Sample records for ground tracking stations

  1. On increasing the spectral efficiency and transmissivity in the data transmission channel on the spacecraft-ground tracking station line (United States)

    Andrianov, M. N.; Kostenko, V. I.; Likhachev, S. F.


    The algorithms for achieving a practical increase in the rate of data transmission on the space-craft-ground tracking station line has been considered. This increase is achieved by applying spectral-effective modulation techniques, the technology of orthogonal frequency compression of signals using millimeterrange radio waves. The advantages and disadvantages of each of three algorithms have been revealed. A significant advantage of data transmission in the millimeter range has been indicated.

  2. SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites (United States)

    Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.


    An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

  3. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations (United States)

    Doyle, John F.


    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  4. KSC ground operations planning for Space Station (United States)

    Lyon, J. R.; Revesz, W., Jr.


    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, processing facilities are being built and activated to support the processing, checkout, and launch of Space Station elements. The generic capability of these facilities will be utilized to support resupply missions for payloads, life support services, and propellants for the 30-year life of the program. Special Ground Support Equipment (GSE) is being designed for Space Station hardware special handling requirements, and a Test, Checkout, and Monitoring System (TCMS) is under development to verify that the flight elements are ready for launch. The facilities and equipment used at KSC, along with the testing required to accomplish the mission, are described in detail to provide an understanding of the complexity of operations at the launch site. Assessments of hardware processing flows through KSC are being conducted to minimize the processing flow times for each hardware element. Baseline operations plans and the changes made to improve operations and reduce costs are described, recognizing that efficient ground operations are a major key to success of the Space Station.

  5. A method for optical ground station reduce alignment error in satellite-ground quantum experiments (United States)

    He, Dong; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Song, Zhi-Jun; Zhong, Dai-Jun; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Huang, Yong-Mei


    A satellite dedicated for quantum science experiments, has been developed and successfully launched from Jiuquan, China, on August 16, 2016. Two new optical ground stations (OGSs) were built to cooperate with the satellite to complete satellite-ground quantum experiments. OGS corrected its pointing direction by satellite trajectory error to coarse tracking system and uplink beacon sight, therefore fine tracking CCD and uplink beacon optical axis alignment accuracy was to ensure that beacon could cover the quantum satellite in all time when it passed the OGSs. Unfortunately, when we tested specifications of the OGSs, due to the coarse tracking optical system was commercial telescopes, the change of position of the target in the coarse CCD was up to 600μrad along with the change of elevation angle. In this paper, a method of reduce alignment error between beacon beam and fine tracking CCD is proposed. Firstly, OGS fitted the curve of target positions in coarse CCD along with the change of elevation angle. Secondly, OGS fitted the curve of hexapod secondary mirror positions along with the change of elevation angle. Thirdly, when tracking satellite, the fine tracking error unloaded on the real-time zero point position of coarse CCD which computed by the firstly calibration data. Simultaneously the positions of the hexapod secondary mirror were adjusted by the secondly calibration data. Finally the experiment result is proposed. Results show that the alignment error is less than 50μrad.

  6. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  7. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  8. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  9. Techniques for predicting environment electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peiji


    The measurement theories, techniques, and calculation methods on public exposure level of electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station are described for the purpose of enviroment protection and research of EM compatibility. According to the results of the measurement and calculation, it is possible to predict the effects of electromagnetic radiation to environment at satellite ground station

  10. SCaN Network Ground Station Receiver Performance for Future Service Support (United States)

    Estabrook, Polly; Lee, Dennis; Cheng, Michael; Lau, Chi-Wung


    Objectives: Examine the impact of providing the newly standardized CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to the SCaN return data service on the SCaN SN and DSN ground stations receivers: SN Current Receiver: Integrated Receiver (IR). DSN Current Receiver: Downlink Telemetry and Tracking (DTT) Receiver. Early Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) prototype of the SN User Service Subsystem Component Replacement (USS CR) Narrow Band Receiver. Motivate discussion of general issues of ground station hardware design to enable simple and cheap modifications for support of future services.

  11. Canadian Astronautics Limited's SARSAT ground stations (United States)

    Taylor, J. D.; Renner, R. C.


    The SARSAT Local User Terminal (LUT) is described. The RF receiving subsystem is based on a conventional 3 m dish antenna mounted on an elevation-over-azimuth pedestal to permit tracking of the low altitude, near polar satellites. Only program tracking is used since orbit parameters and time must always be known precisely for use in position location. Operation of the LUT is split into real-time mode during which Doppler data are generated and stored, and post-pass during which data are sorted and position located. Location accuracy is to within 20 km.

  12. JERS-1 Workshop on the Ground Station for ASEAN (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai


    Presented in viewgraph format, the present status of the ground station and future plan for utilizing earth observation satellites in Thailand is outlined. Topics addressed include: data acquisition system; operation status of LANDSAT, SPOT, and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1); remote sensors of satellites; data output form; data correction level; data system in Thailand; ground station for MOS-1 satellite in Thailand; and future plan.

  13. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald


    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  14. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej


    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  15. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.


    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  16. Optical studies in the holographic ground station (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.


    The Holographic Group System (HGS) Facility in rooms 22 & 123, Building 4708 has been developed to provide for ground based research in determining pre-flight parameters and analyzing the results from space experiments. The University of Alabama, Huntsville (UAH) has researched the analysis aspects of the HGS and reports their findings here. Some of the results presented here also occur in the Facility Operating Procedure (FOP), which contains instructions for power up, operation, and powerdown of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) Holographic Ground System (HGS) Test Facility for the purpose of optically recording fluid and/or crystal behavior in a test article during ground based testing through the construction of holograms and recording of videotape. The alignment of the optical bench components, holographic reconstruction and and microscopy alignment sections were also included in the document for continuity even though they are not used until after optical recording of the test article) setup of support subsystems and the Automated Holography System (AHS) computer. The HGS provides optical recording and monitoring during GCEL runs or development testing of potential FES flight hardware or software. This recording/monitoring can be via 70mm holographic film, standard videotape, or digitized images on computer disk. All optical bench functions necessary to construct holograms will be under the control of the AHS personal computer (PC). These include type of exposure, time intervals between exposures, exposure length, film frame identification, film advancement, film platen evacuation and repressurization, light source diffuser introduction, and control of realtime video monitoring. The completed sequence of hologram types (single exposure, diffuse double exposure, etc.) and their time of occurrence can be displayed, printed, or stored on floppy disk posttest for the user.

  17. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.


    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  18. Grounding, Shielding and Power Distribution for the LHCb Silicon Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, C; Frei, R; Straumann, U; Vázquez, P; Vollhardt, A


    This note lists the relevant items for power and grounding, it explains the sensitive detector input signal circuits and describes the grounding, power distribution and line filtering measures applied to each of the electrical units of the LHCb silicon tracking system. This note deals with both silicon sub-projects, the Inner Tracker (IT) and the Trigger Tracker (TT).

  19. Federated Ground Station Network Model and Interface Specification (United States)


    of-sight of a small portion of the ground at any moment due to the geometry of a satellite in LEO above a planet of Earth’s size. The portion of the...Subnetwork 3 started out as a lone network in which there was a single CA and a number of ground stations. Then Subnetwork 3 joined with SA 1 and its

  20. 76 FR 53883 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Satellite Ground Station Customer... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Satellite Ground Station Customer Questionnaire AGENCY: National Oceanic... asks people who operate ground receiving stations that receive data from NOAA satellites to complete a...

  1. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.


    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  2. WGS 84 Coordinate Validation and Improvement for the NIMA and Air Force GPS Tracking Stations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, James


    Using 10 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) pseudorange and carrier phase data collected in 1995 from 31 stations and 24 Block II/IIA satellites, estimates of GPS clocks, orbits, and tracking station coordinates were generated...

  3. Automatic tracking of wake vortices using ground-wind sensor data (United States)


    Algorithms for automatic tracking of wake vortices using ground-wind anemometer : data are developed. Methods of bad-data suppression, track initiation, and : track termination are included. An effective sensor-failure detection-and identification : ...

  4. Preliminary PANSAT ground station software design and use of an expert system to analyze telemetry (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory W.


    The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a communications satellite designed to be used by civilian amateur radio operators. A master ground station is being built at the Naval Postgraduate School. This computer system performs satellite commands, displays telemetry, trouble-shoots problems, and passes messages. The system also controls an open loop tracking antenna. This paper concentrates on the telemetry display, decoding, and interpretation through artificial intelligence (AI). The telemetry is displayed in an easily interpretable format, so that any user can understand the current health of the satellite and be cued as to any problems and possible solutions. Only the master ground station has the ability to receive all telemetry and send commands to the spacecraft; civilian ham users do not have access to this information. The telemetry data is decommutated and analyzed before it is displayed to the user, so that the raw data will not have to be interpreted by ground users. The analysis will use CLIPS imbedded in the code, and derive its inputs from telemetry decommutation. The program is an expert system using a forward chaining set of rules based on the expected operation and parameters of the satellite. By building the rules during the construction and design of the satellite, the telemetry can be well understood and interpreted after the satellite is launched and the designers may no longer be available to provide input to the problem.

  5. Hook whistlers observed at low latitude ground station Varanasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, P.N.; Lalmani; Ahmed, M.M.; Singh, B.D.


    Employing the Haselgrove ray tracing equations and a diffusive equilibrium model of the ionosphere, the propagation characteristics of hook whistlers recorded at low-latitude ground station Varanasi (geomag. lat., 16 0 6'N) are discussed. It is shown that the two traces of the hook whistlers are caused by the VLF waves radiated from the return stroke of a lightning discharge which after penetrating the ionosphere at two different entry points, propagated to the opposite hemisphere in the whistler mode and were received at 16 geomagnetic latitude. Further the crossing of ray paths for the same frequency leads to the explanation of the hook whistler. The lower and higher cut-off frequencies are explained in terms of their deviating away from the bunch of the recorded whistler waves and crossing of ray paths for the same frequency. (Auth.)

  6. L0 Confirmation with fast, Tsa based tracking in the T-stations

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Terrier, H


    A fast tracking algorithm to confirm the high $p_T$ L0 trigger objects with tracks from the T-stations is presented. The L0 trigger candidate is used to define a search window to a potential track. Using this, a seeded track search is performed. The track finding algorithm is based on the \\textit{TsaSeeding} algorithm~\\cite{bib:Tsa}. The efficiency to confirm a true L0 trigger signal is around 96\\%, the momentum can be measured up to $\\Delta p/p$=3\\%.

  7. The management of energy utilization in a spacecraft tracking station and its industrial applications (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; White, R. L.; Hume, P.


    The mission of a tracking station within the NASA/Jet Propulsion Deep Space Network is characterized by a wide diversity of spacecraft types, communications ranges, and data accuracy requirements. In the present paper, the system architecture, communications techniques, and operators interfaces for a utility controller are described. The control equipment as designed and installed is meant to be a tool to study applications of automated control in the dynamic environment of a tracking station. It allows continuous experimenting with new technology without disruption of the tracking activities.

  8. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos


    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  9. Ground-Fault Characteristic Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Stations with Neutral Grounding Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li


    Full Text Available A centralized grid-connected photovoltaic (PV station is a widely adopted method of neutral grounding using resistance, which can potentially make pre-existing protection systems invalid and threaten the safety of power grids. Therefore, studying the fault characteristics of grid-connected PV systems and their impact on power-grid protection is of great importance. Based on an analysis of the grid structure of a grid-connected PV system and of the low-voltage ride-through control characteristics of a photovoltaic power supply, this paper proposes a short-circuit calculation model and a fault-calculation method for this kind of system. With respect to the change of system parameters, particularly the resistance connected to the neutral point, and the possible impact on protective actions, this paper achieves the general rule of short-circuit current characteristics through a simulation, which provides a reference for devising protection configurations.

  10. Real-Time Track Reallocation for Emergency Incidents at Large Railway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available After track capacity breakdowns at a railway station, train dispatchers need to generate appropriate track reallocation plans to recover the impacted train schedule and minimize the expected total train delay time under stochastic scenarios. This paper focuses on the real-time track reallocation problem when tracks break down at large railway stations. To represent these cases, virtual trains are introduced and activated to occupy the accident tracks. A mathematical programming model is developed, which aims at minimizing the total occupation time of station bottleneck sections to avoid train delays. In addition, a hybrid algorithm between the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm is designed. The case study from the Baoji railway station in China verifies the efficiency of the proposed model and the algorithm. Numerical results indicate that, during a daily and shift transport plan from 8:00 to 8:30, if five tracks break down simultaneously, this will disturb train schedules (result in train arrival and departure delays.

  11. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  12. Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual...

  13. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  14. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations. (United States)

    Jiang, Chaozhe; Xu, Yibo; Wen, Chao; Chen, Dilin


    Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS) based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  15. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhe Jiang


    Full Text Available Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong


    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  17. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...... application. Also demonstrated is the effect of non-zero UFTPS output impedance on envelope tracking performance. At 13W average (156W peak) RF output, a reduction of DC input power consumption from 93W (14% efficiency) to 54W (24% efficiency) is obtained by moving from a fixed RF power amplifier supply...

  18. Laser communication experiments between Sota and Meo optical ground station (United States)

    Artaud, G.,; Issler, J.-L.; Védrenne, N.; Robert, C.; Petit, C.; Samain, E.; Phung, D.-H.; Maurice, N.; Toyoshima, M.; Kolev, D.


    Optical transmissions between earth and space have been identified as key technologies for future high data rate transmissions between satellites and ground. CNES is investigating the use of optics both for High data rate direct to Earth transfer from observation satellites in LEO, and for future telecommunications applications using optics for the high capacity Gateway link.

  19. The setting for ground based augmentation system station (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua


    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  20. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong


    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  1. Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Hawley, Robert L.; Lutz, Eric R.; Studinger, Michael; Sonntag, John G.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Neumann, Thomas A.


    A series of NASA airborne lidars have been used in support of satellite laser altimetry missions. These airborne laser altimeters have been deployed for satellite instrument development, for spaceborne data validation, and to bridge the data gap between satellite missions. We used data from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of an 11 km long track near Summit Station, Greenland, to assess the surface-elevation bias and measurement precision of three airborne laser altimeters including the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS), and the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). Ground-based GPS data from the monthly ground-based traverses, which commenced in 2006, allowed for the assessment of nine airborne lidar surveys associated with ATM and LVIS between 2007 and 2016. Surface-elevation biases for these altimeters - over the flat, ice-sheet interior - are less than 0.12 m, while assessments of measurement precision are 0.09 m or better. Ground-based GPS positions determined both with and without differential post-processing techniques provided internally consistent solutions. Results from the analyses of ground-based and airborne data provide validation strategy guidance for the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) elevation and elevation-change data products.

  2. Tracking on non-active collaborative objects from San Fernando Laser station (United States)

    Catalán, Manuel; Quijano, Manuel; Cortina, Luis M.; Pazos, Antonio A.; Martín-Davila, José


    The Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (ROA) works on satellite geodesy from the early days of the space age, when the first artificial satellite tracking telescope was installed in 1958: the Baker-Nunn camera. In 1975 a French satellite Laser ranging (SLR) station was installed and operated at ROA . Since 1980, ROA has been operating this instrument which was upgraded to a third generation and it is still keep into a continuous update to reach the highest level of operability. Since then ROA has participated in different space geodesy campaigns through the International Laser Service Stations (ILRS) or its European regional organization (EUROLAS), tracking a number of artificial satellites types : ERS, ENVISAT, LAGEOS, TOPEX- POSEIDON to name but a few. Recently we opened a new field of research: space debris tracking, which is receiving increasing importance and attention from international space agencies. The main problem is the relatively low accuracy of common used methods. It is clear that improving the predicted orbit accuracy is necessary to fulfill our aims (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers,..). Following results obtained by other colleagues (Austria, China, USA,...) we proposed to share our time-schedule using our satellite ranging station to obtain data which will make orbital elements predictions far more accurate (sub-meter accuracy), while we still keep our tracking routines over active satellites. In this communication we report the actions fulfill until nowadays.

  3. The application of GPS time information in the telemetry ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songtao; Zhang Yusong; Sun Xiurui


    GPS time information is a kind of practicable information resource that can be shared all over the world. Now it is the most accurate wireless time information. The major of this paper is the application information of GPS time information in telemetry. The main point introduces how to make use of the GPS time information to produce GPS-IRIG-B time code for proving ground and how to send time information to related equipment in telemetry ground station

  4. Object tracking with robotic total stations: Current technologies and improvements based on image data (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner


    The importance of automated prism tracking is increasingly triggered by the rising automation of total station measurements in machine control, monitoring and one-person operation. In this article we summarize and explain the different techniques that are used to coarsely search a prism, to precisely aim at a prism, and to identify whether the correct prism is tracked. Along with the state-of-the-art review, we discuss and experimentally evaluate possible improvements based on the image data of an additional wide-angle camera which is available for many total stations today. In cases in which the total station's fine aiming module loses the prism, the tracked object may still be visible to the wide-angle camera because of its larger field of view. The theodolite angles towards the target can then be derived from its image coordinates which facilitates a fast reacquisition of the prism. In experimental measurements we demonstrate that our image-based approach for the coarse target search is 4 to 10-times faster than conventional approaches.

  5. Nonstandard usage of ASS-500 station filters for determination of ground-level air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Jasinska, M.; Kwiatek, W.; Mietelski, J.W.; Dutkiewicz, E.


    The work describes nonstandard application of filters from ASS-500 station for the determination of the element content in the samples collected by PIXE method. Determination of gamma radioactive isotopes and alpha radioactive plutonium is also reviewed. Authors conclude that ASS-500 workstation allows collection of representative samples from the ground level air. These samples are suitable for the complex analysis of industrial pollution

  6. Impact of mesh tracks and low-ground-pressure vehicle use on blanket peat hydrology (United States)

    McKendrick-Smith, Kathryn; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren


    Peatlands are subject to multiple uses including drainage, farming and recreation. Low-ground-pressure vehicle access is desirable by land owners and tracks facilitate access. However, there is concern that such activity may impact peat hydrology and so granting permission for track installation has been problematic, particularly without evidence for decision-making. We present the first comprehensive study of mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on peatland hydrology. In the sub-arctic oceanic climate of the Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, a 1.5 km long experimental track was installed to investigate hydrological impacts. Surface vegetation was cut and the plastic mesh track pinned into the peat surface. The experimental track was split into 7 treatments, designed to reflect typical track usage (0 - 5 vehicle passes per week) and varying vehicle weight. The greatest hydrological impacts were expected for sections of track subject to more frequent vehicle use and in close proximity to the track. In total 554 dipwells (including 15 automated recording at 15-min intervals) were monitored for water-table depth, positioned to capture potential spatial variability in response. Before track installation, samples for vertical and lateral hydraulic conductivity (Ks) analysis (using the modified cube method) were taken at 0-10 cm depth from a frequently driven treatment (n = 15), an infrequently driven treatment (0.5 passes per week) (n = 15) and a control site with no track/driving (n = 15). The test was repeated after 16 months of track use. We present a spatially and temporally rich water-table dataset from the study site showing how the impacts of the track on water table are spatially highly variable. Water-table depths across the site were shallow, typically within the upper 10 cm of the peat profile for > 75% of the time. We show that mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on water-table depth were small except

  7. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.


    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  8. Ground Track Acquisition and Maintenance Maneuver Modeling for Low-Earth Orbit Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Sun Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analytical approach for determining key maneuver parameters associated with the acquisition and maintenance of the ground track for a low-earth orbit. A livearized model relating changes in the drift rate of the ground track directly to changes in the orbital semi-major axis is also developed. The effect of terrestrial atmospheric drag on the semi-major axis is also explored, being quantified through an analytical expression for the decay rate as a function of density. The non-singular Lagrange planetary equations, further simplified for nearly circular orbits, provide the desired relationships between the corrective in-plane impulsive velocity increments and the corresponding effects on the orbit elements. The resulting solution strategy offers excellent insight into the dynamics affecting the timing, magnitude, and frequency of these maneuvers. Simulations are executed for the ground track acquisition and maintenance maneuver as a pre-flight planning and analysis.

  9. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  10. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.


    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  11. Maneuver Planning for Conjunction Risk Mitigation with Ground-track Control Requirements (United States)

    McKinley, David


    The planning of conjunction Risk Mitigation Maneuvers (RMM) in the presence of ground-track control requirements is analyzed. Past RMM planning efforts on the Aqua, Aura, and Terra spacecraft have demonstrated that only small maneuvers are available when ground-track control requirements are maintained. Assuming small maneuvers, analytical expressions for the effect of a given maneuver on conjunction geometry are derived. The analytical expressions are used to generate a large trade space for initial RMM design. This trade space represents a significant improvement in initial maneuver planning over existing methods that employ high fidelity maneuver models and propagation.

  12. Reduction of Ground Vibration by Means of Barriers or Soil Improvement along a Railway Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    Trains running in built-up areas are a source to ground-borne noise. A careful design of the track may be one way of minimizing the vibrations in the surroundings. For example, open or infilled trenches may be constructed along the track, or the soil underneath the track may be improved...... the vehicle. The computations are carried out in the frequency domain for various combinations of the vehicle speed and the excitation frequency. The analyses indicate that open trenches are more efficient than infilled trenches or soil stiffening–even at low frequencies. However, the direction of the load...

  13. The effect of track load correlation on ground-borne vibration from railways (United States)

    Ntotsios, Evangelos; Thompson, David; Hussein, Mohammed


    In predictions of ground-borne vibration from railways, it is generally assumed that the unevenness profile of the wheel and rail is fully correlated between the two rails and the two wheels of an axle. This leads to identical contact forces at the two rails and can allow further simplifications of the vehicle model, the track model and the track/ground interface conditions. In the present paper, the level of correlation of the track loading at the wheel/rail interface due to rail unevenness and its influence on predictions of ground vibration is investigated. The extent to which the unevenness of the two rails is correlated has been estimated from measurements of track geometry obtained with track recording vehicles for four different tracks. It was found that for wavelengths longer than about 3 m the unevenness of the two rails can be considered to be strongly correlated and in phase. To investigate the effect of this on ground vibration, an existing model expressed in the wavenumber-frequency domain is extended to include separate inputs on the two rails. The track is modelled as an infinite invariant linear structure resting on an elastic stratified half-space. This is excited by the gravitational loading of a passing train and the irregularity of the contact surfaces between the wheels and the rails. The railway model is developed in this work to be versatile so that it can account or discard the effect of load correlations on the two rails beside the effects of variation of the tractions across the width of the track-ground interface and the vehicle sprung mass, as well as the roll motion of the sleepers and the axle. A comparative analysis is carried out on the influence of these factors on the response predictions using numerical simulations. It is shown that, when determining the vibration in the free field, it is important to include in the model the traction variation across the track-ground interface and the non-symmetrical loading at the two rails that

  14. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS......) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...... overall solution switching at 1MHz with 88-95% efficiency. In a class-AB RFPA amplifying a 50kHz bandwidth QAM Tetra2 signal at 4.6W average output power, the use of tracking supply voltage reduced power dissipation by 25W....

  15. Production of cathode pad chambers for 2nd muon tracking station of ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish Azmi, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, I.A.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Datta, P.; Dutt-Mazumder, A.K.; Jana, S.; Pal, S.; Paul, L.; Roy, P.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B.C.


    The second tracking station of dimuon spectrometer of ALICE comprises of 8 cathode pad chambers whose inner radius is 23.7 cm and outer radius is 117 cm. The anode to cathode separation is 2.5 cm and the operating voltage of these chambers is around 1675 volt at an atmospheric pressure of 80% Ar + 20% CO 2 . At this operating point, the gain of the chamber is around 10 5 . In this report the quality control tests on the first production chamber have been reported

  16. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz


    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  17. Ground track density considerations on the resolvability of gravity field harmonics in a repeat orbit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Wagner, C. A.; Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš


    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2015), 1146-1160 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field of the Earth * resonant/repeat orbit missions * ground track density Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2015

  18. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.


    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  19. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.


    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  20. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, J.E.


    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station

  1. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey


    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  2. The GNSS-based Ground Tracking System (GTS) of GFZ; from GITEWS to PROTECTS and beyond (United States)

    Falck, Carsten; Merx, Alexander; Ramatschi, Markus


    Introduction An automatic system for the near real-time determination and visualization of ground motions, respectively co-seismic deformations of the Earth's surface, was developed by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) within the project GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System). The system is capable to deliver 3D-displacement vectors for locations with appropriate GPS-equipment in the vicinity of an earthquake's epicenter with a delay of only a few minutes. These vectors can help to assess the earthquake causing tectonic movements, which must be known to make reliable early warning predictions, e.g., concerning the generation of tsunami waves. The GTS (Ground Tracking System) has been integrated into InaTEWS (Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is in operation at the national warning center in Jakarta since November 2008. After the end of the project GITEWS GFZ continues to support the GTS in Indonesia within the frame of PROTECTS (Project for Training, Education and Consulting for Tsunami Early Warning Systems) and recently some new developments have been introduced. We now aim to make further use of the achievements made, e.g., by developing a license model for the GTS software package. Motivation After the Tsunami of 26th December 2004 the German government initiated the GITEWS project to develop the main components for a tsunami early warning system in Indonesia. The GFZ, as the consortial leader of GITEWS, had several work packages, most of them related to sensor systems. The geodetic branch (Department 1) of GFZ was assigned to develop a GNSS-based component, which since then is known as the GTS (Ground Tracking System). System benefit The ground motion information delivered by the GTS is a valuable source for a fast understanding of an earthquake's mechanism with a high relevance to assess the probability and magnitude of a potentially following tsunami. The system may detect highest displacement vector values, where

  3. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography (United States)

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.


    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  4. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    Davis, J.H.


    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  5. Tracking and Interception of Ground-Based RF Sources Using Autonomous Guided Munitions with Passive Bearings-Only Sensors and Tracking Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezal, Kenan; Agate, Craig


    This paper considers the problem of tracking and intercepting a potentially moving ground-based RF source with an autonomous guided munition that has a passive bearings-only sensor located on its nose...

  6. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong


    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  7. Restoring integrity--A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme. (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt


    The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. The study design used classical grounded theory. The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  8. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...... experimentally with a 9.6-dB peak-to-average 50-kHz 16 quadrature amplitude modulation TEDS carrier, the setup providing 44-dBm (25 W) average RF output power at 400 MHz with 44% dc-to-RF efficiency state-of-the-art ACPR of less than ${-}$67 dBc, switching noise artifacts around ${-}$ 85 dBc, and an overall rms...

  9. Study on Vibration Reduction Method for a Subway Station in Soft Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Feng Ma


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of metro system in urban areas, vibration and its impact on adjacent structures caused by metro operation have drawn much attention of researches and worries relating to it have risen. This paper analyzed the vibration attenuation and the environment impact by a case study of a subway station in soft ground with adjacent laboratory building. A method of setting a compound separation barrier surrounding the station is checked and different materials used in the barrier have been tried and tested through numerical analysis. Key parameters of the material and the effects of vibration reduction are studied with the purpose that similar methodology and findings can be referenced in future practices.

  10. Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments (United States)


    Vehicles in Urban Environments The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...Pine Tree Road Ithaca, NY 14850 -2820 ABSTRACT Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments...Probabilistic Anticipation for Autonomous Robots in Urban Environments, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, (04 2014): 0. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2013.2291620 Isaac

  11. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.


    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  12. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station (United States)

    Hill, J.


    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  13. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.


    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS...... launch (2nd Nov. 2009), ESA defined the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the aim of testing the readiness, ensemble coordination and speed of operations, to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns......). Together with the ground SM measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the VAS area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to obtain satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval...

  14. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu


    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  15. Ground Motion Uncertainty and Variability (single-station sigma): Insights from Euroseistest, Greece (United States)

    Ktenidou, O. J.; Roumelioti, Z.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Cotton, F.; Pitilakis, K.


    Despite recent improvements in networks and data, the global aleatory uncertainty (sigma) in GMPEs is still large. One reason is the ergodic approach, where we combine data in space to make up for lack of data in time. By estimating the systematic site response, we can make site-specific GMPEs and use a lower, site-specific uncertainty: single-station sigma. In this study we use the EUROSEISTEST database (, which has two distinct advantages: good existing knowledge of site conditions at all stations, and careful relocation of the recorded events. Constraining the site and source parameters as best we can, we minimise the within- and between-events components of the global, ergodic sigma. Following that, knowledge of the site response from empirical and theoretical approaches permits us to move on to single-station sigma. The variability per site is not clearly correlated to the site class. We show that in some cases knowledge of Vs30 is not sufficient, and that site-specific data are needed to capture the response, possibly due to 2D/3D effects from complex geometry. Our values of single-station sigma are low compared to the literature. This may be due to the good ray coverage we have in all directions for small, nearby records. Indeed, our single-station sigma values are similar to published single-path values, which means that they may correspond to a fully -rather than partially- non-ergodic approach. We find larger ground motion variability for short distances and small magnitudes. This may be related to the uncertainty in the depth affecting nearby records more, or to stress drop and causing trade-offs between the source and site terms for small magnitudes.

  16. Model track studies on fouled ballast using ground penetrating radar and multichannel analysis of surface wave (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn


    Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.

  17. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid


    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  18. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Bastrup Jørgensen


    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background: Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design: The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods: The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results: Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion: In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  19. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt


    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  20. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming


    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  1. Maintaining Unity - relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes. A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten


    To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rancang Bangun Maximum Power Point Tracking pada Panel Photovoltaic Berbasis Logika Fuzzy di Buoy Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Prima Juliansyah Putra


    Full Text Available Salah satu aplikasi yang sering digunakan dalam bidang energi terbarukan adalah panel photovoltaic. Panel ini memiliki prinsip kerja berdasarkan efek photovoltaic dimana lempengan logam akan menghasilkan energi listrik apabila diberi intensitas cahaya. Untuk menghasilkan daya keluaran panel yang maksimal, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma yang biasa disebut Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.MPPT yang diterapkan pada sistem photovoltaic berfungsi untuk mengatur nilai tegangan keluaran panel sehingga titik ker-janya beroperasi pada kondisi maksimal. Algoritma MPPT pada panel ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan logika fuzzy melalui mikrokontroler Arduino Uno sebagai pem-bangkit sinyal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM yang akan dikirimkan menuju DC-DC Buck Boost Converter. Keluaran dari buck boost converterakan dihubungkan secara langsung dengan buoy weather station untuk menyuplai energi listrik tiap komponen yang berada di dalamnya. Untuk menguji performansi dari algoritma MPPT yang telah dirancang, maka sistem akan diuji menggunakan variasi beban antara metode direct-coupled dengan MPPT menggunakan logika fuzzy. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa MPPT dengan logika fuzzy dapat menghasilkan daya maksimum daripada direct-coupled. Pada sistem panel photovoltaic ini memiliki range efisiensi 33.07589 % hingga 74.25743 %. Daya mak-simal dapat dicapai oleh sistem untuk tiap variasi beban dan efisiensi maksimal dapat dicapai pada beban 20 Ohm dari hasil pengujian sistem MPPT.

  3. Galvanic coupling effects for module-mounting elements of ground-mounted photovoltaic power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierozynski Boguslaw


    Full Text Available This communication reports on the concerns associated with possible generation of galvanic coupling effects for construction materials that are used to manufacture mounting assemblies for ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV power stations. For this purpose, six macro-corrosion galvanic cells were assembled, including: hot-dip Zn/Magnelis®-coated steel/Al and stainless steel (SS/Al cells. Corrosion experiments involved continuous, ca. three-month exposure of these couplings in 3 wt.% NaCl solution, conducted at room temperature for a stable pH value of around 8. All corrosion cells were subjected to regular assessment of galvanic current-density and potential parameters, where special consideration was given to compare the corrosion behaviour of Zn-coated steel samples with that of Magnelis®-coated electrodes. Characterization of surface condition and elemental composition for examined materials was carried-out by means of SEM and EDX spectroscopy techniques.

  4. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas


    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  5. A neurocomputational model of figure-ground discrimination and target tracking. (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, L; Guo, A


    A neurocomputational model is presented for figureground discrimination and target tracking. In the model, the elementary motion detectors of the correlation type, the computational modules of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement, an oscillatory neural-network motion perception module and a selective attention module are involved. It is shown that through the oscillatory amplitude and frequency encoding, and selective synchronization of phase oscillators, the figure and the ground can be successfully discriminated from each other. The receptive fields developed by hidden units of the networks were surprisingly similar to the actual receptive fields and columnar organization found in the primate visual cortex. It is suggested that equivalent mechanisms may exist in the primate visual cortex to discriminate figure-ground in both temporal and spatial domains.

  6. Characterisation of ground motion recording stations in the Groningen gas field (United States)

    Noorlandt, Rik; Kruiver, Pauline P.; de Kleine, Marco P. E.; Karaoulis, Marios; de Lange, Ger; Di Matteo, Antonio; von Ketelhodt, Julius; Ruigrok, Elmer; Edwards, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk


    The seismic hazard and risk analysis for the onshore Groningen gas field requires information about local soil properties, in particular shear-wave velocity ( V S). A fieldwork campaign was conducted at 18 surface accelerograph stations of the monitoring network. The subsurface in the region consists of unconsolidated sediments and is heterogeneous in composition and properties. A range of different methods was applied to acquire in situ V S values to a target depth of at least 30 m. The techniques include seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) with varying source offsets, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) on Rayleigh waves with different processing approaches, microtremor array, cross-hole tomography and suspension P-S logging. The offset SCPT, cross-hole tomography and common midpoint cross-correlation (CMPcc) processing of MASW data all revealed lateral variations on length scales of several to tens of metres in this geological setting. SCPTs resulted in very detailed V S profiles with depth, but represent point measurements in a heterogeneous environment. The MASW results represent V S information on a larger spatial scale and smooth some of the heterogeneity encountered at the sites. The combination of MASW and SCPT proved to be a powerful and cost-effective approach in determining representative V S profiles at the accelerograph station sites. The measured V S profiles correspond well with the modelled profiles and they significantly enhance the ground motion model derivation. The similarity between the theoretical transfer function from the V S profile and the observed amplification from vertical array stations is also excellent.

  7. Schedule Optimization of Imaging Missions for Multiple Satellites and Ground Stations Using Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Lee, Junghyun; Kim, Heewon; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Haedong; Choi, Sujin; Jung, Okchul; Chung, Daewon; Ko, Kwanghee


    In this paper, we propose a method that uses a genetic algorithm for the dynamic schedule optimization of imaging missions for multiple satellites and ground systems. In particular, the visibility conflicts of communication and mission operation using satellite resources (electric power and onboard memory) are integrated in sequence. Resource consumption and restoration are considered in the optimization process. Image acquisition is an essential part of satellite missions and is performed via a series of subtasks such as command uplink, image capturing, image storing, and image downlink. An objective function for optimization is designed to maximize the usability by considering the following components: user-assigned priority, resource consumption, and image-acquisition time. For the simulation, a series of hypothetical imaging missions are allocated to a multi-satellite control system comprising five satellites and three ground stations having S- and X-band antennas. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, simulations are performed via three operation modes: general, commercial, and tactical.

  8. Effect of earthquake and tsunami. Ground motion and tsunami observed at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Katsuichirou


    Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) were struck by the earthquake off the pacific coast in the Tohoku District, which occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. Afterwards, tsunamis struck the Tohoku District. In terms of the earthquake observed at the Fukushima NPSs, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of reactor buildings exceeded the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss for partial periodic bands at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. As for the Fukushima Daini NPS, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of the reactor buildings was below the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss. Areas inundated by Tsunami at each NPS were investigated and tsunami inversion analysis was made to build tsunami source model to reproduce tide record, tsunami height, crustal movement and inundated area, based on tsunami observation records in the wide areas from Hokkaido to Chiba prefectures. Tsunami heights of Fukushima Daiichi and Daini NPSs were recalculated as O.P. +13m and +9m respectively and tsunami peak height difference was attributed to the extent of superposition of tsunami waves of tsunami earthquake type of wave source in the area along interplane trench off the coast in the Fukushima prefecture and interplane earthquake type of wave source in rather deep interplate area off the coast in the Miyagi prefecture. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Improving the Quality of Satellite Imagery Based on Ground-Truth Data from Rain Gauge Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Militino


    Full Text Available Multitemporal imagery is by and large geometrically and radiometrically accurate, but the residual noise arising from removal clouds and other atmospheric and electronic effects can produce outliers that must be mitigated to properly exploit the remote sensing information. In this study, we show how ground-truth data from rain gauge stations can improve the quality of satellite imagery. To this end, a simulation study is conducted wherein different sizes of outlier outbreaks are spread and randomly introduced in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the day and night land surface temperature (LST of composite images from Navarre (Spain between 2011 and 2015. To remove outliers, a new method called thin-plate splines with covariates (TpsWc is proposed. This method consists of smoothing the median anomalies with a thin-plate spline model, whereby transformed ground-truth data are the external covariates of the model. The performance of the proposed method is measured with the square root of the mean square error (RMSE, calculated as the root of the pixel-by-pixel mean square differences between the original data and the predicted data with the TpsWc model and with a state-space model with and without covariates. The study shows that the use of ground-truth data reduces the RMSE in both the TpsWc model and the state-space model used for comparison purposes. The new method successfully removes the abnormal data while preserving the phenology of the raw data. The RMSE reduction percentage varies according to the derived variables (NDVI or LST, but reductions of up to 20% are achieved with the new proposal.

  10. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  11. Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach (United States)

    Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto


    Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these

  12. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Webb


    Full Text Available The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012. Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g. Measures of colony decline—mound repair capability and internal core temperature—did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring–summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring–summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  13. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae) Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds. (United States)

    Webb, Garry


    The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound) and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g). Measures of colony decline-mound repair capability and internal core temperature-did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring-summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring-summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  14. Performance evaluation of optical channel transmission between UAVs and Ground Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatziefremidis Antonis


    Full Text Available Free space optical (FSO communications links is a promising solution for the provision of high data rate point to point communications. In particular deploying FSO technology for mobile links between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and fixed Ground Stations (GS introduces several interesting challenges. In this paper, we investigate the ability of a mobile FSO system to operate in different atmospheric conditions. Specifically, we characterize the quality of the optical channel with a proper model in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER and average Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and we report a detailed optical amplification model able to support a constant Quality of Service for different distances from 1 km up to 35 km at 10 Gbps with 1550 nm wavelength. An extensive comparative analysis among different FSO configurations links considering the altitude of the UAV, the wavelength and the atmospheric conditions is provided. The results show that there is degradation at the BER over a slanted path compared to a horizontal path at the same conditions.

  15. Whistler-triggered chorus emissions observed during daytime at low latitude ground station Jammu (United States)

    Pratap Patel, Ravindra; Singh, K. K.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    In this paper, we present whistler-triggered chorus emission recorded during daytime at low latitude ground station Jammu (geomag. Lat. = 22 degree 26 minute N; L = 1.17) during the period from 1996 to 2003. After analysis of the eight years collected data, we found out 29 events, which are definitely identified as chorus emission triggered by whistlers. During the observation period the magnetic activity is high. Analysis shows that the whistlers have propagated along the geomagnetic field line having L-values lying between L = 1.9 and 4.4. These waves could have propagated along the geomagnetic field lines either in ducted mode or pro-longitudinal mode. The measured relative intensity of the triggered emission and whistler wave is approximately the same and also varies from one event to another. It is proposed that these waves are generated through a process of wave-particle interaction and wave-wave interactions. Related parameters of this interaction are computed for different L-value and wave amplitude. With the help of dynamic spectra of these emissions, the proposed mechanisms are explained.

  16. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  17. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh


    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  18. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida (United States)

    Halford, K.J.


    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  19. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic


    Jong-Kyun Chung; Young-In Won; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim


    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both sola...

  20. Uranium content of coal ashes from Southern Brazil coal fueled power stations, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.K.


    The feasibility of the application of the fission track registration technique for the determination of uranium in coal ashes was shown. The wet method was employed using as detector the Makrofol KG=10 μm, manufactured by Bayer. The coal ashes were originated from coal-fueled power stations localized in Southern Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 10 to 27 mg U/kg. Since the total error variation was from 18,4% to 23,8%, the method used was considered excellent. The determination of the uranium content in coal ashes is of considerable interest in environmental control in power stations, in their vicinity and wherever these ashes are used or stored. The technique used is the work proved to be very appropriate for the purpose aimed at. (Author) [pt

  1. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce


    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  2. Ground-based telescope pointing and tracking optimization using a neural controller. (United States)

    Mancini, D; Brescia, M; Schipani, P


    Neural network models (NN) have emerged as important components for applications of adaptive control theories. Their basic generalization capability, based on acquired knowledge, together with execution rapidity and correlation ability between input stimula, are basic attributes to consider NN as an extremely powerful tool for on-line control of complex systems. By a control system point of view, not only accuracy and speed, but also, in some cases, a high level of adaptation capability is required in order to match all working phases of the whole system during its lifetime. This is particularly remarkable for a new generation ground-based telescope control system. Infact, strong changes in terms of system speed and instantaneous position error tolerance are necessary, especially in case of trajectory disturb induced by wind shake. The classical control scheme adopted in such a system is based on the proportional integral (PI) filter, already applied and implemented on a large amount of new generation telescopes, considered as a standard in this technological environment. In this paper we introduce the concept of a new approach, the neural variable structure proportional integral, (NVSPI), related to the implementation of a standard multi layer perceptron network in new generation ground-based Alt-Az telescope control systems. Its main purpose is to improve adaptive capability of the Variable structure proportional integral model, an already innovative control scheme recently introduced by authors [Proc SPIE (1997)], based on a modified version of classical PI control model, in terms of flexibility and accuracy of the dynamic response range also in presence of wind noise effects. The realization of a powerful well tested and validated telescope model simulation system allowed the possibility to directly compare performances of the two control schemes on simulated tracking trajectories, revealing extremely encouraging results in terms of NVSPI control robustness and

  3. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.


    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  4. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D. Ryan


    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km2 that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  5. Reducing Earth Topography Resolution for SMAP Mission Ground Tracks Using K-Means Clustering (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen


    The K-means clustering algorithm is used to reduce Earth topography resolution for the SMAP mission ground tracks. As SMAP propagates in orbit, knowledge of the radar antenna footprints on Earth is required for the antenna misalignment calibration. Each antenna footprint contains a latitude and longitude location pair on the Earth surface. There are 400 pairs in one data set for the calibration model. It is computationally expensive to calculate corresponding Earth elevation for these data pairs. Thus, the antenna footprint resolution is reduced. Similar topographical data pairs are grouped together with the K-means clustering algorithm. The resolution is reduced to the mean of each topographical cluster called the cluster centroid. The corresponding Earth elevation for each cluster centroid is assigned to the entire group. Results show that 400 data points are reduced to 60 while still maintaining algorithm performance and computational efficiency. In this work, sensitivity analysis is also performed to show a trade-off between algorithm performance versus computational efficiency as the number of cluster centroids and algorithm iterations are increased.

  6. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed


    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  7. Atmospheric methane variability at the Peterhof station (Russia): ground-based observations and modeling (United States)

    Makarova, Maria; Kirner, Oliver; Poberovskii, Anatoliy; Imhasin, Humud; Timofeyev, Yuriy; Virolainen, Yana; Makarov, Boris


    MF from the true ones were detected for the Peterhof station (0.4% for TC and -0.2% for MF). It should be also noted that the limited number of sunny days may distort the annual cycle estimated from FTIR data (comparing to true). This fact have to take into account when mean levels of CH4 TC and MF obtained from FTIR compare against climatological or averaged model data. Ground-based in situ (local) observations of CH4 mole fraction (LMF) are being performed by LGR GGA-24r-EP gas analyzer since 2013 (at the Peterhof station). The monthly averaged amplitude of LMF diurnal cycle shows variations which are similar to the temporal behavior of MF CH4 retrieved from FTIR for 2013. It is suggested that the value of the amplitude of CH4 LMF diurnal variation characterizes the intensity of methane sources for the North-western region of Russia and can be used to explain the observed features of the annual variation of FTIR MF CH4. However, to prove this statement further simultaneous FTIR and in situ measurements of CH4 should be continued. Both, FTIR observations and EMAC simulations, revealed the positive trend of CH4 over 2009-2012 of about 0.2% per year (statistically significant). FTIR data for 2013 that were taken into account led to a decrease in trend value from 0.2%/yr (2009-2012) to 0.13%/yr (2009-2013). It may indicate the end of the period of extremely high growth rates of methane in the atmosphere that have been registered by different observational systems since 2006. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Saint-Petersburg State University (grant No., Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No.12-05-00596, 14-05-897). Measurement facilities were provided by Geo Environmental Research Center "Geomodel" of Saint-Petersburg State University.

  8. AFSC/ABL: ShoreZone Ground Stations, web-posted database in ArcGIS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The web-posted Alaska Shore Station Database is a compilation of hundreds of intertidal sites that were visited and evaluated throughout the coastal waters of...

  9. Assessment of infrasound signals recorded on seismic stations and infrasound arrays in the western United States using ground truth sources (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Stump, Brian W.


    Ground truth sources in Utah during 2003-2013 are used to assess the contribution of temporal atmospheric conditions to infrasound detection and the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models. Ground truth sources consist of 28 long duration static rocket motor burn tests and 28 impulsive rocket body demolitions. Automated infrasound detections from a hybrid of regional seismometers and infrasound arrays use a combination of short-term time average/long-term time average ratios and spectral analyses. These detections are grouped into station triads using a Delaunay triangulation network and then associated to estimate phase velocity and azimuth to filter signals associated with a particular source location. The resulting range and azimuth distribution from sources to detecting stations varies seasonally and is consistent with predictions based on seasonal atmospheric models. Impulsive signals from rocket body detonations are observed at greater distances (>700 km) than the extended duration signals generated by the rocket burn test (up to 600 km). Infrasound energy attenuation associated with the two source types is quantified as a function of range and azimuth from infrasound amplitude measurements. Ray-tracing results using Ground-to-Space atmospheric specifications are compared to these observations and illustrate the degree to which the time variations in characteristics of the observations can be predicted over a multiple year time period.

  10. On the calculation of air flow rates to ventilate closed-type stations in subway with the double-track tunnel (United States)

    Kiyanitsa, LA


    Metro is not only the most promising kind of public transport but also an important part of infrastructure in a modern city. As a place where large groups of people gather, subway is to ensure the required air exchange at the passenger platforms of the stations. The air flow rate for airing the stations is also determined based on the required temperature, humidity and MAC of gases. The present study estimates the required air flow rate at the passenger platform of the closed-type subway station with the double-track tunnel given the standard air temperature, humidity and gas concentration, as well as based on the condition of the specified air flow feed and air changes per hour. The article proposes the scheme of air recirculation from the double-track tunnel to the station.

  11. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.


    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  12. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.


    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  13. Finite element analysis of an underground protective test station subjected to severe ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, S.N.; Milloy, J.A.; Von Riesemann, W.A.


    A recoverable test station, to be used at a location very close to the detonation point of an underground nuclear test, was designed and tested. The design required that the station survive the very severe free-field stress and that the acceleration of the station be limited to a tolerable level. The predicted magnitude and time history of the free-field stress and acceleration indicated that the volcanic tuff medium and the materials of the proposed structure would exhibit nonlinear behavior, so that a transient dynamic analysis of a composite type structure involving nonlinear materials and large deformations was necessary. Parameter studies using a linear elastic dynamic finite element technique were first done to gain an understanding of the effect of the material properties and to study the response of various configurations of the protective structure to the transient loading. Based upon the results of these parameter studies and upon fielding considerations, a tentative design was chosen. This design was then evaluated using a newly developed finite element computer program. The results obtained from this analysis are compared to the field test results. (U.S.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative maximum power point tracking, MPPT, algorithm for a photovoltaic module, PVM, to produce the maximum power, Pmax, using the optimal duty ratio, D, for different types of converters and load matching.We present a state-based approach to the design of the maximum power point tracker for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system. The system under consideration consists of a solar array with nonlinear time-varying characteristics, a step-up converter with appropriate filter.The proposed algorithm has the advantages of maximizing the efficiency of the power utilization, can be integrated to other MPPT algorithms without affecting the PVM performance, is excellent for Real-Time applications and is a robust analytical method, different from the traditional MPPT algorithms which are more based on trial and error, or comparisons between present and past states. The procedure to calculate the optimal duty ratio for a buck, boost and buck-boost converters, to transfer the maximum power from a PVM to a load, is presented in the paper. Additionally, the existence and uniqueness of optimal internal impedance, to transfer the maximum power from a photovoltaic module using load matching, is proved.

  15. Integration of communications and tracking data processing simulation for space station (United States)

    Lacovara, Robert C.


    A simplified model of the communications network for the Communications and Tracking Data Processing System (CTDP) was developed. It was simulated by use of programs running on several on-site computers. These programs communicate with one another by means of both local area networks and direct serial connections. The domain of the model and its simulation is from Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface to Data Management Systems (DMS). The simulation was designed to allow status queries from remote entities across the DMS networks to be propagated through the model to several simulated ORU's. The ORU response is then propagated back to the remote entity which originated the request. Response times at the various levels were investigated in a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system environment. Results indicate that the effective bandwidth of the system may be too low to support expected data volume requirements under conventional operating systems. Instead, some form of embedded process control program may be required on the node computers.

  16. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (United States)

    Jee, Geonhwa; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Changsup; Kim, Yong Ha


    Since the operation of the King Sejong Station (KSS) started in Antarctic Peninsula in 1989, there have been continuous efforts to perform the observation for the upper atmosphere. The observations during the initial period of the station include Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) and Michelson Interferometer for the mesosphere and thermosphere, which are no longer in operation. In 2002, in collaboration with York University, Canada, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) was installed to observe the temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region and it has still been producing the mesopause temperature data until present. The observation was extended by installing the meteor radar in 2007 to observe the neutral winds and temperature in the MLT region during the day and night in collaboration with Chungnam National University. We also installed the all sky camera in 2008 to observe the wave structures in the MLT region. All these observations are utilized to study on the physical characteristics of the MLT region and also on the wave phenomena such as the tide and gravity wave in the upper atmosphere over KSS that is well known for the strong gravity wave activity. In this article, brief introductions for the currently operating instruments at KSS will be presented with their applications for the study of the upper atmosphere

  17. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhwa Jee


    Full Text Available Since the operation of the King Sejong Station (KSS started in Antarctic Peninsula in 1989, there have been continuous efforts to perform the observation for the upper atmosphere. The observations during the initial period of the station include Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI and Michelson Interferometer for the mesosphere and thermosphere, which are no longer in operation. In 2002, in collaboration with York University, Canada, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI was installed to observe the temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region and it has still been producing the mesopause temperature data until present. The observation was extended by installing the meteor radar in 2007 to observe the neutral winds and temperature in the MLT region during the day and night in collaboration with Chungnam National University. We also installed the all sky camera in 2008 to observe the wave structures in the MLT region. All these observations are utilized to study on the physical characteristics of the MLT region and also on the wave phenomena such as the tide and gravity wave in the upper atmosphere over KSS that is well known for the strong gravity wave activity. In this article, brief introductions for the currently operating instruments at KSS will be presented with their applications for the study of the upper atmosphere.

  18. Relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programme during total hip or knee replacement. A grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    and considerate support in concern for the patients; Substituting mode, with practical and cognitive support; and Adapting mode, by trying to fit in with the patients’ and health professionals’ requirements. Study II: 16 patients aged 70 to 94 were included and data was collected through 15 non......The aim of this Ph.D.-dissertation was to generate grounded theories of relatives, patients, and health professionals’ pattern of behaviour, respectively, in relation to the relatives of older patients’ fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. The dissertation includes...... to the older patients’ self-determination of being autonomous and how they adapt and are perceived in the health professionals’ environment. This may be useful to the health professionals in orthopaedic fast-track treatment programmes and their future collaboration with older patients and their relatives....

  19. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun


    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  20. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.


    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  1. Primary Dendrite Array Morphology: Observations from Ground-based and Space Station Processed Samples (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard; Erdmann, Robert; Poirier, David


    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, "Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST)". Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K/cm (MICAST6) and 28 K/cm (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 micron/s) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 micron/s). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  2. Electron precipitation induced by VLF noise bursts at the plasmapause and detected at conjugate ground stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, B.; Carpenter, D.L.


    A new type of wave-induced electron precipitation event has been identified. During observations at conjugate stations Siple, Antarctica, and Roberval, Canada (L-4.2), VLF noise bursts were found to be associated on a one-to-one basis with amplitude perturbations of subionispheric radio propagation. The amplitude perturbations are attributed to patches of enhanced ionization that extended below approx.80 km in the nighttime ionosphere and that were produced by precipitating electron bursts. Similar amplitude perturbations seen previously were correlated with whistlers that propagated within the plasmasphere. For the new events the driving waves were structured collections of rising elements that propagated just beyond the plasmapause at roughly 5-min intervals over a several-hour period. These noise bursts were of relatively long duration (approx.10 s) and strong intensity (inferred to be >30 pT at the equator). Triggering of the noise bursts appears to have been mostly by whistlers but changed in character with time. Some later bursts had narrowband precursors at constant frequencies possibly locked to power line harmonic radiation. The burst initiation characteristics suggest the existence of a variable threshold for rapid temporal growth in the magnetosphere controlled by the trapped electron dynamics. The temporal signatures of the amplitude perturbations show that precipitation was maintained over multiple bounces of the trapped magnetospheric electrons. In some cases these signatures include a new undershoot effect during the recovery phase lasting 2--5 min. This effect may have been related to cutoff of background drizzle precipitation. Precipitation effects were observed on both long (approx.10 Mm) and short (approx.1/2 Mm) subionospheric paths and were monitored simultaneously at the conjugate stations. Similarities in the perturbation signatures on long and short paths suggest that the form of the signatures was governed by ionospheric changes

  3. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove


    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  4. Study of the effects of atmospheric parameters on ground radon concentration by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, Adams


    Radon emanation was continuously monitored for 24 months, accompanied by measurements of atmospheric parameters. Integrated measurments of radon concentrations have been performed with LR-115 cellulose nitrate track detectors. The monitoring was conducted at 16 sites distributed around the Dakar University area. Observed changes in radon concentration are interpreted as being caused by changes in meteorological conditions and ocean tides. (author)

  5. Developing a particle tracking surrogate model to improve inversion of ground water - Surface water models (United States)

    Cousquer, Yohann; Pryet, Alexandre; Atteia, Olivier; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Delbart, Célestine; Valois, Rémi; Dupuy, Alain


    The inverse problem of groundwater models is often ill-posed and model parameters are likely to be poorly constrained. Identifiability is improved if diverse data types are used for parameter estimation. However, some models, including detailed solute transport models, are further limited by prohibitive computation times. This often precludes the use of concentration data for parameter estimation, even if those data are available. In the case of surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) models, concentration data can provide SW-GW mixing ratios, which efficiently constrain the estimate of exchange flow, but are rarely used. We propose to reduce computational limits by simulating SW-GW exchange at a sink (well or drain) based on particle tracking under steady state flow conditions. Particle tracking is used to simulate advective transport. A comparison between the particle tracking surrogate model and an advective-dispersive model shows that dispersion can often be neglected when the mixing ratio is computed for a sink, allowing for use of the particle tracking surrogate model. The surrogate model was implemented to solve the inverse problem for a real SW-GW transport problem with heads and concentrations combined in a weighted hybrid objective function. The resulting inversion showed markedly reduced uncertainty in the transmissivity field compared to calibration on head data alone.

  6. Satellite tracking and stable isotope analysis link wintering and feeding grounds of North Atlantic baleen whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    e Silva, Monica Almeida; Prieto, Rui; Gauffier, Pauline; Palsboll, Per; Bérubé, Martine; Colaco, Ana


    Knowledge of the distribution of baleen whales throughout their annual cycle is critical for understanding their ecology, life history and behavior, and for their effective conservation. We combined analysis of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and satellite tracking data of blue (Balaenoptera

  7. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurny, F.; Yukihara, E. G.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S. W. S.


    The laboratory of Microbiology at SCK.CEN, in collaboration with different universities, participates in several ESA programmes with bacterial experiments that are carried out in the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of these programmes is to study the effects of space flight conditions such as microgravity and cosmic radiation on the general behaviour of model bacteria. To measure the radiation doses received by the bacteria, different detectors accompanied the microbiological experiments. The results obtained during two space flight missions are discussed. This dosimetry experiment was a collaboration between different institutes so that the doses could be estimated by different techniques. For measurement of the high linear energy transfer (LET) doses (>10 keV μm -1 ), two types of etched track detectors were used. The low LET part of the spectrum was measured by three types of thermoluminescent detectors ( 7 LiF:Mg,Ti; 7 LiF:Mg,Cu,P; Al 2 O 3 :C) and by the optically stimulated luminescence technique using Al 2 O 3 :C detectors. (authors)

  8. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyun Chung


    Full Text Available We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E. It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, we analyzed the observed temperatures in relation to F10.7 and Kp indices to examine the effect of the solar and the geomagnetic activities on high-latitude neutral thermosphere. During the observing period, the solar activity was at its minimum. The measured temperatures are usually in the range between about 600~1000 K with some seasonal variation and are higher than those predicted by semi-empirical model, VSH (Vector Spherical Harmonics and empirical model, MSIS (Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter-86.

  9. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Won, Young-In; Lee, Bang Yong; Kim, Jhoon


    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, we analyzed the observed temperatures in relation to F10.7 and Kp indices to examine the effect of the solar and the geomagnetic activities on high-latitude neutral thermosphere. During the observing period, the solar activity was at its minimum. The measured temperatures are usually in the range between about 600~1000 K with some seasonal variation and are higher than those predicted by semi-empirical model, VSH (Vector Spherical Harmonics) and empirical model, MSIS (Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter)-86.

  10. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen


    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  11. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    Halford, K.J.


    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  12. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  13. High Accuracy Ground-based near-Earth-asteroid Astrometry using Synthetic Tracking (United States)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Saini, Navtej; Sandhu, Jagmit; Werne, Thomas; Choi, Philip; Ely, Todd A.; Jacobs, Chirstopher S.; Lazio, Joseph; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Owen, William M.; Preston, Robert; Turyshev, Slava; Michell, Adam; Nazli, Kutay; Cui, Isaac; Monchama, Rachel


    Accurate astrometry is crucial for determining the orbits of near-Earth-asteroids (NEAs). Further, the future of deep space high data rate communications is likely to be optical communications, such as the Deep Space Optical Communications package that is part of the baseline payload for the planned Psyche Discovery mission to the Psyche asteroid. We have recently upgraded our instrument on the Pomona College 1 m telescope, at JPL's Table Mountain Facility, for conducting synthetic tracking by taking many short exposure images. These images can be then combined in post-processing to track both asteroid and reference stars to yield accurate astrometry. Utilizing the precision of the current and future Gaia data releases, the JPL-Pomona College effort is now demonstrating precision astrometry on NEAs, which is likely to be of considerable value for cataloging NEAs. Further, treating NEAs as proxies of future spacecraft that carry optical communication lasers, our results serve as a measure of the astrometric accuracy that could be achieved for future plane-of-sky optical navigation.

  14. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  15. Characteristics of Spectral Responses for a Ground Motion from Mediterranean Earthquake – ZEGHANGHANE Station (6.3Mw in Morocco, and its Influence on the Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahatri Mohamed


    In this case, we determine the spectral response of the ground motion for ZGH station, and study his influence on the structures as well as make a comparison with the requirements of the Moroccan seismic construction regulations (RPS 2000 revised in 2011.

  16. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeja, R.J.


    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru

  17. Hoof accelerations and ground reaction forces of Thoroughbred racehorses measured on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces. (United States)

    Setterbo, Jacob J; Garcia, Tanya C; Campbell, Ian P; Reese, Jennifer L; Morgan, Jessica M; Kim, Sun Y; Hubbard, Mont; Stover, Susan M


    To compare hoof acceleration and ground reaction force (GRF) data among dirt, synthetic, and turf surfaces in Thoroughbred racehorses. 3 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses. Forelimb hoof accelerations and GRFs were measured with an accelerometer and a dynamometric horseshoe during trot and canter on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces at a racecourse. Maxima, minima, temporal components, and a measure of vibration were extracted from the data. Acceleration and GRF variables were compared statistically among surfaces. The synthetic surface often had the lowest peak accelerations, mean vibration, and peak GRFs. Peak acceleration during hoof landing was significantly smaller for the synthetic surface (mean + or - SE, 28.5g + or - 2.9g) than for the turf surface (42.9g + or - 3.8g). Hoof vibrations during hoof landing for the synthetic surface were dirt and turf surfaces. Peak GRF for the synthetic surface (11.5 + or - 0.4 N/kg) was 83% and 71% of those for the dirt (13.8 + or - 0.3 N/kg) and turf surfaces (16.1 + or - 0.7 N/kg), respectively. The relatively low hoof accelerations, vibrations, and peak GRFs associated with the synthetic surface evaluated in the present study indicated that synthetic surfaces have potential for injury reduction in Thoroughbred racehorses. However, because of the unique material properties and different nature of individual dirt, synthetic, and turf racetrack surfaces, extending the results of this study to encompass all track surfaces should be done with caution.

  18. Tracking the footsteps: a constructivist grounded theory of the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium. (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra


    To construct a grounded theory that explains the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium while caring for older adults in acute care settings. Delirium is often under-recognised in acute care settings; this may stem from underdeveloped clinical reasoning processes. Little is known about registered nurses' clinical reasoning processes in complex situations such as delirium recognition. Seventeen registered nurses working in acute care settings were interviewed. Concurrent data collection and analysis, constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were conducted in 2013-2014. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse interview data about the clinical reasoning processes of registered nurse in acute hospital settings. The core category that emerged from data was 'Tracking the footsteps'. This refers to the common clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses in this study used to recognise delirium in older adults in acute care settings. It depicted the process of continuously trying to catch the state of delirium in older adults. Understanding the clinical reasoning processes that contribute to delirium under-recognition provides a strategy by which this problem can be brought to the forefront of awareness and intervention by registered nurses. Registered nurses could draw from the various processes identified in this research to develop their clinical reasoning practice to enhance their effective assessment strategies. Delirium recognition by registered nurses will contribute to quality care to older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tracking morphological changes and slope instability using spaceborne and ground-based SAR data (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Ciampalini, Andrea; Solari, Lorenzo; Frodella, William; Bellotti, Fernando; Fumagalli, Alfio; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola


    Stromboli (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy) is an active volcano that is frequently affected by moderate to large mass wasting, which has occasionally triggered tsunamis. With the aim of understanding the relationship between the geomorphologic evolution and slope instability of Stromboli, remote sensing information from space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) change detection and interferometry (InSAR) () and Ground Based InSAR (GBInSAR) was compared with field observations and morphological analyses. Ground reflectivity and SqueeSAR™ (an InSAR algorithm for surface deformation monitoring) displacement measurements from X-band COSMO-SkyMed satellites (CSK) were analysed together with displacement measurements from a permanent-sited, Ku-band GBInSAR system. Remote sensing results were compared with a preliminary morphological analysis of the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) steep volcanic flank, which was carried out using a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Finally, field observations, supported by infrared thermographic surveys (IRT), allowed the interpretation and validation of remote sensing data. The analysis of the entire dataset (collected between January 2010 and December 2014) covers a period characterized by a low intensity of Strombolian activity. This period was punctuated by the occurrence of lava overflows, occurring from the crater terrace evolving downslope toward SdF, and flank eruptions, such as the 2014 event. The amplitude of the CSK images collected between February 22nd, 2010, and December 18th, 2014, highlights that during periods characterized by low-intensity Strombolian activity, the production of materials ejected from the crater terrace towards the SdF is generally low, and erosion is the prevailing process mainly affecting the central sector of the SdF. CSK-SqueeSAR™ and GBInSAR data allowed the identification of low displacements in the SdF, except for high displacement rates (up to 1.5 mm/h) that were measured following both lava

  20. Geomagnetic activity at Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude ground stations: How much can be explained using TS05 model (United States)

    Castillo, Yvelice; Pais, Maria Alexandra; Fernandes, João; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna L.; Pinheiro, Fernando J. G.


    For the 2007 to 2014 period, we use a statistical approach to evaluate the performance of Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005] semi-empirical model (TS05) in estimating the magnetospheric transient signal observed at four Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude ground stations: Coimbra, Portugal; Panagyurishte, Bulgary; Novosibirsk, Russia and Boulder, USA. Using hourly mean data, we find that the TS05 performance is clearly better for the X (North-South) than for the Y (East-West) field components and for more geomagnetically active days as determined by local K-indices. In ∼ 50% (X) and ∼ 30% (Y) of the total number of geomagnetically active days, correlation values yield r ≥ 0.7. During more quiet conditions, only ∼ 30% (X) and ∼ 15% (Y) of the number of analyzed days yield r ≥ 0.7. We compute separate contributions from different magnetospheric currents to data time variability and to signal magnitude. During more active days, all tail, symmetric ring and partial ring currents contribute to the time variability of X while the partial ring and field aligned currents contribute most to the time variability of Y. The tail and symmetric ring currents are main contributors to the magnitude of X. In the best case estimations when r ≥ 0.7, remaining differences between observations and TS05 predictions could be explained by global induction in the Earth's upper layers and crustal magnetization. The closing of field aligned currents through the Earth's center in the TS05 model seems to be mainly affecting the Y magnetospheric field predictions.

  1. Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Using Magnetometer Data from the CHAMP Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite and Ground-Based Stations: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Sutcliffe


    Full Text Available We review research on geomagnetic pulsations carried out using magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellite and ground-based stations in South Africa and Hungary. The high quality magnetic field measurements from CHAMP made it possible to extract and clearly resolve Pi2 and Pc3 pulsations in LEO satellite data. Our analyses for nighttime Pi2 pulsations are indicative of a cavity mode resonance. However, observations of daytime Pi2 pulsation events identified in ground station data show no convincing evidence of their occurrence in CHAMP data. We also studied low-latitude Pc3 pulsations and found that different types of field line resonant structure occur, namely discrete frequencies driven by a narrow band source and L-dependent frequencies driven by a broad band source.

  2. Seasonal variations of leaf and canopy properties tracked by ground-based NDVI imagery in a temperate forest. (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Heskel, Mary; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu


    Changes in plant phenology affect the carbon flux of terrestrial forest ecosystems due to the link between the growing season length and vegetation productivity. Digital camera imagery, which can be acquired frequently, has been used to monitor seasonal and annual changes in forest canopy phenology and track critical phenological events. However, quantitative assessment of the structural and biochemical controls of the phenological patterns in camera images has rarely been done. In this study, we used an NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera to monitor daily variations of vegetation reflectance at visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and found that the infrared camera based NDVI (camera-NDVI) agreed well with the leaf expansion process that was measured by independent manual observations at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. We also measured the seasonality of canopy structural (leaf area index, LAI) and biochemical properties (leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content). We found significant linear relationships between camera-NDVI and leaf chlorophyll concentration, and between camera-NDVI and leaf nitrogen content, though weaker relationships between camera-NDVI and LAI. Therefore, we recommend ground-based camera-NDVI as a powerful tool for long-term, near surface observations to monitor canopy development and to estimate leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen status, and LAI.

  3. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.


    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  4. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06 (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  5. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.


    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  6. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurný, František; Yukihara, E.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S.


    Roč. 120, 1- 4 (2006), s. 433-437 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bacteria l experiments * space flight * etched track detectors * thermoluminescent detectors Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2006

  7. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten


    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  8. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan


    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  9. Ground-based multi-station spectroscopic imaging with ALIS. - Scientific highlights, project status and future prospects (United States)

    Brändström; Gustavsson, Björn; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Sandahl, Ingrid; Sergienko, Tima; Steen, Ake


    The Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) was first proposed at the ESA-PAC meeting in Lahnstein 1989. The first spectroscopic imaging station was operational in 1994, and since then up to six stations have been in simultaneous operation. Each station has a scientific-grade CCD-detector and a filter-wheel for narrow-band interference-filters with six positions. The field-of-view is around 70°. Each imager is mounted in a positioning system, enabling imaging of a common volume from several sites. This enables triangulation and tomography. Raw data from ALIS is freely available at ("") and ALIS is open for scientific colaboration. ALIS made the first unambiguous observations of Radio-induced optical emissions at high latitudes, and the detection of water in a Leonid meteor-trail. Both rockets and satellite coordination are considered for future observations with ALIS.

  10. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun


    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  11. Confirmation test on the dynamic interaction between a model reactor-building foundation and ground in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Hideo; Kisaki, Noboru; Shiota, Mutsumi


    On the site of unit 2 (planned) in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station, a model reactor-building foundation of reinforced concrete with diameter of 12 m and height of 5 m was installed. With a vibration generator, its forced vibration tests were carried out in October to December, 1980. Valuable data were able to be obtained on the dynamic interaction between the model foundation and the ground, and also the outlook for the application of theories in hard base rock was obtained. (1) The resonance frequency of the model foundation in horizontal vibration was 35 Hz in both NS and EW directions. (2) Remarkable difference was not observed in the horizontal vibration behavior between NS and EW directions, so that there is not anisotropy in the ground. (3) The model foundation was deformed nearly as a rigid body. (J.P.N.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakim Ghozali


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Telepon Seluler (Ponsel merupakan salah satu teknologi yang paling diminati di dalam setiap aspek kehidupan manusia modern dan juga teknologi paling berkembang saat ini. Hampir setiap orang menggunakan teknologi ponsel ini untuk memperoleh informasi terkini yang dibutuhkannya. Tingkat penggunaan yang cukup tinggi inilah yang mendorong terciptanya beragam aplikasi dengan memanfaatkan teknologi ini. Aplikasi tracking armada yang memanfaatkan kemudahan teknologi ponsel tersebut menjadi alternatif tersendiri yang diharapkan mampu memberikan solusi di dalam permasalahan proses monitoring armada. Konsep bisnis yang ditawarkan adalah pemanfaatan layanan provider seluler sebagai sarana pelacak lokasi ponsel yang selanjutnya informasi tersebut dikembangkan lebih lanjut menjadi informasi berupa pemetaan data ke peta lokasi untuk melacak keberadaan armada. Sehingga diharapkan kehadiran solusi baru ini mampu memberikan sejumlah kemudahan dan efisiensi yang tidak dimiliki oleh alat lain. Kata Kunci : Perusahaan Logistik,Tracking Armada via BTS, SMS, Peta Lokasi.

  13. Relative drifts and stability of satellite and ground-based stratospheric ozone profiles at NDACC lidar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair


    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of stratospheric ozone at different stations in the low and mid-latitudes is investigated. The analysis is performed by comparing the collocated profiles of ozone lidars, at the northern mid-latitudes (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg, Haute-Provence Observatory, Tsukuba and Table Mountain Facility, tropics (Mauna Loa Observatory and southern mid-latitudes (Lauder, with ozonesondes and space-borne sensors (SBUV(/2, SAGE II, HALOE, UARS MLS and Aura MLS, extracted around the stations. Relative differences are calculated to find biases and temporal drifts in the measurements. All measurement techniques show their best agreement with respect to the lidar at 20–40 km, where the differences and drifts are generally within ±5% and ±0.5% yr−1, respectively, at most stations. In addition, the stability of the long-term ozone observations (lidar, SBUV(/2, SAGE II and HALOE is evaluated by the cross-comparison of each data set. In general, all lidars and SBUV(/2 exhibit near-zero drifts and the comparison between SAGE II and HALOE shows larger, but insignificant drifts. The RMS of the drifts of lidar and SBUV(/2 is 0.22 and 0.27% yr−1, respectively at 20–40 km. The average drifts of the long-term data sets, derived from various comparisons, are less than ±0.3% yr−1 in the 20–40 km altitude at all stations. A combined time series of the relative differences between SAGE II, HALOE and Aura MLS with respect to lidar data at six sites is constructed, to obtain long-term data sets lasting up to 27 years. The relative drifts derived from these combined data are very small, within ±0.2% yr−1.

  14. Opportune acquisition and tracking time for the fast-moving targets in a ground-based telescope (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Jianli; Chen, Tao


    Acquisition is defined as identification for a fixed target in the related field of sight (FOS), while tracking means the sway of the telescope's axis of sight (AOS). The automatic acquisition and tracking is a process in which the operating way of the telescope should be switched from guiding to automatic tracking. There are some kinds of method to improve the acquisition and tracking ability for fast moving targets: to extend the acquisition and tracking FOS with memory and storage information of the sensor system; the multimode control to improve the dynamic property of the servo system; to choose an opportune time for acquisition and tracking; to select the control regulator parameter in every working states. If the processor of the CCD sensor can temporarily remember and save the information of the target before it moves out of the FOS, correspondingly, the FOS may be extended. The data forecast technology is used to store the target information. The automatic interception experiments are carried out to verify the control strategy.

  15. Low-cost approach for a software-defined radio based ground station receiver for CCSDS standard compliant S-band satellite communications (United States)

    Boettcher, M. A.; Butt, B. M.; Klinkner, S.


    A major concern of a university satellite mission is to download the payload and the telemetry data from a satellite. While the ground station antennas are in general easy and with limited afford to procure, the receiving unit is most certainly not. The flexible and low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver "BladeRF" is used to receive the QPSK modulated and CCSDS compliant coded data of a satellite in the HAM radio S-band. The control software is based on the Open Source program GNU Radio, which also is used to perform CCSDS post processing of the binary bit stream. The test results show a good performance of the receiving system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Mrugala


    The purpose of the analysis is to provide a basis for ensuring safe conditions in the Case VI area. The scope of this analysis is to analyze and recommend future action for a section of the South Ramp with a deviated alignment, here referred to as Case VI 3.01.X area. This area is located between Stations 71+07.10 to 71+44.10 in the South Ramp of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) Main Loop tunnel. The scope of the analysis includes accomplishing the following goals: (1) Document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support; (2) Document the geotechnical properties of the rock mass and structural features; and (3) Evaluate the stability and develop recommendations for future action

  17. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco


    Full Text Available As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.. Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs, GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  18. Applications of power beaming from space-based nuclear power stations. [Laser beaming to airplanes; microwave beaming to ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.; Hertzberg, A.


    Power beaming from space-based reactor systems is examined using an advanced compact, lightweight Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR). Closed Brayton power conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% can be achieved with turbines, with reactor exit temperatures on the order of 2000/sup 0/K and a liquid drop radiator to reject heat at temperatures of approx. 500/sup 0/K. Higher RBR coolant temperatures (up to approx. 3000/sup 0/K) are possible, but gains in power conversion efficiency are minimal, due to lower expander efficiency (e.g., a MHD generator). Two power beaming applications are examined - laser beaming to airplanes and microwave beaming to fixed ground receivers. Use of the RBR greatly reduces system weight and cost, as compared to solar power sources. Payback times are a few years at present prices for power and airplane fuel.

  19. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.


    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  20. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.


    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  1. Following solar activity with geomagnetic and cosmic-ray ground-based stations in the Iberian Peninsula region (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Victor; José Blanco, Juan; Miquel Torta, Joan; Catalán, Manuel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna; Tordesillas, José Manuel; Solé, Germán; Gomis-Moreno, Almudena


    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the South-West of Europe between 36°00' N and 43°47' N and between 9°29' W and 3°19' E. There are four Geomagnetic Observatories currently operative in this area devoted to the observation of the Earth's magnetic field: Observatori de l'Ebre (NE Spain); Observatorio de San Pablo de los Montes (central Spain); Observatorio de San Fernando (southern Spain); Observatório de Coimbra (central Portugal); plus another one, Observatorio de Güímar, in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). There is also one neutron monitor located in Guadalajara (central Spain; 40°38' N, 3°9' W at 708 m asl) continuously measuring the arrival of cosmic rays to the Earth's surface. In this work we show combined observations of these six stations during events caused by solar activity. We analyze them looking for differences that could imply extremely local effects caused by the response of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar activity.

  2. Observation of an Aligned Gas - Solid "Eutectic" during Controlled Directional Solidification Aboard the International Space Station - Comparison with Ground-based Studies (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.


    Direct observation of the controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile was conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 450 millibar pressure for eventual processing in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus in the glovebox facility (GBX) on board the ISS. Real time visualization during controlled directional melt back of the sample showed nitrogen bubbles emerging from the interface and moving through the liquid up the imposed temperature gradient. Over a period of time these bubbles disappear by dissolving into the melt. Translation is stopped after melting back of about 9 cm of the sample, with an equilibrium solid-liquid interface established. During controlled re-solidification, aligned tubes of gas were seen growing perpendicular to the planar solid/liquid interface, inferring that the nitrogen previously dissolved into the liquid SCN was now coming out at the solid/liquid interface and forming the little studied liquid = solid + gas eutectic-type reaction. The observed structure is evaluated in terms of spacing dimensions, interface undercooling, and mechanisms for spacing adjustments. Finally, the significance of processing in a microgravity environment is ascertained in view of ground-based results.

  3. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007 (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  4. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong


    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  5. Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann


    Full Text Available Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level, Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3 are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5 and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS. A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS, Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and −0.9 to −9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.

  6. Estimating Ground-Level PM2.5 by Fusing Satellite and Station Observations: A Geo-Intelligent Deep Learning Approach (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Xuechen; Zhang, Liangpei


    Fusing satellite observations and station measurements to estimate ground-level PM2.5 is promising for monitoring PM2.5 pollution. A geo-intelligent approach, which incorporates geographical correlation into an intelligent deep learning architecture, is developed to estimate PM2.5. Specifically, it considers geographical distance and spatiotemporally correlated PM2.5 in a deep belief network (denoted as Geoi-DBN). Geoi-DBN can capture the essential features associated with PM2.5 from latent factors. It was trained and tested with data from China in 2015. The results show that Geoi-DBN performs significantly better than the traditional neural network. The out-of-sample cross-validation R2 increases from 0.42 to 0.88, and RMSE decreases from 29.96 to 13.03 μg/m3. On the basis of the derived PM2.5 distribution, it is predicted that over 80% of the Chinese population live in areas with an annual mean PM2.5 of greater than 35 μg/m3. This study provides a new perspective for air pollution monitoring in large geographic regions.

  7. Reconstruction of the muon production depth with ground array data based on the TTC (Time-Track Complementarity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valore L.


    Full Text Available The muon longitudinal profile along the shower axis depends on the nature of the primary particle and primary hadronic interaction with air nuclei. The measurement of muonic component inside showers generated by Very High Energy Cosmic Rays provides a very powerful tool for sensing high energy interactions between cosmic ray particles and air molecules. Fundamental parameters such as the interaction cross section, inelasticity, hadron production and multiplicity can be measured by comparing the development of shower electromagnetic component with that of muonic component. Since 1992 a method has been developed to combine the muon arrival direction in a ground based array for cosmic ray detection with their arrival delay with respect to the shower core. This combination permits to select high energy muons weakly scattered in the atmosphere and to reconstruct their height of production with good accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility to realize a “dual” apparatus able to detect both electromagnetic and muonic component at primary energies greater than 1017eV.

  8. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A; Teplykh, S; Bukhman, N


    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks. (paper)

  9. Particle-tracking investigation of the retention of sucker larvae emerging from spawning grounds in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Simon, David C.; Markle, Douglas F.


    This study had two objectives: (1) to use the results of an individual-based particle-tracking model of larval sucker dispersal through the Williamson River delta and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to interpret field data collected throughout Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, and (2) to use the model to investigate the retention of sucker larvae in the system as a function of Williamson River flow, wind, and lake elevation. This is a follow-up study to work reported in Wood and others (2014) in which the hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath Lake was combined with an individual-based, particle-tracking model of larval fish entering the lake from spawning areas in the Williamson River. In the previous study, the performance of the model was evaluated through comparison with field data comprising larval sucker distribution collected in 2009 by The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Geological Survey, primarily from the (at that time) recently reconnected Williamson River Delta and along the eastern shoreline of Upper Klamath Lake, surrounding the old river mouth. The previous study demonstrated that the validation of the model with field data was moderately successful and that the model was useful for describing the broad patterns of larval dispersal from the river, at least in the areas surrounding the river channel immediately downstream of the spawning areas and along the shoreline where larvae enter the lake. In this study, field data collected by OSU throughout the main body of Upper Klamath Lake, and not just around the Williamson River Delta, were compared to model simulation results. Because the field data were collected throughout the lake, it was necessary to include in the simulations larvae spawned at eastern shoreline springs that were not included in the earlier studies. A complicating factor was that the OSU collected data throughout the main body of the lake in 2011 and 2012, after the end of several years of larval drift

  10. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  11. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter


    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances

  12. Assessment of four methods to estimate surface UV radiation using satellite data, by comparison with ground measurements from four stations in Europe (United States)

    Arola, Antti; Kalliskota, S.; den Outer, P. N.; Edvardsen, K.; Hansen, G.; Koskela, T.; Martin, T. J.; Matthijsen, J.; Meerkoetter, R.; Peeters, P.; Seckmeyer, G.; Simon, P. C.; Slaper, H.; Taalas, P.; Verdebout, J.


    Four different satellite-UV mapping methods are assessed by comparing them against ground-based measurements. The study includes most of the variability found in geographical, meteorological and atmospheric conditions. Three of the methods did not show any significant systematic bias, except during snow cover. The mean difference (bias) in daily doses for the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) methods was found to be less than 10% with a RMS difference of the order of 30%. The Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) method was assessed for a few selected months, and the accuracy was similar to the RIVM and JRC methods. It was additionally used to demonstrate how spatial averaging of high-resolution cloud data improves the estimation of UV daily doses. For the Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB) method the differences were somewhat higher, because of their original cloud algorithm. The mean difference in daily doses for IASB was about 30% or more, depending on the station, while the RMS difference was about 60%. The cloud algorithm of IASB has been replaced recently, and as a result the accuracy of the IASB method has improved. Evidence is found that further research and development should focus on the improvement of the cloud parameterization. Estimation of daily exposures is likely to be improved if additional time-resolved cloudiness information is available for the satellite-based methods. It is also demonstrated that further development work should be carried out on the treatment of albedo of snow-covered surfaces.

  13. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah


    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  14. Noncoherent Doppler tracking: first flight results (United States)

    DeBoy, Christopher C.; Robert Jensen, J.; Asher, Mark S.


    Noncoherent Doppler tracking has been devised as a means to achieve highly accurate, two-way Doppler measurements with a simple, transceiver-based communications system. This technique has been flown as an experiment on the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft, (launched 7 December 2001), as the operational technique for Doppler tracking on CONTOUR, and is baselined on several future deep space missions at JHU/APL. This paper reports on initial results from a series of successful tests of this technique between the TIMED spacecraft and NASA ground stations in the Deep Space Network. It also examines the advantages that noncoherent Doppler tracking and a transceiver-based system may offer to small satellite systems, including reduced cost, mass, and power.

  15. "Keeping on track"-Hospital nurses' struggles with maintaining workflow while seeking to integrate evidence-based practice into their daily work: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Høye, Sevald; Hjälmhult, Esther; Danbolt, Lars Johan; Kirkevold, Marit


    Evidence-based practice is considered a foundation for the provision of quality care and one way to integrate scientific knowledge into clinical problem-solving. Despite the extensive amount of research that has been conducted to evaluate evidence-based practice implementation and research utilization, these practices have not been sufficiently incorporated into nursing practice. Thus, additional research regarding the challenges clinical nurses face when integrating evidence-based practice into their daily work and the manner in which these challenges are approached is needed. The aim of this study was to generate a theory about the general patterns of behaviour that are discovered when clinical nurses attempt to integrate evidence-based practice into their daily work. We used Glaser's classical grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory. The study was conducted in two different medical wards in a large Norwegian hospital. In one ward, nurses and nursing assistants were developing and implementing new evidence-based procedures, and in the other ward, evidence-based huddle boards for risk assessment were being implemented. A total of 54 registered nurses and 9 assistant nurses were observed during their patient care and daily activities. Of these individuals, thirteen registered nurses and five assistant nurses participated in focus groups. These participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected during 90h of observation and 4 focus groups conducted from 2014 to 2015. Each focus group session included four to five participants and lasted between 55 and 65min. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently, and the data were analysed using the constant comparative method. "Keeping on track" emerged as an explanatory theory for the processes through which the nurses handled their main concern: the risk of losing the workflow. The following three strategies were used by nurses when attempting to integrate evidence

  16. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite (United States)

    Sayers, R. S.


    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  17. Adaptive ground implemented phase array (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.


    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  18. Authenticated tracking and monitoring system (ATMS) tracking shipments from an Australian uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.


    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) answers the need for global monitoring of the status and location of sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items and environmental conditions. A receiver and processing unit collect a variety of sensor event data. The collected data are transmitted to the INMARSAT satellite communication system, which then sends the data to appropriate ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements. Following discussions between the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in early 1995, the parties mutually agreed to conduct and evaluate a field trial prototype ATMS to track and monitor shipments of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) from an operating uranium mine in Australia to a final destination in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with numerous stops along the way. During the months of February and March 1998, the trial was conducted on a worldwide basis, with tracking and monitoring stations located at sites in both Australia and the US. This paper describes ATMS and the trial

  19. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station. (United States)

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.


    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant Non-Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC) in the Earth's atmosphere, with a lifetime of approximately 2 months. C2H6 has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources such as biomass burning, natural gas loss and biofuel consumption. Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is by far the major C2H6 sink as the seasonally changing OH concentration controls the strong modulation of the ethane abundance throughout the year. Ethane lowers Cl atom concentrations in the lower stratosphere and is a major source of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (by reaction with OH). Involved in the formation of tropospheric ozone and in the destruction of atmospheric methane through changes in OH, C2H6 is a non-direct greenhouse gas with a net-global warming potential (100-yr horizon) of 5.5. The retrieval of ethane from ground-based infrared (IR) spectra is challenging. Indeed, the fitting of the ethane features is complicated by numerous interferences by strong water vapor, ozone and methane absorptions. Moreover, ethane has a complicated spectrum with many interacting vibrational modes and the current state of ethane parameters in HITRAN (e.g. : Rothman et al., 2009, see was rather unsatisfactory in the 3 μm region. In fact, PQ branches outside the 2973-3001 cm-1 range are not included in HITRAN, and most P and R structures are missing. New ethane absorption cross sections recorded at the Molecular Spectroscopy Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harrison et al., 2010) are used in our retrievals. They were calibrated in intensity by using reference low-resolution spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Pseudoline parameters fitted to these ethane spectra have been combined with HITRAN 2004 line parameters (including all the 2006 updates) for all other species encompassed in the selected microwindows. Also, the improvement brought by the update of the line positions and intensities

  20. Tracking spatial distribution of human-derived wastewater from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, Patricia A.; King, Catherine K.; Mondon, Julie A.


    Highlights: • Elevated δ15N and δ13C observed in fish tissue up to 4 km from the Davis Station wastewater outfall. • δ15N decreased stepwise with concentrations decreasing with distance from the discharge point. • The trend observed for δ13C almost mirrored δ15N. • Current wastewater treatment practices are insufficient to avoid uptake of contaminants in fish. - Abstract: Stable isotope ratios, δ15N and δ13C were effectively used to determine the geographical dispersion of human derived sewage from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii). Fish within 0–4 km downstream of the outfall exhibited higher δ15N and δ13C values relative to reference sites. Nitrogen in particular showed a stepped decrease in δ15N with increasing distance from the discharge point by 1–2‰. Stable isotopes were better able to detect the extent of wastewater contamination than other techniques including faecal coliform and sterol measures. Uptake and assimilation of δ15N and δ13C up to 4 km from the outfall adds to growing evidence indicating the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is not sufficient to avoid impact to the surrounding environment. Isotopic assimilation in T. bernacchii is a viable biomarker for investigation of initial sewage exposure and longer term monitoring in the future

  1. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie


    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  2. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  3. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development (United States)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  4. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  5. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon


    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  6. The topside ionospheric effective scale heights (HT) derived with ROCSAT-1 and ground-based Ionosonde observations at equatorial and mid-latitude stations (United States)

    Ram Sudarsanam, Tulasi; Su, Shin-Yi; Liu, C. H.; Reinisch, Bodo

    In this study, we propose the assimilation of topside in situ electron density data from ROCSAT-1 satellite along with the ionosonde measurements for accurate determination of topside iono-spheric effective scale heights (HT) using -Chapman function. The reconstructed topside elec-tron density profiles using these scale heights exhibit an excellent similitude with Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) profiles, and are much better representations than the existing methods of Reinisch-Huang method and/or the empirical IRI-2007 model. The main advan-tage with this method is that it allows the precise determination of the effective scale height (HT) and the topside electron density profiles at a dense network of ionosonde/digisonde sta-tions where no ISR facilities are available. The demonstration of the method is applied by investigating the diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of HT over the dip-equatorial station Jicamarca and the mid-latitude station Grahamstown. The diurnal variation of scale heights over Jicamarca consistently exhibits a morning time descent followed by a minimum around 0700-0800 LT and a pronounced maximum at noon during all the seasons of both high and moderate solar activity periods. Further, the scale heights exhibit a secondary maximum during the post-sunset hours of equinoctial and summer months, whereas the post-sunset peak is absent during the winter months. These typical features are further investigated using the topside ion properties obtained by ROCSAT-1 as well as SAMI2 model simulations. The re-sults consistently indicate that the diurnal variation of the effective scale height (HT) does not closely follow the plasma temperature variation and at equatorial latitudes is largely controlled by the vertical ExB drift.

  7. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.


    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  8. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  9. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system

  10. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.


    can occur and that the calibrated model resulted in smaller differences than the alternative models between simulated and interpreted ages and measured tracer concentrations in most, but not all, wells. Results of the first alternative model indicate that the distribution of young water in the upper confined aquifer is substantially different when well-bore leakage at known abandoned wells and test holes is removed from the model. In the second alternative model, simulated age near the bottom of the unconfined aquifer was younger than interpreted ages and simulated chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations in the upper confined aquifer were zero in five out of six wells because the conventional Well Package fails to account for flow between model layers though well bores. The third alternative model produced differences between simulated and interpreted ground-water ages and measured chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations that were comparable to the calibrated model. However, simulated hydraulic heads deviated from measured hydraulic heads by a greater amount than for the calibrated model. Even so, because the third alternative model simulates steady-state flow, additional analysis was possible using steady-state particle tracking to assess the contributing recharge area to a public supply well selected for analysis of factors contributing to well vulnerability. Results from particle-tracking software (MODPATH) using the third alternative model indicates that the contributing recharge area of the study public-supply well is a composite of elongated, seemingly isolated areas associated with wells that are screened in multiple aquifers. The simulated age distribution of particles at the study public-supply well indicates that all water younger than 58 years travels through well bores of wells screened in multiple aquifers. The age distribution from the steady-state model using MODPATH estimates the youngest 7 percent of the water to have a flow-weighted mean age

  11. Effects of mid-latitude ionosphere observed from ground-based ionosonde data obtained at Alma-Ata station during strong geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordienko, G.I.; Vodynnikov, V.V.; Yakovets, A.E.


    The ionospheric effects of fourteen great geomagnetic storms occurred in the 1986-2005 time period observed over Alma-Ata (43.25 N , 76.92 E ) were studied experimentally using ground-based ionosonde. The observations showed a number of unusual (for the Alma-Ata location) ionospheric phenomena during the active phase of geomagnetic storms, along with a negative phase in the ionospheric F2-layer disturbance an anomalous formation of the E, E2, and F1 layers at nighttime, and the appearance of aurora-type sporadic E layers were found. Processes of interaction of energetic neutrals with the upper atmosphere modeled by Bauske et al. (1997) for magnetically distributed condition seem to explain the phenomena of ionization of F1 and E region at night. (author)

  12. Fire Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  13. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  14. Planned Burn-Piedmont. A local operational numerical meteorological model for tracking smoke on the ground at night: Model development and sensitivity tests (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier


    Smoke from both prescribed fires and wildfires can, under certain meteorological conditions, become entrapped within shallow layers of air near the ground at night and get carried to unexpected destinations as a combination of weather systems push air through interlocking ridge-valley terrain typical of the Piedmont of the Soutthern United States. Entrapped smoke...

  15. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data (United States)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William


    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  16. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi


    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  17. Extreme events in total ozone over the Northern mid-latitudes: an analysis based on long-term data sets from five European ground-based stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Harald E. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)), e-mail:; Jancso, Leonhardt M. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics, Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)); Di Rocco, Stefania (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)) (and others)


    We apply methods from extreme value theory to identify extreme events in high (termed EHOs) and low (termed ELOs) total ozone and to describe the distribution tails (i.e. very high and very low values) of five long-term European ground-based total ozone time series. The influence of these extreme events on observed mean values, long-term trends and changes is analysed. The results show a decrease in EHOs and an increase in ELOs during the last decades, and establish that the observed downward trend in column ozone during the 1970-1990s is strongly dominated by changes in the frequency of extreme events. Furthermore, it is shown that clear 'fingerprints' of atmospheric dynamics (NAO, ENSO) and chemistry [ozone depleting substances (ODSs), polar vortex ozone loss] can be found in the frequency distribution of ozone extremes, even if no attribution is possible from standard metrics (e.g. annual mean values). The analysis complements earlier analysis for the world's longest total ozone record at Arosa, Switzerland, confirming and revealing the strong influence of atmospheric dynamics on observed ozone changes. The results provide clear evidence that in addition to ODS, volcanic eruptions and strong/moderate ENSO and NAO events had significant influence on column ozone in the European sector

  18. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  19. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J


    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  20. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.


    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  1. Amtrak Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  2. From city’s station to station city. An integrative spatial approach to the (redevelopment of station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Martins da Conceição


    Full Text Available Since its origin, the railway station has had a complicated relationship with the city, demanding periodical updates, particularly regarding spatial issues. With the aim of improving the liveability of station areas, current redevelopment projects are reconceptualising them as balanced transport ‘nodes’ and ‘places’ in the city. However, the proposed spatial solutions do not fully support the sought after economic, social and environmental performances. These intentions continue to be predominantly bounded with the (abstract planological level, not finding appropriate translation at the (concrete spatial design level. Further, the interdisciplinary nature of the highly complex planning and design processes of station areas, which should contribute to enhance the performance of their spaces, reinforces constraints and relegates architecture to a marginal role in this quest. It is thus necessary to understand how architecture can contribute to the improvement of the spatial performance of contemporary stations areas, supporting their current reconceptualization. To gain this understanding, the research explored the factors which influence the spatial definition and performance of European High Speed Train station areas, using “design research” and “research by design”. Via a theoretical integrative framework, synthesized from knowledge developed by architecture and other sciences, case studies of ‘through’ stations were analysed and compared. Six cases, encapsulating the most recurrent relative positions of the railway (infrastructure and the station building towards the(ir direct built environment, were chosen out of a large sample. For each category (cases with railway tracks at (a ground level, (b elevated level and (c underground level, two cases, featuring an adapted station building and a newly built one, were studied. Their physical and functional characteristics were mapped at several scales and moments (in history, as

  3. 3D Volume and Morphology of Perennial Cave Ice and Related Geomorphological Models at Scăriloara Ice Cave, Romania, from Structure from Motion, Ground Penetrating Radar and Total Station Surveys (United States)

    Hubbard, J.; Onac, B. P.; Kruse, S.; Forray, F. L.


    Research at Scăriloara Ice Cave has proceeded for over 150 years, primarily driven by the presence and paleoclimatic importance of the large perennial ice block and various ice speleothems located within its galleries. Previous observations of the ice block led to rudimentary volume estimates of 70,000 to 120,000 cubic meters (m3), prospectively placing it as one of the world's largest cave ice deposits. The cave morphology and the surface of the ice block are now recreated in a total station survey-validated 3D model, produced using Structure from Motion (SfM) software. With the total station survey and the novel use of ArcGIS tools, the SfM validation process is drastically simplified to produce a scaled, georeferenced, and photo-texturized 3D model of the cave environment with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.24 m. Furthermore, ground penetrating radar data was collected and spatially oriented with the total station survey to recreate the ice block basal surface and was combined with the SfM model to create a model of the ice block itself. The resulting ice block model has a volume of over 118,000 m3 with an uncertainty of 9.5%, with additional volumes left un-surveyed. The varying elevation of the ice block basal surface model reflect specific features of the cave roof, such as areas of enlargement, shafts, and potential joints, which offer further validation and inform theories on cave and ice genesis. Specifically, a large depression area was identified as a potential area of initial ice growth. Finally, an ice thickness map was produced that will aid in the designing of future ice coring projects. This methodology presents a powerful means to observe and accurately characterize and measure cave and cave ice morphologies with ease and affordability. Results further establish the significance of Scăriloara's ice block to paleoclimate research, provide insights into cave and ice block genesis, and aid future study design.

  4. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias


    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  5. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  6. Ground-atmosphere interactions at Gale (United States)

    Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.; Ramos, M.; Hallet, B.; Gómez, F. G.; Jun, I.; Fisk, M. R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martin-Torres, J.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano, M.


    We analyze variations in environmental parameters and regolith properties along Curiosity's track to determine the possible causes of an abrupt change in the thermal properties of the ground and the atmosphere observed around Sol 120, as the rover transitioned from an area of sandy soil (Rocknest) to an area of fractured bedrock terrain (Yellowknife). Curiosity is instrumented with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) sensors to measure the air temperature, the ground temperature, and the hydrogen content of the shallow subsurface along Curiosity's track. Analysis of the REMS data is used to estimate the regolith's heat budget. This analysis suggests that the abrupt decrease in the ground and atmosphere temperature and the difference between ground and air temperatures observed around Sol 120 is likely caused by an increase in the soil thermal inertia. The changes in thermal inertia have been known for some time so confirming this by the REMS package provides ground truthing. A new unexpected finding is that the regolith water content, as indicated by DAN's detection of hydrogen content, is higher in the Yellowknife soil. Another interesting finding at this site are the holes and other signs of recent geological activity in the area of fractured terrain that may reflect large volumetric variations and facilitate gas exchange between the ground and atmosphere. Near-surface volumetric changes in soil and bedrock could reflect changes in the volume of subsurface H2O, or in the partitioning of H2O among its three phases. Volume increases could also result from salt crystal growth in rock pores and soil pores associated with the adsorption of water vapor. Crystallization in pores is a significant weathering process on Earth; it could well be active on Mars. Salts also inhibits the exchange of moisture between the ground and the atmosphere, and cements the soils of arid places such as in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in

  7. Tracked vehicles in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Walton, P.J.


    A programme of remote inspections has been conducted on the Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd Power Station using climbing vehicles. Tracked remotely operated vehicles supported the inspection programme by assisting with the delivery and recovery of the climbing vehicles and facilitating the use of various accessory packages. This paper presents details of the support project, the tracked vehicles and of the uses made of them during the inspection programme. (author)

  8. Detecting swift fox: Smoked-plate scent stations versus spotlighting (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Kieth E. Severson; Jody Javersak


    We compared two methods of detecting presence of swift fox: smoked-plate scent stations and spotlight counts. Tracks were counted on ten 1-mile (1.6-km) transects with bait/tracking plate stations every 0.1 mile (0.16 km). Vehicle spotlight counts were conducted on the same transects. Methods were compared with Spearman's rank order correlation. Repeated measures...

  9. Ground Contact Analysis for Korea’s Fictitious Lunar Orbiter Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song


    Full Text Available In this research, the ground contact opportunity for the fictitious low lunar orbiter is analyzed to prepare for a future Korean lunar orbiter mission. The ground contact opportunity is basically derived from geometrical relations between the typical ground stations at the Earth, the relative positions of the Earth and Moon, and finally, the lunar orbiter itself. Both the cut-off angle and the orbiter’s Line of Sight (LOS conditions (weather orbiter is located at near or far side of the Moon seen from the Earth are considered to determine the ground contact opportunities. Four KOMPSAT Ground Stations (KGSs are assumed to be Korea’s future Near Earth Networks (NENs to support lunar missions, and world-wide separated Deep Space Networks (DSNs are also included during the contact availability analysis. As a result, it is concluded that about 138 times of contact will be made between the orbiter and the Daejeon station during 27.3 days of prediction time span. If these contact times are converted into contact duration, the duration is found to be about 8.55 days, about 31.31% of 27.3 days. It is discovered that selected four KGSs cannot provide continuous tracking of the lunar orbiter, meaning that international collaboration is necessary to track Korea’s future lunar orbiter effectively. Possible combinations of world-wide separated DSNs are also suggested to compensate for the lack of contact availability with only four KGSs, as with primary and backup station concepts. The provided algorithm can be easily modified to support any type of orbit around the Moon, and therefore, the presented results could aid further progress in the design field of Korea’s lunar orbiter missions.

  10. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo


    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...... by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Keyword: Thermal pollution,Summer months,Advanced-along track scanning radiometers,Urban heat island,Remote sensing,Canopy layer,Atmospheric temperature,Ground based sensors,Weather information services,Satellite remote sensing,Infra-red sensor,Weather stations...

  11. IFE Target Injection Tracking and Position Prediction Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Jonestrask, Kevin


    To achieve high gain in an inertial fusion energy power plant, driver beams must hit direct drive targets with ±20 μm accuracy (±100 μm for indirect drive). Targets will have to be tracked with even greater accuracy. The conceptual design for our tracking system, which predicts target arrival position and timing based on position measurements outside of the reaction chamber was previously described. The system has been built and has begun tracking targets at the first detector station. Additional detector stations are being modified for increased field of view. After three tracking stations are operational, position predictions at the final station will be compared to position measurements at that station as a measure of target position prediction accuracy.The as-installed design will be described together with initial target tracking and position prediction accuracy results. Design modifications that allow for improved accuracy and/or in-chamber target tracking will also be presented

  12. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors (United States)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  13. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.


    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  14. Environmental ground borne noise and vibration protection of sensitive cultural receptors along the Athens Metro Extension to Piraeus. (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos


    Attiko Metro S.A., the state company ensuring the development of the Athens Metro network, has recently initiated a new extension of 7.6 km, has planned for line 3 of Athens Metro from Haidari to Piraeus "Dimotikon Theatre" towards "University of Piraeus" (forestation), connecting the major Piraeus Port with "Eleftherios Venizelos" International Airport. The Piraeus extension consists of a Tunnel Boring Machine, 2 tracks and, tunnel sections, as well as 6 stations and a forestation (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) at the end of the alignment. In order to avoid the degradation of the urban acoustic environment from ground borne noise and vibration during metro operation, the assessment of the required track types and possible noise mitigation measures was executed, and for each section and each sensitive building, the ground borne noise and vibration levels will be numerically predicted. The calculated levels were then compared with ground borne noise and vibration level criteria. The necessary mitigation measures were defined in order to guarantee, in each location along the extension, the allowable ground borne Noise and Vibration max. levels inside nearby sensitive buildings taking into account alternative Transfer Functions for ground borne noise diffusion inside the buildings. Ground borne noise levels were proven to be higher than the criterion where special track work is present and also in the case of the sensitive receptor: "Dimotikon Theatre". In order to reduce the ground borne noise levels to allowable values in these sections, the installation of tracks and special track work on a floating slab was assessed and recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The forward tracking, an optical model method

    CERN Document Server

    Benayoun, M


    This Note describes the so-called Forward Tracking, and the underlying optical model, developed in the context of LHCb-Light studies. Starting from Velo tracks, cheated or found by real pattern recognition, the tracks are found in the ST1-3 chambers after the magnet. The main ingredient to the method is a parameterisation of the track in the ST1-3 region, based on the Velo track parameters and an X seed in one ST station. Performance with the LHCb-Minus and LHCb-Light setups is given.

  16. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.


    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  17. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry


    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  18. Communications and Tracking Distributed Systems Evolution Study (United States)

    Culpepper, William


    The Communications and Tracking (C & T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts are used to derive the results to date. A description of the C & T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the hooks and scars currently identified to support future growth.

  19. Empirical Ground Motion Characterization of Induced Seismicity in Alberta and Oklahoma (United States)

    Novakovic, M.; Atkinson, G. M.; Assatourians, K.


    We develop empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ground motions from induced earthquakes in Alberta and Oklahoma following the stochastic-model-based method of Atkinson et al. (2015 BSSA). The Oklahoma ground-motion database is compiled from over 13,000 small to moderate seismic events (M 1 to 5.8) recorded at 1600 seismic stations, at distances from 1 to 750 km. The Alberta database is compiled from over 200 small to moderate seismic events (M 1 to 4.2) recorded at 50 regional stations, at distances from 30 to 500 km. A generalized inversion is used to solve for regional source, attenuation and site parameters. The obtained parameters describe the regional attenuation, stress parameter and site amplification. Resolving these parameters allows for the derivation of regionally-calibrated GMPEs that can be used to compare ground motion observations between waste water injection (Oklahoma) and hydraulic fracture induced events (Alberta), and further compare induced observations with ground motions resulting from natural sources (California, NGAWest2). The derived GMPEs have applications for the evaluation of hazards from induced seismicity and can be used to track amplitudes across the regions in real time, which is useful for ground-motion-based alerting systems and traffic light protocols.

  20. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.


    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  1. Making tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In many modern tracking chambers, the sense wires, rather than being lined up uniformly, are grouped into clusters to facilitate the pattern recognition process. However, with higher energy machines providing collisions richer in secondary particles, event reconstruction becomes more complicated. A Caltech / Illinois / SLAC / Washington group developed an ingenious track finding and fitting approach for the Mark III detector used at the SPEAR electron-positron ring at SLAC (Stanford). This capitalizes on the detector's triggering, which uses programmable logic circuits operating in parallel, each 'knowing' the cell patterns for all tracks passing through a specific portion of the tracker (drift chamber)

  2. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun Jing; Ning Bin; Li Keping


    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of 'pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track'. The other is the scheme of 'two tracks play the same role'. We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model. (general)

  3. Electron content near the lunar surface using dual-frequency VLBI tracking data in a single lunar orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Na; Ping, Jin-Song


    In VLBI observations of Vstar, a subsatellite of the Japanese lunar mission SELENE, there were opportunities for lunar grazing occultation when Vstar was very close to the limb of the Moon. This kind of chance made it possible to probe the thin plasma layer above the Moon's surface as a meaningful by-product of VLBI, by using the radio occultation method with coherent radio waves from the S/X bands. The dual-frequency measurements were carried out at Earth-based VLBI stations. In the line-of-sight direction between the satellite and the ground-based tracking station where VLBI measurements were made, the effects of the terrestrial ionosphere, interplanetary plasma and the thin lunar ionosphere mixed together in the combined observables of dual-frequency Doppler shift and phase shift. To separate the variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the surface of the Moon from the mixed signal, the influences of the terrestrial ionosphere and interplanetary plasma have been removed by using an extrapolation method based on a short-term trend. The lunar TEC is estimated from the dual-frequency observation for Vstar from UT 22:18 to UT 22:20 on 2008 June 28 at several tracking stations. The TEC results obtained from VLBI sites are identical, however, they are not as remarkable as the result obtained at the Usuda deep space tracking station. (paper)

  4. Why tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Kral, J.


    A comparison is made of two methods of determining the age of rocks, ie., the krypton-argon method and the fission tracks method. The former method is more accurate but is dependent on the temperature and on the grain size of the investigated rocks (apatites, biotites, muscovites). As for the method of fission tracks, the determination is not dependent on grain size. This method allows dating and the determination of uranium concentration and distribution in rocks. (H.S.)

  5. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap (United States)


    quality metric tracking history . Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  6. Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations Ⅱ: COMS Case with Analysis of Actual Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Son


    Full Text Available We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI, Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.

  7. A facility for training Space Station astronauts (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Schmidt, James R.


    The Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) will be the primary facility for training the Space Station Freedom astronauts and the Space Station Control Center ground support personnel. Conceptually, the SSTF will consist of two parts: a Student Environment and an Author Environment. The Student Environment will contain trainers, instructor stations, computers and other equipment necessary for training. The Author Environment will contain the systems that will be used to manage, develop, integrate, test and verify, operate and maintain the equipment and software in the Student Environment.

  8. Maximum-likelihood-based extended-source spatial acquisition and tracking for planetary optical communications (United States)

    Tsou, Haiping; Yan, Tsun-Yee


    This paper describes an extended-source spatial acquisition and tracking scheme for planetary optical communications. This scheme uses the Sun-lit Earth image as the beacon signal, which can be computed according to the current Sun-Earth-Probe angle from a pre-stored Earth image or a received snapshot taken by other Earth-orbiting satellite. Onboard the spacecraft, the reference image is correlated in the transform domain with the received image obtained from a detector array, which is assumed to have each of its pixels corrupted by an independent additive white Gaussian noise. The coordinate of the ground station is acquired and tracked, respectively, by an open-loop acquisition algorithm and a closed-loop tracking algorithm derived from the maximum likelihood criterion. As shown in the paper, the optimal spatial acquisition requires solving two nonlinear equations, or iteratively solving their linearized variants, to estimate the coordinate when translation in the relative positions of onboard and ground transceivers is considered. Similar assumption of linearization leads to the closed-loop spatial tracking algorithm in which the loop feedback signals can be derived from the weighted transform-domain correlation. Numerical results using a sample Sun-lit Earth image demonstrate that sub-pixel resolutions can be achieved by this scheme in a high disturbance environment.

  9. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.


    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  10. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    We present an articulated tracking system working with data from a single narrow baseline stereo camera. The use of stereo data allows for some depth disambiguation, a common issue in articulated tracking, which in turn yields likelihoods that are practically unimodal. While current state...... with superior results. Tracking quality is measured by comparing with ground truth data from a marker-based motion capture system....

  11. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.


    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  12. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  13. Online Tracking (United States)

    ... can disable blocking on those sites. Tagged with: computer security , cookies , Do Not Track , personal information , privacy June ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  14. Satellite and Ground-Based Sensors for the Urban Heat Island Analysis in the City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fabrizi


    Full Text Available In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3–4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations.

  15. Collaborative Tracking of Image Features Based on Projective Invariance (United States)

    Jiang, Jinwei

    In past manned lunar landing missions, such as Apollo 14, spatial disorientation of astronauts substantially compromised the productivities of astronauts, and caused safety and mission success problems. The non-GPS lunar environment has micro-gravity field, and lacks both spatial recognition cues and reference objects which are familiar to the human biological sensors related to spatial recognition (e.g. eyes). Such an environment causes misperceptions of the locations of astronauts and targets and their spatial relations, as well as misperceptions of the heading direction and travel distances of astronauts. These spatial disorientation effects can reduce productivity and cause life risks in lunar manned missions. A navigation system, which is capable of locating astronauts and tracking the movements of them on the lunar surface, is critical for future lunar manned missions where multiple astronauts will traverse more than 100km from the lander or the base station with the assistance from roving vehicle, and need real-time navigation support for effective collaborations among them. Our earlier research to solve these problems dealt with developing techniques to enable a precise, flexible and reliable Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) capable of delivering real-time navigation information to astronauts on the lunar surface. The LASOIS hardware was a sensor network composed of orbital, ground and on-suit sensors: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), radio beacons, the on-suit cameras, and shoe-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The LASOIS software included efficient and robust algorithms for estimating trajectory from IMU signals, generating heading information from imagery acquired from on-suit cameras, and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based approach for integrating these spatial information components to generate the trajectory of an astronaut with meter-level accuracy. Moreover, LASOIS emphasized multi

  16. 49 CFR 236.2 - Grounds. (United States)


    ... circuit, except circuits which include any track rail and except the common return wires of single-wire, single-break, signal control circuits using a grounded common, and alternating current power distribution...

  17. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm. (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir


    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator.

  18. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.


    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  19. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.


    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  20. Guidelines for Learning Stations. (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  1. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations (United States)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus


    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  2. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya


    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  3. Tracking telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.


    Many employees are now choosing to work from home using laptops and telephones. Employers in the oil and gas industry are now reaping a number of benefits from their telecommuting employees, including increased productivity; higher levels of employee satisfaction, and less absenteeism. Providing a telecommunication option can prove to be advantageous for employers wishing to hire or retain employees. Telecommuting may also help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article provided details of Teletrips Inc., a company that aids in the production of corporate social responsibility reports. Teletrips provides reports that document employee savings in time, vehicle depreciation maintenance, and gasoline costs. Teletrips currently tracks 12 companies in Calgary, and plans to grow through the development of key technology partnerships. The company is also working with the federal government to provide their clients with emission trading credits, and has forged a memorandum of understanding with the British Columbia government for tracking emissions. Calgary now openly supports telecommuting and is encouraging businesses in the city to adopt telecommuting on a larger scale. It was concluded that the expanding needs for road infrastructure and the energy used by cars to move workers in and out of the city are a massive burden to the city's tax base. 1 fig.


    CERN Document Server

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  5. 49 CFR 234.213 - Grounds. (United States)


    ... Maintenance Standards § 234.213 Grounds. Each circuit that affects the proper functioning of a highway-rail... in the circuit. This requirement does not apply to: circuits that include track rail; alternating current power distribution circuits that are grounded in the interest of safety; and common return wires...

  6. Developments of space station; Uchu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces the Japanese experiment module (JEM) in developing a space station. The JEM consists of systems of a pressurizing section, an exposure section, a pressurizing portion of a supply section, a manipulator and an exposure portion of the supply section. The pressurizing section circulates and controls air so that crews can perform experiments under pressurized environment. The exposure section is a part in which experiments are carried out under exposure environment. The supply section runs between a station and the ground, with required devices loaded on it. The manipulator performs attaching a payload for the exposure section and replaces experimental samples. The JEM undergoes a schedule of fabricating an engineering model, testing for a certification a prototype flight model, and putting the model on a flight. The pressurizing section, exposure section and manipulator are at the stage of system tests. Surveillance of the JEM and control of the experiments are carried out at the Tsukuba Space Center. The Center is composed of a space experiment building, a zero-gravity environment testing building, an astronaut training building, a space station operating building, and a space station testing building. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D


    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of American Samoa in 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  11. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit


    . In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology – including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories – it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific ‘anthropological sensibility......’ that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  12. Fibre tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.


    A large-size scintillating plastic fibre tracking detector was built as part of the upgrade of the UA2 central detector at the SPS proton-antiproton collider. The cylindrical fibre detector of average radius of 40 cm consisted of 60000 plastic fibres with an active length of 2.1 m. One of the main motivations was to improve the electron identification. The fibre ends were bunched to be coupled to read-out systems of image intensifier plus CCD, 32 in total. The quality and the reliability of the UA2 fibre detector performance exceeded expectations throughout its years of operation. A few examples of the use of image intensifiers and of scintillating fibres in biological instrumentation are described. (R.P.) 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B (United States)

    Chin, M.


    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  14. The influence of subway station design on noise levels. (United States)

    Shah, Ravi R; Suen, Jonathan J; Cellum, Ilana P; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K


    To investigate the impact of subway station design on platform noise levels. Observational. Continuous A-weighted decibel (dBA) sound levels were recorded in 20 New York City subway stations, where trains entered on either a straight track or curved track in 10 stations each. Equivalent continuous noise levels (L eq ) at various locations on the boarding platform (inbound end, midplatform, and outbound end) during train entry and exit were compared between the straight and curved stations in broadband as well as narrow one-third octave bands. Overall, curved stations trended louder than straight stations, although the difference in broadband L eq did not reach statistical significance (curve, 83.4 dBA; straight, 82.6 dBA; P = .054). Noise levels were significantly louder at the inbound end of the platform during train entry (inbound, 89.7 dBA; mid, 85.5 dBA; outbound, 78.7 dBA; P < .001) and at the outbound end during train exit (inbound, 79.7 dBA; mid, 85.3 dBA; outbound, 89.1 dBA; P < .001). Narrow band analysis showed that curved stations were significantly louder than straight stations at 100 Hz and high frequencies from 8 to 20 kHz. Peak impact levels ranged from 104 to 121 dBA. Curved stations have a different noise profile compared to straight stations and are significantly louder than straight stations at high frequencies. Designing stations with straight tracks within the platform can help reduce commuter noise exposure. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1169-1174, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain) (United States)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas


    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  16. Tracking Boulders (United States)


    13 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a trough in the Sirenum Fossae region. On the floor and walls of the trough, large -- truck- to house-sized -- boulders are observed at rest. However, there is evidence in this image for the potential for mobility. In the central portion of the south (bottom) wall, a faint line of depressions extends from near the middle of the wall, down to the rippled trough floor, ending very near one of the many boulders in the area. This line of depressions is a boulder track; it indicates the path followed by the boulder as it trundled downslope and eventually came to rest on the trough floor. Because it is on Mars, even when the boulder is sitting still, this once-rolling stone gathers no moss. Location near: 29.4oS, 146.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  19. Reference Climatological Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  20. Streamflow Gaging Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  1. Fire Stations - 2007 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  2. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  3. Water Level Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  4. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  5. Big Game Reporting Stations (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  6. Ocean Station Vessel (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  7. Fire Stations - 2009 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  8. Newport Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  9. Modular space station, phase B extension. Program operations plan (United States)


    An organized approach is defined for establishing the most significant requirements pertaining to mission operations, information management, and computer program design and development for the modular space station program. The operations plan pertains to the space station and experiment module program elements and to the ground elements required for mission management and mission support operations.

  10. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.


    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  11. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.


    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  12. Position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.


    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs

  13. Space Station data management system architecture (United States)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.


    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  14. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.


    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  15. CDIP Station Data Collection - All Stations (United States)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego — The Coastal Data Information Program's station data collection consists of all publicly-released coastal environment measurements taken over the program's history, a...

  16. East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Borissov


    Full Text Available The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ response when commanded to perform these maneuvers slowly departs from the original nominal impulsive behavior. This paper addresses the practical problem of how to perform reliable east–west station-keeping maneuvers when thruster response is degraded. The need for contingency intervention from ground-based satellite operators is reduced by breaking apart the scheduled automatic station-keeping maneuvers into smaller maneuvers. Orbital alignment and attitude are tracked on-board during and in between sub-maneuvers, and any off nominal variations are corrected for with subsequent maneuvers. These corrections are particularly important near the end of the lifetime of GEO satellites, where thruster response is farthest from nominal performance.

  17. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun


    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  18. Non-Coop Station History (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  19. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track) (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw


    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  20. Solar tracking system (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing attention towards the use of renewable energy sources. Among them solar energy is one of the most promising green energy resources due to its environment sustainability and inexhaustibility. However photovoltaic systems (PhV suffer from big cost of equipment and low efficiency. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is nonlinear and varies with irradiation and temperature. In general, there is a unique point of PhV operation, called the Maximum Power Point (MPP, in which the PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum output power. The location of the MPP is not known in advance, but can be located, either through calculation models or by search algorithms. Therefore MPPT techniques are important to maintain the PV array’s high efficiency. Many different techniques for MPPT are discussed. This review paper hopefully will serve as a convenient tool for future work in PhV power conversion.

  2. Mechanical prototype of tracking chamber in station 2 in dimuon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the design and choice of material for the chamber was finalised following the result of the simulation. ... The frames were made from several pieces joined together ... The measured values of the prototype deformation with and without the CPF.

  3. HCI Lessons From PlayStation VR


    Habgood, Jacob; Wilson, David; Moore, David; Alapont, Sergio


    PlayStation VR has quickly built up a significant user-base of over a million headsets and its own ecosystem of games across a variety of genres. These games form part of a rapidly evolving testing ground for design solutions which can usefully inform HCI design for virtual reality. This paper reviews every PlayStation VR title released in the first three months of its lifecycle in order to identify emerging themes for locomotion. These themes are discussed with respect to the lessons learned...

  4. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.


    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  5. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders


    tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream migration of the different groups of fish was monitored by manual tracking and by three automatic listening stations. The downstream migration of radio tagged smolts of both species occurred concurrently with their untagged counterparts....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...

  6. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station (United States)

    Bates, William V., Jr.


    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  7. Base Station Performance Model


    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan


    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  8. Colour-based Object Detection and Tracking for Autonomous Quadrotor UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadouf, Hani Hunud A; Mustafah, Yasir Mohd


    With robotics becoming a fundamental aspect of modern society, further research and consequent application is ever increasing. Aerial robotics, in particular, covers applications such as surveillance in hostile military zones or search and rescue operations in disaster stricken areas, where ground navigation is impossible. The increased visual capacity of UAV's (Unmanned Air Vehicles) is also applicable in the support of ground vehicles to provide supplies for emergency assistance, for scouting purposes or to extend communication beyond insurmountable land or water barriers. The Quadrotor, which is a small UAV has its lift generated by four rotors and can be controlled by altering the speeds of its motors relative to each other. The four rotors allow for a higher payload than single or dual rotor UAVs, which makes it safer and more suitable to carry camera and transmitter equipment. An onboard camera is used to capture and transmit images of the Quadrotor's First Person View (FPV) while in flight, in real time, wirelessly to a base station. The aim of this research is to develop an autonomous quadrotor platform capable of transmitting real time video signals to a base station for processing. The result from the image analysis will be used as a feedback in the quadrotor positioning control. To validate the system, the algorithm should have the capacity to make the quadrotor identify, track or hover above stationary or moving objects

  9. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  10. Amtrak Rail Stations (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  11. Cooperative Station History Forms (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  12. Station Stopping of Freight Trains with Pneumatic Braking


    Yun Bai; Baohua Mao; Tinkin Ho; Yu Feng; Shaokuan Chen


    In Chinese mainline railway, freight trains need to stop within passenger stations at times because of the delayed passenger trains. Without any decision-support system, it is very difficult for drivers to stop trains within stations with consistency in one braking action. The reasons are that braking performance of train changes with the conditions of braking equipment and the drivers’ subjective evaluations of track profiles and braking distance are vague and imprecise. This paper presents ...

  13. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.


    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  14. Estimation of Road Loads and Vibration Transmissibility of Torsion Bar Suspension System in a Tracked Vehicle (United States)

    Gagneza, G. P. S.; Chandramohan, Sujatha


    Designing the suspension system of a tracked combat vehicle (CV) is really challenging as it has to satisfy conflicting requirements of good ride comfort, vehicle handling and stability characteristics. Many studies in this field have been reported in literature and it has been found that torsion bars satisfy the designer's conflicting requirements of good ride and handling and thus have reserved a place for themselves as the most widely used suspension system for military track vehicles. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness of the torsion bar under dynamic conditions of undulating terrain and validating the same by correlating it with computer simulation results. Thus in the present work, the dynamic simulation of a 2N + 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) mathematical model has been carried out using MATLAB Simulink and the vibration levels were also measured experimentally on a 12 wheel stationed high mobility military tracked infantry combat vehicle (ICV BMP-II) traversing different terrain, that is, Aberdeen proving ground (APG) and Sinusoidal, at a constant vehicle speed. The dynamic force transmitted to the hull CG through the 12 torsion bar suspension systems was computed to be around 26,700 N and found to match the measured values. The vibration isolation of the torsion bar in bounce was found to be effective, with a transmissibility from the road wheel to the hull of about 0.6.

  15. Performance studies of the P barANDA planar GEM-tracking detector in physics simulations (United States)

    Divani Veis, Nazila; Firoozabadi, Mohammad M.; Karabowicz, Radoslaw; Maas, Frank; Saito, Takehiko R.; Voss, Bernd; ̅PANDA Gem-Tracker Subgroup


    The P barANDA experiment will be installed at the future facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, to study events from the annihilation of protons and antiprotons. The P barANDA detectors can cover a wide physics program about baryon spectroscopy and nucleon structure as well as the study of hadrons and hypernuclear physics including the study of excited hyperon states. One very specific feature of most hyperon ground states is the long decay length of several centimeters in the forward direction. The central tracking detectors of the P barANDA setup are not sufficiently optimized for these long decay lengths. Therefore, using a set of the planar GEM-tracking detectors in the forward region of interest can improve the results in the hyperon physics-benchmark channel. The current conceptual designed P barANDA GEM-tracking stations contribute the measurement of the particles emitted in the polar angles between about 2 to 22 degrees. For this designed detector performance and acceptance, studies have been performed using one of the important hyperonic decay channel p bar p → Λ bar Λ → p bar pπ+π- in physics simulations. The simulations were carried out using the PandaRoot software packages based on the FairRoot framework.

  16. The automated ground network system (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.


    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  17. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant


    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  18. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James


    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  19. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero


    of the CALIPSO ground-track distance from the Belgrano II station. Results represent a relatively good agreement between both ground-based MPL-4 and space-borne CALIOP profiles of the volume linear depolarization ratio δV for PSC events, once the MPL-4 depolarization calibration parameters are applied. Discrepancies between CALIOP and MPL-4 profiles in vertical layering structure are enhanced from 20 km up, likely due to a decrease of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for both lidar systems at those altitudes. Regarding the results obtained from the mean and the percentage differences found between MPL-4 and CALIOP δV profiles, a predominance of negative values is also observed, indicating a generalized underestimation of the MPL-4 depolarization as compared to that reported by CALIOP. However, absolute differences between those δV-profile data sets are no higher than a 10 ± 11% in average. Moreover, the degree of agreement between both lidar δV data sets is slightly dependent on the CALIPSO ground-track overpass distance from the Belgrano II station. That is, small discrepancies are found when CALIPSO ground-track distance is as close as far from the ground-based station. These results would indicate that MPL-4 depolarization observations would reflect relatively well the PSC field that CALIOP can detect at relatively large distances from the ground-based station. As a consequence, PSC properties can be statistically similar, on average, over large volumes, and hence the present weak disagreement found between both the lidar δV data sets can be likely dominated by small spatial PSC inhomogeneities along the CALIPSO separation from the station. This statement is based on the fact that Belgrano II is a station located well inside the stable Antarctic polar vortex, allowing determined thermodynamic conditions leading to a very low variability in the PSC field, and in their properties.

  20. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.


    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  1. Analyses of Trawling Track and Fishing Activity Based on the Data of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS):A Case Study of the Single Otter Trawl Vessels in the Zhoushan Fishing Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji


    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the ap-plication of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhou-shan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels’ activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels’ speeds were be-tween 2.5kn and 5.0kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels’ activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more at-tention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  2. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.


    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  3. Tracking the cloud from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, Helen; Wilson, Julian


    In the aftermath of the accident at Chernobul nuclear power station, many scientists are studying how the radionuclides from the reactor's core dispersed across Europe and became deposited on the ground. A group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College have developed a computer model, MESOS, specifically to study the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere over very large distances. In the past, this model has been used to study the potential consequences of hypothetical accidents at nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries. Now it has been used to estimate where the radioactivity from Chernobyl went. The Chernobyl model is explained and some estimates from the MESOS model are presented. By comparing the model estimates with observations a full assessment of the environmental consequences of the accident will be possible. It should be possible to find out the way in which pollutants travel long distances, how they are deposited on the ground and their transport through food chains. (U.K.)

  4. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul


    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  5. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  6. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  7. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.


    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  8. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  9. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374


    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  10. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  11. Double Tracks closure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes the remediation activities performed and the results of postremediation radiation surveys conducted at the Double Tracks site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. This remediation was conducted from June to August 1996 in accordance with the Interim Corrective Action Plan (ICAP) to remediate the site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Soil with a total transuranic activity greater than 200 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g) was excavated, shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and disposed at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). A total of 52.3 grams of plutonium (Pu) with an activity of 5.12 Curies was disposed. The concrete pad at ground zero (GZ) was broken up, placed in a Sealand reg-sign container, and shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. Additionally, approximately 10 m 3 (350 ft 3 ) of soil containing small chips of concrete was shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. The concrete and soil/concrete mixture will be further characterized prior to disposal. At the time this report was written, characterization samples were being collected, with analytical results expected in January 1997. It is anticipated that the material will be disposed in mid-1997. This remediation is an interim action because final cleanup levels have not been established

  12. [STEM on Station Education (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen


    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  13. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  14. Current Land Subsidence in Tianjin, China Recorded by Three Continuous GPS stations (2010-2014) (United States)

    Jia, X.; Jing, Q.; Yan, B.; Yu, J.; Gan, W.; Wang, G.


    In the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to urban subsidence studies, both as a complement, and an alternative to conventional surveying methods. These studies have demonstrated that high-accuracy GPS techniques are an efficient tool in tracking long-term land subsidence. A great number of Continuously Operating Reference GPS Stations (CORS) have been installed in China during the past five years. Considerable land subsidence has been observed from CORS stations installed in several large cities. This study investigated GPS time series observed at three CORS in Tianjin: TJBD (2010-2014), TJBH (2010-2014), and TJWQ (2010-2014). Tianjin is one of the largest cities that is experiencing severe land subsidence problems in China. The observations at the three GPS sites indicate different subsidence rates. The average subsidence rate over four years are 0.2 cm/year at TJBD, 2 cm/year at TJBH, and 4.4 cm/year at TJWQ. The GPS station TJBD is located at Baodi, Tianjin. This area is the least economically developed and have the smallest population compared to the other two areas. Over 80% of water usage in Baodi is for agriculture and only less than 15% is from groundwater. The rapid subsidence at TJBH and TJWQ were caused by huge groundwater withdrawals associate with rapid urban and industrial developments in Binhai and Wuqing. Wuqing district, with a unique location advantage called "Corridor of Beijing and Tianjin", has been experiencing major urbanization. The population has reached 1,053,300 and the water usage has reached 350 million cubic meters in 2012. Over 25% of water usage is from groundwater. Significant annual and half-annual seasonal ground surface fluctuation has been observed from all three GPS stations. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the annual signal is 1.5 cm.

  15. Space station evolution: Planning for the future (United States)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.


    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  16. Space station evolution: Planning for the future (United States)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.


    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  17. Preliminary Electrical Designs for CTEX and AFIT Satellite Ground Station (United States)


    Examples of these sources are gas-discharge lamps, neon signs, or putting different salt compounds into an open flame. Along with the colored...light onto a collector . The collector for the initial imager is a simple Focal Plane Array (FPA) imager. 37 AFIT PhD candidate Randy Bostick’s research...shaft for Tx/Rx Horizontal shaft for VHF/UHF antenna mounts 1 10 foot parabolic S-band dish (Skyvision 1512015) Receives down link signals in S-band 1

  18. High Speed Lasercom Signal Processing and Ground Station, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space laser communications offer the promise and opportunity to downlink greatly increased data volumes from space as a supplement to radio frequency (RF) systems....

  19. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  20. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    that with the high performance components available, and modular software construction in a Higher Level Language, it is possible to design equipment specially tailored to ones needs, rapidly and cost effectively...

  1. The scheduling of tracking times for interplanetary spacecraft on the Deep Space Network (United States)

    Webb, W. A.


    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a network of tracking stations, located throughout the globe, used to track spacecraft for NASA's interplanetary missions. This paper describes a computer program, DSNTRAK, which provides an optimum daily tracking schedule for the DSN given the view periods at each station for a mission set of n spacecraft, where n is between 2 and 6. The objective function is specified in terms of relative total daily tracking time requirements between the n spacecraft. Linear programming is used to maximize the total daily tracking time and determine an optimal daily tracking schedule consistent with DSN station capabilities. DSNTRAK is used as part of a procedure to provide DSN load forecasting information for proposed future NASA mission sets.

  2. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard


    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. ( © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  3. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias


    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. ( © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  4. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias


    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  5. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  6. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  7. A distributed database view of network tracking systems (United States)

    Yosinski, Jason; Paffenroth, Randy


    In distributed tracking systems, multiple non-collocated trackers cooperate to fuse local sensor data into a global track picture. Generating this global track picture at a central location is fairly straightforward, but the single point of failure and excessive bandwidth requirements introduced by centralized processing motivate the development of decentralized methods. In many decentralized tracking systems, trackers communicate with their peers via a lossy, bandwidth-limited network in which dropped, delayed, and out of order packets are typical. Oftentimes the decentralized tracking problem is viewed as a local tracking problem with a networking twist; we believe this view can underestimate the network complexities to be overcome. Indeed, a subsequent 'oversight' layer is often introduced to detect and handle track inconsistencies arising from a lack of robustness to network conditions. We instead pose the decentralized tracking problem as a distributed database problem, enabling us to draw inspiration from the vast extant literature on distributed databases. Using the two-phase commit algorithm, a well known technique for resolving transactions across a lossy network, we describe several ways in which one may build a distributed multiple hypothesis tracking system from the ground up to be robust to typical network intricacies. We pay particular attention to the dissimilar challenges presented by network track initiation vs. maintenance and suggest a hybrid system that balances speed and robustness by utilizing two-phase commit for only track initiation transactions. Finally, we present simulation results contrasting the performance of such a system with that of more traditional decentralized tracking implementations.

  8. Track classification within wireless sensor network (United States)

    Doumerc, Robin; Pannetier, Benjamin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic


    In this paper, we present our study on track classification by taking into account environmental information and target estimated states. The tracker uses several motion model adapted to different target dynamics (pedestrian, ground vehicle and SUAV, i.e. small unmanned aerial vehicle) and works in centralized architecture. The main idea is to explore both: classification given by heterogeneous sensors and classification obtained with our fusion module. The fusion module, presented in his paper, provides a class on each track according to track location, velocity and associated uncertainty. To model the likelihood on each class, a fuzzy approach is used considering constraints on target capability to move in the environment. Then the evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) is used to perform a time integration of this classifier output. The fusion rules are tested and compared on real data obtained with our wireless sensor network.In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of this system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  9. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas


    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  10. Space station operations management (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.


    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  11. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  12. Coupled Finite Element/Boundary Element Analysis of a Vehicle Moving Along a Railway Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    Trains running in build-up areas are a source to ground-borne noise. A careful design of the track structure may be one way of minimizing the vibrations in the surroundings. For example, open or in-filled trenches may be constructed along the track, or the soil underneath the track may be improved...

  13. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana


    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  14. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)


    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  15. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.


    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  16. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  17. Materials Test Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  18. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.


    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  19. Active Marine Station Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  20. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  1. Public Transit Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  2. Mukilteo Research Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  3. Maine Field Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  4. FEMA DFIRM Station Start (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  5. Natural Weathering Exposure Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  6. Routes and Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  7. USRCRN Station Information (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  8. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  9. Enhanced Master Station History Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  10. Tobruk power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergardts, B


    In February of 1975, the Electricity Corporation Benghazi (ECB) awarded a contract for the construction of a turnkey power station and seawater desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya to a consortium under the leadership of BBC Mannheim. This power station has an output of 129 MW and supplies about 24,000 m/sup 3/ of drinking water daily. It went into operation in 1977, two and a half years after the contract was awarded.

  11. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  12. Leadership at Antarctic Stations. (United States)


    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  13. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.


    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  14. Tracking down the origins of Advanced LIGO noise: 2 examples (United States)

    Berger, Beverly K.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration


    For Advanced LIGO to reach design sensitivity various sources of instrumental and environmental noise must be identified and ameliorated. We discuss 2 efforts to search for the origin of noise bursts (glitches) at LIGO Hanford. Advanced LIGO monitors thousands of channels in addition to the gravitational wave channel. These can be studied to find correlations between the gravitational wave channel and other sensor signals. The first type of glitch had a frequency of 50 Hz and a rate of 1 per minute. It was found that the glitches were correlated with ground motion in the end station of the X-arm where the offending air compressor was tracked down and turned off. The second example manifests itself as a sudden, but brief, drop in the range occurring, typically, several times per day at LIGO Hanford and less frequently at LIGO Livingston. These range-drop glitches appear in the gravitational-wave channel. Although correlations with these glitches can be seen in many channels, it cannot be easily determined whether these channels are responding as an effect of this type of very strong glitch or whether they might be related to their cause or causes. To date, the cause of the range-drop glitches is not known.

  15. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du


    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  16. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.

  17. The Princess Elisabeth Station (United States)

    Berte, Johan


    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  18. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects (DEHHE)/Environmental Health Tracking Branch (EHTB).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  19. HZE dosimetry in space using plastic track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, J; Reitz, G; Enge, W


    Plastic nuclear track detectors were used to measure the contribution of High charge Z and energy E (HZE) particles to the radiation exposure of manned space missions. Results from numerous space missions in the orbit planned for the International Space Station are compared. The measurements cover the declining phase of the last solar cycle during the past 7 years and various shielding conditions inside the US Space Shuttle and the Russian MIR-station.

  20. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... of the controlled system to split in different ways the state space have been investigated. In particular, compositional approaches divide the controlled track network in regions that can be verified separately, once proper assumptions are considered on the way the pieces are glued together. Basing on a successful...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  1. Energy consumption analysis of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS-13) (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.


    This report continues the energy consumption analysis and verification study of the tracking stations of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, and presents an audit of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS 13). Due to the non-continuous radioastronomy research and development operations at the station, estimations of energy usage were employed in the energy consumption simulation of both the 9-meter and 26-meter antenna buildings. A 17.9% decrease in station energy consumption was experienced over the 1979-1981 years under study. A comparison of the ECP computer simulations and the station's main watt-hour meter readings showed good agreement.

  2. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration (United States)


    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  3. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah


    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  4. TEPCO plans to construct Higashidori Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi


    In 2006, TEPCO submitted to the government plans for the construction of Higashidori Nuclear Power Station. The application was filed 41 years after the project approved by the Higashidori Village Assembly. This nuclear power station will be the first new nuclear power plant constructed by TEPCO since the construction of Units No.6 and 7 at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station 18 years ago. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is to be constructed at a completely new site, which will become the fourth TEPCO nuclear power station. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1 will be TEPCO's 18th nuclear reactor. Unit No.1 will be an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), a reactor-type with a proven track record. It will be TEPCO's third ABWR. Alongside incorporating the latest technology, in Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1, the most important requirement is for TEPCO to reflect in the new unit information and experience acquired from the operation of other reactors (information and experience acquired through the experience of operating TEPCO's 17 units at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station and Kashiwazaki Kashiwa Nuclear Power Station in addition to information on non-conformities at nuclear power stations in Japan and around the world). Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is located in Higashidori-Village (Aomori Prefecture) and the selected site includes a rich natural environment. From an environmental perspective, we will implement the construction with due consideration for the land and sea environment, aiming to ensure that the plant can co-exist with its natural surroundings. The construction plans are currently being reviewed by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. We are committed to making progress in the project for the start of construction and subsequent commercial operation. (author)

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Clay Station, California, 18 January 1980 to 1 February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    An airborne radiological survey of 260 km 2 area centered over the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station was made 18 January through 1 February 1980. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the station. Count rates observed at 90 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map

  6. UMTS Network Stations (United States)

    Hernandez, C.


    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  7. Motion Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Non-Visible Structured Light Tracking Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Højgaard, Liselotte


    We present a system for head motion tracking in 3D brain imaging. The system is based on facial surface reconstruction and tracking using a structured light (SL) scanning principle. The system is designed to fit into narrow 3D medical scanner geometries limiting the field of view. It is tested......, is that it is not necessary to place markers on the patient. This provides a simpler workflow and eliminates uncertainties related to marker attachment and stability. We show proof of concept of a marker less tracking system especially designed for clinical use with promising results....... in a clinical setting on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT), Siemens PET scanner with a head phantom and volunteers. The SL system is compared to a commercial optical tracking system, the Polaris Vicra system, from NDI based on translatory and rotary ground truth motions of the head phantom...

  8. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  9. Tracking Non-stellar Objects on Ground and in Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif


    Many space exploration missions require a fast, early and accurate detection of a specific target. E.g. missions to asteroids, x-ray source missions or interplanetary missions.A second generation star tracker may be used for accurate detection of non-stellar objects of interest for such missions......, simply by listing all objects detected in an image not being identified as a star. Of course a lot of deep space objects will be listed too, especially if the detection threshold is set to let faint object pass through. Assuming a detection threshold of, say mv 7 (the Hipparcos catalogue is complete...... objects that do not move. For stationary objects no straightforward procedure exists to reduce the size of the list, but in the case the user has an approximate knowledge of which area to search the amount of data may be reduced substantially. In the case of a mission to an asteroid, the above described...

  10. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  11. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen


    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  12. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast series, CDC scientists address frequently asked questions about the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, including using and applying data, running queries, and much more.

  13. DCS Budget Tracking System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  14. Space Station Habitability Research (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.


    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  15. Locating techniques for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masao


    The basic thought in locating nuclear power stations is to examine carefully the suitability of sites and the safety of plants, and in the end, to perfect the safety of public. In Japan, effort is exerted to obtain the trust of local people by carrying out investigation, research and examination from respective standpoints of the government, institutes and industries. The author has engaged in the standardization of the investigation, test and analysis regarding the aseismatic capability of ground, the verifying project in Tadotsu of the coupled vibration of ground and structures, the evaluation of the performance of large vibration tables, the future concept of new locating procedure and so on in the last more than ten years. The technological classification of ground, the technological meaning of active faults, the procedure of the aseismatic design of plants, the difference of earthquake input force according to various locating methods, 12 rules regarding the attenuation of vibration of ground, and the concept of new locating method in the 21st century are explained. As the new locating techniques applicable to central Japan, diluvial ground location, floating location in tunnels, underground location, offshore location and so on must be promoted. (Kako, I.)

  16. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  17. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.


    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  18. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.


    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  19. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel


    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  1. Designing a Weather Station (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  2. Avoiding Service Station Fraud. (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.


    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  3. The Service Station. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  4. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  5. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  6. Mojave Base Station Implementation (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.


    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  7. Single-station 6C beamforming (United States)

    Nakata, N.; Hadziioannou, C.; Igel, H.


    Six-component measurements of seismic ground motion provide a unique opportunity to identify and decompose seismic wavefields into different wave types and incoming azimuths, as well as estimate structural information (e.g., phase velocity). By using the relationship between the transverse component and vertical rotational motion for Love waves, we can find the incident azimuth of the wave and the phase velocity. Therefore, when we scan the entire range of azimuth and slownesses, we can process the seismic waves in a similar way to conventional beamforming processing, without using a station array. To further improve the beam resolution, we use the distribution of amplitude ratio between translational and rotational motions at each time sample. With this beamforming, we decompose multiple incoming waves by azimuth and phase velocity using only one station. We demonstrate this technique using the data observed at Wettzell (vertical rotational motion and 3C translational motions). The beamforming results are encouraging to extract phase velocity at the location of the station, apply to oceanic microseism, and to identify complicated SH wave arrivals. We also discuss single-station beamforming using other components (vertical translational and horizontal rotational components). For future work, we need to understand the resolution limit of this technique, suitable length of time windows, and sensitivity to weak motion.

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance of Climate Stations at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159160) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  9. Geocenter Motion Derived from GNSS and SLR Tracking Data of LEO (United States)

    Li, Y. S.; Ning, F. S.; Tseng, K. H.; Tseng, T. P.; Wu, J. M.; Chen, K. L.


    Space geodesy techniques can provide the monitoring data of global variations with high precision and large coverage through the satellites. Geocenter motion (GM) describes the difference of CF (Center of Figure) respect to CM (Center of Mass of the Earth System) due to the re-distribution and deformation of the earth system. Because satellite tracking data between ground stations and satellites orbit around the CM, geocenter motion is related to the realization of the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) origin. In this study, GPS (Global Positioning System) observation data of IGS (International GNSS Service) and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data are applied to estimate the coordinates of observing sites on Earth's surface. The GPS observing sites are distributed deliberately and globally by 15° ×15° grids. Meanwhile, two different global ocean tide models are applied here. The model used in ITRF comparison and combination is parameter transformation, which is a mathematical formula allowing to transform the different frames between ITRF and CM system. Following the parameter transformation, the results of geocenter motion can be determined. The FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7C2) mission is a constellation of LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit) satellites, which will be launched in 2018. Besides the observing system for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate, the F7C2 will be equipped with LRR (Laser Ranging Retroreflector). This work is a pilot survey to study the application of LEO SLR data in Taiwan.

  10. Can Tracking Improve Learning? (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael


    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  11. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP


    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  12. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.


    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  13. Track Starter's Guide. (United States)

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  14. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  15. Controlled ion track etching (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.


    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  16. Why we are tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper


    In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self-synchronization in this reg......In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self......-synchronization in this regard (Spencer 1890, Luhmann 2000, Tække 2014, 2011). I was inspired by Jill Walker Rettberg’s book: “Seeing Ourselves through Technology” and her presentation at the seminar: “Tracking Culture” arranged by Anders Albrechtslund in Aarhus January 2015....

  17. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian


    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  18. Role of TDRSS in tracking and data acquisition (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.


    The integration and operation of the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) into the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM) equipment and services is described. The system concept employs spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, operating as communications front-ends, and a single ground terminal, which provides primary tracking and data acquisition services for earth-orbiting user satellites and for the Space Shuttle. The TDRSS system is further characterized by real-time throughput of user data and a high degree of automation.

  19. The quantified self a sociology of self-tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lupton, Deborah


    With the advent of digital devices and software, self-tracking practices have gained new adherents and have spread into a wide array of social domains. The Quantified Self movement has emerged to promote 'self knowledge through numbers'. In this ground-breaking book, Deborah Lupton critically analyses the social, cultural and political dimensions of contemporary self-tracking and identifies the concepts of selfhood, human embodiment and the value of data that underpin them.

  20. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing (United States)


    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  1. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing (United States)


    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  2. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.


    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  3. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.


    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  4. Radon Measurements in underground metro stations in Cairo City, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.; Rasheed, N.M.


    Radon activity concentration were measured continuously during the year 1998-1999 at two different underground MERTO stations, namely, Mubarak and El-Sadat. The measurements were performed using the diffusion cups equipped with CR-39 and LR-115 polymeric nuclear track detectors. Using the experimentally measured calibration coefficients of the used detectors and the measured track densities (bare and filtered), the yearly mean radon concentration C=23 Bq m -3 , equilibrium factor F= 0,10 and effective dose E=0,06 mSv y -1 for the employed personal as well as E=5 mu Sv y -1 for the commuter were obtained

  5. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.


    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  6. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  7. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.


    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  8. International Space Station exhibit (United States)


    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  9. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.


    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  10. Sail GTS ground system analysis: Avionics system engineering (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.


    A comparison of two different concepts for the guidance, navigation and control test set signal ground system is presented. The first is a concept utilizing a ground plate to which crew station, avionics racks, electrical power distribution system, master electrical common connection assembly and marshall mated elements system grounds are connected by 4/0 welding cable. An alternate approach has an aluminum sheet interconnecting the signal ground reference points between the crew station and avionics racks. The comparison analysis quantifies the differences between the two concepts in terms of dc resistance, ac resistance and inductive reactance. These parameters are figures of merit for ground system conductors in that the system with the lowest impedance is the most effective in minimizing noise voltage. Although the welding cable system is probably adequate, the aluminum sheet system provides a higher probability of a successful system design.

  11. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B


    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  12. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de


    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  13. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.


    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  14. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  15. Weigh-in-Motion Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  16. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  17. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Bundgaard, Peer; Østergaard, Svend


    The paper develops a characterization of nominal compounds. The analysis is carried out on frame-schematic and construction-grammatical grounds.  It rests on assumptions about cognitive processing long since known within cognitive linguistics, but it criticizes certain linguistic applications of ...

  18. Laser technology for high precision satellite tracking (United States)

    Plotkin, H. H.


    Fixed and mobile laser ranging stations have been developed to track satellites equipped with retro-reflector arrays. These have operated consistently at data rates of once per second with range precision better than 50 cm, using Q-switched ruby lasers with pulse durations of 20 to 40 nanoseconds. Improvements are being incorporated to improve the precision to 10 cm, and to permit ranging to more distant satellites. These include improved reflector array designs, processing and analysis of the received reflection pulses, and use of sub-nanosecond pulse duration lasers.

  19. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  20. Ground/Flight Test Techniques and Correlation. (United States)


    dihedral. The photogrammetric analysis system developed at AEDC 6 uses 70-mm Hasselblad cameras and a Keffel & Esser DSC-3/80® analytical stereocompiler...model transmits data to a ground receiver by telemetry and is tracked by accurate radar scanners and/or kinetheodolite cameras as required. The required...Materials Panel Meeting, Ottawa/Canada Sept. 25-27, 1967; also Jahrbuch 1967 der Wissenschaftlichen Gesell - schaft fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, pp. 211

  1. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.


    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  2. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  3. Procurement Tracking System (PTS) (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  4. Financial Disclosure Tracking System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...

  5. Case Analysis Tracking System (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official Personnel...

  6. Matter Tracking Information System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  7. LHCb on track

    CERN Document Server


    On 7 and 8 June 2006, the last large component of the LHCb experiment was lowered into the cavern. This 10-tonne, 18-metre long metal structure known as 'the bridge' will support the LHCb tracking system.

  8. Human Capital Tracking Tool - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  9. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles


    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. ( helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  10. Jet Car Track Site (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  11. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  12. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia



    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  13. Function integrated track system


    Hohnecker, Eberhard


    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  14. Temperature responsive track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.


    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  15. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations. (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael


    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  16. Material Tracking Using LANMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.


    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  17. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.


    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotropic and anisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how one can calculate the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, track profile and track contour. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (orig.)

  18. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.


    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotopic and unisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, the track profile and the track contour can be calculated. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (author)

  19. 3-D model-based vehicle tracking. (United States)

    Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J


    This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter.

  20. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji


    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  1. Space station orbit maintenance (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.


    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  2. Submerged AUV Charging Station (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas


    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  3. PlayStation purpura. (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J


    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  4. Temperature Discontinuity Caused by Relocation of Meteorological Stations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hung


    Full Text Available With global warming upon us, it has be come increasingly important to identify the extent of this warming trend and in doing so be able to rank mean temperature changes in particular seasons and years. This requires a need for homogeneous climate data, which do not reflect individual anomalies in instruments, station locations or local environments (urbanization. Ac curate homogeneous long-term meteorological data helps show how temperature variations have truly occurred in the climate. Many possible factors contribute to artificial abrupt changes or sharp discontinuities in long time series data, such as the impact of station relocation, changes in observational schedules and instrumentation. Homogeneity adjustments of in situ climate data are very important processes for preparing observational data to be used in further analysis and research. Users require a well-documented history of stations to make appropriate homogeneity adjustments because precise historical back ground records of stations can provide researchers with knowledge of when artificial discontinuity has occurred and its causes. With out such de tailed historical data for each meteorological station, abrupt changes are difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, no homogeneity adjustments for temperature records have been con ducted previously in Tai wan, and present available sources of the history of Taiwan's meteorological stations exhibit in consistencies. In this study, information pertaining to station history, especially relocation records, is pro vided. This information is essential for anal y sis of continuous time series data for temperature and climate warming studies. Temperature data from several stations is given in this study to show how artificial discontinuity occurs due to station relocation. Al though there is no homogeneous adjusted climate data provided in this preliminary work, the summarizing of information regarding station relocations should be of assistance

  5. Study of the active layer at the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla”, Deception Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, M.A. de; Molina, A.; Recio, C.; Ramos, M.; Goyanes, G.; Ropero, M.A.


    The degradation of permanent frozen ground (permafrost) and the increase in the thickness of the active layer may be caused both by natural processes (such as global climate change) and by anthropic activity, which changes the natural environmental conditions that allow its existence, as has been widely reported to occur in the northern polar and subpolar regions. In the case of Antarctica, some scientific research stations are located in areas with permafrost, such as the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla” on Deception Island. In the place where the station is located, an important increase in erosion has been observed in recent years, including the excavation of new gullies and the erosion of the coastal cliffs. In order to develop an initial analysis of the possible effects of the station on the permafrost degradation, ground temperature has been monitored since 2012 and the thickness and of the active layer and the temperature, both inside and beneath the station, have also been sporadically measured. Here we show the results and discuss how the station reduces the freezing of the ground during the winter when the station is closed and facilitates the warming of the ground during the living periods of the station in the Antarctic summer. Those initial results and conclusions make necessary to continue the study of the permafrost and the active layer in the station site by systematic monitoring of the ground temperature and the thickness of the active layer. [es

  6. Tether applications for space station (United States)

    Nobles, W.


    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  7. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle


    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  8. Draper Station Analysis Tool (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip


    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  9. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  10. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  11. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  12. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  13. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  14. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.


    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  15. Estimating Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from Station Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fumin; WANG Yongmei; WANG Xiaoling; LI Weijing


    In this paper, an objective technique for estimating the tropical cyclone (TC) precipitation from station observations is proposed. Based on a comparison between the Original Objective Method (OOM) and the Expert Subjective Method (ESM), the Objective Synoptic Analysis Technique (OSAT) for partitioning TC precipitation was developed by analyzing the western North Pacific (WNP) TC historical track and the daily precipitation datasets. Being an objective way of the ESM, OSAT overcomes the main problems in OOM,by changing two fixed parameters in OOM, the thresholds for the distance of the absolute TC precipitation (D0) and the TC size (D1), into variable parameters.Case verification for OSAT was also carried out by applying CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique) daily precipitation measurements, which is NOAA's combined satellite precipitation measurement system. This indicates that OSAT is capable of distinguishing simultaneous TC precipitation rain-belts from those associated with different TCs or with middle-latitude weather systems.

  16. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  17. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit


    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  18. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice


    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  19. Advective isotope transport by mixing cell and particle tracking algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, L.; Meric, T.


    The 'mixing cell' algorithm of the environmental isotope data evaluation is integrated with the three dimensional finite difference ground water flow model (MODFLOW) to simulate the advective isotope transport and the approach is compared with the 'particle tracking' algorithm of the MOC3D, that simulates three-dimensional solute transport with the method of characteristics technique

  20. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server


     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  1. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle


    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  2. Intraoperative visualization and assessment of electromagnetic tracking error (United States)

    Harish, Vinyas; Ungi, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; MacDonald, Andrew; Nanji, Sulaiman; Fichtinger, Gabor


    Electromagnetic tracking allows for increased flexibility in designing image-guided interventions, however it is well understood that electromagnetic tracking is prone to error. Visualization and assessment of the tracking error should take place in the operating room with minimal interference with the clinical procedure. The goal was to achieve this ideal in an open-source software implementation in a plug and play manner, without requiring programming from the user. We use optical tracking as a ground truth. An electromagnetic sensor and optical markers are mounted onto a stylus device, pivot calibrated for both trackers. Electromagnetic tracking error is defined as difference of tool tip position between electromagnetic and optical readings. Multiple measurements are interpolated into the thin-plate B-spline transform visualized in real time using 3D Slicer. All tracked devices are used in a plug and play manner through the open-source SlicerIGT and PLUS extensions of the 3D Slicer platform. Tracking error was measured multiple times to assess reproducibility of the method, both with and without placing ferromagnetic objects in the workspace. Results from exhaustive grid sampling and freehand sampling were similar, indicating that a quick freehand sampling is sufficient to detect unexpected or excessive field distortion in the operating room. The software is available as a plug-in for the 3D Slicer platforms. Results demonstrate potential for visualizing electromagnetic tracking error in real time for intraoperative environments in feasibility clinical trials in image-guided interventions.

  3. Ecological Aspects of Condition of Ground Deposits in Shershnevsky Reservoir (United States)

    Arkanova, I. A.; Denisov, S. E.; Knutarev, D. Yu


    The article considers the aspects of the condition of ground deposits influencing the operating conditions of the water intake facilities in the Shershnevsky reservoir being the only source of the utility and drinking water supply in Chelyabinsk. The object of the research is a section near the Sosnovskie intake stations of the Shershnevsky reservoir. Based on the hydrometric surveys of the studied section and using the Kriging method and the Surfer suite, we calculated the volume of ground deposits. As a result of the analyses, the authors have proved that ground deposits in the studied section have a technology-related nature which is connected with the annual growth of the volume of ground deposits which is inadmissible in the operating conditions of the pump stations of water intake facilities whereas ground deposits will fully block the intake windows of pump stations. In case the bed area of the Shershnevsky reservoir is not timely treated, the ground deposits here will complicate the operation of the pump stations which will result in a technological problem of the treatment facilities operation up to a transfer of the pump station premises to other territories less exposed to the deposits. The treatment of the Shershnevsky reservoir from the ground deposits accumulated in the course of time will help to considerably increase its actual capacity, which will allow one to increase water circulation paths and to improve the water quality indices. In its turn, the water quality improvement will decrease the supply of suspended solids into the water intake facilities and cut the reagent costs in the course of the treatment water works operation.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  5. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  6. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail:; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)


    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  7. Fast Compressive Tracking. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan


    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  8. LHCb Run II tracking performance and prospects for the Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia


    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three tracking stations, using either straw-tubes or silicon strip detectors, behind the magnet. This system allows to reconstruct charged particles with a high efficiency (typically > 95% for particles with momentum > 5 GeV) and an excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with momentum < 20 GeV). The high momentum resolution results in very narrow mass peaks, leading to a very good signal-to-background ratio in such key channels as $B_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$. Furthermore an optimal decay time resolution is an essential element in the studies of time dependent CP violation. For Run II a novel reconstruction strategy was adopted, allowing to run the same track reconstruction in the software trigger as offline. This convergence was possible due to a staged approach in the track reconstruction and a large reduction in the processing tim...

  9. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.


    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  10. Innovative Railway Stations (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel


    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  11. Bradwell Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    When built, the Magnox reactors were expected to have operating lifetimes of 20-25 years. In order to satisfy the licensing authorities of their continued safety, long term safety reviews (LTSRs) are being carried out as the reactors reach 20 years of operation. This is the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's (NII) summary report on Bradwell nuclear power station. The objectives of the LTSR are stated. A description of the plant is followed by an explanation of the statutory position on licensing. The responsibilities of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the NII are defined. From the examination of the CEGB's LTSR it is concluded that this generally confirms the validity of the existing safety case for present operation. However, some recommendations are made as to work required for reactor operation up to 1992. A summary of the NII findings is presented. This includes the reactor pressure circuit integrity, effects of ageing and in-service wear and radiation doses. (U.K.)

  12. Rigour and grounded theory. (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline


    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  13. Integrated microfluidic probe station. (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D


    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  14. Tracking Your Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hennum, Kelly M


    This book provides you with the means to set development goals and to track your progress on achieving them. It can help you efficiently gather and make sense of information about your progress and avoid common pitfalls that can block your development. Tracking your development can be captures in a few steps: articulating your goal, creating an action plan, gathering information about your behavior, indentifying barriers and support, and revising your action plan. Taking these steps will greatly increase the likelihood of achieving your goals.

  15. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; McCandless, W. T.

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  16. A simple decay-spectroscopy station at CRIS-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M., E-mail: [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); EP Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cocolios, T.E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Althubiti, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Farooq-Smith, G.J. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gins, W. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    A new decay-spectroscopy station (DSS2.0) has been designed by the CRIS collaboration for use at the radioactive ion beam facility, ISOLDE. With the design optimised for both charged-particle and γ-ray detection, the DDS2.0 allows high-efficiency decay spectroscopy to be performed. The DSS2.0 complements the existing decay-spectroscopy system at the CRIS experiment, and together provide the ability to perform laser-assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy on both ground state and long-lived isomeric species. This paper describes the new decay-spectroscopy station and presents the characterisation studies that have recently been performed.

  17. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.


    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  18. GNSS reflectometry aboard the International Space Station: phase-altimetry simulation to detect ocean topography anomalies (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Leister, Vera; Saynisch, Jan; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens


    An ocean altimetry experiment using Earth reflected GNSS signals has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA). It is part of the GNSS Reflectometry Radio Occultation Scatterometry (GEROS) mission that is planned aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Altimetric simulations are presented that examine the detection of ocean topography anomalies assuming GNSS phase delay observations. Such delay measurements are well established for positioning and are possible due to a sufficient synchronization of GNSS receiver and transmitter. For altimetric purpose delays of Earth reflected GNSS signals can be observed similar to radar altimeter signals. The advantage of GNSS is the synchronized separation of transmitter and receiver that allow a significantly increased number of observation per receiver due to more than 70 GNSS transmitters currently in orbit. The altimetric concept has already been applied successfully to flight data recorded over the Mediterranean Sea. The presented altimetric simulation considers anomalies in the Agulhas current region which are obtained from the Region Ocean Model System (ROMS). Suitable reflection events in an elevation range between 3° and 30° last about 10min with ground track's length >3000km. Typical along-track footprints (1s signal integration time) have a length of about 5km. The reflection's Fresnel zone limits the footprint of coherent observations to a major axis extention between 1 to 6km dependent on the elevation. The altimetric performance depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection. Simulation results show that precision is better than 10cm for SNR of 30dB. Whereas, it is worse than 0.5m if SNR goes down to 10dB. Precision, in general, improves towards higher elevation angles. Critical biases are introduced by atmospheric and ionospheric refraction. Corresponding correction strategies are still under investigation.

  19. Manifolds for pose tracking from monocular video (United States)

    Basu, Saurav; Poulin, Joshua; Acton, Scott T.


    We formulate a simple human-pose tracking theory from monocular video based on the fundamental relationship between changes in pose and image motion vectors. We investigate the natural embedding of the low-dimensional body pose space into a high-dimensional space of body configurations that behaves locally in a linear manner. The embedded manifold facilitates the decomposition of the image motion vectors into basis motion vector fields of the tangent space to the manifold. This approach benefits from the style invariance of image motion flow vectors, and experiments to validate the fundamental theory show reasonable accuracy (within 4.9 deg of the ground truth).

  20. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  1. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A


    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  2. Space Station Engineering Design Issues (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.


    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  3. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  4. Lighnting detection and tracking with consumer electronics (United States)

    Kamau, Gilbert; van de Giesen, Nick


    Lightning data is not only important for environment and weather monitoring but also for safety purposes. The AS3935 Franklin Lightning Sensor (AMS, Unterpremstaetten, Austria) is a lightning sensor developed for inclusion in consumer electronics such as watches and mobile phones. The AS3935 is small (4mmx4mm) and relatively cost effective (Eu 5). The downside is that only rough distance estimates are provided, as average power is assumed for every lightning strike. To be able to track lightning, a network of devices that monitor and keep track of occurrences of lightning strikes was developed. A communication interface was established between the sensors, a data logging circuit and a microcontroller. The digital outputs of the lightning sensor and data from a GPS are processed by the microcontroller and logged onto an SD card. The interface program enables sampling parameters such as distance from the lightning strike, time of strike occurrence and geographical location of the device. For archiving and analysis purposes, the data can be transferred from the SD card to a PC and results displayed using a graphical user interface program. Data gathered shows that the device can track the frequency and movement of lightning strikes in an area. The device has many advantages as compared to other lightning sensor stations in terms of huge memory, lower power consumption, small size, greater portability and lower cost. The devices were used in a network around Nairobi, Kenya. Through multi-lateration, lightning strikes could be located with a RMSE of 2 km or better.

  5. TRACK The New Beam Dynamics Code

    CERN Document Server

    Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter; Schnirman-Lessner, Eliane


    The new ray-tracing code TRACK was developed* to fulfill the special requirements of the RIA accelerator systems. The RIA lattice includes an ECR ion source, a LEBT containing a MHB and a RFQ followed by three SC linac sections separated by two stripping stations with appropriate magnetic transport systems. No available beam dynamics code meet all the necessary requirements for an end-to-end simulation of the RIA driver linac. The latest version of TRACK was used for end-to-end simulations of the RIA driver including errors and beam loss analysis.** In addition to the standard capabilities, the code includes the following new features: i) multiple charge states ii) realistic stripper model; ii) static and dynamic errors iii) automatic steering to correct for misalignments iv) detailed beam-loss analysis; v) parallel computing to perform large scale simulations. Although primarily developed for simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam dynamics code. Currently it is being used for the design and ...

  6. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking (United States)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor


    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  7. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. (United States)


    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad tracks...

  8. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes (United States)

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J


    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  9. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  10. Second sound tracking system (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan


    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  11. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  12. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  13. Energy Tracking Diagrams (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis


    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  14. Dust Devil Tracks (United States)


    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  15. Track Dynamics Program (United States)


    8 Track Bushing Research, . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . 8 Advanced frack Concept Development ..... . . . . . 9 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION...machine design effort was conducted. The design which was developed has separate servocontrolled hydraulic actuators to apply radial...back bending-but, in the order and magnitude of the way the torsional stress is incurred in service. This suggests a programable, hydraulically actuated

  16. Tracking Politics with POWER (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.


    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  17. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng


    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  19. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data (United States)

    Damarla, T. R.


    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  20. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Lavine, A. [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment and Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, California (United States); Egan, J. [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, California (United States)


    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components-a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)