water. Soil activation and migration to the ground water depends on the details of the local hydrogeology. Generally, very few places such as the beam stops, target stations, injection and extraction sectors can have high enough radiation fields to produce radionuclides in the soil outside the enclosures. During the design, construction, or an upgrade in the intensity of existing beams, measures are taken to minimize the production of activated soil. The only leachable radionuclides known to be produced in the Fermilab soil are 3 H, 7 Be , 22 Na, 45 Ca and 54 Mn and it has been determined that only 3 H, and 22 Na, because of their longer half lives and greater leachabilities, may significantly impact ground water resources.In the past, Fermilab has developed and used the Single Resident Well Model (SRWM) to estimate the ground water activation. Recently, the Concentration Model (CM), a more realistic method which depends on the site hydrogeology has been developed to decide the shielding requirements of the high radiation sites, and to calculate the ground water activation and its subsequent migration to the aquifer. In this report, the concentration of radionuclide released to the surface waters and the aquifer around the MI40 beam absorber are calculated. Subsequently, the ultimate limit on the primary proton beam intensity to be aborted on the Main Injector beam absorber is determined

  6. [Characteristics of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities in a biodiversity monitoring plot of black soil cropland, northeastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gao, Mie Xiang; Wu, Dong Hui

    2017-12-01

    Agro-ecosystem is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and it is one of the key areas of global ecological and environmental studies. A 16 hm 2 permanent plot in black soil cropland was built to study the community structure of soil biodiversity in typical black soil region in Northeast China. Pitfall trap was used to investigate the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods from August to October 2015 in accordance with the three crop growth stages: whirling stage, silking stage, and milk stage. A total of 5284 ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods belonging to 47 species were captured sorted into 3 classes, 12 orders, 32 families. 3 dominant groups and 11 common groups were found. Phytophages and Omnivores were dominant groups. The individuals and species numbers of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods had significant changes with the vegetative growth period. The maximum values of the Shannon index, Margalef index, Pielou index of soil macro-arthropods all appeared in September, but the maximum dominant index appeared in August. From the variation coefficient (CV) and spatial interpolation of different species, it could be seen that there was heterogeneity in the horizontal direction of the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities. Regarding the relationships between the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities and soil environmental factors including soil pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen and soil water content, the bivariate correlation analysis showed there was no significant correlation between them. Results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) further indicated that the dominant and common groups were adaptable to environmental factors and widely distributed in the study area. The results showed that the species richness of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods was very high in cropland, and the dynamic of soil arthropod's composition and spatial distribution pattern in diffe-rent crop growth stages were significantly

  7. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site caused by the burning of coal containing uranium to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities and not for those constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Because background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking, any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background. The incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination and disposing of the contaminated soils in an engineered disposal cell. The UMTRA Ground Water Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under the UMTRA Ground Water Project, results of this risk assessment will help determine what ground water compliance strategy may be applied at the site

  9. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity and the amount of mineral fertilizers incorporated. The resulting amount of nitrate nitrogen resulted with nitrogen fertilizer dose, and the temperature and it was affected by humidity especially 40-80% of field capacity.

  13. A detrimental soil disturbance prediction model for ground-based timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick A. Reeves; Matthew C. Reeves; Ann M. Abbott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected during ground-based harvest operations and site preparation. The degree of impact varies widely depending on topographic features and soil properties. Forest managers who understand site-specific limits to ground-based harvesting can alter harvest method or season to limit soil disturbance. To determine the...

  14. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  17. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  18. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different types of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) were introduced, the sustainable use of these practices is far below expectations, and soil erosion continues to be a severe problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Yakobe Micro-Watershed (DYMW), Northwest Ethiopia ...

  19. A study on water infiltration barriers with compacted layered soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Y.; Komori, K.; Fujiwara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In shallow-ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, water movements due to natural processes in the soil covering the disposal facility must be properly controlled. A capillary barrier with compacted layered soils can provide an effective means of controlling water movement in the soil covering placed on a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. An experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of a full-scale fill as a capillary barrier. The fill used in the experiment was constructed of compacted layers of clay, fine sand, and gravel. Man-made rain was caused to fall on the surfaces of the fill to observe the infiltration of rainwater into the fill and to measure the amount of water drained from within. The experiment established the effectiveness of the capillary barrier

  20. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  5. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  6. Shallow soil moisture – ground thaw interactions and controls – Part 1: Spatiotemporal patterns and correlations over a subarctic landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture and ground thaw state are both indicative of a hillslope's ability to transfer water. In cold regions, in particular, it is widely known that the depth of the active layer and wetness of surface soils are important for runoff generation, but the diversity of interactions between ground thaw and surface soil moisture themselves has not been studied. To fill this knowledge gap, detailed shallow soil moisture and thaw depth surveys were conducted along systematic grids at the Baker Creek Basin, Northwest Territories. Multiple hillslopes were studied to determine how the interactions differed along a spectrum of topological, typological and topographic situations across the landscape. Overall results did not show a simple link between soil moisture and ground thaw as was expected. Instead, correlation was a function of wetness. The interaction between soil moisture and ground thaw was more dependent at wetter sites. This indicates that interactive soil moisture and thaw depth behaviour on hillslopes in cold regions changes with location and cannot necessarily be lumped together in hydrological models. To explore further why these differences arise, a companion paper (Guan et al., 2010 will examine how the hydrological and energy fluxes influenced the patterns of moisture and thaw among the study sites.

  7. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  8. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  11. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  12. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  13. Completing the ground-water model: ''We need more data''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmeyer, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of geologic structures and groundwater flow has progressed from simple number crunching in the sixties to sophisticated and complex structure and flow models in the nineties (Hatheway, 1994). In the environmental field, a detailed knowledge of the subsurface geology is required and essential for successful ground-water remediation, planning, and investigations. Current options for determining shallow (0--400 ft) subsurface geology includes standard borings, cone penetrometer, ground penetrating radar (GPR), or resistivity surveys (RS). Standards borings are expensive coverage and the close spacing required for generating accurate model data. The cone penetrometer is less expensive and faster than conventional borings. However, both the cone penetrometer and borings are limited by access and are intrusive, providing additional paths for contaminant migration. While both standard GPR and RS are non-intrusive, they suffer from other limitations. A high conductivity soil (clay) will diminish the effectiveness of GPR. The signal is absorbed and dissipated in the first few inches of high conductivity soil. The depth of penetration of RS is better, but the vertical resolution for distinguishing between finely interbedded layers is much lower. An ideal system for subsurface geologic analysis would be non-intrusive, have the depth of penetration of RS, while offering the vertical resolution of GPR> Electromagnetic methods (EM) offer distinct advantages in helping to solve these problems: (a) they are non-intrusive, and (b) the technology to support EM probing-pulse generation, data collection--is well established. Quaternary Resource Investigations, Inc., (QRI) has developed such a system

  14. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  15. MAPPING SPATIAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF UNSATURATED AGRICULTURAL SOILS WITH GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shamir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf, common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf, common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1–5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  16. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  17. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  18. Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface

  19. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Electrochemical characterization of corrosion in materials of grounding systems, simulating conditions of synthetic soils with characteristics of local soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Vera-Monroy, S. P.; Blanco, J.; Jimenez, C.

    2017-12-01

    The integrity of structures buried in earthing becomes relevant when analysing maintenance and replacement costs of these systems, as the deterioration is mainly due to two factors, namely: the failures caused in the electrical systems, which are due to the system. Failure in earthing due to corrosion at the interface cause an alteration in the structure of the component material and generates an undesirable resistivity that cause malfunction in this type of protection systems. Two local soils were chosen that were categorized as sandy loam and clay loam type, whose chemical characteristics were simulated by means of an electrolyte corresponding to the amount of ions present determined by a soil characterization based on the CICE (effective cation exchange coefficient), which allows us to deduce the percentage of chloride and sulphate ions present for the different levels established in the experimental matrix. The interaction of these soils with grounding electrodes is a complex problem involving many factors to consider. In this study, the rates and corrosion currents of the different soils on two types of electrodes, one copper and the other AISI 304 stainless steel, were approximated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectra. Considerably higher speeds were determined for copper-type electrodes when compared to those based on steel. However, from the Nyquist diagrams, it was noted that copper electrodes have better electrical performance than steel ones. The soil with the highest ionic activity turned out to be the sandy loam. The clay loam soil presents a tendency to water retention and this may be the reason for the different behaviour with respect to ionic mobility. The diffusion control in the steel seems to alter the ionic mobility because its corrosion rates proved to be very similar regardless of the type of soil chemistry. In general, corrosion rates fell since tenths of a millimetre every year to

  1. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  2. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  3. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  4. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  5. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  6. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  7. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  8. Geohydrological and environmental isotope observation of Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Dziembowski, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dewatering of Sishen Mine in the northern Cape Province supplies good quality water for the mine and surrounding areas. Using various approaches, attempts are made to quantify the remaining storage of ground water. Geohydrological observations provide an estimate based on extrapolating the thickness of dewatered rock. Environmental isotope observations on various borehole outputs show contrasts between different ground-water bodies and their mixtures and allows for some extrapolations of observed trends. Indications are that previous estimates of storage, based on ground-water level changes, are conservative

  9. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  10. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented

  11. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  12. Radon and thoron emanation measurements and the effect of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriveau, G.W.; Harbottle, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the past, corrections for annual dose rate calculations have used a qualitative approach to the effect of ground water saturation and radon and thoron loss. An example is presented of how this correction can now be precisely determined using natural gamma-ray activities to determine the amount of emanation from ceramic sherds and soil, both in a dry state and saturated with ground water. The experimental data also provide information concerning disequilibria in 234 Th and 226 Ra regions of the decay series. Additionally, approximate values of uranium and thorium concentrations (sufficiently accurate for authenticity work) are provided

  13. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  14. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  15. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  17. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  1. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  2. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  3. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  4. Modelling soil-water dynamics in the rootzone of structured and water-repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hamish; Carrick, Sam; Müller, Karin; Thomas, Steve; Sharp, Joanna; Cichota, Rogerio; Holzworth, Dean; Clothier, Brent

    2018-04-01

    In modelling the hydrology of Earth's critical zone, there are two major challenges. The first is to understand and model the processes of infiltration, runoff, redistribution and root-water uptake in structured soils that exhibit preferential flows through macropore networks. The other challenge is to parametrise and model the impact of ephemeral hydrophobicity of water-repellent soils. Here we have developed a soil-water model, which is based on physical principles, yet possesses simple functionality to enable easier parameterisation, so as to predict soil-water dynamics in structured soils displaying time-varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Our model, WEIRDO (Water Evapotranspiration Infiltration Redistribution Drainage runOff), has been developed in the APSIM Next Generation platform (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulation). The model operates on an hourly time-step. The repository for this open-source code is https://github.com/APSIMInitiative/ApsimX. We have carried out sensitivity tests to show how WEIRDO predicts infiltration, drainage, redistribution, transpiration and soil-water evaporation for three distinctly different soil textures displaying differing hydraulic properties. These three soils were drawn from the UNSODA (Unsaturated SOil hydraulic Database) soils database of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). We show how preferential flow process and hydrophobicity determine the spatio-temporal pattern of soil-water dynamics. Finally, we have validated WEIRDO by comparing its predictions against three years of soil-water content measurements made under an irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) trial. The results provide validation of the model's ability to simulate soil-water dynamics in structured soils.

  5. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  7. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  8. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  9. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  10. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  11. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Introduction: Water is a necessity of life. Accordingly, every person is deeply interested in the subject of water supply. He knows that he must have water to drink. He depends indirectly on water for all his food and clothing. He may want water in which to wash. Civilized man has learned also that water serves admirably for a large and ever enlarging list of uses that depend on its easy convertibility from a liquid to a solid or gaseous state and its adaptability as a chemical solvent, a medium for transfer of matter or energy, and a regulator of temperature. 

  12. In-situ measurements of soil-water conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclides and other environmentally important materials often move in association with water. In terrestrial ecosystems, the storage and movement of water in the soil is of prime importance to the hydrologic cycle of the ecosystem. The soil-water conductivity (the rate at which water moves through the soil) is a necessary input to models of soil-water movement. In situ techniques for measurement of soil-water conductivity have the advantage of averaging soil-water properties over larger areas than most laboratory methods. The in situ techniques also cause minimum disturbance of the soil under investigation. Results of measurements using a period of soil-water drainage after initial wetting indicate that soil-water conductivity and its variation with soil-water content can be determined with reasonable accuracy for the plot where the measurements were made. Further investigations are being carried out to look at variability between plots within a soil type

  13. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  14. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  15. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  16. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  17. Evaluation of shallow ground water use in command area of Dhoro Naro minor, Nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Water supply data shows that the average supply of canal water to minor has been reduced to 30.9 cusecs (1.5 mm/day), which is about 41% (1.19mm/day) short of design supply due to water shortage in the system. To deal with water-short period and increase cultivation, the farmers (water users) have installed around 100 tube wells (from which 90 are functioning) to extract shallow ground water up to a depth of 40-50 feet (12.2-15.24m) having average discharge of tube well is 0.78 cusees (22 litres/sec). The water quality measured of these tube wells ranges between 371-8,858 PPM (0.58-13.9 dS/m). On average 3 hours/acre/week running of private tube wells contributes 0.5 mm/day to over come the shortage of water, which has resulted in 32% cropping intensity against 38% of design cropping intensity in spite of 41% short of designed supply of surface water. Moreover, the water table depth has gone down to an average depth of about 9.5 feet from the ground surface. Study has suggested that the pumping of these tube wells needs to be optimized to keep to water table depth up to 6 feet so as deterioration of shallow ground water be minimized and land be protected from secondary soil salinization. (author)

  18. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  19. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  20. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  3. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Halimshah; A. Yusup; Z. Mat Amin; M. D. Ghazalli

    2015-01-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and effic...

  4. SOIL WATER BALANCE APPROACH IN ROOT ZONE OF MAIZE (95 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    It is usual practice to use available soil water content as a criterion for deciding when irrigation is needed. Soil water content is determined by using soil measuring techniques (capacitance probe) that describe the depletion of available soil water see fig1 and 2. The irrigation scheduling is based on the water treatment (i.e. ...

  5. Improved Instrument for Detecting Water and Ice in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin; Chin, Keith; Keymeulen, Didler; McCann, Timothy; Seshadri, Suesh; Anderson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    An instrument measures electrical properties of relatively dry soils to determine their liquid water and/or ice contents. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquid-water and ice contents of lunar and planetary soils, the apparatus could also be utilized for similar purposes in research and agriculture involving terrestrial desert soils and sands, and perhaps for measuring ice buildup on aircraft surfaces. This instrument is an improved version of the apparatus described in Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water and Ice in Soil (NPO-41822), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 2 (February 2009), page 22. The designs of both versions are based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and the magnitude and phase angle of impedance changes accordingly) with increasing water content. The previous version included an impedance spectrometer and a jar into which a sample of soil was placed. Four stainless-steel screws at the bottom of the jar were used as electrodes of a fourpoint impedance probe connected to the spectrometer. The present instrument does not include a sample jar and can be operated without acquiring or handling samples. Its impedance probe consists of a compact assembly of electrodes housed near the tip of a cylinder. The electrodes protrude slightly from the cylinder (see Figure 1). In preparation for measurements, the cylinder is simply pushed into the ground to bring the soil into contact with the electrodes.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  7. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  8. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field

  9. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water

  12. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  13. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  14. Ground water investigations in connection with planned energy wells in the Lena area, Melhus centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storroe, Gaute

    2000-01-01

    In March 2000 the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) was requested to carry out ground water investigations in the Lena area at Melhus centre by the firms E-Tek AS and Statoil. The background for the investigations was the plans of exploiting ground heat connected to a housing project lead by Selmer Bolig AS. The aim of the project was to document the possibilities for extracting ground heat from loose soil well(s) in the selected construction area. The needed amount of water is in the size of 50 m 3 /hour (14l/s). In addition the conditions of currents, ground water quality and possibilities for refiltering of the ground water was to be mapped. In conclusion it may be said that it most likely will be possible to meet the stipulated water requirements (50 m 3 /hour) by establishing a full scale production well within the construction area. The ground water currents in the Lena area run from north to south. The ground water surface is relatively flat with an incline of 0.1 - 0.2 % (1-2 mm/m). The possibilities for refiltering pumped water seem to be good. The conditions should be mapped more closely through refiltering tests. All of the collected ground water samples exceed the limiting values stipulated by the drinking water regulations as to alkalinity, sulphate, calcium, potassium and manganese. The tests from Obs2 and from the ''municipal well'' exceed the limits for chloride and sodium as well. This indicates that unwanted precipitations of both chalk and manganese may occur. Large quantities of sea salts (chloride and sodium) may also have a corrosive effect. Through calculations using the Ryznar's Stability Index (RSI) it is evident that the tests from Obs1 and Obs2 are in the limiting area between ''problem free water'' and ''corrosive water'', while the water from the municipal well must be characterised as very corrosive. According to information from the managing personnel there have not been registered problems with precipitations or corrosion in heat

  15. Measured and simulated soil water evaporation from four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of soil water lost during stage one and stage two soil water evaporation is of interest to crop water use modelers. The ratio of measured soil surface temperature (Ts) to air temperature (Ta) was tested as a signal for the transition in soil water evaporation from stage one to stage two d...

  16. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  17. Measurement of water flow rate in unsaturated soil by thermistor type sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1981-09-01

    As a part of radiological safety studies for ground disposal of radioactive wastes, a measuring apparatus of water flow rate with thermistor type sensor was made as preliminary one and the measurement of water flow rate in the soil was carried out, in order to evalute by comparison of the migration rate of water with that of radionuclide in an unsaturated soil. The water flow rate can be determined by measuring the change of the thermal conductivity (temperature) of soil around the several thermistor type sensors set in a soil. Particularly at the region of low water content in the soil, the water flow rate was able to measure successfully by this apparatus. (author)

  18. Analysis of the NASA AirMOSS Root Zone Soil Water and Soil Temperature from Three North American Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Root zone soil water and temperature are controlling factors for soil organic matter accumulation and decomposition which contribute significantly to the CO2 flux of different ecosystems. An in-situ soil observation protocol developed at Oregon State University has been deployed to observe soil water and temperature dynamics in seven ecological research sites in North America as part of the NASA AirMOSS project. Three instrumented profiles defining a transect of less than 200 m are installed at each site. All three profiles collect data for in-situ water and temperature dynamics employing seven soil water and temperature sensors installed at seven depth levels and one infrared surface temperature sensor monitoring the top of the profile. In addition, two soil heat flux plates and associated thermocouples are installed at one of three profiles at each site. At each profile, a small 80 cm deep access hole is typically made, and all below ground sensors are installed into undisturbed soil on the side of the hole. The hole is carefully refilled and compacted so that root zone soil water and temperature dynamics can be observed with minimum site disturbance. This study focuses on the data collected from three sites: a) Tonzi Ranch, CA; b) Metolius, OR and c) BERMS Old Jack Pine Site, Saskatchewan, Canada. The study describes the significantly different seasonal root zone water and temperature dynamics under the various physical and biological conditions at each site. In addition, this study compares the soil heat flux values estimated by the standard installation using the heat flux plates and thermocouples installed near the surface with those estimated by resolving the soil heat storage based on the soil water and temperature data collected over the total soil profile.

  19. Flow of gasoline-in-water microemulsion through water-saturated soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Mansell, R.S.; Rhue, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Much consideration has been given to the use of surfactants to clean up nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from contaminated soil and ground water. Although this emulsification technique has shown significant potential for application in environmental remediation practices, a major obstacle leading to low washing efficiency is the potential formation of macroemulsion with unfavorable flow characteristics in porous media. This study investigated influences of the flow of leaded-gasoline-in-water (LG/W) microemulsion upon the transport of gasoline and lead (Pb) species in water-saturated soil columns. Two experiments were performed: (1) the immiscible displacement of leaded gasoline and (2) the miscible displacement of LG/W microemulsion through soil columns, followed by sequentially flushing with NaCl solution and a water/surfactant/cosurfactant (W/S/CoS) mixture. Comparison of breakthrough curves (BTC) for gasoline between the two experiments shows that about 90% of gasoline and total Pb were removed from the soil columns by NaCl solution in the LG/W microemulsion experiment as compared to 40% removal of gasoline and 10% removal of total Pb at the same process in the leaded gasoline experiment. Results indicate that gasoline and Pb species moved much more effectively through soil during miscible flow of LG/W microemulsion than during immiscible flow of leaded gasoline. In contrast to the adverse effects of macroemulsion on the transport of NAPLs, microemulsion was found to enhance the transport of gasoline through water-saturated soil. Mass balance analysis shows that the W/S/CoS mixture had a high capacity for removing residual gasoline and Pb species from contaminated soil. Comparison of water-pressure differences across the soil columns for the two experiments indicates that pore clogging by gasoline droplets was greatly minimized in the LG/W microemulsion experiment

  20. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  1. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  2. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  3. Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Al Hawari; Mohammad Khader; Tarek Zayed; Osama Moselhi

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imagin...

  4. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  5. Model for tritiated water transport in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Paunescu, N.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical forms of tritium released from nuclear facilities are mostly water (HTO) and hydrogen (HT, TT). Elemental tritium is inert in vegetation and superior animals, but the microorganisms from soil oxidize HT to HTO. After an atmospheric HT emission, in short time an equivalent quantity of HTO is re-emitted from soil. In the vicinity of a tritium source the spatial and temporary distribution of HTO is dependent on the chemical form of tritium releases. During routine tritium releases (continuously and constant releases), the local distribution of tritium reaches equilibrium, and specific activities of tritium in environmental compartments are almost equal. The situation is very different after an accidental emission. Having in view, harmful effects of tritium when it is incorporated into the body several models were developed for environmental tritium transport and dose assessment. The tritium transport into the soil is an important part of the environmental tritium behavior, but, unfortunately, in spite of the importance of this problem the corresponding modeling is unsatisfactory. The aim of this paper was the improvement of the TRICAIAP model, and the application of the model to BIOMOVS scenario. The BIOMOVS scenario predicts HTO concentrations in soil during 30 days, after one hour atmospheric HTO emission. The most important conclusions of the paper are: the principal carrier of tritium into the soil is water; the transfer processes are the reactions of water in soil and the diffusion due to concentration gradient; atmosphere-soil transport is dependent of surface characteristics (granulation, humidity, roughness, etc.); the conversion rate of HT to HTO is not well known and is dependent on active microorganism concentration in soil and on soil humidity. More experimental data are needed to decrease the uncertainty of transfer parameter, for the definition of the influence of vegetation, etc. (authors)

  6. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  7. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  8. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  9. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Tlogorejo Site Karangawen District, Demak Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Demak is one of regency are placed at north beach central Java. Some part of this area especially Tlogorejo site Karangawen have the problem of fresh water availability. Conditions of insufficient Standard Water have been recognized in some part of the region, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District. The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process, so the trapped ground water character is brine or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of the prospect area for exploiting of ground water. Referring to those problems Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location which has problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, hydrogeology and sub surface geophysical characteristic, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain those targets, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo-electrical 2-D image measurement Base on observation, analysis, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential confined aquifer that happened at the layer sand that is trapped in the in impermeable layer of clay, which is potential for confined aquifer. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement is ''Sand Aquifer Layer-1'' are located at RB 1 (TLG-5), RB 2 (TLG-4) and RB 3 (TLG-22). Physical characterized of aquifer: resistivity 22-46 Ωm, the depth of surface water 110 to 146 meter. (author)

  10. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  11. Water distribution in an orchard irrigated by perforated distributors in stony ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroix, M.; Marcesse, J.; Normand, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of new irrigation techniques the Compagnie Nationale d'Amenagement du Bas-Rhone et du Languedoc (B.Rh.L.) has developed a process of localized irrigation by perforated distributors. Conditions were defined for the optimum use of this process, especially the distribution of water in the ground. The study was carried out in a peach orchard in stony ground. The neutronic method was used to measure the soil moisture content. Because of the heterogeneous stone size distribution it was necessary for the specific humidity determination to take into account the dry apparent density. This parameter was measured by gammametry [fr

  12. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  13. Consequences of artic ground squirrels on soil carbon loss from Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N. A.; Natali, S.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    A large pool of organic carbon (C) has been accumulating in the Arctic for thousands of years. Much of this C has been frozen in permafrost and unavailable for microbial decomposition. As the climate warms and permafrost thaws, the fate of this large C pool will be driven not only by climatic conditions, but also by ecosystem changes brought about by arctic animal populations. In this project we studied arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii), which are widely-distributed throughout the Arctic. These social mammals create subterranean burrows that mix soil layers, increase aeration, alter soil moisture and temperature, and redistribute soil nutrients, all of which may impact microbial decomposition. We examined the effects of arctic ground squirrel activity on soil C mineralization in dry heath tundra underlain by continuous permafrost in the Kolyma River watershed in northeast Siberia, Russia. Vegetation cover was greatly reduced on the ground squirrel burrows (80% of ground un-vegetated), compared to undisturbed sites (35% of ground un-vegetated). Soils from ground squirrel burrows were also significantly dryer and warmer. To examine effects of ground squirrel activity on microbial respiration, we conducted an 8-day incubation of soil fromburrows and from adjacent undisturbed tundra. In addition, we assessed the impact of nutrient addition by including treatments with low and high levels of nitrogen addition. Microbial respiration (per gram soil) was three-fold higher in incubated soils from the undisturbed sites compared to soils collected from the burrows. The lower rates of respiration from the disturbed soils may have been a result of lower carbon quality or low soil moisture. High nitrogen addition significantly increased respiration in the undisturbed soils, but not in the disturbed burrow soils, which suggests that microbial respiration in the burrow soils was not primarily limited by nitrogen. These results demonstrate the importance of wildlife

  14. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  15. Disentangling above- and below-ground facilitation drivers in arid environments: the role of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Yudi M; Armas, Cristina; Hortal, Sara; Casanoves, Fernando; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2017-12-01

    Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil. Seeds of annual plants were sown into the microcosms. Germination, survival and biomass were monitored. Soil bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing. Germination in living Retama inoculum was nearly double that of germination in sterile inoculum. Germination was greater under Retama canopies than in gaps. Biomass was up to three times higher in nurse than in gap soils. Soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate showed a range of positive to negative effects on understory plants depending on species identity and life stage. Nurse soil microorganisms promoted germination, but the effect was smaller than the positive effects of soil properties and microclimate under nurses. Nurse below-ground environment (soil properties and microorganisms) promoted plant growth and survival more than nurse microhabitat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  17. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  18. Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential (SP) Method. Report 2. The Use of Self Potential to Detect Ground-Water Flow in Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    precipitation are major variables influencing SP data. An automated data collection system was devieed enc’used for:G v - taekeso JIA)-long-term...Researchers have used other geophysical techniques (electrical resis- tivity, seismic refraction, gravimetry , terrain conductivity, ground probing...artificial water injections (recharge) into sinkholes, dye trac- ing, and monitoring of soil temperature, precipitation , ground-water conduc- tivity, and

  19. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  20. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  1. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  2. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  3. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  4. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  5. Creating Common Ground: Activities of the Soil Health Dialog Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Moebius-Clune, Bianca; Hatfield, Jerry; Buckner, William; Conklin, Neil; McMahon, Sean; Haney, Richard; Muller, Paul; Martin, Larkin; Shaw, Richard; Eyrich, Ted; Martens, Klaas; Archuleta, Ray; Thompson, Mary

    2014-05-01

    The concept of Soil Health has come to forefront as a soil management concept for soil scientists, agronomists, producers, land-use planners, and environmental advocates. Although many see this simply as a way to increase organic matter in the soil it is much more than that and has implications to a broader management decisions. A diverse group of stake holders ranging from scientists to consultants, conventional to organic farmers, governmental to NGOs met to start a dialog about soil health with an overarching goal to adopt practices that will improve soil health across a wide area and for a wide variety of land uses. The group recognized the critical need for using soil health as a cornerstone of sustainable soil management. The group also realized that a consistent and coherent message about soil health needed to be developed that would be inclusive to all stake holders. Furthermore the group recognized that if soil health is to be promoted we all need to know and agree on how to measure it and interpret the results. The first outcome from the meeting was the creation of several teams comprised of individuals with the diverse interests as list above. The first was tasked to review and develop a definition of soil health. The first group, after much debate, decided on the adoption of the USDA-NRCS definition of Soil Health as the most effective way to begin. This definition was presented as a press release from the Farm Foundation in early December 2013 in conjunction with World Soil Day. The second group was tasked to review, develop or recommend standard measurement techniques to assess soil health. The methods group is in the process of reviewing methods and hopes to have a preliminary list out for broader review by mid-year. This presentation reviews current progress and asks for input from the Soil Science community at large.

  6. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    OpenAIRE

    V. Doležel; P. Procházka; V. Křístek

    2008-01-01

    The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines we...

  7. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  8. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  9. Water transport in desert alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.

    1982-04-01

    Safe storage of radioactive waste buried in an arid alluvial soil requires extensive site characterization of the physical process influencing moisture movement which could act as a transport medium for the migration of radionuclides. The field portion of this study included an infiltration plot instrumented with thermocouple psychrometers and neturon moisture probe access holes. Baseline information shows a zone of higher moisture content at approximately 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth. A sprinkler system simulated a 500-year precipitation event. Results revealed water penetrated the soil to 0.9 m (2.9 ft). Due to the low moisture content, vapor transport was primarily responsible for water movement at this depth. Temperature gradients are substantially responsible for vapor transport by preferentially sorting water-vapor molecules from the surrounding air by using the soil as a molecular sieve. Adsorbed and capillary water vapor pressure increases in response to a temperature increase and releases additional water to the soil pore atmosphere to be diffused away

  10. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  11. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  16. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  17. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  19. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  20. Effects of Climate Change on Drinking Water Distribution Network Integrity : Predicting Pipe Failure Resulting from Differential Soil Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers

  1. A stable isotopic view on lianas' and trees' below ground competition for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoît; Petronelli, Pascal; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Various studies highlight an increase in liana abundance and biomass in the neotropics in the last decades. To date, the reason why this growth form expresses this trend is still unclear. One of the proposed hypotheses ascribes tropical lianas, in comparison to tropical trees, of being able to adapt better to increased drought conditions resulting from climate change. Moreover, lianas presumably have a deeper root system, providing access to deeper soil layers less susceptible for dehydration during drought events. A dual stable water isotopic approach (δ18O and δ2H) enables studying vegetation below ground competition and in combination with Bayesian mixing models can provide insight in the fractional contribution of distinct soil layer depths. In this perspective, precipitation (bulk and through fall), bulk soil (at different depths), stream and xylem water of both lianas and trees were sampled between October 7-13, 2015. The study focusses on two distinct plots differing in soil texture (sand and clay), localized in close vicinity of the Guyana flux tower at Paracou (French Guyana). Our study highlights the erroneous of the deep tap root hypothesis and provides new insights in water and nutrient competition between tropical lianas and trees during dry season. Lianas isotopic signature is enriched compared to those of trees. This can be linked to water source depth and soil seasonal replenishment. Moreover, liana displaying a very active soil surface root activity, efficiently capturing the low amount of dry season precipitation, while trees show to tap the deeper and less drought susceptible soil layers. A strategy, which not only results in a spatial niche separation in the underground competition for water, but it also provides lianas with a definite advantage in nutrient competition.

  2. Soil - water relationships in the Weatherley catchment, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Soil water content is influenced by soil and terrain factors, but studies on the predictive value of diagnostic .... Results for particle size analyses (Soil Classification ...... negating the importance of the negative intercept value in.

  3. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  4. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  5. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In the hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils developed from till under intensive agricultural cultivation. Water flow and solute transport are affected by the variable soil structural and pedological developments, which are posing a challenge...... for flux estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate transport of water, dissolved organic (DOC), and particulate carbon (PC) through soil profiles of an eroded Haplic Luvisol and a heavily eroded Haplic Regosol. We studied 5 soil horizons in three replicates each: Ap (0-20 cm) and E (20...... boundary. Breakthrough curves for a pre-applied tracer (Br-) on the soil surface and a tracer applied with irrigation water (3H2O) were modeled analytically using CXTFIT. The heterogeneity of the Luvisol horizons was generally higher than that of the Regosol horizons, which relates to the higher...

  6. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  7. Ground source heat pump performance in case of high humidity soil and yearly balanced heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schibuola, Luigi; Tambani, Chiara; Zarrella, Angelo; Scarpa, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GSHPs are simulated in case of humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer. • Humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer imply higher compactness of GSHPs. • Resulting GSHPs are compared with other traditional and innovative HVAC systems. • GSHPs score best, especially in case of inverter-driven compressors. - Abstract: Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are spreading also in Southern Europe, due to their high energy efficiency both in heating and in cooling mode. Moreover, they are particularly suitable in historical cities because of difficulties in the integration of heating/cooling systems into buildings subjected to historical preservation regulations. In these cases, GSHP systems, especially the ones provided with borehole heat exchangers, are a suitable solution instead of gas boilers, air-cooled chillers or cooling towers. In humid soils, GSHP systems are even more interesting because of their enhanced performance due to higher values of soil thermal conductivity and capacity. In this paper, GSHP systems operating under these boundary conditions are analyzed through a specific case study set in Venice and related to the restoration of an historical building. With this analysis the relevant influences of soil thermal conductivity and yearly balanced heat transfer in the design of the borehole field are shown. In particular, the paper shows the possibility to achieve higher compactness of the borehole field footprint area when yearly balanced heat transfer in the borehole field is expected. Then, the second set of results contained in the paper shows how GSHP systems designed for high humidity soils and yearly balanced heat loads at the ground side, even if characterized by a compact footprint area, may still ensure better performance than other available and more common technologies such as boilers, air-cooled chillers, chillers coupled with cooling towers and heat pumps and chillers coupled with lagoon water. As a consequence

  8. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers

  9. The influence of pore-fluid in the soil on ground vibrations from a tunnel embedded in a layered half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zonghao; Cao, Zhigang; Boström, Anders; Cai, Yuanqiang

    2018-04-01

    A computationally efficient semi-analytical solution for ground-borne vibrations from underground railways is proposed and used to investigate the influence of hydraulic boundary conditions at the scattering surfaces and the moving ground water table on ground vibrations. The arrangement of a dry soil layer with varying thickness resting on a saturated poroelastic half-space, which includes a circular tunnel subject to a harmonic load at the tunnel invert, creates the scenario of a moving water table for research purposes in this paper. The tunnel is modelled as a hollow cylinder, which is made of viscoelastic material and buried in the half-space below the ground water table. The wave field in the dry soil layer consists of up-going and down-going waves while the wave field in the tunnel wall consists of outgoing and regular cylindrical waves. The complete solution for the saturated half-space with a cylindrical hole is composed of down-going plane waves and outgoing cylindrical waves. By adopting traction-free boundary conditions on the ground surface and continuity conditions at the interfaces of the two soil layers and of the tunnel and the surrounding soil, a set of algebraic equations can be obtained and solved in the transformed domain. Numerical results show that the moving ground water table can cause an uncertainty of up to 20 dB for surface vibrations.

  10. Study on soil-water retention curves for loess aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zede; Cheng Jinru; Deng An; Masayuki Mukai; Hideo Kamiyama

    2000-01-01

    The author introduces the measuring method and results of soil-water retention curves of 46 samples taken from ground surface to water table of 28 m depth at CIRP's Field Test Site. The results indicate that the soil-water retention characteristics vary significantly with depth, and the loess-aerated zone at the site can be divided into five layers. From the results, unsaturated hydraulic parameters are deduced, such as conductivity, specific water capacity and equivalent pore diameter. The water velocity calculated from these parameters is satisfactorily consistent with that one obtained from 3 H tracing test carried out at the site

  11. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  12. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  14. Soil and Water Conservation Activities for Scouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the learning activities outlined in this booklet is to help Scouts understand some conservation principles which hopefully will lead to the development of an attitude of concern for the environment and a commitment to help with the task of using and managing soil, water, and other natural resources for long range needs as well as…

  15. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  16. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Theory of evapotranspiration. 2. Soil and intercepted water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Budagovskyi, Anatolij Ivanovič; Novák, Viliam

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation of water from the soil is described and quantified. Formation of the soil dry surface layer is quantitatively described, as a process resulting from the difference between the evaporation and upward soil water flux to the soil evaporating level. The results of evaporation analysis are generalized even for the case of water evaporation from the soil under canopy and interaction between evaporation rate and canopy transpiration is accounted for. Relationships describing evapotranspi...

  18. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  19. Emission to air, water and ground: legislation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Dag Horsberg

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses Norwegian legislation on emission to air, water and ground. Pollution in the sense of the law is defined as ''the addition of solid matter, gas or liquid to air, water or ground''. The concept of pollution is, however, more far-reaching as even noise, light and radiation may be regarded as pollution although these are not discussed. Any pollution is prohibited. But there are two exceptions: commonly accepted pollutions such as arising from wood burning and agriculture, and emissions allowed by special permission from the National State Pollution Control Authority. The article also discusses liability issues

  20. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  1. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  2. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological

  3. Measuring soil frost depth in forest ecosystems with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; John L. Campbell; James B. Shanley; Stanley. Zarnoch

    2014-01-01

    Soil frost depth in forest ecosystems can be variable and depends largely on early winter air temperatures and the amount and timing of snowfall. A thorough evaluation of ecological responses to seasonally frozen ground is hampered by our inability to adequately characterize the frequency, depth, duration and intensity of soil frost events. We evaluated the use of...

  4. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming

    2005-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  5. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  6. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  7. Modelling soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at the field level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Feddes, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Parametrization approaches to model soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at field level were analysed. Averaging and numerical difficulties in applying numerical soil water flow models to heterogeneous soils are highlighted. Simplified parametrization approaches to the soil water flow, such as

  8. Ground Freezing Effects on Soil Erosion of Army Training Lands Part 1: Initial Test Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gatto, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    ...) processes can change the hydraulic geometry and roughness of vehicular ruts and reduce soil compaction, which often partially restores the water infiltration rate that existed before compaction...

  9. Soil temperature distribution around a U-tube heat exchanger in a multi-function ground source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhong; Yang Weihua; Zhang Xiaosong

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of heat extracted from the earth by the underground heat exchangers in winter and ejected into it in summer is expected to affect the long term performance of conventional ground source heat pump (GSHP) in territories with a cold winter and a warm summer such as the middle and downstream areas of the Yangtze River in China. This paper presents a new multi-function ground source heat pump (MFGSHP) system which supplies hot water as well as space cooling/heating to mitigate the soil imbalance of the extracted and ejected heat by a ground source heat pump system. The heat transfer characteristic is studied and the soil temperature around the underground heat exchangers are simulated under a typical climatic condition of the Yangtze River. A three-dimensional model was constructed with the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT based on the inner heat source theory. Temperature distribution and variation trend of a tube cluster of the underground heat exchanger are simulated for the long term performance. The results show that the soil temperature around the underground tube keeps increasing due to the surplus heat ejected into the earth in summer, which deteriorates the system performance and may lead to the eventual system deterioration. The simulation shows that MFGSHP can effectively alleviate the temperature rise by balancing the heat ejected to/extracted from underground by the conventional ground source heat pump system. The new system also improves the energy efficiency.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  12. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  13. Response of three soil water sensors to variable solution electrical conductivity in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial dielectric soil water sensors may improve management of irrigated agriculture by providing continuous field soil water information. Use of these sensors is partly limited by sensor sensitivity to variations in soil salinity and texture, which force expensive, time consuming, soil specific...

  14. Cerenkov radiation simulation in the Auger water ground detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Vo Van Thuan; Dang Quang Thieu

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of response of the Auger water Cerenkov ground detector to atmospheric shower muons in practically needed for the experimental research of cosmic rays at extreme energies. We consider here a simulation model for the process of emission and diffusion of Cerenkov photons concerned with muons moving through the detector volume with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the water on purpose to define photons producing signal in the detector. (author)

  15. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  16. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  17. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  19. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  20. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  1. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  2. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  4. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  5. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  6. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

  7. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased

  8. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard

  9. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  10. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps

  11. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  14. The impact of changing climate on surface and ground water quality in southeast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribak, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    In the current changing climate globally, Ireland have been experiencing a yearly recurrent extreme heavy rainfall events in the last decade, with damaging visible effects socially, economically and on the environment. Ireland intensive agriculture production is a major treat to the aquatic environment, Nitrogen and phosphorus losses to the water courses are major causes to eutrophication. The European Water Frame Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) sets a number of measures to better protect and improve water status. Five years of high temporal resolution river water quality data measurement from two contrasting catchment in the southeast of Ireland were correlated with rain fall and nutrients losses to the ground and surface water, additional to the integrated Southeast River District Basin ground and surface water quality to establish spatiotemporal connection to the agriculture activities, the first well-drained soil catchment had high coefficient correlation with rain fall with higher losses to groundwater, on the other hand higher nutrients losses to surface water were higher with less influence from groundwater recharge of N and P transfer, the poorly clay base soil contributed to higher increased losses to surface water during excessive rain fall. Agriculture activities, hydrology, geology and human interaction can interact according to their site specific setting and the effects will fluctuate dependent on the conditions influencing the impact on water quality, there is a requirement to better distinguish those effects together and identify areas and land uses control and nutrients management to improve the water quality, stakeholders co-operation along with effective polices, long term monitoring, nutrients pathways management and better understanding of the environmental factors interaction on national, regional and catchment scale to enable planning policies and enforcement measures to be more focused on areas of high risk

  15. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  16. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  17. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, J.L.

    1999-08-01

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  18. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  19. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author)

  20. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G. (Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Radioactividad Ambiental)

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author).

  1. Supercritical water decontamination of town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Town gas sites represent a large environmental problem that exists in more than 2,000 sites across North America alone. The major contaminants in town gas sods are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These are stable compounds that migrate deep into the soil and are traditionally very difficult to remove by conventional remediation processes. Supercritical fluids offer enhanced solvating properties along with reduced mass transfer resistances that make them ideal for removing compounds that are difficult or impossible to remove by conventional processes. Supercritical water is ideal for removing PAHs and other hydrocarbons from soil due to its high solvating power towards most hydrocarbon species. Supercritical water was investigated for its ability to remediate two different town gas sods containing from 3--20 wt% contamination. The sod was remediated in a 300-cc semi-continuous system to a more environmentally acceptable level

  2. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  3. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion

  4. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    occurs in alluvial and lacustrine deposits of late Pliocene age or older; and 3) a body of saline connate water contained in marine sediments of middle Pliocene or older age, which underlies the fresh-water body throughout the area. In much of the eastern part of the valley, especially in the areas of the major streams, the Corcoran clay member is not present and ground water occurs as one fresh-water body to considerable depth. The ground-water body is replenished by infiltration of rainfall, by infiltration from streams, canals, and ditches, by underflow entering the valley from tributary stream canyons, and by infiltration of excess irrigation water. In much of the valley, however, the annual rainfall is so low that little penetrates deeply, and soil-moisture deficiency is perennial. Infiltration from stream channels and canals and from irrigated fields are the principal sources of groundwater recharge. The ground-water storage capacity of the San Joaquin Valley has been estimated in an earlier report (Davis and others, 1959) as 93 million acre-feet. This is the quantity of water that would drain by gravity from the valley deposits if the regional water level were lowered from 10 to 200 feet below the land surface. Storage capacity was estimated for only the part of the valley considered to be potentially usable as a ground-water reservoir. In this study, a 200foot depth was selected as a practical valley-wide depth limit for unwatering under full utilization of the ground-water reservoir, even though in localized areas sections in excess of 350 feet in depth have already been dewatered. Some of the factors that locally limit the utilization of the ground-water reservoir are inferior water quality, relatively impermeable surface soils, and relatively impermeable subsurface deposits. On the basis of a detailed analysis of la peg model, the subsurface geology of the San Joaquin Valley was subdivided into predominantly permeable and impermeable zones in the 1

  5. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  6. Characterization and anion exchange removal of uranium from Hanford ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Weiss, R.L.; Kimura, R.T.; Law, A.G.; Routson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985, uranium concentrations increased abruptly to 0.1 kgU/m/sup 3/ in ground waters underlying a retired liquid waste disposal facility in the United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Hanford Site. Characterization tests showed the uranium was present as an anionic carbonate complex not sorbable by Hanford sediments. The uranium was mobilized by flow from a perched zone of water caused by recent nearby cooling water disposal above an impermeable sediment layer. In a unique demonstration of the concept of ''as low as reasonably achievable,'' efforts were immediately undertaken to minimize the spread of the plume and to reduce the amount of uranium in the ground water. An anion exchange-based uranium removal process flowsheet was rapidly developed and implemented. Operational for six months, the process has treated over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of ground water and collected 94% of the uranium while producing a treated effluent that meets criteria for discharge to the soil column

  7. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  8. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  9. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater

  10. Micelles as Soil and Water Decontamination Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Shahzad, Suniya; Munir, Azeema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Khan, Gul Shahzada; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Rana, Usman Ali

    2016-05-25

    Contaminated soil and water pose a serious threat to human health and ecosystem. For the treatment of industrial effluents or minimizing their detrimental effects, preventive and remedial approaches must be adopted prior to the occurrence of any severe environmental, health, or safety hazard. Conventional treatment methods of wastewater are insufficient, complicated, and expensive. Therefore, a method that could use environmentally friendly surfactants for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater is deemed a smart approach. Surfactants containing potential donor ligands can coordinate with metal ions, and thus such compounds can be used for the removal of toxic metals and organometallic compounds from aqueous systems. Surfactants form host-guest complexes with the hydrophobic contaminants of water and soil by a mechanism involving the encapsulation of hydrophobes into the self-assembled aggregates (micelles) of surfactants. However, because undefined amounts of surfactants may be released into the aqueous systems, attention must be paid to their own environmental risks as well. Moreover, surfactant remediation methods must be carefully analyzed in the laboratory before field implementation. The use of biosurfactants is the best choice for the removal of water toxins as such surfactants are associated with the characteristics of biodegradability, versatility, recovery, and reuse. This Review is focused on the currently employed surfactant-based soil and wastewater treatment technologies owing to their critical role in the implementation of certain solutions for controlling pollution level, which is necessary to protect human health and ensure the quality standard of the aquatic environment.

  11. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  12. Modelling soil anaerobiosis from water retention characteristics and soil respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurgers, G.; Dörsch, P.; Bakken, L.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Egil Haugen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a prerequisite for some and an inhibitor to other microbial functions in soils, hence the temporal and spatial distribution of oxygen within the soil matrix is crucial in soil biogeochemistry and soil biology. Various attempts have been made to model the anaerobic fraction of the soil

  13. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  14. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  15. The use of coal fines fly ash for the improvement of soils in hydrophobic grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M.; Bestebroer, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    New NO x reducing combustion techniques result in a different physical and morphological quality of fly ash, which makes the use of fly ash less attractive for the building and road construction industries. Attention is paid to the possibility of using low-NO x fly ash for the improvement of the properties of hydrophobic agricultural land. Such an application also depends on the environmental impacts of the leaching of elements to the ground water and the accumulation of hazardous compounds in crops. A literature study of hydrophobic grounds was carried out. Also attention is paid to the legal aspects. No juridical constraints could be found in the Dutch legislation concerning the use of fly ash from coal powder, although it seems that the use of such fly ash is not in agreement with the tenor of possibly to be applied legislation. However, a small-scale investigation was carried out to gain insight into the environmental impacts. The uptake in lettuce and the leaching of the elements As, B, Mo and Se was studied by means of lysimeters. Hydrophobic soils with 5%, 10% and 15% coal fines fly ash were used. Also an experiment with the use of coal gasification slags was performed

  16. Study of Ground Treatment on Improvement of Pile Foundation Response in Liquefiable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the disastrous the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake, the government of Japan has conducted studies to revise the seismic design code, and elevated peak ground accelerations have been adopted. Consequently, revisions on existing design to comply with the updated code are required for public projects that are still undergoing. The design safety needs to be reassessed, and implementation of strengthening measures is required if deemed necessary. For liquefaction countermeasures, ground treatment techniques that could increase the density of soils are often the preferable alternatives. The treatment usually increases the in-situ SPT-N or CPT-qc values, which in turn would increase the resistance of soil against liquefaction. For many public infrastructures in Japan supported by bored piles embedded partly or entirely in sandy soils, reevaluation of design safety against soil liquefaction would be required. In an assessment of possible retrofitting countermeasures for an infrastructure foundation, ground treatment has been considered. In this case study, effect of ground treatment on response of piles in liquefiable soils was investigated with numerical analyses using FLAC. Results provide insights into this ground treatment effect and useful information for consideration in future design or decision making.

  17. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  18. Grounded in the landscape: Eliciting farmers' understanding of soil and soil fertility, Mali (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to develop convincing messages and sustainable interventions, it is necessary to understand how farmers themselves perceive soil conditions and how these perceptions influence their soil management and land use decisions. This brief illustrates an ethno-scientific methodology for eliciting farmers' conceptualization of soil and soil fertility.

  19. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  20. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  1. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  2. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  7. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate ... suitable to model the heterogeneous soil structure with tortuous pore space (Rieu ... so, soil texture determined according to the USDA texture classification.

  8. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  9. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  10. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  11. Blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão em equipamentos para monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo Electromagnetic shielding, grounding and protection against voltage surges in equipments for automatic soil-water measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. A. Teixeira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi implementar um sistema de blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão na instalação de instrumental para o monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo. O experimento foi instalado em Piracicaba, São Paulo, em que os equipamentos utilizados foram um testador de cabos marca Tektronix, que opera pelo princípio da reflectometria no domínio do tempo e um sistema de aquisição de dados marca Campbell Scientific Inc. (CSI, que controla e analisa as formas de onda produzidas pelo testador de cabos. A umidade volumétrica foi obtida indiretamente por meio de sensores inseridos no solo, os quais medem a constante dielétrica do mesmo. Utilizaram-se tubos galvanizados para a blindagem eletromagnética dos cabos e hastes "cooperweld", cordoalha de cobre e terminais bimetálicos para o sistema de aterramento. Para o sistema de proteção eletroeletrônica, utilizaram-se um disjuntor para a separação do circuito de alimentação, protetor de surtos, "no-breaks" e medidor de resistência de terra. Face aos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o sistema proposto, ao utilizar material geralmente preexistente em locais de pesquisa agropecuária, apresentou uma proteção eficaz.The objective of this paper was to implement an electromagnetic shielding, grounding and voltage surge protection in equipments for automatic soil water monitoring. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, using a Tektronix Cable Tester (Model 1502 B that operates by time domain reflectometry (TDR and a datalogger (CR10X, Campbell Scientific Inc., CSI to control and analyze the waveforms produced by the cable tester. The water content was indirectly obtained by measuring the dielectric constant through probes inserted in the soil. For electromagnetic shielding the energy and signal cables were inserted in galvanized pipes, linked together by means of copper wire fixed in

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  13. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R.A.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  15. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  16. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  17. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  18. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most important natural resources of the United States and degradation of its quality could have a major effect on the welfare of the Nation. Currently (1985), ground water is the source of drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's population and for more than 97 percent of its rural population. It is the source of about 40 percent of the Nation's public water supply, 33 percent of water for irrigation, and 17 percent of freshwater for selfsupplied industries.Ground water also is the source of about 40 percent of the average annual streamflow in the United States, although during long periods of little or no precipitation, ground-water discharges provide nearly all of the base streamflow. This hydraulic connection between aquifers and streams implies that if a persistent pollutant gets into an aquifer, it eventually could discharge into a stream.Information presented in the 1986 National Water Summary clearly shows that the United States has very large amounts of potable ground water available for use. Although naturally occurring constituents, such as nitrate, and human-induced substances, such as synthetic organic chemicals, frequently are detected in ground water, their concentrations usually do not exceed existing Federal or State standards or guidelines for maximum concentrations in drinking water.Troublesome contamination of ground water falls into two basic categories related to the source or sources of the contamination. Locally, high concentrations of a variety of toxic metals, organic chemicals, and petroleum products have been detected in ground water associated with point sources such as wastedisposal sites, storage-tank leaks, and hazardous chemical spills. These types of local problems commonly occur in densely populated urban areas and industrialized areas. Larger, multicounty areas also have been identified where contamination frequently is found in shallow wells. These areas generally are associated with broad

  19. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  20. Effects of fire ash on soil water retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the pronounced effect of fire on soil hydrological systems, information on the direct effect of fire on soil water retention characteristics is limited and contradictory. To increase understanding in this area, the effect of fire on soil water retention was evaluated using laboratory burning

  1. A one-dimensional model for simulating soil water movement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regression analysis revealed the relati-onship to be exponential. The values of calculated and measured soil water content and total evapotranspiration decreased with number of days after rain or irrigation. The nodal soil water content also decreased with the soil depth. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 ...

  2. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-21

    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  3. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    riparian forest on the two sides of the creek. In many of the systems where water discharges at the base of slopes to wetlands, ditches have been dug to drain the valley. Such drainage circumvents possible removal of nitrate by riparian vegetation.Because ground-water residence times do not appear directly related to the HGMRs, the targeting of management practices will achieve the most rapid response in water quality if directed at 1) watersheds with large agricultural sources of nitrate, 2) areas with the shortest ground-water-flow paths and 3) areas not affected by significant denitrification. The fastest response in stream base-flow concentrations of nitrogen to implementation of management practices would be to implement practices in those areas with the highest loads rather than attempt to target practices on the basis of HGMR stratification. Overall findings of the study indicate that 1) ground-water contributions to nitrogen in streamflow are significant, 2) some response to management practices should be evident in base-flow concentrations of nitrogen and loads within 1 to 5 years in watersheds with the shortest average residence times, but response time may be closer to 20 years in watersheds with longer average ground-water residence times, 3) the majority of the response in ground-water discharge to any changes in management practices will be distributed over a 10-year time period even in the watersheds with the fastest response times, and 4) given that half the streamflow is from ground-water discharge and the other half is runoff or soil water, about 90 percent of total water being discharged to a stream will be less than about a decade old; therefore, full implementation of nutrient reductions may result in improved streamwater quality in about a decade. In the more-likely scenario of gradual source reduction, the reduction in concentrations of nitrate in streams and aquifers would take longer than the examples shown here.

  4. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  5. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  7. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Swain, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  8. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  9. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  10. Soil-Water Repellency Characteristic Curves for Soil Profiles with Organic Carbon Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Nadeeka Senani; Muller, Karin; Moldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) of soils is a property with significant consequences for agricultural water management, water infiltration, contaminant transport, and for soil erosion. It is caused by the presence of hydrophobic agents on mineral grain surfaces. Soils were samples in different depths......, and the sessile drop method (SDM). The aim to (i) compare the methods, (ii) characterize the soil-water repellency characteristic curves (SWRCC) being SWR as a function of the volumetric soil-water content (θ) or matric potential (ψ), and (iii) find relationships between SWRCC parameters and SOC content. The WDPT...... at three forest sites in Japan and three pasture sites in New Zealand, covering soil organic carbon (SOC) contents between 1 and 26%. The SWR was measured over a range of water contents by three common methods; the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, the molarity of an ethanol droplet (MED) method...

  11. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  12. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.P.; Reichardt, K.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation [pt

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  16. Visualization of soil structure and pore structure modifications by pioneering ground beetles (Cicindelidae) in surface sediments of an artificial catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.; Weller, Ulrich; Vontobel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An artificial catchment was constructed to study initial soil and ecosystem development. As a key process, the pore structure dynamics in the soil at the surface strongly influences erosion, infiltration, matter dynamics, and vegetation establishment. Little is known, however, about the first macropore formation in the very early stage. This presentation focuses on observations of soil pore geometry and its effect on water flow at the surface comparing samples from three sites in the catchment and in an adjacent "younger" site composed of comparable sediments. The surface soil was sampled in cylindrical plastic rings (10 cm³) down to 2 cm depth in three replicates each site and six where caves from pioneering ground-dwelling beetles Cicindelidae were found. The samples were scanned with micro-X-ray computed tomography (at UFZ-Halle, Germany) with a resolution of 0.084 mm. The infiltration dynamics were visualized with neutronradiography (at Paul-Scherer-Institute, Switzerland) on slab-type soil samples in 2D. The micro-tomographies exhibit formation of surface sealing whose thickness and intensity vary with silt and clay content. The CT images show several coarser- and finer-textured micro-layers at the sample surfaces that were formed as a consequence of repeated washing in of finer particles in underlying coarser sediment. In micro-depressions, the uppermost layers consist of sorted fine sand and silt due to wind erosion. Similar as for desert pavements, a vesicular pore structure developed in these sediments on top, but also scattered in fine sand- and silt-enriched micro-layers. The ground-dwelling activity of Cicindelidae beetles greatly modifies the soil structure through forming caves in the first centimetres of the soil. Older collapsed caves, which form isolated pores within mixed zones, were also found. The infiltration rates were severely affected both, by surface crusts and activity of ground-dwelling beetles. The observations demonstrate relatively

  17. Determination of the radon concentration in soil and ground water and its association with the seismicity; Determinacion de la concentracion del radon en suelo y agua subterranea y su asociacion con la sismicidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The coast of the Mexican Pacific is one of the seismic areas more active of the world due to the subduction of the badges of Coconuts and Rivera under the badge of North America. The earthquakes that happen in this part of Mexico they are of great magnitude and they affect to the central plateau of the country where finds the biggest population density. On the other hand the coast of the Gulf of Mexico presents one relatively low seismic activity. It is in this region where it is the nuclear plant of Laguna Verde (PNLV) and the studies of seismicity of the area should be carried out for questions of nuclear security. One carries out a study of fluctuations of the concentration of the radon in floor and it dilutes underground in the mentioned areas using accustomed to detectors of nuclear appearances (LR-115). Possibly they were also used detecting automatic (Clipperton sounds out). In some cases it was analysed the gamma radiation in soil using thermoluminescent dosemeters (CaSO{sub 4}: Dy + Ptfe). The mineralogical composition of rock samples was obtained, by means of technical conventional and Electron scanning microscopy and an X-ray diffractometer. The study one carries out along the coast of Guerrero, from Guacamayas, Mich. until Marquelia, Gro., of 1993 at 1998 and in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in the PNLV and their surroundings, of 1994 at 1996. The fluctuations of the radon concentration and of the gamma radiation, were analysed in function of the local seismic activity, the meteorological parameters and those characteristic geologic. In the area of the PNLV, the results showed that in general the averages of those value of the radon concentration, as much in floor as in water, they were low. A station located in a flaw area (New Ranch) the one that I present the values was but high of radon concentration, corresponding those but first floor to the PNLV. The seismic activity during the one period of sampling was sporadic and of low intensity and alone

  18. Non-invasive detection of soil water content at intermediate field scale using natural neutrons from cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, Sascha; Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Erd und Umweltwissenschaften (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The amount of water in the subsurface is a key factor influencing soil hydrology, run-off, evapotranspiration and plant development. A new measurement method is the so called cosmic ray method, recently introduced for soil moisture measurements by Zreda and coworkers. Secondary neutron fluxes, product of the interaction of primary cosmic-rays at the land surface, are strongly moderated by the presence of water in or above soil (soil moisture, snow and biomass water). Neutron counts at the ground/air interface represent a valuable observation at intermediate spatial scale which can be used to quantify stored water while distinguishing different water holding compartments at the land surface. We have performed such measurements in an agricultural field, in comparison with classical soil moisture measurement at a number of point locations. We discuss how to extract soil moisture values from the neutron counts, drawbacks of the method, but also that the results show a temporal development supported by the accompanying data.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment. The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples. Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.

  20. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  1. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-01-01

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  2. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  3. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  4. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyabrata Santra

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... of the global population (Millennium Ecosystem. Assessment 2005). Likewise, there is a .... Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop PTFs for arid soils of India to estimate soil water content at FC and PWP.

  5. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  6. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  7. Impacts of mining on water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhate, S R; Yenkie, M K N; Pokale, W K

    2007-04-01

    Out of seven coal mines situated in Wardha River Valley located at Wani (Dist. Yavatmal), five open caste coal mines are run by Western Coal Field Ltd, India. The results of 25 water and 19 soil samples (including one over burden) from Nilapur, Bramhani, Kolera, Gowari, Pimpari and Aheri for their pH, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic, manganese, sodium and potassium are studied in the present work. Statistical analysis and graphical presentation of the results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  9. Community structure of grassland ground-dwelling arthropods along increasing soil salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengchen; Feng, Qi; Liu, Jiliang; Li, Yulin; Li, Yuqiang; Yu, Xiaoya

    2018-03-01

    Ground-dwelling arthropod communities are influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. Little is known, however, about the relative importance of vegetation structure and abiotic environmental factors on the patterns of ground-dwelling arthropod community across a wide range of soil salinities. Here, a field survey was conducted to assess the driving forces controlling ground-dwelling arthropod community in the salinized grasslands in the Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China. The data were analyzed by variance partitioning with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). We found that vegetation structure and edaphic factors were at least of similar importance to the pattern of the whole ground-dwelling arthropod community. However, when all collected ground-dwelling arthropods were categorized into three trophic guilds (predators, herbivores, and decomposers), as these groups use different food sources, their populations were controlled by different driving forces. Predators and decomposers were mainly determined by biotic factors such as vegetation cover and aboveground plant biomass and herbivores by plant density and vegetation cover. Abiotic factors were also major determinants for the variation occurring in these guilds, with predators strongly affected by soil electrical conductivity (EC) and the content of fine particles (silt + clay, CS), herbivores by soil N:P, EC, and CS, and decomposers by soil EC and organic matter content (SOM). Since plant cover, density, and aboveground biomass can indicate resource availability, which are mainly constrained by soil N:P, EC, CS, and SOM, we consider that the ground-dwelling arthropod community in the salinized grasslands was mainly influenced by resource availability.

  10. Ground water geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, R.L.; Mann, A.W.; Giblin, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen exploration drill holes in the vicinity of the Jabiluka One and Jabiluka Two deposits were logged for Eh-pH and conductivity at 5 metre intervals to depths of up to 195 metres below ground surface. Forty-seven water samples from exploration drill holes, augered holes on the Magela flood plain and from two billabongs in the vicinity of the deposits were collected and analyzed. Analyses for pH and Fe were conducted in the field, and further analyses for major ions Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , SO 4 2- , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Si and minorelements Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and U were conducted in the laboratory. The in situ Eh-pH and conductivity measurements, and analyses for major and minor elements of ground waters suggest that deep-lying chlorite-graphite schists containing the uranium mineralization are well protected from, or do not react rapidly with, ground water under present-day conditions, i.e. the schists of the Cahill Formation are a stable host for uranium mineralization at depth. In the vicinity of the Magela flood plain where the Cahill Formation and the permanent water table are close to the surface, some samples were found to contain high concentrations of sulphate, zinc, lead and iron. These same samples were characterized by low pH's in the pH range 3.0-4.0. The anomalies suggest weathering of sulphides associated with the mineralized Cahill Formation, where the schists are at shallow depths and in an oxidizing environment. The anomalies are not, however, necessarily indicative of zones of uranium enrichment in this formation. (author)

  11. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  12. Influence of the metal installations in the ground on the measurement results accuracy of the soil resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevski, Nikola; Ackovski, Risto

    2002-01-01

    Very often, the measurement of the specific electric resistivity of the soil performed by one of the commonly used methods introduces errors in results because of the existence of certain metal installations buried in the ground, like aqueducts, water or drainage pipes, metal strips or metal sheaths of power cables etc. An attempt has been done in the paper to give some recommendations while displacing the measuring system in order to avoid the impact of such metal installations on the measured results, and thus to avoid the eventual errors that can occur during the measurement. (Author)

  13. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.; PAYVANDI, S.; ZYGALAKIS, K.C.; SMETHURST, J.; FLIEGE, J.; ROOSE, T.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil

  14. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  17. Changes of the water isotopic composition in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2001-01-01

    Based on the spatial and temporal variations of the stable isotope content in precipitation - as input in subsurface - and the mixing processes, the deuterium content in the water that moves in unsaturated zones was used to determine the most conducive season to recharge, the mechanisms for infiltration of snow or rain precipitation in humid, semi-arid or arid conditions, the episodic cycles of infiltration water mixing with the already present soil water and water vapor and whether infiltration water is or is not from local precipitation. Oscillations in the isotopic profiles of soil moisture can be used to estimate the following aspects: where piston or diffusive flow is the dominant mechanisms of water infiltration; the average velocities of the water movement in vadose zone; the influence of vegetation cover, soil type and slope exposure on the dynamics of water movement in soil; the conditions required for infiltration such as: the matrix, gravity, pressure and osmotic potentials during drainage in unsaturated soil. (authors)

  18. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  19. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  20. Water repellent soils: a state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1981-01-01

    Water repellency in soils was first described by Schreiner and Shorey (1910), who found that some soils in California could not be wetted and thereby were not suitable for agriculture. Waxy organic substances were responsible for the water repellency. Other studies in the early 1900's on the fairy ring phenomenon suggested that water repellency could be caused by...

  1. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  2. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A

    1974-12-31

    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  3. Monitoring network for radon in soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Salazar, S.

    1996-01-01

    With the purpose to analyze the radon fluctuations on soil and ground waters that may be presented in seismic zones, it was installed a radon detection network that is localized as in the Pacific coasts, as in the Gulf of Mexico some of them localized near Laguna Verde power plant. The radon is detected systematically with solid state track detectors, LR115 Type II, which register the alpha particles of their radioactive decay. The evaluation of the alpha particles tracks was made with a counting system of spark type. Additionally, recently some automatic detection systems (silicide photodiodes) have been installed which register continuously the alpha particles, obtaining radon flux variations starting from registers got during short periods which are programmable between some hours and some tenths of days. Here are presented some results obtained with these systems. (Author)

  4. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  5. Invasiveness of Cut-Leaf Ground-Cherry (Physalis angulata L. Populations and Impact of Soil Water and Nutrient Availability Potencial Invasor de Poblaciones de Tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L. e Impacto del Contenido de Agua y Disponibilidad de Nutrientes del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias S Travlos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to natural ecosystems and agroecosystems, while weed flora is noticeably changing globally. In this study we evaluated the potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry (Physalis angulata L., a species native to America, to invade the semi-arid regions of Greece. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental resources (nutrient and water availability on seedling growth, biomass production, fecundity, and seed germination of four populations of cut-leaf ground-cherry. Our results suggest that cut-leaf ground-cherry does not tolerate extreme drought during the first growth stages, while it can survive and produce adequate and rapidly germinated seed (> 85% under low soil moisture conditions. Moreover, high water and nutrient availability results in high growth and biomass production and ensures high seed production, reaching more than 4000 seeds plant-1. We suggest that soil water content and nutrient availability are the two critical factors affecting the invasive potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry in semi-arid environments. Understanding the plant's ecological features through a study conducted at an early stage rather than a late stage of invasion will help us to take appropriate control measures for this species, which should primarily target frequently fertilized fields after precipitation events.Las invasiones biológicas son una amenaza importante para los ecosistemas naturales y agroecosistemas, mientras que, globalmente, la flora de malezas parece cambiar notablemente. En este estudio se evaluó el potencial de una especie nativa de América, tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L., para invadir las regiones semiáridas de Grecia. Se realizaron experimentos de invernadero y laboratorio para evaluar los efectos de diferentes recursos ambientales (disponibilidad de nutrientes y agua, crecimiento de las plántulas, producción de biomasa, fecundidad

  6. Carbon-14 measurements and characterization of dissolved organic carbon in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon-14 was measured in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in ground water and compared with 14 C analyses of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Two field sites were used for this study; the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and the Milk River Aquifer in southern Alberta, Canada. The Stripa mine consists of a Precambrian granite dominated by fracture flow, while the Milk River Aquifer is a Cretaceous sandstone aquifer characterized by porous flow. At both field sites, 14 C analyses of the DOC provide additional information on the ground-water age. Carbon-14 was measured on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic fractions of the DOC. The organic compounds in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were also characterized. The DOC may originate from kerogen in the aquifer matrix, from soil organic matter in the recharge zone, of from a combination of these two sources. Carbon-14 analyses, along with characterization of the organics, were used to determine this origin. Carbon-14 analyses of the hydrophobic fraction in the Milk River Aquifer suggest a soil origin, while 14 C analyses of the hydrophilic fraction suggest an origin within the Cretaceous sediments (kerogen) or from the shale in contact with the aquifer

  7. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  8. The influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.M.; Carmeliet, J.; Hens, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground is investigated by comparing fully coupled simulations with linear thermal simulations. The observed influences of coupling are (1) the larger amplitude of surface temperature, (2) the variation of thermal

  9. Field soil-water properties measured through radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report shows a major effort to make soil physics applicable to the behaviour of the field soils and presents a rich and diverse set of data which are essential for the development of effective soil-water management practices that improve and conserve the quality and quantity of agricultural lands. This piece of research has shown that the neutron moisture meter together with some complementary instruments like tensiometers, can be used not only to measure soil water contents but also be extremely handy to measure soil hydraulic characteristics and soil water flow. It is, however, recognized that hydraulic conductivity is highly sensitive to small changes in soil water content and texture, being extremely variable spatially and temporally

  10. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14 C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14 C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14 C age and δ 13 C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow. 2. Undisturbed tuff rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu

    1994-09-01

    Radionuclide migration with ground surface water flow is considered to be one of path ways in the scenario for environmental migration of the radionuclide leaked from LLRW depository. To study the radionuclide migration demonstratively, a ground surface radionuclide migration test was carried out by simulating radioactive solution flowing on the sloped tuff rock surface. Tuff rock sample of 240 cm in length taken from the Shimokita district was used to test the transfer of 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs onto the sample surface from the flowing radioactive solution under restricted infiltration condition at flow rates of 25, 80, 160ml/min and duration of 56h. The concentration change of the radionuclides in effluent was nearly constant as a function of elapsed time during the experimental period, but decreased with lower flow rates. Among the three radionuclides, 137 Cs was greatly decreased its concentration to 30% of the inflow. Adsorbed distribution of the radionuclides concentration on the ground surface decreased gradually with the distance from the inlet, and showed greater gradient at lower flow rate. Analyzing the result by the migration model, where a vertical advection distribution and two-dimensional diffusion in surface water are adopted with a first order adsorption reaction, value of migration parameters was obtained relating to the radionuclide adsorption and the surface water flow, and the measured distribution could be well simulated by adopting the value to the model. By comparing the values with the case of loamy soil layer, all values of the migration parameters showed not so great difference between two samples for 60 Co and 85 Sr. For 137 Cs, reflecting a few larger value of adsorption to the tuff rock, larger ability to reduce the concentration of flowing radioactive solution could be indicated than that to the loamy soil surface by estimation for long flowed distance. (author)

  12. Application of ground bone and sheep manure on soils from two contaminated sites and influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Pacheco, A.; Santos, E.; Magalhães, M. C. F.

    2012-04-01

    Past radium and uranium exploitation and processing in Urgeiriça mine and radium processing in Barracão (centre-north of Portugal) led to soils and waters contamination. Most of the soils, located in rural areas, are cultivated for vegetables, fruit trees, and/or pasturage, and the waters used for soils irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of organic amendments and hydroxiapatite to reduce the soil available fraction of Utotal and 226Ra in soils of two areas after four months of incubation. Influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation was also studied. Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during four months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Urgeiriça (Urg) and Barracão (Brc) soils containing large concentrations of Utotal (635 and 189 mg/kg, respectively), and 226Ra (2310 and 1770 Bq/kg, respectively) were used. The available fraction of these elements, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to: 90 and 20% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Urgeiriça soil, and 19 and 43% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Barracão soil. Fine ground bone (FB), sheep manure (OM), and vermicompost (V) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Control (soil) and treatments were made in triplicate: (T1) soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T2) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil; (T3) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T4) soil+168 g V/kg of soil. After incubation, soil subsamples were analysed for pH, electric conductivity (EC), and available fractions of Utotal and 226Ra. The remaining soils were used for oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivation. Soils had pH 5.15 (Urg) and 6.04 (Brc), and EC 57.3 µS/cm (Urg) and 36.3 µS/cm (Brc). After incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.82 (Urg) and 7.10 (Brc) in amended samples, and EC showed a large increase (15-19 times) when compared to the control. A decrease of the available

  13. Ground observations and remote sensing data for integrated modelisation of water budget in the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is affected by water scarcity. Some countries as Tunisia reached the limit of 550 m3/year/capita due overexploitation of low water resources for irrigation, domestic uses and industry. A lot of programs aim to evaluate strategies to improve water consumption at regional level. In central Tunisia, on the Merguellil catchment, we develop integrated water resources modelisations based on social investigations, ground observations and remote sensing data. The main objective is to close the water budget at regional level and to estimate irrigation and water pumping to test scenarios with endusers. Our works benefit from French, bilateral and European projects (ANR, MISTRALS/SICMed, FP6, FP7…), GMES/GEOLAND-ESA) and also network projects as JECAM and AERONET, where the Merguellil site is a reference. This site has specific characteristics associating irrigated and rainfed crops mixing cereals, market gardening and orchards and will be proposed as a new environmental observing system connected to the OMERE, TENSIFT and OSR systems respectively in Tunisia, Morocco and France. We show here an original and large set of ground and remote sensing data mainly acquired from 2008 to present to be used for calibration/validation of water budget processes and integrated models for present and scenarios: - Ground data: meteorological stations, water budget at local scale: fluxes tower, soil fluxes, soil and surface temperature, soil moisture, drainage, flow, water level in lakes, aquifer, vegetation parameters on selected fieds/month (LAI, height, biomass, yield), land cover: 3 times/year, bare soil roughness, irrigation and pumping estimations, soil texture. - Remote sensing data: remote sensing products from multi-platform (MODIS, SPOT, LANDSAT, ASTER, PLEIADES, ASAR, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR X…), multi-wavelength (solar, micro-wave and thermal) and multi-resolution (0.5 meters to 1 km). Ground observations are used (1) to calibrate soil

  14. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  15. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  16. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task II: Soil structure interaction effects on structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luco, J E; Wong, H L [Structural and Earthquake Engineering Consultants, Inc., Sierra Madre, CA (United States); Chang, C -Y; Power, M S; Idriss, I M [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This report presents the results of part of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study, which is presented in Vol. 1 of NUREG/CR-3805, developed a basis for selecting design response spectra taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage. Task II incorporates additional considerations of effects of spatial variations of ground motions and soil-structure interaction on foundation motions and structural response. The results of Task II are presented in Vols. 2 through of NUREG/CR-3805 as follows: Vol. 2 effects of ground motion characteristics on structural response considering localized structural nonlinearities and soil-structure interaction effects; Vol. 3 observational data on spatial variations of earthquake ground motions; Vol. 4 soil-structure interaction effects on structural response; and Vol. 5, summary based on Tasks I and II studies. This report presents the results of the Vol. 4 studies.

  17. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host–parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D.; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D.; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2015-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host–parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host–parasite systems. PMID:26468247

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Electrochemistry of lead in simulated ground water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, E.A.; Devereux, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lead and lead alloys are used commonly as moisture barriers for underground cables. Lead exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments, but areas of localized attack have been found. These can result in able failures. The susceptibility of lead to pitting in several simulated ground water (SGW) environments was assessed using cyclic potentiodynamic pitting scans (PPS) and microscopy. Although general corrosion was observed, PPS demonstrated pitting did not occur in the same sense as in alloys known to be susceptible to pitting (i.e., very localized pit formation without general corrosion). However, areas of nonuniform general attack did occur, resulting in pitted surface morphologies

  1. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h

  2. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  3. Irrigation quality of ground water of twenty villages in Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ali

    2009-05-01

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