WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground sensor ugs

  1. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  2. Anomaly Detection for Data Reduction in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    information (shown with solid lines in the diagram). Typically, this would be a mobile ad-hoc network ( MANET ). The clusters are connected to other nodes...the detection algorithms be able to coordinate observations over the local MANET that interconnects UGSs within the cluster. Extrapolating from that...interquartile ranges MANET mobile ad-hoc network OSUS Open Standards for Unattended Sensors TOC tactical operations center UAVs unmanned aerial vehicles

  3. Wireless mesh networked radios optimized for UGS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Wade; Williams, Jonathan; Jones, Barry

    2010-04-01

    Wireless mesh networked (WMN) radios have been applied to unattended ground sensor (UGS) applications for a number of years. However, adapting commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) WMN protocols and hardware for UGS applications has not yielded the desired performance because of compromises inherent to these existing radios. As a leading provider of UGS systems, McQ Inc. has been developing custom WMN protocols and radio hardware that are adapted specifically for the unique scenarios of the UGS situation. This paper presents the McQ designs, the tradeoffs made in developing the designs, and test and performance results.

  4. Compact networked radars for Army unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David A.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Wellman, Ronald; Clark, John; Kurtz, Jim; Pulskamp, Jeff; Proie, Robert; Ivanov, Tony; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Adler, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is in partnership with the University of Florida - Electronics Communications Laboratory to develop compact radar technology and demonstrate that it is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight platforms (<10 lbs.) to meet Army mission needs in persistent surveillance, unattended ground sensor (UGS), unmanned systems, and man-portable sensor applications. The advantage of this compact radar is its steerable beam technology and relatively long-range capability compared to other small, battery-powered radar concepts. This paper will review the ongoing development of the sensor and presents a sample of the collected data thus far.

  5. Application of mesh network radios to UGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; Roeder, Brent

    2008-04-01

    During the past five years McQ has been actively pursuing integrating and applying wireless mesh network radios as a communications solution for unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems. This effort has been rewarded with limited levels of success and has ultimately resulted in a corporate position regarding the use of mesh network radios for UGS systems. A discussion into the background of the effort, the challenges of implementing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mesh radios with UGSs, the tradeoffs involved, and an overview of the future direction is presented.

  6. Changing requirements and solutions for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gervasio; Johnson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) were first used to monitor Viet Cong activity along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the 1960's. In the 1980's, significant improvement in the capabilities of UGS became possible with the development of digital signal processors; this led to their use as fire control devices for smart munitions (for example: the Wide Area Mine) and later to monitor the movements of mobile missile launchers. In these applications, the targets of interest were large military vehicles with strong acoustic, seismic and magnetic signatures. Currently, the requirements imposed by new terrorist threats and illegal border crossings have changed the emphasis to the monitoring of light vehicles and foot traffic. These new requirements have changed the way UGS are used. To improve performance against targets with lower emissions, sensors are used in multi-modal arrangements. Non-imaging sensors (acoustic, seismic, magnetic and passive infrared) are now being used principally as activity sensors to cue imagers and remote cameras. The availability of better imaging technology has made imagers the preferred source of "actionable intelligence". Infrared cameras are now based on un-cooled detector-arrays that have made their application in UGS possible in terms of their cost and power consumption. Visible light imagers are also more sensitive extending their utility well beyond twilight. The imagers are equipped with sophisticated image processing capabilities (image enhancement, moving target detection and tracking, image compression). Various commercial satellite services now provide relatively inexpensive long-range communications and the Internet provides fast worldwide access to the data.

  7. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles

    2003-09-01

    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  8. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  9. UG in Imitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香

    2007-01-01

    UG and imitation are two parallel hypotheses trying to answer how childrens language acquisition is realized. Imitation fails to explain how children acquire language; however, it helps a lot in childrens language acquisition.

  10. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  11. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  12. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  13. Ground strain measuring system using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadanobu; Honda, Riki; Shibata, Shunjiro; Takegawa, Naoki

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the dynamic horizontal shear strain of the ground during earthquake. The proposed device consists of a bronze plate with fiber Bragg grating sensors attached on it. The device is vertically installed in the ground, and horizontal shear strain of the ground is measured as deflection angle of the plate. Employment of optical fiber sensors makes the proposed device simple in mechanism and highly durable, which makes it easy to install our device in the ground. We conducted shaking table tests using ground model to verify applicability of the proposed device.

  14. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their

  15. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  16. iScout low cost UGS system: overview of enhancements and performance characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Mark; Klug, Rob; Plummer, Thomas; Knobler, Ron

    2008-04-01

    McQ developed for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) a very low-cost iScout® sensor system for detecting people in buildings and caves after military clearing operations to prevent their reuse by adversaries. The mission applications have expanded to include typical field operations such as Force Protection and facility security. To meet a broader mission capability, McQ significantly enhanced the performance of the iScout® Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) system. The enhanced performance includes improvements to the seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and passive infrared sensor processing algorithms and multimodal fusion to improve target classification. Additional features are a new radio frequency (RF) network architecture, built-in global positioning system (GPS) for automatic sensor position reporting, a new rugged watertight case, and an extremely low power consumption electronics design. McQ will describe these enhancements and present data characterizing the performance of the enhanced iScout® sensors.

  17. Development of Mine Explosion Ground Truth Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF MINE EXPLOSION GROUND TRUTH SMART SENSORS Steven R. Taylor1, Phillip E. Harben1, Steve Jarpe2, and David B. Harris3 Rocky...improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the...National Laboratories and seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location

  18. Applications of FBG-based sensors to ground stability monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Bin Huang; Chien-Chih Wang; Jui-Ting Lee; Yen-Te Ho

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many optical fiber sensing techniques have been developed. Among these available sensing methods, optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is probably the most popular one. With its unique capabilities, FBG-based geotechnical sensors can be used as a sensor array for distributive (profile) measurements, deployed under water (submersible), for localized high resolution and/or dif-ferential measurements. The authors have developed a series of FBG-based transducers that include inclination, linear displacement and gauge/differential pore pressure sensors. Techniques that involve the field deployment of FBG inclination, extension and pore-pressure sensor arrays for automated slope stability and ground subsidence monitoring have been developed. The paper provides a background of FBG and the design concepts behind the FBG-based field monitoring sensors. Cases of field monitoring using the FBG sensor arrays are presented, and their practical implications are discussed.

  19. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  20. Passive localization processing for tactical unattended ground sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Breitfeller, E.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes our preliminary results of a development effort to assess the potential capability of a system of unattended ground sensors to detect, classify, and localize underground sources. This report also discusses the pertinent signal processing methodologies, demonstrates the approach with computer simulations, and validates the simulations with experimental data. Specific localization methods discussed include triangulation and measurement of time difference of arrival from multiple sensor arrays.

  1. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  2. OPART: an intelligent sensor dedicated to ground robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Luzeaux, Dominique; Hoffmann, Patrik W.

    2001-09-01

    We present an intelligent sensor, consisting in 2 CCDs with different field of view sharing the same optical motion, which can be controlled independently or not in their horizontal, vertical and rotational axis, and are connected in a closed loop to image processing resources. The goal of such a sensor is to be a testbed of image processing algorithms in real conditions. It illustrates the active perception paradigm and is used for autonomous navigation and target detection/tracking missions. Such a sensor has to meet many requirements : it is designed to be easily mounted on a standard tracked or wheeled military vehicle evolving in offroad conditions. Due to the rather wide range of missions UGVs may be involved in and to the computing cost of image processing, its computing resources have to be reprogrammable, of great power (real-time constraints), modular at the software level as well as at the hardware level and able to communicate with other systems. First, the paper details the mechanical, electronical and software design of the whole sensor. Then, we explain its functioning, the constraints due to its parallel processing architecture, the image processing algorithms that have been implemented for it and their current uses and performances. Finally, we describe experiments conducted on tracked and wheeled vehicles and conclude on the future development and use of this sensor for unmanned ground vehicles.

  3. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  4. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  5. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  6. The fiber optic gyroscope - a portable rotational ground motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, J. M.; Bernauer, F.; Guattari, F.; Igel, H.

    2016-12-01

    It was already shown that a portable broadband rotational ground motion sensor will have large impact on several fields of seismological research such as volcanology, marine geophysics, seismic tomography and planetary seismology. Here, we present results of tests and experiments with one of the first broadband rotational motion sensors available. BlueSeis-3A, is a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology, developed by iXBlue, France, in close collaboration with researchers financed by the European Research council project ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). We first present the instrument characteristics which were estimated by different standard laboratory tests, e.g. self noise using operational range diagrams or Allan deviation. Next we present the results of a field experiment which was designed to demonstrate the value of a 6C measurement (3 components of translation and 3 components of rotation). This field test took place at Mt. Stromboli volcano, Italy, and is accompanied by seismic array installation to proof the FOG output against more commonly known array derived rotation. As already shown with synthetic data an additional direct measurement of three components of rotation can reduce the ambiguity in source mechanism estimation and can be taken to correct for dynamic tilt of the translational sensors (i.e. seismometers). We can therefore demonstrate that the deployment of a weak motion broadband rotational motion sensor is in fact producing superior results by a reduction of the number of deployed instruments.

  7. Battery-free power for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Vera A.

    2003-09-01

    In our current military environment, many operations are fought with small, highly mobile reconnaissance and strike forces that must move in and out of hostile terrain, setting up temporary bases and perimeters. As such, today's warfighter has to be well equipped to insure independent operation and survival of small, deployed groups. The use of unattended ground sensors in reconfigurable sensor networks can provide portable perimeter security for such special operations. Since all of the equipment for the missions must be carried by the warfighter, weight is a critical issue. Currently, batteries constitute much of that weight, as batteries are short-lived and unreliable. An alternative power source is required to eliminate the need for carrying multiple replacement batteries to support special operations. Such a battery-free, replenishable, energy management technology has been developed by Ambient Control Systems. Ambient has developed an advanced mid-door photovoltaic technology, which converts light to energy over a wide range of lighting conditions. The energy is then stored in supercapacitors, a highly robust, long-term storage medium. Ambient's advanced energy management technology will power remote sensor and control systems 24 hours/day, 7 days/week for over 20 years, without batteries, providing for ongoing detection, surveillance and other remote operations.

  8. Unattended Ground Sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 Intelligence Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    research and analysis. Although well documented and tested in this thesis, the use of cellular and WiFi wireless technology in austere conditions may...research is unique to the establishment of a WiFi network for use in combat operations and one networked with UGS for a PISR capability. Evaluation of...communicate over both Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) channels , the latter including both line-of-sight and satellite links to

  9. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  10. Environmental Perception and Sensor Data Fusion for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs that can drive autonomously in cross-country environment have received a good deal of attention in recent years. They must have the ability to determine whether the current terrain is traversable or not by using onboard sensors. This paper explores new methods related to environment perception based on computer image processing, pattern recognition, multisensors data fusion, and multidisciplinary theory. Kalman filter is used for low-level fusion of physical level, thus using the D-S evidence theory for high-level data fusion. Probability Test and Gaussian Mixture Model are proposed to obtain the traversable region in the forward-facing camera view for UGV. One feature set including color and texture information is extracted from areas of interest and combined with a classifier approach to resolve two types of terrain (traversable or not. Also, three-dimension data are employed; the feature set contains components such as distance contrast of three-dimension data, edge chain-code curvature of camera image, and covariance matrix based on the principal component method. This paper puts forward one new method that is suitable for distributing basic probability assignment (BPA, based on which D-S theory of evidence is employed to integrate sensors information and recognize the obstacle. The subordination obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation is applied to calculate the basic probability assignment. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. More accurate results of object identification are achieved by using the D-S theory of evidence. Control on motion behavior or autonomous navigation for UGV is based on the method, which is necessary for UGV high speed driving in cross-country environment. The experiment results have demonstrated the viability of the new method.

  11. Open standards for unattended sensors (OSUS) power managed controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Matt; Porter, Rich; Fish, Robert; Knobler, Ron

    2014-06-01

    The Open Standards for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) program, formerly named Terra Harvest, was launched in 2009 to develop an open, integrated battlefield unattended ground sensors (UGS) architecture that ensures interoperability among disparate UGS components and systems. McQ has developed a power managed controller, which is a rugged fielded device that runs an embedded Linux operating system using an open Java software architecture, runs for over 30 days on a small battery pack, and provides various critical functions including the required management, monitoring, and control functions. The OSUS power managed controller system overview, design, and compatibility with other systems will be discussed.

  12. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guyu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…

  13. The Android smartphone as an inexpensive sentry ground sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamm, Riqui; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    A key challenge of sentry and monitoring duties is detection of approaching people in areas of little human traffic. We are exploring smartphones as easily available, easily portable, and less expensive alternatives to traditional military sensors for this task, where the sensors are already integrated into the package. We developed an application program for the Android smartphone that uses its sensors to detect people passing nearby; it takes their pictures for subsequent transmission to a central monitoring station. We experimented with the microphone, light sensor, vibration sensor, proximity sensor, orientation sensor, and magnetic sensor of the Android. We got best results with the microphone (looking for footsteps) and light sensor (looking for abrupt changes in light), and sometimes good results with the vibration sensor. We ran a variety of tests with subjects walking at various distances from the phone under different environmental conditions to measure limits on acceptable detection. We got best results by combining average loudness over a 200 millisecond period with a brightness threshold adjusted to the background brightness, and we set our phones to trigger pictures no more than twice a second. Subjects needed to be within ten feet of the phone for reliable triggering, and some surfaces gave poorer results. We primarily tested using the Motorola Atrix 4G (Android 2.3.4) and HTC Evo 4G (Android 2.3.3) and found only a few differences in performance running the same program, which we attribute to differences in the hardware. We also tested two older Android phones that had problems with crashing when running our program. Our results provide good guidance for when and where to use this approach to inexpensive sensing.

  14. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  15. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Asadoor, M.; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; O'Toole, A.; Peña Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Shaner, M.; Sobacchi, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of {1}{ × 10^{-11}}textrm { m}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}}. We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of {5.7}{ × 10^{-9}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 10 mHz and {6.4}{ × 10^{-10}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  16. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, V., E-mail: volodya@caltech.edu [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); DeSalvo, R. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Sannio, C.so Garibaldi 107, Benevento 82100 (Italy); Asadoor, M. [Mayfield Senior School, 500 Bellefontaine Street, Pasadena, California 91105 (United States); Oklahoma State University, 219 Student Union, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States); Bhawal, A. [Arcadia High School, 180 Campus Drive, Arcadia, California 91007 (United States); Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Gong, P. [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Industrial and System Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0205 (United States); Kim, C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lottarini, A. [Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Minenkov, Y. [Sezione INFN Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica  1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Murphy, C. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); University of Melbourne Grattan Street, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); O' Toole, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Peña Arellano, F. E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  17. Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

    2010-04-01

    A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

  18. Solid state magnetic field sensors for micro unattended ground networks using spin dependent tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondra, Mark; Nordman, Catherine A.; Lange, Erik H.; Reed, Daniel; Jander, Albrect; Akou, Seraphin; Daughton, James

    2001-09-01

    Micro Unattended Ground Sensor Networks will likely employ magnetic sensors, primarily for discrimination of objects as opposed to initial detection. These magnetic sensors, then, must fit within very small cost, size, and power budgets to be compatible with the envisioned sensor suites. Also, a high degree of sensitivity is required to minimize the number of sensor cells required to survey a given area in the field. Solid state magnetoresistive sensors, with their low cost, small size, and ease of integration, are excellent candidates for these applications assuming that their power and sensitivity performance are acceptable. SDT devices have been fabricated into prototype magnetic field sensors suitable for use in micro unattended ground sensor networks. They are housed in tiny SOIC 8-pin packages and mounted on a circuit board with required voltage regulation, signal amplification and conditioning, and sensor control and communications functions. The best sensitivity results to date are 289 pT/rt. Hz at 1 Hz, and and 7 pT/rt. Hz at f > 10 kHz. Expected near term improvements in performance would bring these levels to approximately 10 pT/rt Hz at 1 Hz and approximately 1 pT/rt. Hz at > 1 kHz.

  19. Applying matching pursuit decomposition time-frequency processing to UGS footstep classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brett W.; Chung, Hugh; Dominguez, Alfonso; Sciacca, Jacob; Kovvali, Narayan; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Allee, David R.

    2013-06-01

    The challenge of rapid footstep detection and classification in remote locations has long been an important area of study for defense technology and national security. Also, as the military seeks to create effective and disposable unattended ground sensors (UGS), computational complexity and power consumption have become essential considerations in the development of classification techniques. In response to these issues, a research project at the Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University (ASU) has experimented with footstep classification using the matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) time-frequency analysis method. The MPD provides a parsimonious signal representation by iteratively selecting matched signal components from a pre-determined dictionary. The resulting time-frequency representation of the decomposed signal provides distinctive features for different types of footsteps, including footsteps during walking or running activities. The MPD features were used in a Bayesian classification method to successfully distinguish between the different activities. The computational cost of the iterative MPD algorithm was reduced, without significant loss in performance, using a modified MPD with a dictionary consisting of signals matched to cadence temporal gait patterns obtained from real seismic measurements. The classification results were demonstrated with real data from footsteps under various conditions recorded using a low-cost seismic sensor.

  20. Tomographic Imaging on Distributed Unattended Ground Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    around the next corner, what is upstairs, where is the person in a red jacket , or even what was the person in the red jacket doing 5 minutes ago...cameras and detectors to seismic , acoustic, magnetic, smoke, toxin, and temperature sensors. A working example of just such a network was developed at

  1. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  2. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  3. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enviro-Net: From Networks of Ground-Based Sensor Systems to a Web Platform for Sensor Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Nascimento

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis.

  5. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  7. Commercial off the Shelf Ground Control Supports Calibration and Conflation from Ground to Space Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielová, M.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    The need for rapid deployment of aerial and satellite imagery in support of GIS and engineering integration projects require new sources of geodetic control to ensure the accuracy for geospatial projects. In the past, teams of surveyors would need to deploy to project areas to provide targeted or photo identifiable points that are used to provide data for orthorecificaion, QA/QC and calibration for multi-platform sensors. The challenge of integrating street view, UAS, airborne and Space based sensors to produce the common operational picture requires control to tie multiple sources together. Today commercial off the shelf delivery of existing photo identifiable control is increasing the speed of deployment of this data without having to revisit sites over and over again. The presentation will discuss the processes developed by CompassData to build a global library of 40,000 control points available today. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) based processes and initiatives ensure consistent quality of survey data, photo identifiable features selected and meta data to support photogrammetrist, engineers and GIS professionals to quickly deliver projects with better accuracy.

  8. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  9. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Sarma, Dhrubajyoti; Nath, Pabitra

    2015-05-01

    We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  10. lUGS Executive Committee meets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The IUGS Executive Committee (EC) met (55th meeting) March 19-22, 2005, in Vilnius, Lithuania, a city with a storied history that dates from the year 1323. The meeting was jointly hosted by the Geological Survey of Lithuania, Vilnius University, and the lUGS Commission on Geoscience for Environmental Management. Prior to the formal meeting, EC members and meeting observers were conducted on a superb field excursion to view aspects of the Quaternary geology and environmental history of the Lithuanian maritime region.

  11. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  12. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  13. New Research on MEMS Acoustic Vector Sensors Used in Pipeline Ground Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands of current pipeline detection systems, the above-ground marker (AGM system based on sound detection principle has been a major development trend in pipeline technology. A novel MEMS acoustic vector sensor for AGM systems which has advantages of high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and good low frequency performance has been put forward. Firstly, it is presented that the frequency of the detected sound signal is concentrated in a lower frequency range, and the sound attenuation is relatively low in soil. Secondly, the MEMS acoustic vector sensor structure and basic principles are introduced. Finally, experimental tests are conducted and the results show that in the range of 0°~90°, when r = 5 m, the proposed MEMS acoustic vector sensor can effectively detect sound signals in soil. The measurement errors of all angles are less than 5°.

  14. Torsion pendulum facility for ground testing of gravitational sensors for LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Hüller, M; Dolesi, R; Vitale, S; Weber, W J

    2002-01-01

    We report here on a torsion pendulum facility for ground-based testing of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational sensors. We aim to measure weak forces exerted by a capacitive position sensor on a lightweight version of the LISA test mass, suspended from a thin torsion fibre. This facility will permit measurement of the residual, springlike coupling between the test mass and the sensor and characterization of other stray forces relevant to LISA drag-free control. The expected force sensitivity of the proposed torsion pendulum is limited by the intrinsic thermal noise at approx 3x10 sup - sup 1 sup 3 N Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 at 1 mHz. We briefly describe the design and implementation of the apparatus, its expected performance and preliminary experimental data.

  15. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Las Fargeas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles’ paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders’ locations and selects the vehicles’ paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm’s completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  16. Ground penetrating detection using miniaturized radar system based on solid state microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B M; Fu, L; Chen, X S; Lu, W; Guo, H; Gui, Y S; Hu, C-M

    2013-12-01

    We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.

  17. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  18. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  19. Crosstalk suppression in networked resistive sensor arrays using virtual ground technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai Saxena, Raghvendra; Semwal, Sushil Kumar; Singh Rana, Pratap; Bhan, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    In 2D resistive sensor arrays, the interconnections are reduced considerably by sharing rows and columns among various sensor elements in such a way that one end of each sensor is connected to a row node and other end connected to a column node. This scheme results in total N + M interconnections for N × M array of sensors. Thus, it simplifies the interconnect complexity but suffers from the crosstalk problem among its elements. We experimentally demonstrate that this problem can be overcome by putting all the row nodes at virtually equal potential using virtual ground of high gain operational amplifiers in negative feedback. Although it requires large number of opamps, it solves the crosstalk problem to a large extent. Additionally, we get the response of all the sensors lying in a column simultaneously, resulting in a faster scanning capability. By performing lock-in-amplifier based measurements on a light dependent resistor at a randomly selected location in a 4 × 4 array of otherwise fixed valued resistors, we have shown that the technique can provide 86 dB crosstalk suppression even with a simple opamp. Finally, we demonstrate the circuit implementation of this technique for a 16 × 16 imaging array of light dependent resistors.

  20. Convolutional neural network based sensor fusion for forward looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn; Crosskey, Miles; Chen, David; Walenz, Brett; Morton, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is an alternative buried threat sensing technology designed to offer additional standoff compared to downward looking GPR systems. Due to additional flexibility in antenna configurations, FLGPR systems can accommodate multiple sensor modalities on the same platform that can provide complimentary information. The different sensor modalities present challenges in both developing informative feature extraction methods, and fusing sensor information in order to obtain the best discrimination performance. This work uses convolutional neural networks in order to jointly learn features across two sensor modalities and fuse the information in order to distinguish between target and non-target regions. This joint optimization is possible by modifying the traditional image-based convolutional neural network configuration to extract data from multiple sources. The filters generated by this process create a learned feature extraction method that is optimized to provide the best discrimination performance when fused. This paper presents the results of applying convolutional neural networks and compares these results to the use of fusion performed with a linear classifier. This paper also compares performance between convolutional neural networks architectures to show the benefit of fusing the sensor information in different ways.

  1. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor to advance ground collision avoidance for UAS platforms by providing real-time height maps for hazard anomaly...

  2. Acoustic detection and localization of weapons fire by unattended ground sensors and aerostat-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Marty, Ch.; Hengy, S.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection and localization of artillery guns on the battlefield is envisaged by means of acoustic and seismic waves. The main objective of this work is to examine the different frequency ranges usable for the detection of small arms, mortars, and artillery guns on the same hardware platform. The main stages of this study have consisted of: data acquisition of the acoustic signals of the different weapons used, signal processing and evaluation of the localization performance for various types of individual arrays, and modeling of the wave propagation in the atmosphere. The study of the propagation effects on the signatures of these weapons is done by comparing the acoustic signals measured during various days, at ground level and at the altitude of our aerostat (typically 200 m). Numerical modeling has also been performed to reinforce the interpretation of the experimental results.

  3. Information-based sensor management for the intelligent tasking of ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors in landmine detection pre-screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has introduced a framework for information-based sensor management that is capable of tasking multiple sensors searching for targets among a set of discrete objects or in a cell grid. However, in many real-world scenarios-- such as detecting landmines along a lane or road--an unknown number of targets are present in a continuous spatial region of interest. Consequently, this paper introduces a grid-free sensor management approach that allows multiple sensors to be managed in a sequential search for targets in a grid-free spatial region. Simple yet expressive Gaussian target models are introduced to model the spatial target responses that are observed by the sensors. The sensor manager is then formulated using a Bayesian approach, and sensors are directed to make new observations that maximize the expected information gain between the posterior density on the target parameters after a new observation and the current posterior target parameter density. The grid-free sensor manager is applied to a set of real landmine detection data collected with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors at a U.S. government test site. Results are presented that compare the performance of the sensor manager with the performance of an unmanaged joint pre-screener that fuses individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The sensor manager is demonstrated to provide improved detection performance while requiring substantially fewer sensor observations than are made with the unmanaged joint pre-screening approach.

  4. Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m−2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

  5. 46 CFR 54.01-35 - Corrosion (modifies UG- 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) The pressure... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). 54.01-35 Section 54.01-35... General Requirements § 54.01-35 Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). (a) Vessels or portions of vessels subject...

  6. Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyeong Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  7. High-stability temperature control for ST-7/LISA Pathfinder gravitational reference sensor ground verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, S.; Allen, G.; Bencze, W.; Byer, R.; Dang, A.; DeBra, D. B.; Lauben, D.; Dorlybounxou, S.; Hanson, J.; Ho, L.; Huffman, G.; Sabur, F.; Sun, K.; Tavernetti, R.; Rolih, L.; Van Patten, R.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.

    2006-03-01

    This article demonstrates experimental results of a thermal control system developed for ST-7 gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability δT control of the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiate 1/f fluctuations. Although for ground testing these specifications can be met fairly readily with sufficient insulation and thermal mass, in contrast, for spacecraft the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can simultaneously meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements in the presence of long time delay; a considerable design challenge. Simple control laws presently provide ~ 1mK/surdHz for >24 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feedforward control algorithm will extend performance to <1 mK/surdHz at f < 0.01 mHz and possibly lower, extending LISA coverage of super massive black hole mergers.

  8. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  9. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  10. Fiber-optic ground settlement sensor based on low-coherent interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sun, Changsen

    2014-05-20

    Ground settlement (GS) monitoring is a basic prerequisite in civil engineering. A commercialized instrument to meet this requirement has been available with millimeter accuracy. Major difficulties to improve this to micrometer scale, which are needed in special cases such as in high-speed railways, are challenged by the long stability of the sensor in the condition of the extremely slow settlement. A fiber-optic GS methodology was proposed by using a scanning low-coherent Michelson interferometer. One of the paths of the interferometer is formed by the liquid surface, and therefore the readout of the interferometer can make the measurement of the surface approach a micrometer scale. The liquid-contained chambers are hydraulically connected together at the bottom by using a water-filled tube. The liquid surface inside each chamber is at the same level initially. One of the chambers is located on stable ground or at a point that can be easily surveyed, too. The others are located at the points where settlement or heave is to be measured. Differential settlement, or heave, between the chambers will result in an apparent rise or fall of the liquid level, which biased the initial equal status. The experimental results demonstrated that the best accuracy of ±20  μm for GS monitoring was obtained with a reference compensation sensor.

  11. Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plumes from Combined Ground-Airborne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Taylor; Honeycutt, Wes; Materer, Nicholas; Ley, Tyler; Clark, Peter

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid ground-airborne sensing network for real-time plume monitoring of CO2 and CH4 for carbon sequestration is investigated. Conventional soil gas monitoring has difficulty in distinguishing gas flux signals from leakage with those associated with meteorologically driven changes. A low-cost, lightweight sensor system has been developed and implemented onboard a small unmanned aircraft and is combined with a large-scale ground network that measures gas concentration. These are combined with other atmospheric diagnostics, including thermodynamic data and velocity from ultrasonic anemometers and multi-hole probes. To characterize the system behavior and verify its effectiveness, field tests have been conducted with simulated discharges of CO2 and CH4 from compressed gas tanks to mimic leaks and generate gaseous plumes, as well as field tests over the Farnsworth CO2-EOR site in the Anadarko Basin. Since the sensor response time is a function of vehicle airspeed, dynamic calibration models are required to determine accurate location of gas concentration in space and time. Comparisons are made between the two tests and results compared with historical models combining both flight and atmospheric dynamics. Supported by Department of Energy Award DE-FE0012173.

  12. Multi-band sensor-fused explosive hazards detection in forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Becker, John; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    Explosive hazard detection and remediation is a pertinent area of interest for the U.S. Army. There are many types of detection methods that the Army has or is currently investigating, including ground-penetrating radar, thermal and visible spectrum cameras, acoustic arrays, laser vibrometers, etc. Since standoff range is an important characteristic for sensor performance, forward-looking ground-penetrating radar has been investigated for some time. Recently, the Army has begun testing a forward-looking system that combines L-band and X-band radar arrays. Our work focuses on developing imaging and detection methods for this sensor-fused system. In this paper, we investigate approaches that fuse L-band radar and X-band radar for explosive hazard detection and false alarm rejection. We use multiple kernel learning with support vector machines as the classification method and histogram of gradients (HOG) and local statistics as the main feature descriptors. We also perform preliminary testing on a context aware approach for detection. Results on government furnished data show that our false alarm rejection method improves area-under-ROC by up to 158%.

  13. On Solving the Problem of Identifying Unreliable Sensors Without a Knowledge of the Ground Truth: The Case of Stochastic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Anis; Oommen, B John; Goodwin, Morten

    2016-04-28

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox. Legacy work and the reported literature (for example, in the so-called weighted majority algorithm) have merely addressed assessing the reliability of a sensor by comparing its reading to the ground truth either in an online or an offline manner. Unfortunately, the fundamental assumption of revealing the ground truth cannot be always guaranteed (or even expected) in many real life scenarios. While some extensions of the Condorcet jury theorem [9] can lead to a probabilistic guarantee on the quality of the fused process, they do not provide a solution to the unreliable sensor identification problem. The essence of our approach involves studying the agreement of each sensor with the rest of the sensors, and not comparing the reading of the individual sensors with the ground truth-as advocated in the literature. Under some mild conditions on the reliability of the sensors, we can prove that we can, indeed, filter out the unreliable ones. Our approach leverages the power of the theory of learning automata (LA) so as to gradually learn the identity of the reliable and unreliable sensors. To achieve this, we resort to a team of LA, where a distinct automaton is associated with each sensor. The solution provided here has been subjected to rigorous experimental tests, and the results presented are, in our opinion, both novel and

  14. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.

  15. Thermophysical properties along Curiosity's traverse in Gale crater, Mars, derived from the REMS ground temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael D.

    2017-03-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface-atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rover's traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock-dominated surfaces (∼350-550 J m-2 K-1 s-½) are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for mudstone sites and ∼700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  16. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  17. Commentary: “An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind”—UG Is Still a Viable Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Everett (2016b) criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a,b) on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett’s concerns are directed toward the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG) principles. Contrary to Everett’s logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett’s arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype), and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett’s arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis. PMID:27471480

  18. Commentary: "An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind"—UG is still a viable hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Berent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Everett (2016b criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a, 2013b on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett’s concerns are directed towards the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG principles. Contrary to Everett’s logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett’s arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype, and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett’s arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis.

  19. Commentary: "An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind"-UG Is Still a Viable Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Everett (2016b) criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a,b) on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett's concerns are directed toward the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG) principles. Contrary to Everett's logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett's arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype), and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett's arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis.

  20. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  1. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  2. A Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach for Railway Corridor Ground Hazard Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Ryan; Hutchinson, Jean; Lato, Matt; Gauthier, Dave; Edwards, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing and monitoring ground hazard processes is a difficult endeavor along mountainous transportation corridors. This is primarily due to the quantity of hazard sites, complex topography, limited and sometimes hazardous access to sites, and obstructed views. The current hazard assessment approach for Canadian railways partly relies on the ability of inspection employees to assess hazard from track level, which isn't practical in complex slope environments. Various remote sensing sensors, implemented on numerous platforms have the potential to be used in these environments. They are frequently found to be complementary in their use, however, an optimum combination of these approaches has not yet been found for an operational rail setting. In this study, we investigate various cases where remote sensing technologies have been used to characterize and monitor ground hazards along railway corridors across the Canadian network, in order to better understand failure mechanisms, identify hazard source zones and to provide early warning. Since early 2012, a series of high resolution gigapixel images, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial laser scanning (ALS), ground based photogrammetry, oblique aerial photogrammetry (from helicopter and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms), have been collected at ground hazard sites throughout the Canadian rail network. On a network level scale, comparison of sequential ALS scanning data has been found to be an ideal methodology for observing large-scale change and prioritizing high hazard sites for more detailed monitoring with terrestrial methods. The combination of TLS and high resolution gigapixel imagery at various temporal scales has allowed for a detailed characterization of the hazard level posed by the slopes, the identification of the main failure modes, an analysis of hazard activity, and the observation failure precursors such as deformation, rockfall and tension crack opening. At sites not feasible for ground

  3. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  4. Fusion of ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors for landmine detection and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors provide complementary capabilities in detecting buried targets such as landmines, suggesting that the fusion of GPR and EMI modalities may provide improved detection performance over that obtained using only a single modality. This paper considers both pre-screening and the discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using real landmine data collected from a U.S. government test site as part of the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) landmine program. GPR and EMI pre-screeners are first reviewed and then a fusion pre-screener is presented that combines the GPR and EMI prescreeners using a distance-based likelihood ratio test (DLRT) classifier to produce a fused confidence for each pre-screener alarm. The fused pre-screener is demonstrated to provide substantially improved performance over the individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using feature-based classifiers is also considered. The GPR feature utilized is a pre-processed, spatially filtered normalized energy metric. Features used for the EMI sensor include model-based features generated from the AETC model and a dipole model as well as features from a matched subspace detector. The EMI and GPR features are then fused using a random forest classifier. The fused classifier performance is superior to the performance of classifiers using GPR or EMI features alone, again indicating that performance improvements may be obtained through the fusion of GPR and EMI sensors. The performance improvements obtained both for pre-screening and for discrimination have been verified by blind test results scored by an independent U.S. government contractor.

  5. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  6. Shape Biased Low Power Spin Dependent Tunneling Magnetic Field Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondra, Mark; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Dexin; Nordman, Cathy; Anderson, John

    2001-10-01

    Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) devices are leading candidates for inclusion in a number of Unattended Ground Sensor applications. Continued progress at NVE has pushed their performance to 1OOs of pT I rt. Hz 1 Hz. However, these sensors were designed to use an applied field from an on-chip coil to create an appropriate magnetic sensing configuration. The power required to generate this field (^100mW) is significantly greater than the power budget (^lmW) for a magnetic sensor in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) application. Consequently, a new approach to creating an ideal sensing environment is required. One approach being used at NVE is "shape biasing." This means that the physical layout of the SDT sensing elements is such that the magnetization of the sensing film is correct even when no biasing field is applied. Sensors have been fabricated using this technique and show reasonable promise for UGS applications. Some performance trade-offs exist. The power is easily tinder 1 MW, but the sensitivity is typically lower by a factor of 10. This talk will discuss some of the design details of these sensors as well as their expected ultimate performance.

  7. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  8. Realization to Extend the Orientation Estimation Range of Moving Target on the Ground by a Single Vector Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The DOA (direction of arrival estimation of seismic signals from the moving target on the ground bears great significance for unattended ground systems. The traditional DOA estimation of seismic signals is achieved by a sensor array and its corresponding algorithms. MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems vector vibration sensor, however, gets the vector information over the propagation of seismic signals and therefore can get a DOA estimation within a certain range through a single vector sensor. This paper proposes a new method to extend the orientation range through the rotation of the MEMS vector vibration axis. The experiment shows that this method shares the merits with simple systematic structure, high sensitivity and less than 5 degrees of error on average, which has an extensive wide application prospect.

  9. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  10. 窥探UGS PLM Solutions易主幕后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟杰

    2004-01-01

    2003年11月EDS公司正式将其旗下子公司EDS PLM Solutions更名为了UGS PLM Solutions,成为当时业界广为传播的热门话题。正当人们对EDS的举措纷纷猜测其将大张旗鼓力推PLM业务之时,2004年3月14日又传来了私人投资集团以20.5亿美元现金将UGS PLM Solutions(原EDS PLM Solutions)收购的消息,这一具有

  11. Tilt performance of the ground settlement sensor configured in a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Guo, Jingjing; Sun, Changsen

    2016-10-01

    Ground settlement (GS) is one of the causes that destroy the durability of reinforced concrete structures. It could lead to a deterioration in the structural basement and increase the risk of collapse. The methods used for GS monitoring were mostly electronic-based sensors for reading the changes in resistance, resonant frequencies, etc. These sensors often bear low accuracy in the long term. Our published work demonstrated that a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer configured in a Michelson interferometer was designed as a GS sensor, and a micro-meter resolution in the room environment was approached. However, the designed GS sensor, which in principle is based on a hydraulic connecting vessel, has to suffer from a tilt degeneration problem due to a strictly vertical requirement in practical installment. Here, we made a design for the GS sensor based on its robust tilt performance. The experimental tests show that the sensor can work well within a ±5° tilt. This could meet the requirements in most designed GS sensor installment applications.

  12. Cross-Characterization of Aerosol Properties from Multiple Spaceborne Sensors Facilitated by Regional Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol observations from space have become a standard source for retrieval of aerosol properties on both regional and global scales. Indeed, the large number of currently operational spaceborne sensors provides for unprecedented access to the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever to be available. Nonetheless, this resource remains under-utilized, largely due to the discrepancies and differences existing between the sensors and their aerosol products. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have designed and implemented an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) that facilitates the joint sampling of aerosol data from multiple sensors. MAPSS consistently samples aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors using a unified spatial and temporal resolution, where each dataset is sampled over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations together with coincident AERONET data samples. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between aerosol products from multiple sensors. Moreover, the well-characterized co-located ground-based AERONET data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products.

  13. Research of the Secondary Development on UG%关于UG软件二次开发的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继豪; 崇凯

    2004-01-01

    本文综述了UG/Open工具集中的UG/Open GRIP、UG/Open API、UG/Open Menuscript和UG/Open UIStyler模块的特点,着重介绍了UG/Open API高级用户接口语言与对话框编辑器UG/Open UIStyler相结合进行开发的实现方法.

  14. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  15. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-07-19

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  16. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  17. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05). As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS) differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05). PMID:22163468

  18. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05. As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05.

  19. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  20. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Gas Fields Conversion into UGS Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefanoviè Michal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the application of mathematical simulation at assessing the suitability of reservoirs for conversion into UGS facilities is a world-wide standard practice. The higher is the quality of input reservoir data (3-D seismic, well logging, core analyses, welltesting, regular pressure and volume parameters monitoring the better is the reliability of reservoir simulation results. This paper is focused at presenting the assessment results of two depleted gas fields conversions into UGS facilities by using mathematical modelling. The gas reservoirs are very similar with respect to their gas deposit depths, GIP values, lithological trap types and rock properties. Both these reservoirs structures represent lithological types of traps and are formed from complex sandstone layers interbedded with clay bands. Accordingly the reservoir simulation results, in the first case the further gas field conversion was not recommended, the conversion suitability of the second reservoir structure was acknowledged.

  2. Absolute Position Sensing Based on a Robust Differential Capacitive Sensor with a Grounded Shield Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jinxin; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-05-11

    A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF) movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10(-4) pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.

  3. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing Space-Based SSA Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND...Propagation (Both sensor and target) Sensor/Target State Vectors & Target Radiometric Properties Millennium Space Systems Tasker/Scheduler...capability of converting visual magnitudes to radiometric quantities. However, since the model covers the full range of light (from UV through VLWIR) a

  4. Adaptation of Dubins Paths for UAV Ground Obstacle Avoidance When Using a Low Cost On-Board GNSS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs shows a lot of interest in autonomous UAV navigation. This interest is mainly driven by the necessity to meet the rules and restrictions for small UAV flights that are issued by various international and national legal organizations. In order to lower these restrictions, new levels of automation and flight safety must be reached. In this paper, a new method for ground obstacle avoidance derived by using UAV navigation based on the Dubins paths algorithm is presented. The accuracy of the proposed method has been tested, and research results have been obtained by using Software-in-the-Loop (SITL simulation and real UAV flights, with the measurements done with a low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS sensor. All tests were carried out in a three-dimensional space, but the height accuracy was not assessed. The GNSS navigation data for the ground obstacle avoidance algorithm is evaluated statistically.

  5. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid

    2017-07-01

    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R (2) 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  6. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  7. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  8. Relevant Applications of Tools in UG NX CAM Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang En Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods to establish the custom magazine have been proposed while the UG NX CAM module is employed to conduct the CNC milling programming. At the same time, how to set the parameters of the cutting tool has been also analyzed; in the creation of tools, the use of shank and holder as well as the use of handle check functions in NC machining has been introduced; meanwhile, the secondary rough machining of corner and the application of clean-cut features have been discussed.

  9. Accuracy of PARTwear Inertial Sensor and Optojump Optical Measurement System for Measuring Ground Contact Time During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Rahel; Taube, Wolfgang; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ammann, R, Taube, W, and Wyss, T. Accuracy of PARTwear inertial sensor and Optojump optical measurement system for measuring ground contact time during running. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2057-2063, 2016-The aim of this study was to validate the detection of ground contact time (GCT) during running in 2 differently working systems: a small inertial measurement sensor, PARTwear (PW), worn on the shoe laces, and the optical measurement system, Optojump (OJ), placed on the track. Twelve well-trained subjects performed 12 runs each on an indoor track at speeds ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 m·s. GCT of one step per run (total 144) was simultaneously obtained by the PW, the OJ, and a high-speed video camera (HSC), whereby the latter served as reference system. The sampling rate was 1,000 Hz for all methods. Compared with the HSC, the PW and the OJ systems underestimated GCT by -1.3 ± 6.1% and -16.5 ± 6.7% (p-values ≤ 0.05), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients between PW and HSC and between OJ and HSC were 0.984 and 0.853 (p-values measurement systems.

  10. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  11. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegyu Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo. In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services SC (special committee-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  12. Real-time phasing and co-phasing of a ground-based interferometer with a pyramid wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérinaud, Christophe; Esposito, Simone

    The feasibility and remarkable performances of pyramid wavefront sensing in adaptive optics have already been demonstrated. In this paper, we investigate another potential of the pyramid wavefront sensor which is differential piston sensing in interferometry: this can be done by using a glass pyramid placed in a combined focal plane of the interferometer, and a CCD sampling the usual four diffracted images of the pupil, composed here by the interferometer apertures. From a purely geometrical point of view, no information about the differential phase between two pupils could be retrieved. However, as the sensor main component, the pyramid, is located directly in the interference pattern of the interferometer, the piston information present in the electric field of the combined focal plane modifies, after diffraction by the pyramid, the intensity distribution in the pupil plane. Thus, with only one sensor, the differential piston can be measured, in addition to the classical local tilts determination. In this paper we present the concept and give some simulation results showing the performances of a closed-loop adaptive optics correction for a ground-based two-telescope interferometer like the Large Binocular Telescope.

  13. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  14. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  15. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  16. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  17. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  18. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  19. Noble magnetic barriers in the ASDEX UG tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Vazquez, Justin

    2010-02-01

    The second-order perturbation method of creating invariant tori inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems (Ali, H.; Punjabi, A. Plasma Phys. Contr. F. 2007, 49, 1565-1582) is applied to the axially symmetric divertor experiment upgrade (ASDEX UG) tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside chaos created by resonant magnetic perturbations (m, n)=(3, 2)+(4, 3), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation. The radial dependence of the Fourier modes is ignored. The modes are considered to be locked and have the same amplitude δ. A symplectic mathematical mapping in magnetic coordinates is used to integrate magnetic field line trajectories in the ASDEX UG. Tori with noble irrational rotational transform are the last ones to be destroyed by perturbation in Hamiltonian systems. For this reason, noble irrational magnetic barriers are built inside chaos, and the strongest noble irrational barrier is identified. Three candidate locations for the strongest noble barrier in ASDEX UG are selected. All three candidate locations are chosen to be roughly midway between the resonant rational surfaces ψ32 and ψ43. ψ is the magnetic coordinate of the flux surface. The three candidate surfaces are the noble irrational surfaces close to the surface with q value that is a mediant of q=3/2 and 4/3, q value of the physical midpoint of the two resonant surfaces, and the q value of the surface where the islands of the two perturbing modes just overlap. These q values of the candidate surfaces are denoted by q MED, q MID, and q OVERLAP. The strongest noble barrier close to q MED has the continued fraction representation (CFR) [1;2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤2.6599×10-4; the strongest noble barrier close to q MID has CFR [1;2,2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤4.6311×10-4; and the strongest noble barrier close to q OVERLAP has CFR [1;2,2,6,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤1.367770×10-4. From these results, the strongest

  20. Using acoustic sensor technologies to create a more terrain capable unmanned ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odedra, Sid; Prior, Stephen D.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Shen, Siu-Tsen; International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicle’s (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in ma...

  1. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwandy M.Pd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA. This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of writing. Three main analyses namely Construct Knowledge of Language, Acquiring Language and Language Use are elaborated strongly in this paper. Furthermore, this paper concludes that UG is very important on teaching and learning of the second language in Indonesia. Keywords: Universal Grammar (UG, Second Language Acquisition (SLA

  2. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...

  3. Contact-Less High Speed Measurement over Ground with 61 GHz Radar Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muneeb

    2016-01-01

    Conventional FMCW radar principle was implemented on Symeo 61 GHz LPR®-1DHP-R radar sensor system. There were few limitations of the FMCW implementation which needed to be removed. First, target separation in multi target environment was not possible for objects at same distance. For example, there are two targets, one is moving and one is static. When the moving target approaches the static target and becomes parallel to static target, which means they are at the same distance. At this point...

  4. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhu Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0% using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra. Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications.

  5. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  6. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  7. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-05-11

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  8. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  9. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  10. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  11. Ground characterization and roof mapping:Online sensor signal-based change detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahrampour Soheil; Rostami Jamal; Ray Asok; Naeimipour Ali; Collins Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measurement while drilling systems are becoming an important part of excavation operations for rock characterization and ground support design that require reliable information on rock strength and loca-tion&frequency of joints or voids. This paper focuses on improving rock characterization algorithms for instrumented roof-bolter systems. For this purpose, an improved void detection algorithm is proposed, where the underlying theory is built upon the concept of mean change detection based on the feed pressure signals. In addition, the application of acoustic sensing for void detection is examined and it is shown that the variance of the filtered acoustic signal is correlated to the strength of the material being drilled. The proposed algorithm has been validated on the data collected from full-scale drilling tests in various concrete and rock samples at the J. H. Fletcher facility.

  12. Ground-based imaging remote sensing of ice clouds: uncertainties caused by sensor, method and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Tobias; Hausmann, Petra; Ewald, Florian; Bugliaro, Luca; Emde, Claudia; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    In this study a method is introduced for the retrieval of optical thickness and effective particle size of ice clouds over a wide range of optical thickness from ground-based transmitted radiance measurements. Low optical thickness of cirrus clouds and their complex microphysics present a challenge for cloud remote sensing. In transmittance, the relationship between optical depth and radiance is ambiguous. To resolve this ambiguity the retrieval utilizes the spectral slope of radiance between 485 and 560 nm in addition to the commonly employed combination of a visible and a short-wave infrared wavelength.An extensive test of retrieval sensitivity was conducted using synthetic test spectra in which all parameters introducing uncertainty into the retrieval were varied systematically: ice crystal habit and aerosol properties, instrument noise, calibration uncertainty and the interpolation in the lookup table required by the retrieval process. The most important source of errors identified are uncertainties due to habit assumption: Averaged over all test spectra, systematic biases in the effective radius retrieval of several micrometre can arise. The statistical uncertainties of any individual retrieval can easily exceed 10 µm. Optical thickness biases are mostly below 1, while statistical uncertainties are in the range of 1 to 2.5.For demonstration and comparison to satellite data the retrieval is applied to observations by the Munich hyperspectral imager specMACS (spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol and Cloud Scanner) at the Schneefernerhaus observatory (2650 m a.s.l.) during the ACRIDICON-Zugspitze campaign in September and October 2012. Results are compared to MODIS and SEVIRI satellite-based cirrus retrievals (ACRIDICON - Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems; MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; SEVIRI - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager). Considering the identified

  13. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of UG-125 through UG-136 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) except as modified in this subpart. (b) An unfired steam boiler....15-15. (c) All pressure vessels other than unfired steam boilers shall be protected by...

  14. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). 54.10-15 Section 54.10... VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-15 Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). (a) Pneumatic...) Except for enameled vessels, for which the pneumatic test pressure shall be at least equal to, but need...

  15. Applications of Universal Grammar (UG) in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwold, Lorne O.

    2007-01-01

    The article proposes Stern's (1983) framework for classifying issues related to instruction in order to ascertain the relevance of Universal Grammar (UG) in the ESL/EFL classroom. Discussed in this article, particularly as UG pertains to them, are issues related to: (a) L1 transfer; (b) teaching rules and giving error correction versus presenting…

  16. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG) Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG) approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA). This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of…

  17. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  18. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  19. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu Cong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1 Dark Object Subtraction (DOS; (2 Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH and (3 the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these parameters are used integrat edly. The aim of this study is to assess the important oceanographic parameters detected from mu lti-sensor satellites (NO AA/AVHRR, Seawifs and Topex Poisedon for determining fishing ground of pelagic tunas in the North Papua waters at east season. The parameters include Sea Surface Temperature (STT, chlorophyl-a and currents. The ava ilability of data from optic sensor (Seawifs: chl-a and AVHRR: Thermal is limited by the presence of cloud cover. In that case, Topex Poseidon satellite data can be used to provide the currents data. The integration of data from multi-sensors increases the availability of the oceanographic parameters for prediction of the potential fishing zones in the study area.

  1. Forging die designing and manufacturing technology based on UG NX%基于UG NX的锻造模具设计和制造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金岭

    2008-01-01

    针对锻造模具设计、制造CAD/CAM,研究了基于UG NX平台上CAD/CAM的设计方法,主要结合实际情况介绍了现今企业用UG NX进行锻造模具CAD/CAM设计、制造生产的一般过程、对从事锻造工作同仁具有借鉴意义.表明用UG NX进行锻造模具设计、制造CAD/CAM设计过程可以提高生产效率、降低成本、增强企业竞争力.

  2. Putting Ug99 on the map: An update on current and future monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, D P; Nazari, K; Park, R F

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring System (GCRMS) is described. The current situation regarding the Ug99 lineage of races is outlined and the potential for expansion into important wheat areas is considered. The GCRMS has successfully tracked the spread and changes that are occurring within the Ug99 lineage and is now well......Detection of stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Uganda in 1998/99 highlighted not only the extremely high vulnerability of the global wheat crop to stem rust but also a lack of adequate global systems to monitor such a threat. Progress in the development and expansion of the Global Cereal Rust...... positioned to detect and monitor future changes. The distribution of Ug99 variants possessing combined virulence to Sr31 and Sr24 is expanding rapidly and future spread outside of Africa is highly likely. Efficient and effective data management is now being achieved via the Wheat Rust Toolbox platform...

  3. UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment by Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P. Winkler, and Christopher H. Winslow...20783-1197 ARL-TR-4419 April 2008 UGS, UGV, and MAV in the 2007 C4ISR OTM Experiment Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P...AUTHOR(S) Timothy G. Gregory, Jesse B. Kovach , Robert P. Winkler, and Christopher H. Winslow 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  4. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  5. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DEMONSTRATION REPORT Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification – Former Southwestern...concentrations. A total of 11.23 acres of dynamic surveys were conducted using MetalMapper advanced electromagnetic induction ( EMI ) sensor. A total of...Order Navigation Points ................................................................................13 5.2.3 Initial EMI Survey

  6. The Location Method of Battlefield Targets Based on Ground Sensors%基于地面传感器的战场目标定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍硕; 徐万里

    2016-01-01

    精确的网络节点定位是无线传感器网络各种应用和展开部署时自组网及网络管理的首要和基础条件,这就要求有很高的定位精度。战场侦察地面传感器系统中,大多使用声/震传感器结合时差定位法对地面目标进行定位,但其在近点定位效果较差,且若需在远点的测距精度达米级时,要求测时精度达纳秒级。无源红外传感器通过感知IR强度变化和方向对目标进行运动方向和数量的判别,它的测向误差在毫弧度级,理论上可采用多重采样相关定位法建立仿真模型,结果表明:基于红外传感器的地面目标定位算法对地面战场目标定位切实可行且定位精度较高。%Accurate network node localization is the most important and basic condition for the application and deployment of wireless sensor networks, which is the first and the basic condition of the network and the network management. Battlefield re-connaissance ground sensor system and are mainly used for acoustic/seismic sensors combined with TDOA location method to locate targets on the ground, but the in the near point positioning effect is poor, and if you need to in far ranging accuracy Damien level, measurement accuracy of Dana seconds level. Passive infrared sensor through perception about changes in the IR intensity and direction of target for discrimination of the direction and amount of the movement, the direction finding error in mrad level and theory using multiple sampling positioning method, the simulation model is established. The results show that:Based on infrared sensor ground target localization algorithm of ground battlefield target location is feasible and high positioning accuracy.

  7. An improved DS acoustic-seismic modality fusion algorithm based on a new cascaded fuzzy classifier for ground-moving targets classification in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiang; Wei, Jianming; Cao, Hongbing; Li, Na; Liu, Haitao

    2007-04-01

    A new cascaded fuzzy classifier (CFC) is proposed to implement ground-moving targets classification tasks locally at sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN). The CFC is composed of three and two binary fuzzy classifiers (BFC) respectively in seismic and acoustic signal channel in order to classify person, Light-wheeled (LW) Vehicle, and Heavywheeled (HW) Vehicle in presence of environmental background noise. Base on the CFC, a new basic belief assignment (bba) function is defined for each component BFC to give out a piece of evidence instead of a hard decision label. An evidence generator is used to synthesize available evidences from BFCs into channel evidences and channel evidences are further temporal-fused. Finally, acoustic-seismic modality fusion using Dempster-Shafer method is performed. Our implementation gives significantly better performance than the implementation with majority-voting fusion method through leave-one-out experiments.

  8. Optimizing the configuration of precipitation stations in a space-ground integrated sensor network based on spatial-temporal coverage maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guan, Qingfeng; Chen, Nengcheng; Tong, Daoqin; Hu, Chuli; Peng, Yuling; Dong, Xianyong; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The two major rainfall observation techniques, ground-based measurements and remote sensing, have distinct coverage characteristics. Large-scale spatial coverage and long-term temporal coverage cannot be achieved simultaneously by using only ground-based precipitation stations or space-borne sensors. Given the temporal discontinuity of satellite coverage and limited ground-based observation resources, we propose a method for siting precipitation stations in conjunction with satellite-based rainfall sensors to maximize the total spatial-temporal coverage of weighted demand in a continuous observation period. Considering the special principles of deploying precipitation stations and the requirement for continuous coverage in space and time, a time-continuous maximal covering location problem (TMCLP) model is introduced. The maximal spatial coverage range of a precipitation station is determined based on the minimum density required and the site-specific terrain conditions. The coverage of a satellite sensor is calculated for each time period when it passes overhead. The polygon intersection point set (PIPS) is refined to identify finite candidate sites. By narrowing the continuous search space to a finite dominating set and discretizing the continuous observation period to sequential sub-periods, the siting problem is solved using the TMCLP model and refined PIPS. According to specific monitoring purposes, different weighting schemes can be used to evaluate the coverage priority of each demand object. The Jinsha River Basin is selected as the study region to test the proposed method. Satellite-borne precipitation radar is used to evaluate the satellite coverage. The results show that the proposed method is effective for precipitation station configuration optimization, and the model solution achieves higher coverage than the real-world deployment. The applicability of the proposed method, site selection criteria, deployment strategies in different observation modes

  9. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor concept for the mitigation of aircraft hazards due to reduced visibility in fog, drizzle and light rain and the...

  10. Deployment of a monitoring system of the TG's of UG-50Hz; Implantacao de sistema de monitoramento dos TGE's da UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Andre Luis de; Fortes, Fernando Zambotti; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Felix, Matussalem [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The National Steel Company (CSN) has a plant for generating electricity at 50Hz, UG50Hz (Unit Generating 50Hz). The generating unit is in operation since the 40's as the only source of electricity at that time. The UG50Hz in terms of power, is composed of four (4) Turbine Generators. The UG50Hz has two generators of 5 MWh each and two generators from 10 MWh each, totaling 30 MWh installed. Actually, the participation is limited to the supply of electricity to 50Hz for some units of the metal and to attend to emergencies in the 50 Hz to 60 Hz lack of energy, and provides air blown to the blast furnace 2 and 3. The UG-50 Hz over the years has shown lack of information for its operation due to the fact that technology be fully designed with the typical time of implantation (1944). This contribution presents the technical results achieved with the deployment of a system for monitoring the operating parameters of the equipment with the replacement of obsolete equipment and installation of new features to the system. The equipment for measuring and monitoring of Turbine Generators are in obsolescence due to come into life high (over 50) and without operational conditions. The electric recorders (graphics cards) and other records of the operating variables (temperature, flow, pressure, etc.) have low precision and means for storing data on paper leading to massive loss of memory technology and operational deficiency in departures and stops for lack of consistent information. (author)

  11. 基于UG NX的产品设计重用性研究%Study on Product Design Reusability Based on UG NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟平

    2015-01-01

    Taking a normal Nylon cases for wheelset assembly as an example, this paper describes a method for product design reuse based on UG NX creatively. In general terms,there are essentially four steps in this design scheme:parameterized modeling, part families establishment ,application of reuse library, sharing reuse library. For more details ,users can achieve the component design reuse personally by taking advantage of modules of UG NX, such as reuse library ,etc. Furthermore , users can also share the reusable personal resource by creating a network. This scheme has significative and practical value in product design to improve efficiency and to reduce the cost by reducing the repetitive work of designers.%以轮对压装的尼龙保护套的设计为例,按照建模参数化、部件族的创建、重用库的运用、共享重用库的流程详细介绍了一套利用UG NX软件实现产品设计重用性的方法.在UG NX的部件族功能的基础上巧妙利用重用库等模块实现部件设计的个人重用,继而通过搭建共享网络实现局域网内多人共享设计重用资源. 该方案可以减少设计者的重复性工作,提高效率,降低成本,具有较好的实用价值.

  12. Effect of corn plant on survival and phenanthrene degradation capacity of Pseudomonas sp. UG14LR in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Upatham, Suchart; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung

    2012-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess if corn (Zea mays L.) can enhance phenanthrene degradation in two soils inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. UG14Lr. Corn increased the number of UG14Lr cells in both soils, especially in the acidic soiL Phenanthrene was degraded to a greater extent in UG14Lr-inoculated or corn-planted soils than uninoculated and unplanted soils. The spiked phenanthrene was completely removed within 70 days in all the treatments in slightly alkaline soil. However, in acidic soil, complete phenanthrene removal was found only in the corn-planted treatments. The shoot and root lengths of corn grown in UG14Lr-inoculated soils were not different from those in non-inoculated soil between the treatments. The results showed that in unplanted soil, low pH adversely affected the survival and phenanthrene degradation ability of UG14Lr. Planting of corn significantly enhanced the survival of UG14Lr cells in both the bulk and rhizospheric soil, and this in turn significantly improved phenanthrene degradation in acidic soil. Re-inoculation of UG14Lr in the acidic soil increased the number of UG14Lr cells and enhanced phenanthrene degradation in unplanted soil. However, in corn-planted acidic soils, re-inoculation of UG14Lr did not further enhance the already active phenanthrene degradation occurring in both the bulk or rhizospheric soils.

  13. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia gladioli Strain UCD-UG_CHAPALOTE (Phylum Proteobacteria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Cassandra L.; Shehata, Hanan R.; Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of Burkholderia gladioli strain UCD-UG_CHAPALOTE. This strain is an endophyte isolated from surface sterilized seeds of an ancient Mexican landrace of corn, Chapalote. The genome contains 8,527,129 bp in 109 scaffolds. PMID:25614570

  15. Remotely sensing the thickness of the bushveld complex UG2 platinum reef using borehole rada.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simmat, CM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available departures of the reefs from planarity. Surveys are run in ~200 m near-horizontal boreholes that are drilled into the footwalls of the reef. Careful laboratory measurements of the Jonscher dielectric parameters of the stratigraphic column through the UG2 reef...

  16. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  17. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  18. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Harbin, China, pp. 2784-2788. [10...military and commercial applications. Although earlier UGV platforms were typically exclusively small ground robots , recent efforts started...targeting passenger vehicle and larger size platforms. Due to their size and speed, these platforms have significantly different dynamics than small robots

  19. BlueSeis3A - full characterization of a 3C broadband rotational ground motion sensor for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Frenois, Arnaud; Krissou, Rahma; Bigueur, Alexandre; Gaillot, Arnaud; de Toldi, Elliot; Ponceau, Damien; Guattari, Frederic; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present a full characterization of the first three component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology. The sensor is called BlueSeis3A and is manufactured by iXBlue, France. It is developed in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of volcanology, ocean bottom seismology and geophysical exploration, a portable rotational motion sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding dynamic range, portability, power consumption and sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and magnetic field. For BlueSeis3A, power consumption is in an acceptable range for a portable and field deployable instrument. We will quantify sensor self noise by means of operating range diagrams as well as Allan variance and show results from tests on thermal and magnetic sensitivity. Tests on orthogonality and sensitivity to linear motion complete our full characterization.

  20. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  1. AIRCRAFT MOTION PARAMETER ESTIMATION VIA MULTIPATH TIME-DELAY USING A SINGLE GROUND-BASED PASSIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hongyan; Zou Hongxing

    2007-01-01

    The time-frequency analysis of the signal acquired by a single ground-based microphone shows a two-dimensional interference pattern in the time-frequency plane,which is caused by the time delay of the received signal emitted from a low flying aircraft via the direct path and the ground-reflected path.A model is developed for estimating the motion parameters of an aircraft flying along a straight line at a constant height and with a constant speed.Monte Carlo simulation results and experimental results are presented to validate the model,and an error analysis of the model is presented to verify the effectiveness of the estimation scheme advocated.

  2. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  3. Sentinel-1 and ground-based sensors for a continuous monitoring of the Corvara landslide kinematic (South Tirol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Kofler, Christian; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-1 mission allows us to have Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas every 6 days with spatial resolution of 20 m. This new open-source generation of satellites has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in Alpine environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in non-urban areas), atmospheric conditions or high ground surface velocity. In this study, kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tirol, Italy), are monitored by a network of 3 permanent and 13 monthly Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This analysis focuses on evaluating the limitations of Sentinel-1 imagery processed with Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in comparison to ground-based measurements for assessing the landslide kinematic linked to meteorological conditions. Selecting some particular acquisitions, coherence thresholds and unwrapping processes gives various results in terms of reliability and accuracy supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. The evolution of the coherence and phase signals are studied according to the changing field conditions and the monitored ground-based displacements. DInSAR deformation maps and residual topographic heights are finally compared with difference of high resolution Digital Elevation Models at local scale. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded

  4. Remote Sensing of Supercooled Cloud Layers in Cold Climate Using Ground Based Integrated Sensors System and Comparison with Pilot Reports and model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudala, Faisal; Wu, Di; Gultepe, Ismail; Anderson, Martha; turcotte, marie-france

    2017-04-01

    In-flight aircraft icing is one of the major weather hazards to aviation . It occurs when an aircraft passes through a cloud layer containing supercooled drops (SD). The SD in contact with the airframe freezes on the surface which degrades the performance of the aircraft.. Prediction of in-flight icing requires accurate prediction of SD sizes, liquid water content (LWC), and temperature. The current numerical weather predicting (NWP) models are not capable of making accurate prediction of SD sizes and associated LWC. Aircraft icing environment is normally studied by flying research aircraft, which is quite expensive. Thus, developing a ground based remote sensing system for detection of supercooled liquid clouds and characterization of their impact on severity of aircraft icing one of the important tasks for improving the NWPs based predictions and validations. In this respect, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) in cooperation with the Department of National Defense (DND) installed a number of specialized ground based remote sensing platforms and present weather sensors at Cold Lake, Alberta that includes a multi-channel microwave radiometer (MWR), K-band Micro Rain radar (MRR), Ceilometer, Parsivel distrometer and Vaisala PWD22 present weather sensor. In this study, a number of pilot reports confirming icing events and freezing precipitation that occurred at Cold Lake during the 2014-2016 winter periods and associated observation data for the same period are examined. The icing events are also examined using aircraft icing intensity estimated using ice accumulation model which is based on a cylindrical shape approximation of airfoil and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model predicted LWC, median volume diameter and temperature. The results related to vertical atmospheric profiling conditions, surface observations, and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model

  5. Aspects of sensor data fusion in interoperable ISR systems of systems for wide-area ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wolfgang; Ulmke, Martin; Biermann, Joachim; Sielemann, Marion

    2010-04-01

    Within the context of C4ISTAR information "systems of systems", we discuss sensor data fusion aspects that are aiming at the generation of higher-level in-formation according to the JDL model of data fusion. In particular, two issues are addressed: (1) Tracking-derived Situation Elements: Standard target tracking applications gain information related to 'Level 1 Fusion' according to the well-established terminology of the JDL model. Kinematic data of this type, however, are by no means the only information to be derived from tar-get tracks. In many cases, reliable and quantitative higher level information according to the JDL terminology can be obtained. (2) Anomaly Detection in Tracking Data Bases: Anomaly detection can be regarded as a process of information fusion that aims at focusing the attention of human decision makers or decision making systems is focused on particular events that are "irregular" or may cause harm and thus require special actions.

  6. GNSS as a sea ice sensor - detecting coastal freeze states with ground-based GNSS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Based on the idea of using freely available signals for remote sensing, ground-based GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R) has found more and more applications in hydrology, oceanography, agriculture and other Earth sciences. GNSS-R is based on analysing the elevation dependent SNR patterns of GNSS signals, and traditionally only the oscillation frequency and phase have been studied to retrieve parameters from the reflecting surfaces. However, recently Strandberg et al. (2016) developed an inversion algorithm that has changed the paradigms of ground-based GNSS-R as it enables direct access to the radiometric properties of the reflector. Using the signal envelope and the rate at which the magnitude of the SNR oscillations are damped w.r.t. satellite elevation, the algorithm retrieves the roughness of the reflector surface amongst other parameters. Based on this idea, we demonstrate for the first time that a GNSS installation situated close to the coastline can detect the presence of sea-ice unambiguously. Using data from the GTGU antenna at the Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the time series of the derived damping parameter clearly matches the occurrence of ice in the bay where the antenna is situated. Our results were validated against visual inspection logs as well as with the help of ice charts from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Our method is even sensitive to partial and intermediate ice formation stages, with clear difference in response between frazil ice and both open and solidly frozen water surfaces. As the GTGU installation is entirely built with standard geodetic equipment, the method can be applied directly to any coastal GNSS site, allowing analysis of both new and historical data. One can use the method as an automatic way of retrieving independent ground truth data for ice extent measurements for use in hydrology, cryosphere studies, and even societal interest fields such as sea transportation. Finally, the new method opens up for

  7. Realization of MBD model digitalization definition in UG/NX%基于模型的数字化定义在UG/NX中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶杰; 葛如海; 周临震

    2013-01-01

    Through studying the development process of DPD and in-depth analysis of the relationship between DPD and MBD, the importance of DPD as the basis of MBD technology application system was revealed. The content of Digital Product Definition, the definition method of GD&T in 3D model, the application of 3D cutaway view and the comments expression of non-geometry manufacturing information of air bag support were analyzed based on UG/ NX platform. In addition, the expression method of product manufacturing information under NX platform was given. DPD, as the basis of MBD technology, will completely change the information carrier from 2D drawings to 3D model and lead digital manufacturing technology to great changes.%通过探究DPD的发展历程,深入剖析DPD与MBD的关系,揭示了DPD作为MBD技术应用体系基础的重要性.以UG/NX软件为平台,以气囊下支座为研究对象,分析了DPD定义的内容,GD&T在三维数模中的定义方法,三维剖视图的应用及非几何信息的注释表达,明确了在NX平台下产品制造信息的表达方法.DPD作为MBD技术的基础,彻底将产品定义信息载体变更为三维模型,必将引起数字化制造技术的巨大变革.

  8. observation and analysis of the structure of winter precipitation-generating clouds using ground-based sensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez José Luis, Marcos; Gómez José Luis, Sánchez; Campano Laura, López; Ortega Eduardo, García; Suances Andrés, Merino; González Sergio, Fernández; Salvador Estíbaliz, Gascón; González Lucía, Hermida

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we used a 28-day database corresponding to December, January and February of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 campaigns to analyze cloud structure that produced precipitation in the Sierra Norte near Madrid, Spain. We used remote sensing measurements, both active type like the K-band Micro Rain Radar (MRR) and passive type like the Radiometrics MP-3000A multichannel microwave radiometer. Using reflectivity data from the MRR, we determined the important microphysical parameters of Ice Water Content (IWC) and its integrated value over the atmospheric column, or Ice Water Path (IWP). Among the measurements taken by the MP-3000A were Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV). By representing these data together, sharp declines in LWP and IWV were evident, coincident with IWP increases. This result indicates the ability of a K-band radar to measure the amount of ice in the atmospheric column, simultaneously revealing the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism. We also used a Present Weather Sensor (VPF-730; Biral Ltd., Bristol, UK) to determine the type and amount of precipitation at the surface. With these data, we used regression equations to establish the relationship between visibility and precipitation intensity. In addition, through theoretical precipitation visibility-intensity relationships, we estimated the type of crystal, degree of accretion (riming), and moisture content of fallen snow crystals.

  9. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP to underground (UG transition in coal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phu Minh Vuong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG on open pit mining (OP, illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  10. Research of Multi-axis NC Machining Method of Cylindrical Cam Based on UG NX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qianhua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have focused significant efforts on developing solutions for precision machining of cylindrical cams based on UG NX. A variety of processing method are put forward according to the digital model for a cylindrical cam which has been derived through parametric design, all of which are made a detailed comparison, analysis, research, elaborated. Simulation processing, post processing and NC program are carried out though optimized processing scheme. It will provide a reference for the numerical control programming of four-Coordinated axis.

  11. Study on motion simulation of arc welding robot based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shengqiang; Hu Shengsun; Du Naicheng; Shen Junqi

    2008-01-01

    The motion simulation of arc welding robot is the basis of the system of robot off-line programming, and it has been one of the important research directions. The UGNX4.0 is adopted to establish 3D simulating model of MOTOMAN-HP6 arc welding robot. The kinematic model under link-pole coordinate system is established by the second development function offered by UG/OPEN API and the method of programming using VC+ +6.0. The methods of founding model and operational procedures are introduced, which provides a good basis for off-line programming technique under Unigraphics condition.

  12. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  13. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Singh, Ravi P.; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat. PMID:28241006

  14. UG-based Parametric Design for Rail Cars%基于 UG 的轨道架车参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 王耕耘; 张文明

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the parametric design system of rail cars based on UG platform ,realizing the parametric design of rail cars ,and achieving a very good benefit in practical applications as well .It puts emphasis on the design of module reuse technology and automated assembly method of standard parts ,and solves the main problems in the process of parametric design on product level .%研究了基于UG的轨道架车参数化设计系统,实现了轨道架车的参数化设计,在实际应用中取得了很好的效果。同时研究了复杂变形设计中的模块重用技术和标准件的自动化装配方法,解决了产品级参数化设计过程中的主要问题。

  15. UG NX7.5用户初始化设置技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐昌维

    2014-01-01

    UG NX7.5是UG(Unigraphics NX)是Siemens PLM Software公司出的一款三维设计软件,以其强大的功能性、灵活性、易用性受到了很多设计师的追捧,但是由于文化、喜好、软件定位的原因,UG NX的默认初始化设置却一直让国内的用户们不甚满意,因此基于NX7.5版本,简要介绍了桌面快捷图标的创建、标题栏的更改、默认保存路径的更改、工具栏的调整及角色创建、默认首选项的设置,以方便大家定制满意的使用环境。

  16. UG NX在曲轴及其模具CAD/CAM技术中的应用%The Application of UG NX in Crankshaft and Mould CAD/CAM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯娟; 吴龙

    2011-01-01

    基于UG NX软件的CAD模块,对某汽车曲轴及其锻模进行了实体造型,主要对曲轴零件曲面拐角处的造型设计进行研究.并约束了边界条件,做出光顺的表面.应用UG/Manufacmting模块对终锻模具型腔的加工制造进行参数设置,输出CLSF文件,模拟出粗加工刀具加工轨迹,说明了UG NX的CAD/CAM技术应用于工业制造中的优势.

  17. UG Mold Wizard in injection mold design application%UG MoldWizard在注射模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙福; 黄常翼

    2013-01-01

    Currently plastics increasingly broad application areas, plastic products has become the automotive, aerospace, electrical and electronics, packaging, building materials, agriculture and other fields indispensable parts and plastic parts are produced almost all through the plastic mold molding to obtain The. As technology advances and high-tech product development and continuous innovation, the technical plastics increasingly high demand, relying on manual mold design and manufacturing engineers is difficult to meet the needs of the development of production. UG mold soft-ware emergence and development, has become a contemporary mold design and manufacture of an important and indis-pensable auxiliary tools.%目前塑料制品的应用领域日益广阔,塑料产品已成为汽车、航空航天、电子电气、包装、建材、农业等领域中不可缺少的部分,而塑料制件的生产几乎都是通过塑料模具的成型来获得的。随着技术进步以及高科技产品的不断开发与创新,对塑料制品的各项技术要求越来越高,仅靠模具工程师手工设计与制造很难满足生产发展的需要。 UG模具软件的出现与发展,已成为当代模具设计与制造中不可缺少的重要辅助工具之一。

  18. The strongest magnetic barrier in the DIII-D tokamak and comparison with the ASDEX UG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic perturbations in tokamaks lead to the formation of magnetic islands, chaotic field lines, and the destruction of flux surfaces. Controlling or reducing transport along chaotic field lines is a key challenge in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A local control method was proposed by Chandre et al. [Nucl. Fusion 46, 33-45 (2006)] to build barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by addition of a small second-order control term localized in the phase space to the field line Hamiltonian. Formation and existence of such magnetic barriers in Ohmically heated tokamaks (OHT), ASDEX UG and piecewise analytic DIII-D [Luxon, J.L.; Davis, L.E., Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] plasma equilibria was predicted by the authors [Ali, H.; Punjabi, A., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49, 1565-1582 (2007)]. Very recently, this prediction for the DIII-D has been corroborated [Volpe, F.A., et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 054017 (2012)] by field-line tracing calculations, using experimentally constrained Equilibrium Fit (EFIT) [Lao, et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] DIII-D equilibria perturbed to include the vacuum field from the internal coils utilized in the experiments. This second-order approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside the chaos created by the locked resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) (m, n)=(3, 1)+(4, 1), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation with amplitude δ. A piecewise, analytic, accurate, axisymmetric generating function for the trajectories of magnetic field lines in the DIII-D is constructed in magnetic coordinates from the experimental EFIT Grad-Shafranov solver [Lao, L, et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 968 (2005)] for the shot 115,467 at 3000 ms in the DIII-D. A symplectic mathematical map is used to integrate field lines in the DIII-D. A numerical algorithm [Ali, H., et al., Radiat. Eff. Def. Solids Inc. Plasma Sc. Plasma Tech. 165, 83

  19. UGS NX CAM Express在模具加工中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普涛

    2008-01-01

    UGS NX CAM EXPRESS是UGS公司针对行业的模块化加工软件包,是专门为高级机床提供的高级CAM软件。它独立于CAD软件,不受特定CAD系统的限制,并且拥有关键的行业转换程序,可以在线访问后处理库,有利于加工数据导入,可以解决典型的CNC编程的需求。本文通过针对模具在完整的工作流环境下进行加工过程来介绍NX兴CAM Express的应用。

  20. UGS NX CAM Express V5软件问世

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007年7月3日.西门子自动化与驱动集团旗下的PLM软件供应商UGS公司发布了其最新版NX CAM Express V5软件.该软件是UGS Velocity组合里一个功能全面、独立于CAD系统的数控编程应用程序.不仅改善了操作界面.而且为用户提供了预配置的“铣-车”环境、新的工具以及突破性的“自由加工”技术。

  1. IBM Intellistation M PRO 9229图形工作站运行测试:UG NX 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 强大的UG NX 4系统 属于德国西门子公司旗下的Unigraphics Solutions公司(简称UGS)是全球著名的MCAD供应商,主要为汽车与交通、航空航天、日用消费品、通用机械及电子工业等领域提供多级化的、集成的、企业级的包括软件产品与服务在内的完整的MCAD解决方案.

  2. Surface chemistry and spectroscopy of UG8 asphaltene Langmuir film, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbulescu, Jhony; Mullins, Oliver C; Leblanc, Roger M

    2010-10-05

    This research focuses on a systematic investigation of UG8 asphaltene Langmuir films at the air-water interface using toluene as the spreading solvent. From the surface pressure-area isotherms, it was concluded that small-sized aggregates are spread on the water surface and the compression of the film leads to formation of large aggregates. Our methods provide a stringent test and confirmation for the formation of corresponding asphaltene nanoaggregates that have recently been proposed for bulk solutions. These results were confirmed by compression-decompression isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and p-polarized infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The transfer of a single layer using both the Langmuir-Schaefer and Langmuir-Blodgett deposition techniques shows different aggregate shapes depending on the technique used as imaged using atomic force microscopy. The films reveal the existence of nanoaggregates spread on the water surface that coexist with large aggregates formed during compression. For the nanoaggregate, the thickness of the Langmuir-Schaefer and Langmuir-Blodgett films determined by AFM is consistent with small aggregation numbers of nanoaggregates determined by Langmuir film compression. In addition to these findings, the spreading solvent, toluene, was found to be trapped within the aggregates as confirmed by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy at the air-water interface. This result was possible only after waiting a time period of 1 h to allow the complete evaporation of the spreading solvent. This is the only study that reveals the presence of the in situ toluene within the UG8 aggregates directly at the air-water interface.

  3. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  4. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke tube

  5. 46 CFR 54.15-15 - Relief devices for unfired steam boilers, evaporators, and heat exchangers (modifies UG-126).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirement of § 54.15-5. (g)(1) A heat exchanger with steam in the shell and liquid in the tubes or coils at... more than 6 percent above the safety valve setting. (f) A heat exchanger with liquid in the shell and..., and heat exchangers (modifies UG-126). 54.15-15 Section 54.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an EnKF-model system that downscales satellite data and predicts catchment-scale RZSM content is especially timely, given the anticipated

  7. Blade Forging Design Based on the Secondary Development of UG%UG二次开发在叶片锻造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 谢崴; 王高潮

    2011-01-01

    综合运用UG表达式法及UG二次开发工具UG/Open API,UG/Open MenuScript,UG/Open UIStyler和Visual C++ 6.0,根据叶片锻件的加工原理,开发叶片模锻参数化设计系统。在该系统中,叶片锻件和锻模造型易于设计及修改。对提高叶片模具设计的效率、缩短模具开发周期具有较强的实用价值,同时也为后期的叶片模具制造和有限元数值模拟做好了强大的铺垫。%Combined with the method of UG expression and the tools of the UG secondary development including UG/ Open MenuScript, UG/Open UIStyler, UG/Open API and Visual C++ 6.0, blade die forging parametric design system was developed based on the blade forging process theory. In this system, the blade forging and die were easily designed and modified This method brings practical values for improving efficiency of blade forging die design and shortening the die development period, meanwhile, making a strong foundation for the following blade forging die manufacture and simulation by finite element method.

  8. Design of Injection Molds for Hair Dryer Shell Based on UG%基于UG的吹风机外壳注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘祖聪; 何芳

    2015-01-01

    UG NX(简称UG)是一款强大的CAD/CAM集成软件,MoldWizard是UG应用的一个模块,专门用于注塑模具设计.以吹风机外壳为例,阐述了基于UG的注塑模具设计的过程和方法.

  9. Secondary Development Technologies of Universal Cam Curve by UG Software%基于UG的通用凸轮曲线三次开发技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张加兵; 傅燕鸣; 王居正

    2011-01-01

    A curve of cams movement trace of given cam-follower. Greatly impacts the efficiency, precision and lifespan of the cam-mechanism, so it plays an important role in cam design. In order to design cam mechanism fast and effectively, the equations of general cam were derived and summarized. Furthermore through comprehensive applications of Visual C + + 6. 0, UG/OPEN MenuScript, UG/OPEN UlStyler and UG/OPEN API etc. Development tools, based on UG software, a general cam design model with higher efficiency was developed.%凸轮曲线是凸轮驱动从动件的运动曲线,它影响到凸轮机构的效率、精度以及寿命,故在凸轮设计中十分重要.为快速有效地进行凸轮机构设计,总结推导了通用凸轮曲线公式,综合应用Visual C++6.0、UG/OPEN MenuScript、UG/OPEN UIStyler和UG/OPEN API等开发工具,开发了基于UG软件的通用凸轮设计模块,提高了凸轮机构设计效率.

  10. Application of UG NX in forging die manufacturing%UGNX在锻模加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙劲松

    2012-01-01

    以汽车曲轴锻造的模具加工为例,选用UG NX CAM软件进行NC编程,利用UG的CAD和CAM集成,提高工作效率.对于锻模的难加工材料,可以选用TiAlN等涂层的刀具,尽量使用大直径的刀具以提高刚性.粗加工工艺可以采用摆线加工,以获得高加工效率和长刀具寿命.精加工先选用较大的刀具加工,再用小的刀具局部清根.%Taking crankshaft mould machining for example, working efficiency was improved by NC programming using UG NX CAM software and UG CAD/CAM integration. For the forging mould materials which are hard to machine, coating tools such as TiAlN were choosem, tools with as large as possible diameter were used to improve rigidity. Tro-choidal machining was used for rough machining process to get high efficiency and long life of tools. Finish machining process includes machining with larger tools first and flow cut with smaller tools.

  11. SAM-2 ground-truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement-2 (SAM 2) sensor on the Nimbus G satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Pepin, T. J.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SAM-2 will fly aboard the Nimbus-G satellite for launch in the fall of 1978 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol extinction in high latitude bands. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. The SAM-2 expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of polar stratospheric aerosols are used in the SAM-2 and correlative sensor analyses.

  12. Rachunek kosztów działańjako podstawa wyceny usług

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruda Krystyna Świderska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł prezentuje wykorzystanie rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny usług na trzech rynkach podlegających centralnym regulacjom – rynku usług pocztowych, telekomunikacyjnych oraz świadczeń zdrowotnych. Doświadczenia krajów Unii Europejskiej (w tym Polski pokazują nowe obszary wykorzystania rachunku kosztów działań. Potwierdzają, że zastosowanie tego narzędzia pozwala na kontrolę kosztów ponoszonych przy świadczeniu usług oraz wycenę na podstawie rzeczywistego rachunku ekonomicznego. Takie podejście gwarantuje przejrzystość procesu wyceny na rynkach, na których odgrywa to szczególnie istotną rolę. W części pierwszej przedstawiono zarys koncepcji rachunku kosztów działań wykorzystanej w PPUP Poczta Polska. Scharakteryzowano zastosowane rozwiązanie dostosowane do specyfiki działań poczty, zawierające elementy obiektowego rachunku kosztów działań oraz rachunku kosztów działań sterowanego czasem. W części drugiej zaprezentowano zastosowanie koncepcji rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny świadczonych usług w British Telecom. Wykorzystanie właściwych nośników kosztów pozwala na prawidłowe przypisanie kosztów obiektom je generującym. W części trzeciej opisano doświadczenia krajów Unii Europejskiej w zakresie stosowania rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny świadczeń medycznych. Stanowią one przesłankę dla wdrożenia tej koncepcji do wyceny usług zdrowotnych na rynku polskim.

  13. Surface chemistry and spectroscopy of UG8 asphaltene Langmuir film, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbulescu, Jhony; Mullins, Oliver C; Leblanc, Roger M

    2010-10-05

    While there has been much focus on asphaltenes in toluene, there has been much less focus on asphaltenes in other solvents. It is important to quantify characteristics of asphaltenes in solvents besides toluene in order to better assess their molecular architecture as well as their fundamental aggregation characteristics. The present work focuses on the investigation of UG8 asphaltene Langmuir films at the air-water interface using chloroform as spreading solvent. The results are compared to the results recently obtained using toluene as spreading solvent. Surface pressure-area isotherms and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that asphaltenes form smaller nanoaggregates in chloroform than in toluene in similar concentration ranges. Still these nanoaggreates share common features with those in toluene. From the surface pressure-area and compression-decompression isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and p-polarized infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, it was concluded that small size aggregates are spread on the water surface and the compression of the film leads to formation of large aggregates. The films (Langmuir-Schaefer and Langmuir-Blodgett) studied by atomic force microscopy reveal the existence of nanoaggregates spread on the water surface that coexist with large aggregates formed during compression. In addition to these findings, the spreading solvent, chloroform, allows the determination of asphaltene absorption bands using in situ UV-vis spectroscopy at the air-water interface after 15 min waiting time period. The absorbance data carried out after waiting a time period of 1 h shows similar features with the ones carried out after only 15 min; therefore, there is no need to wait 1 h as in the case when toluene is used as spreading solvent. A comparison of the data obtained from chloroform and toluene shows that smaller aggregate sizes are obtained from chloroform as suggested from the surface pressure-area isotherm, in situ UV-vis spectroscopy, and

  14. The Practice of Comparative Teaching Method in UG Teaching%对比教学法在UG教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖波

    2016-01-01

    UG软件广泛应用于航空、航天、汽车、造船、模具、机械等行业,高等职业教育以培养技术技能型人才为主要目标,UG软件教育在高职教育中有着重要的作用。本文探索了高职UG软件教学方法在学习UG软件中的重要性。%UG software is widely used in aviation, aerospace, automobile, shipbuilding, die and mould, mechanical industry, higher vocational education to cultivate technical talents as the main target, UG software education in the higher vocational education has a important role. This paper explores the importance of the teaching method of UG software in Higher Vocational Education in UG software learning.

  15. Roll forging die design based on UG secondary development%UG二次开发在辊锻模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 夏春林

    2011-01-01

    综合运用UG表达式法及UG二次开发工具UG/Open API、UG/0pen MenuScript、UG/Open UIStyler和Visual C++6.0,根据汽车前轴锻件的加工原理,开发了汽车前轴精制坯辊锻系统.在该系统中,前轴辊锻件和辊锻模参数化造型易于设计及修改,任何汽车前轴设计人员都能够方便的操作.该系统对提高汽车前轴辊锻模具设计的效率、缩短模具开发周期具有较强的实用价值,同时也为后期的辊锻模具制造和有限元模拟做好了强大的铺垫.%Combined with the method of UG expression and the tools of the UG secondary development including UG/Open MenuScript, UG/Open UIStyler, UG/Open API and Visual C+ +6.0,the roll-forging system of precision and billet on automotive front axle was developed based on the front axle forging process theory. In this system, the front axle forging and die was easily modified, and any front axle forging designer could handle it with much convenience.This method brings practical values for improving efficiency of front axle forging die design and shortening the die development period, meanwhile, making a strong fundament for the following roll-forging die production and finite element method.

  16. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  17. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the intercomparison of aerosol data - Part 4: Combined maximum covariance analysis to bridge the gap between multi-sensor satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques has greatly advanced our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols. Various satellite sensors and the associated retrieval algorithms all add to the information of global aerosol variability, while well-designed surface networks provide time series of highly accurate measurements at specific locations. In studying the variability of aerosol properties, aerosol climate effects, and constraining aerosol fields in climate models, it is essential to make the best use of all of the available information. In the previous three parts of this series, we demonstrated the usefulness of several spectral decomposition techniques in the analysis and comparison of temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth using satellite and ground-based measurements. Specifically, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) successfully captures and isolates seasonal and interannual variability from different aerosol source regions, Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) provides a means to verify the variability in one satellite dataset against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, and Combined Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) realized parallel comparison among multi-satellite, multi-sensor datasets. As the final part of the study, this paper introduces a novel technique that integrates both multi-sensor datasets and ground observations, and thus effectively bridges the gap between these two types of measurements. The Combined Maximum Covariance Analysis (CMCA) decomposes the cross covariance matrix between the combined multi-sensor satellite data field and AERONET station data. We show that this new method not only confirms the seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol optical depth, aerosol source regions and events represented by different satellite datasets, but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in capturing the variability associated with sources, events or aerosol types. Furthermore, by examining the spread of

  18. 五轴数控加工中心UG NX后处理研究%UG NX Post-processing Research on Five-axis CNC Machining Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建军; 刘建敏; 许东太

    2010-01-01

    介绍了UG后处理开发的方法,以一个典型的A、B摆角的五轴FANUC系统数控龙门铣床为例.设定了机床参数、程序和刀轨参数,叙述了刀库后处理方法.指出了普通的UG NX/Post Builder产生的后处理文件不符合要求时,可利用Custom Command(用户自定义命令)来处理,生成符合条件的NC程序.

  19. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on clouds and precipitation over mountains in Wyoming. Part I: Project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Binod; Geerts, Bart

    2016-12-01

    The AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) campaign was conducted in early 2012 and 2013 over two mountain ranges in southern Wyoming to examine the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on snow growth in winter orographic clouds. The campaign was supported by a network of ground-based instruments, including microwave radiometers, two profiling Ka-band Micro-Rain Radars (MRRs), a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) X-band radar, and a Parsivel disdrometer. The University of Wyoming King Air operated the profiling Wyoming Cloud Radar, the Wyoming Cloud Lidar, and in situ cloud and precipitation particle probes. The characteristics of the orographic clouds, flow field, and upstream stability profiles in 27 intensive observation periods (IOPs) are described here. A composite analysis of the impact of seeding on snow growth is presented in Part II of this study (Pokharel et al., 2017).

  20. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment: Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS), U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the NRHP because it does not meet any criteria for listing ( Quist , 2008). The U.S. Army agreed with this recommendation and determined that...Knight Rachel Quist 75th Civil Engineering Group – Hill AFB Loni Johnson, CERC Kay Winn, CEVOR 75th Civil Engineering Group – Oasis Ronald... Quist , Rachel. 2008. Cultural Resources Management Officer, Dugway Proving Ground. Personal communication with Mary Peters, MBP Consulting

  1. 应用UG NX软件实现汽车零部件的参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金桥; 杨波; 邓楚南

    2006-01-01

    本文针对汽车制动器间隙自动调整臂的设计特点及设计过程。应用UG NX 2.0软件的参数化设计模块,通过改变零部件的主要特征参数,生成了不同型号的零部件。从而缩短产品的设计周期,提高设计效率。

  2. Application of Knowledge and UG Secondary Development Technology in Parametric Design System of Spreader%基于知识与 UG 二次开发的吊具参数化设计系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小明; 王耕耘; 张文明; 王华侨

    2016-01-01

    由于作业时需要具有很高的安全性,因此吊具结构尺寸的设计和安全性检验便成为关键。在原有设计方法的基础上,利用UG7.5开发了吊具设计系统,并采用 ANSYS对吊具进行有限元分析。根据计算和有限元分析结果,优化了吊具的结构尺寸,实现了吊具在生产前的检验与优化。%Because of the high security requirements of spreader ,the structure design and safety testing of spreader have become important .Based on the original design methods ,a parametric design system of spreader was developed by using UG7 .5 ,and this paper conducted finite element analysis for the spreader with ANSYS .According to the results of the calculation and finite element analysis ,the structural dimensions of the spreader could be improved ,and the spreader could be inspected and optimized before production .

  3. The Interaction of Input and UG in the Acquisition of Verb Movement in a Dialect of Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit R. Westergaard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that a principle of information structure provided by Universal Grammar (UG may interact with input in the acquisition of word order. In a study which investigates three children from the age of approximately 1;9 to 3 acquiring a Northern dialect of Norwegian, it has previously been shown that word order patterns in certain types of wh-questions which are sensitive to subtle distinctions in the information value of the subject (given vs. new are acquired extremely early (Westergaard 2003a. This paper presents a study of the same children’s topicalization constructions, and it is shown that, although these patterns of information structure do not appear in the input, the children nevertheless show traces of these patterns in the non-target forms that they occasionally produce. Thus, in their very early production of topicalization constructions the children seem to be guided by a word order principle based on information structure, which could be taken as support for this as a word order preferred by UG.

  4. Experimental analysis and prediction for aircraft ground frosting based on sensor%基于传感器的飞机地面结霜实验分析与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 孙闯; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    The frosting of aircraft on the ground destroys aerodynamic shape and has a negative effect on the flight performance. In order to monitor and forecast on aircraft frosting on the ground accurately,experimental research on airfoil frosting is carried out using variety of sensors;by analyzing frost layer growth curve of simulating airfoil in different environment conditions,law of airfoil frosting is researched. Analyze datas of frosting experiment,propose polynomial regression predicting model in different frosting environments. Meanwhile,multicollinearity is avoided by orthogonalizing polynomials,which make prediction model has high curve fitting and high precision,fast and accurate prediction for ground frosting of aircrafts is realized.%飞机在地面的结霜会破坏飞机的气动外形,对飞机的飞行性能产生不利的影响。为了对地面飞机结霜进行准确监测与预测,利用多种传感器对机翼的结霜环境进行实验研究,通过分析不同环境下模拟机翼的霜层生长曲线,探寻和统计飞机机翼的地面结霜规律。对结霜实验的数据进行分析,提出了不同结霜环境下的多项式回归预测模型。同时将多项式进行正交化,避免了多重共线性,使预测模型的曲线拟合程度高,预测值具有较高的精度,实现了对飞机的地面结霜进行快速精确的预测。

  5. A Generic Algorithm to Estimate LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER Variables from SPOT4_HRVIR and Landsat Sensors: Evaluation of the Consistency and Comparison with Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR are essential climatic variables in surface process models. FCOVER is also important to separate vegetation and soil for energy balance processes. Currently, several LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER satellite products are derived moderate to coarse spatial resolution. The launch of Sentinel-2 in 2015 will provide data at decametric resolution with a high revisit frequency to allow quantifying the canopy functioning at the local to regional scales. The aim of this study is thus to evaluate the performances of a neural network based algorithm to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products at decametric spatial resolution and high temporal sampling. The algorithm is generic, i.e., it is applied without any knowledge of the landcover. A time series of high spatial resolution SPOT4_HRVIR (16 scenes and Landsat 8 (18 scenes images acquired in 2013 over the France southwestern site were used to generate the LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products. For each sensor and each biophysical variable, a neural network was first trained over PROSPECT+SAIL radiative transfer model simulations of top of canopy reflectance data for green, red, near-infra red and short wave infra-red bands. Our results show a good spatial and temporal consistency between the variables derived from both sensors: almost half the pixels show an absolute difference between SPOT and LANDSAT estimates of lower that 0.5 unit for LAI, and 0.05 unit for FAPAR and FCOVER. Finally, downward-looking digital hemispherical cameras were completed over the main land cover types to validate the accuracy of the products. Results show that the derived products are strongly correlated with the field measurements (R2 > 0.79, corresponding to a RMSE = 0.49 for LAI, RMSE = 0.10 (RMSE = 0.12 for black-sky (white sky FAPAR and RMSE = 0.15 for FCOVER. It is concluded that the proposed generic algorithm provides a good

  6. Rotorwash wind sensor evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Curtis L.; Lake, Robert E.; Gordge, Dennis N.

    1993-08-01

    This project's purpose was to assess and document the ability of the Qualimetrics, Inc. model 2132 wind sensor (a cup and vane type sensor) to measure a rotor wash flow field as compared to the TSI, Inc. model 204D ion beam deflection sensor. The tests concentrated on the sensor's ability to capture dynamic characteristics of a helicopter rotor wash flow field. The project was conducted from April to November 1992 and consisted of quantitative laboratory and field testing. The laboratory testing included 9.5 hours of wind tunnel test time, subjecting each sensor to three step input tests at velocities of 20 knots, 50 knots, and 80 knots. Field test data were collected during one hour of SH-60B helicopter hover time at heights of 15 and 25 feet above ground level at distances of 35 and 70 feet from the wind sensors. Aircraft gross weights ranged between 19,600 and 20,500 pounds. All field test data were obtained in ambient wind conditions of approximately 8 knots at 40 degrees relative to the aircraft nose, -40 feet pressure altitude in an ambient temperature of 85 F. Laboratory data analysis indicates the model 2132 cup and vane sensor's time constant values were significantly higher than those of the model 204D ion beam sensor and varied relative to wind tunnel velocity settings. This indicates the model 2132 sensor's ability to accurately capture oscillations in a dynamic flow field is significantly less than the model 204D sensor. The model 2132 sensor did detect periodic or pulsating velocity magnitudes, but failed to capture significant oscillations as compared to the model 204D sensor. Comparative analysis of all field test event data indicate the model 2132 sensor only detected frequencies below 1.5 Hz and only captured an average of 46 percent of the model 204D sensor's maximum amplitude pulse values that were below 1.5 Hz. The model 2132 sensor's inability to capture many of the maximum pulse amplitudes is evidence of the sensor's limited capability to

  7. 基于 Imageware 和 UG 技术的逆向曲面重构及模具设计方法%Reverse Surface Reconstruction and Mould Design Method Based on Imageware & UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恒亚; 黄明; 李红莉

    2015-01-01

    Using reverse assistive technology for fast and precise mold design of some complex structure products,using 3D laser scanner to get point cloud data,using Imageware software for point cloud processing and surface reconstruction,then 3D modeling in UG software and the corresponding optimal design were made. The full mould drawings of final design with the most reasonable method was got for subsequent mould processing and production. The results show that this method can not only improve the precision of the mould and products,and can greatly shorten the design cycle,save cost. Especially for some complex structure, high surface requirements or lost original geometric data of the products,it can exert more advantage.%采用逆向辅助技术,对一款结构较为复杂的某制品进行快速而精确的模具设计,先利用三维激光扫描仪得到其点云数据,再使用 Imageware 软件进行点云处理和曲面重构,然后在 UG 软件中进行三维造型及相应的优化设计,最终以最合理的设计方法得到完整的模具图,用于后续的模具加工与生产。结果表明,此方法既能提高模具及产品的精度,又能大大缩短设计周期,节约成本。尤其对一些具有结构复杂、曲面要求高或者缺失原始几何数据的制品,此方法更能发挥其优势。

  8. The Application of UG Software in the Design of Complex Plastic Model%UG软件在复杂塑料模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄碧琼

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products with their excellent performance and wide use, gradually occupy an important position. This paper mainly analyzes the main features of UG software and its specific function, discusses the application situa-tion of UG software in complex plastic model, and introduces some specific operation of UC software in plastic model design, and with the specific design case interprets the application of UG software in complex plastic mold design.%本文分析了UG软件的主要特点及具体功能,论述了UG软件在复杂塑料模型中的应用现状,并且以具体设计为案例,对UG软件在复杂塑料模具设计中的应用进行阐述.

  9. Research of the Secondary Development of UG Based on Visual Studio 2010%基于Visual Studio 2010的UG二次开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇; 林岗

    2015-01-01

    Visual Studio 2010是集VB、VC#、VC++等为一体的集成开发平台,并且具有操作简便、稳定可靠等特点.目前UG二次开发大多基于VC++6.0平台,基于Visual Studio 2010平台的比较少.文章选用UG/Open API和UG/Open MenuScript 语言作为技术支持,利用Visual Studio 2010平台创建NX6 Open Wizard类型项目,编写了程序代码,并经过调试和修改,编译生成了DLL文件,最终完成了UG零件的二次开发,为UG(Unigraphics)二次开发提供了一种新的途径.

  10. Study on Intelligent NC Programming for Complex Components of Marine Diesel Based on KBE and UG NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHANG Shengwen; FANG Xifeng

    2006-01-01

    The NC programming for complex components has lots drawbacks such as excessive repetitious labors, heavy workload and lack of optimization, which are especially serious in NC programming for complex components of marine diesel. Based on the key technologies of applying KBE(Knowledge Based Engineering)to NC programming--knowledge representation, generalized knowledge base, knowledge acquisition and knowledge reasoning, the system of intelligent NC programming for complex components of marine diesel has been built by means of the knowledge template and the UG/Open. The experiment results indicate that the NC program generated with high efficiency of NC programming by the system is accurate enough to meet the need of NC machining. Consequently, the automatization and intelligentization of NC programming has been presented, and the study is proved to be a successful attempt in the area of applying KBE to NC programming.

  11. Implications of $D^0-\\overline{D^0}$ on the rare top quark decays $t\\to u\\gamma$ and $t\\to ug$

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, J I; Ramírez--Zavaleta, F; Toscano, J J; Tututi, E S

    2009-01-01

    The recently observed mass difference of the $D^0-\\overline{D^0}$ mixing is used to predict the branching ratios of the rare top quark decays $t\\to u\\gamma$ and $t\\to ug$ in a model independent way using the effective Lagrangian approach. It is found that $Br(t\\to u\\gamma)<4\\times 10^{-4}$ and $Br(t\\to ug)<2\\times 10^{-3}$, which still may be within reach of the LHC collider.

  12. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  13. Universal Smart Sensor Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground testing of propulsion systems requires highly accurate and precise sensor systems. Setting up such systems can be more time consuming than the test. The...

  14. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  15. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  16. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  17. Epidemiology of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici-Ug99 in the Rift Valley “Flyway” from Uganda-Kenya to Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kogel, H.J.; Zadoks, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal of a new virulence of Puccinia graminis tritici (Pgt)-Ug99 from Uganda-Kenya to Yemen, over >1000 km, happened in four years. Geo-agro-ecology of wheat cultivation and the epidemiology of Pgt indicate that the Rift Valley is a natural conduit “flyway.” The widely prevalent “green bridge

  18. Finite Element Structural Analysis based on UG and AYSYS%基于UG和ANSYS的有限元结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊圃; 任军号

    2012-01-01

    通过对某型开关阀构件的结构可靠性进行有限元分析,研究了UG和ANSYS相结合的有效方法.讨论了在UG中建模并在ANSYS中预处理、解算和后处理的方法和在UG中完全预处理、在ANSYS中解算和进行后处理的方法.实践表明,后一种方法能更有效地体现UG和ANSYS软件各自的优点,更适合工程实际应用.本文的分析结论对复杂结构的实体模型进行有限元分析有一定的参考价值.%Through the questions of a component of switch valve about reliable finite element analysis, the paper re-searched the effective way that how to combine UG with ANSYS. Discussed UG modeling and the way of pretreatment, computing and aflcrtreatment in ANSYS and in UG. The practice showed that the last way can get the advantages both UG and ANSYS. it is more suitable for application of real engineering. The conclusions of this paper have some reference values for complicated structural mockup finite element analysis.

  19. Genetic mapping of resistance to the Ug99 race group of Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici in a spring wheat landrace CItr 4311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat landrace CItr 4311 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, F1 seedlings, 121 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross...

  20. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  1. The Modeling and Simulation of Small Climbing Robot Based on UG%基于UG的小型爬壁机器人的建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曰; 王林平

    2016-01-01

    This robot is designed to the simulate gecko climb principle, on the basis of large gecko the physiological structure of the theoretical model of robot is designed. To meet the requirements of climbing robot for adsorption force, in accordance with biomimetic gecko organisms sole design of robot paw, The material is made of polyurethane silicone rubber material.On the basis of large gecko's movement of the entity model, planning the gait, the two kinds of robot movement in the gait of a ground plane motion (diagonal gait) and on the ceiling movement gait gait (triangle). To test and verify the feasibility of design scheme, using UG software to all kinds of sports gait motion simulation, the simulation results show that the design scheme to accomplish the action and has the characteristics of strong adsorption force.%本爬壁机器人是仿照壁虎攀爬原理设计的,依据大壁虎的生理结构设计了爬壁机器人的理论模型。为满足机器人攀爬时对吸附力的要求,按照仿生的壁虎生物体脚掌设计爬壁机器人的脚掌,材料是用聚氨酯硅的橡胶材料。依据大壁虎运动的实体模型,规划了爬壁机器人的两类运动步态,即在地平面运动的步态(对角步态)和在天花板上运动的步态(三角步态)。为验证设计方案的可行性,利用UG软件对各种运动步态进行了运动仿真,仿真结果表明,设计方案能够完成预定的动作并且具有吸附力强的特点。

  2. 基于UG的航空发动机管路系统流阻分析%Flow Resistance Analysis on Aeroengine Pipe System Based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱明星; 付鹏哲; 钟易成; 赵士洋

    2011-01-01

    Pipe modeling and flow analysis of aeroengine pipe system were performed respectively in software of CAD and CAE.A great deal of time and resources were wasted in repeated data transmission and modeling between two kinds of softwares.The UG routing models and topology information were analyzed based on the UG/Open API.The inserted modules of fluid system resistance analysis in workbench of UG NX3.0 were developed by the flow simulation software FOCUSS-FS.The real-time on-line flow analysis of aeroengine pipe modeling was achieved,which increase the efficiency of pipe design.%航空发动机外部管路系统的管路建模和流动分析分别在CAD和CAE软件中进行,在管路设计及改进时往往需在2种软件之间进行重复建模和数据传递,耗费大量时间与资源。为此,基于UG/Open API技术,通过对UG管路模型几何与拓扑信息进行研究,利用流体仿真软件FOCUSS-FS开发了UG NX3.0工作平台下的内嵌式管路流阻分析模块,实现了发动机管路建模时的实时在线流动分析,极大地提高了外部管路设计效率。

  3. 基于 UG 图形模板的渐开线花键轴滚轧轮参数化设计%Parametric Design of Rolling Wheel of Involute Spline Shaft Based on UG Graphical Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柯智; 余小鲁

    2014-01-01

    The authors used UG to parametric modeling the rolling wheel of involute spline shaft .The basic parame‐ters of the rolling wheel were determined by the parameters of the spline shaft ,then the spline shaft parameters were associated with the 3D model of the rolling wheel .By modifying the keys ,modulus ,pressure angle and other pa‐rameters of spline shaft ,three‐dimensional model of rolling wheel was obtained ,which improves the design efficien‐cy and reusability of design ideas greatly .%运用UG软件对渐开线花键轴滚轧轮进行参数化建模,通过花键轴的参数确定滚轧轮基本参数,将花键轴参数与滚轧轮三维模型关联起来。通过修改花键轴的键数、模数、压力角等参数,建立所需滚轧轮的三维模型,大大提高了设计效率以及设计思路的可重用性。

  4. Application of the Machine Vice Motion Simulation Based on the UG NX%基于UG NX在机用虎钳运动仿真中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素萍

    2012-01-01

    NX是一种最普及、最优秀的CAD/CAM/CAE软件。笔者结合近几年的教学及工作经验,借助NX软件强大的实体建模功能进行建模,并利用装配功能完成了虚拟模型的创建,然后进行了详细的运动仿真分析。本文简单介绍NX软件的装配模块以及UGNX运动仿真应用于机械结构设计。%NX is one of the most popular and the most excellent CAD/CAM/CAE software. Combined with the teaching and work experience in recent years, and with the help of powerful modeling function of the NX soft- ware, this paper uses the assembly function to complete the virtual model, and then carries out a detailed analysis simulation. This paper briefly introduces the assembly module of the NX software and the application of UG NX motion simulation to the design of mechanical structure.

  5. Rapid Design and Processing Technology of Injection Mold Based on UG6.0%基于UG6.0的注塑模具的快速设计与加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斐; 王艳萍

    2011-01-01

    以塑料鼠标上盖制品为例,按照现代模具设计方法的一般过程,综合运用UG中模具设计与加工模块,完成塑料制品的模具设计与模具的数控加工.与传统的模具设计方法相比,现代模具设计方法提高了模具设计的准确率,缩短了模具设计和制造周期,降低了成本.%Taking the upper cover of the mouse as an example, the design and NC machining of the mold of plastic product were completed by mold design and processing module in UG.Compared with traditional mold design methods, the modern mold design method improves the accuracy of mold design, reduces the manufacturing time and costs.

  6. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  7. 基于传感器的飞机地面除冰模拟实验研究%Study on simulation experiment for aircraft ground deicing based on sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 赵亮; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    飞机除冰是影响民航冬季安全运行的重要因素之一,为了优化飞机除冰液参数,设计了飞机地面除冰室外实验.在冬季室外条件下通过对结冰的模拟机体表面喷射加热的除冰液进行除冰,在除冰过程中对除冰液流量、除冰液温度进行控制,通过安装在机体上的温度传感器和光纤传感器得到飞机机体表面温度变化和冰层厚度变化情况.通过分析实验结果可得:在一定范围内,除冰液温度升高能有效提高除冰速率;除冰液流量增加也能提高除冰速率,但当除冰液流量超过一定值时,射流冲击成为除冰的主要动力.%Aircraft icing is one of the important factors that affect civil aviation safety in operation in winter.In order to optimize parameters of aircraft deicing fluid,aircraft ground deicing outdoor experiment is carried out.In winter outdoor conditions,aircraft deicing is operated by injecting heated deicing fluid to the aircraft surface.The temperature and the velocity of the flow must be changed regularly,and change of temperature and ice thickness can be detected by temperature sensor and fibre-optic sensor that are installed on the aircraft surface.By analyzing result of experiment,the conclusion is that,in certain range the temperature rise of deicing liquid increases apparently ice removal rate,but the jet impact force will be the main force of deicing when the velocity of flow exceeds certain value.

  8. Resumptive pronouns in wh-interrogatives and object relative clauses in L2 English: UG access or transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Simoiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether resumptive pronouns are attested in the English L2 of Romanian learners and whether their presence can be accounted for in terms of direct access to UG or in terms if transfer hypotheses. The results are also analysed in relation to the Interpretability Hypothesis (Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou 2007. Overall, the data provide evidence for transfer of resumptive pronoun use from L1 Romanian to L2 English in the case of object wh-interrogatives and relatives. Resumptives are accepted in the L2 in [d-linked] contexts that mirror the Romanian structures. However, resumptives are also accepted in [non-d-linked] contexts as well, in accordance with the target language. One possible account may be that there is an available position associated with resumptives in the verbal field which can be filled by resumptive material and this position remains available in the L2 as well. Learners have access to L1 and L2 parametric options at the same time, so they accept and produce both L1 and L2 structures. The Romanian data provide support in favour of the Interpretability Hypothesis i.e. there are animacy effects in the Romanian data. The subjects accepted more [-animate] than [+animate] resumptives.

  9. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  10. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  11. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  12. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  13. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  14. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning the surface buildings and structures; Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme der obertaegigen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, H.; Brueggmann, R.; Mende, F.; Steinkraus, D.; Wauer, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article describes the concepts of the plants and equipment and the specific features of the underground storage at Uelsen. The underground storage will be purpose-built as an H-gas storage in a nearly depleted sandstone deposit. At a nominal deliverability of 250.000 cubic m/h (Vn) the storage at Uelsen has more potential for expansion. This potential was taken into account by designing appropriate pressure stages, capacities, performance characteristics and space. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die nachfolgende Veroeffentlichung stellt das anlagentechnische Grundkonzept und die spezifischen Besonderheiten des UGS Uelsen dar. Der im suedwestlichen Niedersachsen als H-Gasspeicher in einer nahezu ausgefoerderten Buntsandsteinlagerstaette eingerichtete UGS Uelsen wird in mehreren Ausbaustufen bedarfsgerecht fertiggestellt. Bei einer Nennentnahmekapazitaet von 450.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) und einer Nenninjektionsleistung von 250.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) weist der UGS Uelsen noch weiteres Potential fuer Erweiterungen auf. Dieses Ausbaupotential wurde bei der Planung und dem Bau der bestehenden Anlagen durch Festlegung entsprechender Druckstufen, Kapazitaeten, Leistungsgroessen und Platzanordnungen beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  15. Study on Ground Automatic Identification Technology for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Vision Sensor%基于视觉传感器的自主车辆地面自动辨识技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔根群; 余建明; 赵娴; 赵丛琳

    2011-01-01

    The ground automatic identification technology for intelligent vehicle is iaking Leobor-Edu autonomous vehicle as a test vector and using DH-HV2003UC-T vision sensor to collect image infarmaiion of five common lane roads( cobbled road, concrete road, dirt road, grass road, tile road) , then using MATLAB image processing module to perform coding compression, recovery reconstruction, smoothing, sharpening, enhancement, feature extraction and other related processing,then using MATLAB BP neural network module to carry on pattern recognition.Through analyzing the pattern recognition result, lt shows that the objective error is 20%, the road recognition rate has reached the intended requirement in the system,and it can be universally applied in the smart vehicle or robots and other related fields.%谊自主车辆地面自动辨识技术是以Leobot-Edu自主车辆作为试验载体,并应用DH-HV2003UC-T视觉传感器对常见的5种行车路面(石子路面、水泥路面、土壤路面、草地路面、砖地路面)进行图像信息的采集,应用Matlab图像处理模块对其依次进行压缩编码、复原重建、平滑、锐化、增强、特征提取等相关处理后,再应用Matlab BP神经网络模块进行模式识别.通过对模式识别结果分析可知,网络训练目标的函数误差为20%,该系统路面识别率达到预定要求,可以在智能车辆或移动机器人等相关领域普及使用.

  16. Systematyzacja i pomiar postrzeganych zmian w obrazie siebie konsumentów pod wpływem korzystania z marek usług

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gorbaniuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cel: Celami przeprowadzonych badań były (1 usystematyzowanie postrzeganych przez konsumentów pozytywnych i negatywnych zmian w obrazie siebie z tytułu korzystania z marek usług oraz (2 opracowanie wielowymiarowego narzędzia do pomiaru tych zmian. Metodologia: Aby osiągnąć powyższe cele, zrealizowano badania jakościowe oraz ilościowe. Badania jakościowe,prowadzone metodą indywidualnego wywiadu, objęły próbę 318 osób w wieku od 13 do 82 roku życia (M = 37,64, SD = 16,69; 47,2% kobiet. W efekcie skompletowano zbiór pozytywnych i negatywnych zmian w obrazie siebie jako konsumentów wskutek korzystania z usług różnych marek, które zostały poddane szczegółowej kategoryzacji. Opierając się na wynikach kategoryzacji, opracowano kwestionariusz, którego skale miały postać dyferencjału semantycznego. Badania ilościowe przeprowadzone zostały na próbie 378 osób w wieku od 15 do 78 lat (M = 34,62; SD = 13,42; 53,6% kobiet. Wnioski: Analiza wyników badań umożliwiła identyfikację dziewięciu wymiarów postrzeganych zmian w obrazie siebie pod wpływem korzystania z marek usług. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników opracowano kwestionariusz do wielowymiarowego pomiaru zmian w obrazie siebie o bardzo dobrych wskaźnikach psychometrycznych z uwagi na rzetelność pomiaru i trafność przewidywania preferencji marek usług. Praktyczne implikacje: Opracowano nowatorskie wielowymiarowe narzędzie do praktycznego zastosowania w zarządzaniu marką usług. Zidentyfi kowane wymiary postrzeganych zmian obrazu siebie konsumentów marek stanowią praktyczną wskazówkę, czym należy się kierować w komunikacji marketingowej. Oryginalność: Wyniki badań i opracowane skale przełamują wieloletni impas w teorii i metodologii badań relacji Ja–marka.

  17. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  18. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  19. Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dohyun Kim; Ira Goldberg; Jack Judy

    2003-01-01

    A nitrate-sensing system that consists of a micromachined sensor substrate, nitrate-permeable membrane, integrated microfluidic channels, and standard fluidic connectors has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested. Our microsensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of nitrate concentrations in ground water. A silver electrode was patterned for amperometric nitrate detection. An electrochemically oxidized silver electrode was used as a reference electrode. Microfluidic channels were ...

  20. 继往开来 创PLM领域新辉煌——记2007 UGS PLM软件公司大中华区用户年会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢桂芬

    2007-01-01

    2007年正值UGS PLM软件公司进入中国20周年,作为PLM领域的领导者之一,UGS PLM软件公司一直致力于帮助中国企业由“中国制造”到“中国剑造”的转变,并取得了跨越式的发展。

  1. Millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Ibbott, A. C.; Parks, G. S.; Ricketts, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer system has been built and used on a helicopter to produce moderate-resolution (0.5 deg) images of the ground. This millimeter-wave sensor can be used for a variety of remote-sensing applications and produces images through clouds, smoke, and dust when visual and IR sensors are not usable. The system is described and imaging results are presented.

  2. Metamaterial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their intriguing properties, as well as the large potential applications for designing functional devices. In this paper, we review the current status of metamaterial sensors, with an emphasis on the evanescent wave amplification and the accompanying local field enhancement characteristics. Examples of the sensors are given to illustrate the principle and the performance of the metamaterial sensor. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterial sensor.

  3. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  4. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  5. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  6. Fiber optic sensors for smart taxiways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Douglas D.; Fuerstenau, Norbert; Goetze, Wolfgang

    1995-09-01

    Fiber-optic sensors could offer advantages in the field of airport ground traffic monitoring: immunity to electromagnetic interference, installation without costly and time consuming airfield closures, and low loss, low noise optical connection between sensors and signal processing equipment. This paper describes fiber-optic sensors developed for airport taxiway monitoring and the first steps toward their installation in an experimental surface movement guidance and control system at the Braunschweig airport. Initial results obtained with fiber- optic light barriers and vibration sensors are reported. The feasibility of employing interferometric strain gauges for this application will be discussed based on sensor characteristics obtained through measurements of strain in an aircraft structure in flight.

  7. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  8. Study on the Products Design of Micro-wave Oven Based on UG%基于UG的微波炉产品设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈自林; 沈庆云; 范彦斌

    2007-01-01

    使用大型CAD/CAM软件系统UG,结合家电产品设计的个性化潮流,完成了两款微波炉产品设计的全过程.包括产品造型、虚拟装配和形象化渲染,为利用三维软件进行小家电产品的设计提供了方法和设计思路.

  9. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  10. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  11. Infrasound from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  12. Application of Composite Projection Command to UG Product Modeling%组合投影命令在UG产品造型中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢英星

    2011-01-01

    In the process of product modeling, several basic projections are usually provided in general engineering flow sheets, then UG software is used to deduce product modeling. In the process this is the crucial step to use several curves or curve chains on different planes to get space curve,and then surface mesh is used to carry out scan or swept order is used to make surface modeling. This paper takes a handle for example to introduce the concrete principle and application of UG curve space composite projection order.%产品设计师在建构产品外形的过程中,针对一般工程技术图样提供了基本视图,而要求用UG软件做出产品外观造型,其中关键的步骤是通过几个在不同平面的曲线或者曲线串得到其空间曲线,进而利用网格曲面、扫描或已扫掠等命令求曲面造型.以把手零件建模为例,详细介绍了UG曲线空间组合投影命令的原理及其具体应用.

  13. Wpływ informatyzacji Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej w Poznaniu na zmiany organizacyjne i rozwój usług bibliotecznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Karwasiński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono zagadnienia związane z procesami informatyzacji Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej w Poznaniu. W celu dokładnego scharakteryzowania przemian, prócz rysu historycznego, przedstawiono obszary, które wyraźnie poprawiły jakość pracy personelu i obsługę czytelników oraz przyczyniły się do poznania, upowszechniania i wdrażania nowoczesnych rozwiązań technologicznych. Zaprezentowano proces zmian w zakresie funkcjonowania systemu biblioteczno-informacyjnego Horizon i współpracy z narodowym katalogiem centralnym NUKAT. Opisano etapy rozwoju elektronicznej przestrzeni informacyjnej, w tym budowania elektronicznych zasobów wiedzy i tworzenia narzędzi do ich obsługi i wykorzystania w procesach wyszukiwania źródeł informacji. Zaprezentowano Bibliotekę Uniwersytecką jako partnera w aranżowaniu instytucjonalnych platform cyfrowych do deponowania i udostępniania dorobku intelektualnego społeczności naukowej Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Wskazano także funkcjonalność zaprojektowanych i wdrożonych innowacyjnych usług wirtualnych pakietu Libsmart, optymalizujących funkcjonowanie Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej.

  14. Parametric Design of Roots Rotor Based on Secondary Development of UG%基于UG二次开发的罗茨转子参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范蓉

    2013-01-01

    罗茨转子作为相关设备的关键零件,其设计质量决定了设备的使用性能.使用UG/Open二次开发软件包中的Menu Script编写用户自定义菜单,使用UIStyler工具制作用户交互界面.并结合罗茨转子的结构特点及其设计要求,运用UG/OPEN二次开发工具和VisualC开发罗’茨转子设计系统.运用该系统,设计人员能够准确、高效的完成罗茨转子的参数化设计,并且还可以验证罗茨转子在啮合状态下的干涉情况,为转子的优化设计提供了可靠的理论依据.从而,提高了罗茨转子的设计质量和效率.

  15. A Research on Experience in EIZ Rotor Formation with UG%应用UG对EIZ转子造型的经验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红雨

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the modification of drawings in future,all the sketches shall be constraint,when labeling the sketches constrained,it would turn reddish-brown completely in color.If it is the first time to install and apply UG,the promotion function of the software may not be opened,it is suggested to follow file-tools-users default Settings-assembly-routine-inter-part modeling-allow to promote body-activate .%为了便于以后修改图纸,一定要将草图全约束,约束住的草图在标注时颜色会全部变为红褐色. 如果是第一次安装,使用UG,可能软件还没有开通提升功能,可以通过文件→实用工具→用户默认设置→装配→常规→部件间建模→允许提升体,激活允许即可.

  16. Sensor Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Caberera, B; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cooper, W; Da Via, C; Demarteau, M; Fast, J; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Golwala, S; Haber, C; Hall, J; Hoppe, E; Irwin, K D; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Lee, A T; Lynn, D; Orrell, J; Pyle, M; Rusack, R; Sadrozinski, H; Sanchez, M C; Seiden, A; Trischuk, W; Vavra, J; Wetstein, M; Zhu, R-Y

    2013-01-01

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future ...

  17. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  18. Novel sensors for underground robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 3m) is presented. Machine sensing of both the environment and of humans is critical in a shared working environment. Here we discuss alternatives to the current sensors used above ground for machine perception. In the deep gold mines the geothermal...

  19. Wind Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaoyang; Ni, Jiqin

    2014-01-01

    Wind measurement is needed in many practical and scientific research situations. Some specific applications require to precisely measuring both wind direction and wind speed at the same time. Current commercial sensors for wind direction and wind speed measurement usually use ultrasonic technology and the sensors are very expensive (> $1500). In addition, the sensors are large in dimension and cannot measure airflow patterns in high spatial resolution. Therefore new and low cost wind speed an...

  20. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  1. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  2. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data,Taku Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  3. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Valdez Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  4. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Wolverine Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  5. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Eureka Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  6. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Scott Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  7. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Eklutna Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  8. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Gulkana Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  9. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Wolverine Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  10. COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern Italy) in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    To understand uplift phenomenon occurred during the April 2012 - January 2013 time interval at Campi Flegrei caldera, we exploited the displacement time series obtained by processing 90 SAR images acquired from the COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation along ascending orbits via the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as SBAS algorithm, and the measurements provided by 14 continuous GPS stations deployed within the caldera and belonging to the permanent INGV-OV monitoring network. In particular, the caldera has shown a rapid uplift of about 6 cm with a peak rate of about 3 cm/month in December 2012. This event led the Italian Civil Protection to raise the alert level of the volcano from green to yellow. Using a novel geodetic inversion technique we imaged the kinematics of the intrusion of a magmatic sill beneath the town of Pozzuoli at a depth of about 3100 m. The retrieved kinematics was then used as input to infer the dynamics of the sill intrusion using a recently developed numerical model. The best fit obtained by non-linear inverse approach that consider a time-varying deformation field is a penny-shaped source located at a depth of 3100 m. To study the detail of the intrusion process we have applied a geodetic imaging technique to determine the spatial and temporal kinematics of the ground deformation source in the selected period. The retrieved temporal pattern of the source geometry reflects that of a growing sill that, at the end of the considered period, has a roughly elliptical geometry with an extension of about 6 km in the EW direction and about 4 km in the NS one. The maximum aperture of the sill is of about 30 cm at its center. To understand the dynamics of this phenomenon we used a numerical model of the emplacement of a magmatic sill, to fit the retrieved geometry. The parameters to be determined are: the average magma viscosity, the amount of magma already present in the sill before the 2012-2013 episode and the magma injection rate. Results show

  11. Intelligent sensor networks the integration of sensor networks, signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning. Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, incl

  12. 2nd National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, Francesco; Natale, Corrado; Betta, Giovanni; Siciliano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Second National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 19-21 February 2014. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications. ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the Second Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  13. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  14. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  15. Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  16. Evaluation of PGE Liberation and Chromium Isolation in a Solid UG2 Chromitite Concentrates at Moderate Temperatures Using ICP-OES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiweshe, Trevor T.; Purcell, Walter; Venter, Johan A.

    2016-06-01

    Complete sample digestion is a prerequisite in achieving accurate and reproducible results in wet chemical analysis as well as effective element recovery in hydrometallurgical beneficiation processes. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was used to evaluate the efficiency of (NH4)2HPO4/(NH4)H2PO4, Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4·H2O (800°C), NH4F·HF flux (250°C), microwave dissolution using HCl and aqua regia acids (240°C) to dissolve and liberate the platinum group metals (PGE) in a Upper Group 2 (UG2) chromitite concentrate sample. Complete digestion of the UG2 chromitite ore was achieved using Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4·H2O and (NH4)2HPO4/(NH4)H2PO4 flux mixtures and average PGE (Ru, Os and Pt) yields of 1.90 g/kg (Ru), 0.88 g/kg (Os), 2.52 g/kg (Pt) were obtained using Sc as internal standard. Fusion with NH4F·HF yielded 0.85 g/kg (Ru), 0.72 g/kg (Os) and 0.95 g/kg (Pt) whilst microwave dissolution using HCl and aqua regia yielded an average of 0.77 g/kg (Ru), 0.08 g/kg (Os) and 0.35 g/kg (Pt). Sodium phosphate flux, however, introduced Na+ ions as easily ionised elements, which affected the emission intensities to yield slightly inflated PGE (Ru, Os and Pt) yields. The use of ammonium phosphate and sodium phosphate at 800°C (after the selective removal of Na+ ions) proved to better the fluxes and produced higher and consistent PGE yields. The use of ammonium phosphate flux was also shown to facilitate the isolation of a green chromium precipitate with a 98.9% purity, which may assist in a hydrometallurgical beneficiation process of the UG2 chromitite concentrate ore and may also have important implications for the ferro-chrome industry.

  17. Cloud speed sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE, and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI. The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s−1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s−1 when compared to LCE results.

  18. Landmines Ground-Penetrating Radar Signal Enhancement by Digital Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Potin, Delphine; Duflos, Emmanuel; Vanheeghe, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Until now, humanitarian demining has been unable to provide a solution to the landmine removal problem. Furthermore, new low-cost methods have to be developed quickly. While much progress has been made with the introduction of new sensor types, other problems have been raised by these sensors. Ground-penetrating radars (GPRs) are key sensors for landmine detection as they are capable of detecting landmines with low metal contents. GPRs deliver so-called Bscan data, which are, roughly, vertica...

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of an Assistant Robot on UG and ADAMS%UG与ADAMS的助行机器人动力学建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲民; 周鹏; 刘玉山

    2012-01-01

    A new type of assistant robot system is designed based on analysis to human walking movement, and this robot' s dynamic modeling is set up by Lagrange method. Through software UG and ADAMS, simulation experiments are carried out and characters of the robot's dynamics are analyzed also.%基于对人体行走运动的分析,设计了一种新型助行机器人,采用拉格朗日方法建立了其动力学模型.在此基础上,采用UG和ADAMS软件时机器人的行走过程进行了仿真研究,并对其动力学特性进行了分析.

  20. Zasady ujawniania aktywów biologicznychw sprawozdaniach finansowych jednostek rolniczychwedług Międzynarodowych StandardówSprawozdawczości Finansowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kiziukiewicz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Charakterystycznym dla przedsiębiorstw rolniczych składnikiem aktywów są aktywa biologiczne. Wyróżnia je fakt podlegania przemianie biologicznej, wskutek której przekształcają się one w produkty rolnicze lub inne aktywa biologiczne. W związku z tą specyfiką powstaje problem odpowiedniej prezentacji informacji o nich. W artykule są przedstawione zasady i zakres ujawnień o aktywach biologicznych w sprawozdaniu finansowym i dołączanych do niego raportach szczegółowych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problemów wyceny według wartości godziwej.

  1. Progress Towards Genetics and Breeding for Minor Genes Based Resistance to Ug99 and Other Rusts in CIMMYT High-Yielding Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet

    2014-01-01

    Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the

  2. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  3. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  4. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  5. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  6. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  7. Vibrissa Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Docket No. 300119 1 of 11 VIBRISSA SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention provides a... measured as strain. [0009] Thus, there is a need for a sensor utilizing a vibrissa that can detect dynamic and high frequency movement of the

  8. Vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  9. L’utilizzo dei sensori di vibrazione per il monitoraggio delle frane e la salvaguardia del territorio - On the use of ground vibration sensors for landslide monitoring and land conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Arattano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available I sensori sismici ed acustici sembrano mostrare promettenti possibilità di utilizzo per la mitigazione del rischio da frana. Recenti ricerche sul M.te Cervino, ad esempio, hanno utilizzato reti microsismiche per individuare le sedi di crolli potenziali e per stabilire la relazione tra variazioni di temperatura ed emissioni acustiche in roccia. È invece attualmente in fase di sperimentazione l’utilizzo di sensori geofonici e sismometri per la realizzazione di innovativi sistemi di allarme per colate detritiche, capaci di rilevarne l’arrivo con un significativo margine di tempo di anticipo. Nell’articolo vengono illustrati e discussi in dettaglio alcuni esempi applicativi. ------ Seismic and acoustic sensors seem to show promising possibilities of employment for the mitigation of landslide hazards. Recent researches carried out on the Matterhorn, as an example, have used microseismic networks to locate potential areas of rockfalls and to establish a relationship between temperature variations and acoustic emissions in rocks. It is currently under investigation, instead, the use of geophone sensors and seismometers for the realization of innovative warning systems for debris flows, capable to detect their arrival with a significant amount of time in advance. In this article some practical examples will be presented and discussed in detail.

  10. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  11. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  12. Genetics and Mapping of Seedling Resistance to Ug99 Stem Rust in the Winter Wheat Cultivar Triumph 64 and Differentiation of SrTmp, SrCad, and Sr42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), is an important disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. The emergence of virulent Pgt races in Africa, namely Ug99 and its variants, has stimulated the se...

  13. Genetic loci conditioning adult plant resistance to the Ug99 race group and seedling resistance to races TRTTF and TTTTF of the stem rust pathogen in wheat landrace CItr 15026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat landrace CItr 15026 previously showed adult plant resistance (APR) to the Ug99 stem rust race group in Kenya and seedling resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici (Pgt) races QFCSC, TTTTF, and TRTTF. CItr 15026 was crossed to susceptible accessions LMPG-6 and Red Bobs, and 180 DH lines an...

  14. Molecular mapping of stem rust resistance loci effective against the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen and identification of SNP marker linked to stem rust resistance gene Sr28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat landrace PI 177906 has field resistance to the Ug99 race group and seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) races TTKSK, TTKST, and BCCBC. Two populations were developed from a cross between PI 177906 and LMPG-6, 138 double haploid (DH) lines and 140 re...

  15. The Studying of Cross-section Moment of Inertia in the Secondary Development Based on UG%UG二次开发中截面惯性矩计算方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 贺尔铭; 赵志彬

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of calculating moment of inertia involved in complex bending parts die surface, the algorithm of cross-section moment of inertia is put forward, based on the definition of moment of inertia. Firstly find moment of inertia and product of inertia passing centroid, then determine principal moment of inertia by using rotation axis formula. And with the development platform of the VC ++ , the second development of UG is realized by UG/Open API and MFC functions.%针对复杂截面弯曲件成型中涉及的截面惯性矩计算问题.从惯性矩的定义出发,提出了一种求截面惯性矩的算法,即先求出过截面形心某一定轴的惯性矩和惯性积,然后利用转轴公式求得形心主惯性矩,再借助VC++开发平台,利用UG/Open API和微软基础类(Microsoft Foundation Classes,MFC)函数实现UG(Unigraphics NX)的二次开发.

  16. Repair of U/G and U/A in DNA by UNG2-associated repair complexes takes place predominantly by short-patch repair both in proliferating and growth-arrested cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Otterlei, Marit; Pena Diaz, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 has an established role in repair of U/A pairs resulting from misincorporation of dUMP during replication. In antigen-stimulated B-lymphocytes UNG2 removes uracil from U/G mispairs as part of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination processes. Using...

  17. MEMS sensor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhuangde

    2012-01-01

    Since 1992 the author has led research group in Xi'an Jiaotong University to investigate and develop microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, including pressure sensor, acceleration sensor, gas sensor, viscosity & density sensor, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip and integrated sensor etc. This paper introduces the technologies and research results related to MEMS sensors we achieved in the last 20 years.

  18. Ground truth and benchmarks for performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Shneier, Michael; Hong, Tsai Hong; Chang, Tommy; Scrapper, Christopher; Cheok, Geraldine S.

    2003-09-01

    Progress in algorithm development and transfer of results to practical applications such as military robotics requires the setup of standard tasks, of standard qualitative and quantitative measurements for performance evaluation and validation. Although the evaluation and validation of algorithms have been discussed for over a decade, the research community still faces a lack of well-defined and standardized methodology. The range of fundamental problems include a lack of quantifiable measures of performance, a lack of data from state-of-the-art sensors in calibrated real-world environments, and a lack of facilities for conducting realistic experiments. In this research, we propose three methods for creating ground truth databases and benchmarks using multiple sensors. The databases and benchmarks will provide researchers with high quality data from suites of sensors operating in complex environments representing real problems of great relevance to the development of autonomous driving systems. At NIST, we have prototyped a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) system with a suite of sensors including a Riegl ladar, GDRS ladar, stereo CCD, several color cameras, Global Position System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), pan/tilt encoders, and odometry . All sensors are calibrated with respect to each other in space and time. This allows a database of features and terrain elevation to be built. Ground truth for each sensor can then be extracted from the database. The main goal of this research is to provide ground truth databases for researchers and engineers to evaluate algorithms for effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness, thus advancing the development of algorithms.

  19. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  20. 基于UG内啮合珩齿的仿真加工分析%Simulation Machining Analysis for Internal Gear Honing based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师瑜; 赵洪鹤; 张满栋

    2013-01-01

    Internal gear honing is a process of precise machining of the gear, in the process, there exists trace amounts of interference between tooth surfaces as helical internal honing wheel and spur gear are a gear pair with crossed shaft, a crown teeth can be obtained by removing the interference amount, and the crown teeth brings great benefit for reducing noise and enhancing the stability of transmission of the gear. Because the meshing of a crossed shaft gear pair is very complex, the analytical calculation of the quantity of interference between teeth is also difficult to be achieved. By using a 3 - D modeling software UG/NX, the parameter of the cylindrical internal helical gear and the spur gear modeling and assembly simulation is realized, through the simulation of gear meshing movement, interference is successfully removed to process the crown teeth, and finally data of interference for a single tooth is obtained.%内啮合珩齿是一种齿轮精密加工的工艺方法,由于其斜齿内珩轮与直齿圆柱齿轮属于交错轴齿轮副,齿面之间存在着微量的干涉.通过去除干涉量可得到鼓形齿,而鼓形齿对于降低噪声,增强齿轮传动的平稳性都有极大的益处.由于交错轴齿轮副的啮合情况非常复杂,轮齿之间的干涉量解析计算也难以实现.为此利用三维建模软件UG/NX实现了对圆柱内斜齿轮和直齿圆柱齿轮参数建模和装配,通过模拟齿轮的啮合运动,成功将干涉部分切除加工出鼓形齿.最终得到单个齿上的干涉量.

  1. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  2. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  3. Wearable Sensor System for Human Dynamics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko; Zheng, Rencheng

    2010-01-01

    A new wearable sensor system was developed for measuring tri-directional ground reaction force (GRF) and segment orientations. A stationary force plate can not measure more than one stride; moreover, in studies of stair ascent and descent measurements, a complex system consisting of many stationary force plates and a data fusion method must be constructed (Stacoff et al., 2005; Della and Bonato, 2007). The wearable sensor system proposed in this chapter can be applied to successive walking tr...

  4. Improving the detection of explosive hazards with LIDAR-based ground plane estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional point clouds generated by LIDAR offer the potential to build a more complete understanding of the environment in front of a moving vehicle. In particular, LIDAR data facilitates the development of a non-parametric ground plane model that can filter target predictions from other sensors into above-ground and below-ground sets. This allows for improved detection performance when, for example, a system designed to locate above-ground targets considers only the set of above-ground predictions. In this paper, we apply LIDAR-based ground plane filtering to a forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) sensor system and a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor system designed to detect explosive hazards along the side of a road. Additionally, we consider the value of the visual magnitude of the LIDAR return as a feature for identifying anomalies. The predictions from these sensors are evaluated independently with and without ground plane filtering and then fused to produce a combined prediction confidence. Sensor fusion is accomplished by interpolating the confidence scores of each sensor along the ground plane model to create a combined confidence vector at specified points in the environment. The methods are tested along an unpaved desert road at an arid U.S. Army test site.

  5. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  6. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  7. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  8. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  9. 普遍语法及第二语言习得初探%A Brief Study on UG Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炜; 胡荀

    2005-01-01

    乔姆斯基的普遍语法论认为人生来大脑中就有一种语言习得机制,其中包含着人类语言的普遍语法.它决定着儿童后天习得语言的能力,也决定着人类语言语法形式的选择范围.这一理论为第二语言习得的研究提供了新的视角,并由此产生了三大可及性假说理论.本文探讨了普遍语法与第二语言习得的关系,同时也探讨了普遍语法解释第二语言习得存在的一些问题.%The recognizing structure of language ability was believed to be innate in Chomsky's theory of universal grammar which guides people during language acquisition. It contains rules that are valid for all languages, thus it constrains grammars and helps the language learner by limiting the variations a language can have. His theories offered new angles in research of second language acquisition and also caused three different approaches to SLA. This article aims at discussing the relationship between UG theory and SLA, and some problems existed in the explanation of the study.

  10. UG and its Manifestation in Interlanguage Discourse%普遍语法在中介语语篇中的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旭红

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks closely at the popular but mysterious concept of UG with a purpose to understand what it is, how it works, and what concrete manifestations it has in interlanguage production in the context of first language acquisition.%本文从理论研究入手,首先分析普遍语法的概念,其次研究普遍语法在语言习得过程中的作用,然后通过举例分析在第一语言习得环境下普遍语法在中介语语篇中的具体体现.本文撰写的主要目的是能够使普遍语法这个抽象概念形象化和具体化,希望能对探索和研究第一和第二语言习得规律具有一定的参考价值.

  11. 基于UG的喷注器冷却通道的机床仿真加工%UG-based machining simulation of injector cooling channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 董文英

    2011-01-01

    在分析了喷注器壳体上冷却通道的结构特点和数控加工工艺的基础上,利用UG/ISV软件进行冷却通道的辅助加工,同时对喷注器三维模型的建立、加工过程参数的选用及刀具轨迹编程和加工仿真进行了详细介绍,并用五轴机床进行了加工实验,保证了加工质量,提高了加工效率。%Based on the analyses of structural features of cooling channel on the injector shell and NC machining process, computer-aided machining of cooling channel was conducted with UG/ISV software. The 3D injector model, machining parameter selection, tool path programming and machining simulation are introduced in detail. A 5-axis machine was adopted to carry out machining tests. The result proves that the above process can ensure the machining quality and improve the machining efficiency.

  12. Track score processing of multiple dissimilar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Patsikas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a data fusion problem when a number of different types of sensors are deployed in the vicinity of a ballistic missile launch is studied. An objective of this thesis is to calculate a scoring function for each sensor track, and the track file with the best (optimum) track score can then be used for guiding an interceptor to the threat within the boost phase. Seven active ground-based radars, two space-based passive infrared sensors and two active light detection and rangin...

  13. Passive Wireless SAW Sensors for IVHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Perey, Daniel F.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Future IVHM sensors need to be small, light weight, inexpensive, and wireless. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology meets all of these constraints. In addition it operates in harsh environments and over wide temperature ranges, and it is inherently radiation hardened. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new sensors that address anticipated IVHM needs for aerospace vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless SAW sensors from ground testing to high altitude aircraft operations are presented, along with some of the challenges and issues of the technology.

  14. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  15. Simulation analysis and optimization for ackerman steering linkage of double-wishbone suspension on UG NX%基于UG NX的双横臂独立悬架转向系统的仿真分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    利用UG NX软件建立某客车双横臂独立悬架转向系统模型.基于NX CAD/Motion/Natran协同仿真平台,对转向系统结构进行系统动力学仿真,绘制前束角变化曲线,同时对内、外侧前轮转向角关系仿真曲线与阿克曼理论曲线进行对比分析.运用NX/Nastran与NX/Motion共同建立刚柔混合模型并对转向节臂进行柔性分析和拓扑优化.

  16. Ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors : 6 month comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, A. [LufftUSA, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many wind power developers are looking to reduce the high cost of mechanical sensors by replacing them with ultrasonic sensors. This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to evaluate and compare ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors. The aim of the study was to determine is ultrasonic sensor data is reliable and accurate. Participants in the study included 2 sensor manufacturers and a third party engineering firm. Wind resource assessments, turbine pitch and yaw, and power curve tests were conducted on meteorological towers. Ground-based SODAR and LIDAR measurements were conducted for micrositing and resource assessment. An International Electrochemical Council (IEC) compliant methodology was used to test the sensors at various locations throughout the United States. The benefits of each sensor technology were considered, and a cost comparison was conducted. Results of the study showed that ultrasonic sensors are suitable for permanent tower installations and where resistance to ice and turbulence is required. tabs., figs.

  17. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  18. Semiconductor sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.hartmann@cern.c [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  19. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  20. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  1. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  2. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  3. The underground storage Bernburg is given as an example for automation solution for the underground storage of the Verbundnetz Gas AG; Automatisierungsloesungen fuer die Untergrundgasspeicher der Verbundnetz Gas AG am Beispiel des UGS Bernburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, F. [Elpro Prozessindustrie- und Energieanlagen GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hartan, J.; Stoll, P. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    Based on the system conception developed by VNG the automatization and measuring system installed on the underground storage at Bernburg is described. It is characterized by the use of standardized modules as a prerequisit for the low-priced but flexible high efficiency process control system wich will also meet future requirements. The connection to the data processing system was performed using a standardized unidirectional interface. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ausgehend von der VNG-spezifischen Automatisierungs- und Messkonzeption wird am Beispiel des UGS Bernburg eine konkrete Systemloesung vorgestellt. Diese ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in allen Automatisierungsebenen weitestgehend standardisierte Grundkomponenten zum Einsatz kommen. Auf dieser Basis konnte fuer den UGS Bernburg ein kostenguenstiges, leistungsfaehiges, flexibles und zukunftssicheres Leitsystem installiert werden. Die Oeffnung des Prozessleitsystems erfolgte dahingehend, dass praktisch frei waehlbare Prozessgroessen mittels einer rueckwirkungsfreien Schnittstelle in die DV-Welt exportiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  4. Mobile sensor platforms: categorisation and research applications in precision farming

    OpenAIRE

    Zecha, C. W.; Link, J; CLAUPEIN, W.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of mobile sensor platforms arose in research a few decades ago. Since the beginning of satellite sensing, measurement principles and analysing methods have become widely implemented for aerial and ground vehicles. Mainly in Europe, the United States and Australia, sensor platforms in precision farming are used for surveying, monitoring and scouting tasks. This review gives an overview of available sensor platforms used in recent agricultural and related research pr...

  5. Thermal flow micro sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow sensors and time of flight flow sensors. Anemometers may comprise several heaters and temperature sensors and from a geometric point of view are similar sometimes for calorimetric flow sensors. We fi...

  6. 基于UG的电动自行车虚拟装配与运动学分析%Virtual assembly and kinematics analysis for e-bike based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路连; 高荣

    2011-01-01

    UG提供了一种产品工程解决方案,可对产品设计与加工全过程实现数字化造型与验证.采用UG软件完成电动自行车主要机械零部件三维设计与虚拟装配,其中也利用其Senario?for?FEA 模块对电动车关键零部件展开有限元分析;虚拟装配可实现零件静态干涉检查、装配路径规划等,有限元分析也促进了零件的进一步优化.最后,文中简述UG的运动学分析方法,其操作简单,可视化.通过运动件各关键点的位移、速度、加速度等变化规律曲线,从而轻松获知其运动特性.%UG software provides a kind of solution in Product Engineering, which may achieve digital modeling and verification for product design and machining process.3D design and virtual assembly for key mechanical parts of e-bike(electric bicycle )are accomplished by using UG.Meanwhile Finite-element analysis for the key parts has been done with UG/FEA as well.With the virtual assembly, static interference checking, layout planning for assembly is achieved.And the further optimization for the parts is realized by finite element analysis.As a result,the UG kinematics analysis method is expounded,which operation is easy and visualized.From the variational rule curve of speed,acceleration and displacement for key points of the moving parts, the characteristics of kinematics is obtained easily.

  7. 基于UG的叶轮强度和流场有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Impeller Structure of Turbo-compressor Based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 张瑞珊

    2009-01-01

    基于UG最新发布的NX6.0环境下进行透平压缩机的叶轮有限元分析,在UG CAD模式下对转子进行实体建模,并在高级仿真环境下进行强度和流场分析,指导叶轮结构设计.

  8. Methods of Automatic Parting Mold and Manual Parting Mold for Injection Mold Design Based on UG%基于UG注射模设计的自动分模和手动分模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海涛

    2012-01-01

    UG software is widely applied in plastic injection mold design,the basic principle of parting mold is introduced in this paper,and the UG application in plastic injection mold design is studied with a concrete case.The process of automatic parting mold and manual parting mold in UG are expatiated,the flexible application of two methods will significantly reduce mold design time and greatly improve the efficiency of injection mold design.%UG软件广泛地应用在注射模设计中,本文介绍了分模原理,并结合实例研究UG软件在注射模设计中的应用。介绍了自动分模和手动分模方法,两种方法的灵活应用可以缩短模具设计周期,提高注射模设计的效率。

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  10. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  11. Microcantilever sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  12. JERS-1 Workshop on the Ground Station for ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    1990-11-01

    Presented in viewgraph format, the present status of the ground station and future plan for utilizing earth observation satellites in Thailand is outlined. Topics addressed include: data acquisition system; operation status of LANDSAT, SPOT, and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1); remote sensors of satellites; data output form; data correction level; data system in Thailand; ground station for MOS-1 satellite in Thailand; and future plan.

  13. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  14. DNA and RNA sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; LIN; Lin; ZHAO; Hong; JIANG; Long

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in DNA sensor. Major areas of DNA sensor covered in this review include immobilization methods of DNA, general techniques of DNA detection and application of nanoparticles in DNA sensor.

  15. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  16. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  17. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  18. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  19. Advances in wireless sensors and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Leung, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Written by experts, this book illustrates and collects recent advances in wireless sensors and sensor networks. It provides clever support for scientists, students and researchers in order to stimulate exchange and discussions for further developments.

  20. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  1. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  2. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  3. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  4. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., has developed a software toolkit that filters and processes navigational data from multiple sensor sources. A key component of the toolkit is a trajectory optimization technique that reduces the sensitivity of Kalman filters with respect to model parameter uncertainties. The sensor fusion toolkit also integrates recent advances in adaptive Kalman and sigma-point filters for non-Gaussian problems with error statistics. This Phase II effort provides new filtering and sensor fusion techniques in a convenient package that can be used as a stand-alone application for ground support and/or onboard use. Its modular architecture enables ready integration with existing tools. A suite of sensor models and noise distribution as well as Monte Carlo analysis capability are included to enable statistical performance evaluations.

  5. Graphene Chemical Sensor for Heliophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species. In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as oxonium, hydron and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  6. Graphene chemical sensors for heliophysics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-10-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species (Schedin, F.; Geim, A.K.; Morozov, S.V.; Hill, E.W.; Blake, P.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Novoselov, K.S. Nat. Mater 2007, 6, 652-655. doi:10.1038/nmat1967). In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as O+, H+ and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  7. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  8. Oil use of the effluent plant ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment) as combustible for generation of energy in the power plant UG-50Hz; Utulizacao de oleo da ETEO (Estacao de Tratamento de Efluentes Oleosos) para geracao de energia na UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Francisco de; Nascimento, Jose Maria do; Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Baptista, Reinaldo Lopes; Barros, Sueli Aguiar [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The areas of finishing products of CSN Steel Plant generate contaminated effluents with oil and grease , that are treated in ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment). In this plant, the oil is processed to be sold for the consuming market. However, some seasons of the year, the market does not absorb the oil, and CSN is obliged to defray the burning of this oil, to not interrupt the productive process and cause an environmental impact. Because of this situation, we search alternatives for the viable use of this oil inside CSN steel plant, taking care for the security of the processes and the impact to the environment. This paper describes the details of the work and the implantation of the burning of this oil of the ETEO with BPF oil (type of petrochemical oil) as combustible in the boiler 7 of the power plant UG 50 Hz. For the implantation of this project, operational contingencies of security for equipment was prepared . Moreover, the work included chemical analyses of the oil and the conditions of the boiler using this mixing of oils. The reached results demonstrate the total viability of this project and it was proved another alternative of the use of this residue, with reduction of the fuel costs , steam costs and the electric energy generated in the power plant of CSN. (author)

  9. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  11. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  12. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  13. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  14. 1st National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    D’Amico, Arnaldo; Natale, Corrado; Siciliano, Pietro; Seeber, Renato; Stefano, Luca; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Andò, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the First National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 15-17 February 2011. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.   ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the First Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications;       ·        Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  15. Track classification within wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumerc, Robin; Pannetier, Benjamin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present our study on track classification by taking into account environmental information and target estimated states. The tracker uses several motion model adapted to different target dynamics (pedestrian, ground vehicle and SUAV, i.e. small unmanned aerial vehicle) and works in centralized architecture. The main idea is to explore both: classification given by heterogeneous sensors and classification obtained with our fusion module. The fusion module, presented in his paper, provides a class on each track according to track location, velocity and associated uncertainty. To model the likelihood on each class, a fuzzy approach is used considering constraints on target capability to move in the environment. Then the evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) is used to perform a time integration of this classifier output. The fusion rules are tested and compared on real data obtained with our wireless sensor network.In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of this system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  16. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  17. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor.

  18. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  19. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  20. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    optimization approaches allowing minimization of the total cost subject to linear inequality constraints can be formulated in terms of the binary...the calculations are not trivial. ERDC/CRREL TR-14-20 9 3.1 Coverage matrix for aircraft Coverage matrix A enters the inequality coverage...of target (a person versus a car): 8 ± 2 px • Identification of the target (a woman versus a man, a specific car): 13 ± 3 px; These criteria

  1. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  2. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  3. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  4. Experimental Investigation Into the Aerodynamic Ground Effect of a Tailless Chevron and Lambda-shaped UCAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Significant advances during the last quarter-century in computing capabilities, electronics miniaturization, communications , guidance, navigation, and...Grumman X-47. The X-45 will combine advance air vehicle hardware, including integrated sensors, communication , navigation equipment and low...USNR for UCAV Ground Effects Test**** %****** Re-adapted by Won In, Capt, USAF for UCAV Ground Efects Test ****** %******************* Calculation

  5. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  6. Sensors an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...

  7. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    applicable not only to robotics or agricultural applications, but most very low altitude or ground based hyperspectral sensors operating with natural light.

  8. Smart Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  9. Ubiquitous Sensor Network for Chemical Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Young Chung; Risto Myllylae

    2006-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been identified as one of the most important technologies for the 21st century. Recent advances in micro sensor fabrication technology and wireless communication technology enable the practical deployment of large-scale, low-power, inexpensive sensor networks. Such an approach offers an advantage over traditional sensing methods in many ways: large-scale, dense deployment not only extends spatial coverage and achieves higher resolution, but also increases the system's fault-tolerance and robustness. Moreover, the ad-hoc nature of wireless sensor networks makes them even more attractive for military and other risk-associated applications, such as environmental observation and habitat monitoring.

  10. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  11. 基于UG的复合轮系齿轮传动三维建模及运动仿真分析%Three-dimensional Modeling and Motion Simulation Analysis of Compound Gear Train Based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃娟; 矫健; 肖明喆

    2015-01-01

    以复合轮系齿轮传动为例,对传动机构进行原理分析,利用传动比计算公式计算出复合轮系中关键齿轮的旋转速度,得出UG运动仿真参数。利用UG中齿轮工具箱完成锥齿轮和直齿轮的建模与啮合装配,对旋转副和齿轮副进行运动仿真,通过运动仿真可直观地观察齿轮传动状态,然后进行图表分析,以验证轮系设计的合理性。%With the compound gear train gear as an example,the principle of driving mechanism is analyzed,the transmis-sion ratio calculation formula is used to calculate the rotational speed of key gears in the compound gear train,obtaining UG motion simulation parameters. The gear toolbox in UG is utilized to complete modeling and engage assembly of spur gears and bevel gears,with motion simulation of rotating vice and gear pair conducted,which can realize intuitive observation of gear transmission state and graph-based analysis to verify the rationality of gear train design.

  12. Podejście Lean jako kierunek zmian w zarządzaniu i rachunkowości zarządczej w podmiotach usług medycznych – wyniki badań literaturowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań literaturowych dotyczących kierunków zmian w zarządzaniu i rachunkowości w podmiotach usług medycznych w zakresie przenikania do nich podejścia lean. W badaniach tych przeanalizowano ponad 200 pozycji publikacji. Ostatecznie wybrano 19 pozycji literaturowych krajowych i zagranicznych opublikowanych w latach 1995–2013. Badanie literatury przeprowadzono w dwóch podstawowych obszarach: rozważań teoretycznych oraz wyników badań empirycznych (case study, badania ankietowe. Do realizacji celu artykułu zastosowano metodę analizy literatury przedmiotu. Jej przedmiotem były dwie grupy artykułów: teoretyczne oraz zawierające objaśniające wyniki badań empirycznych. Podejście lean, którego geneza wywodzi się z branży motoryzacyjnej (produkcyjnej, w pełni nadaje się do zastosowania w jednostkach ochrony zdrowia funkcjonujących w różnych obszarach kulturowych oraz do reformowania krajowych systemów opieki zdrowotnej w celu podniesienia ich efektywności. Przenikanie koncepcji lean do branży usług medycznych ma charakter ewolucyjny, podobnie jak następowało jej zastosowanie w branżach produkcyjnych.

  13. UG二次开发技术在Web零件库系统开发中的应用研究%Application of UG Secondary Development Technology in Development of Web Parts Library System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽; 孙文磊; 王宏伟

    2011-01-01

    通过研究C#编程语言对UG NX 6.0软件的二次开发技术,并结合ASP.NET技术实现了Web零件库系统中零件三维图形的在线动态浏览、零件表达式及属性信息的提取和零件在线参数化驱动等功能.介绍了上述功能的实现方法与过程,并给出了基于ASP.NET的Web零件库系统的应用实例.%UG secondary development for UC NX 6. 0 software by C# programming language was researched. Several important functions in web parts library system were realized with ASP. NET technology, as follows; browsing three-dimensional graphics of parts in Web parts library system, picking up expressions and attributes information in part files and driving to parameterized parts. The de tailed methods and processes to realize above functions were introduced and an applied example of Web parts library system based on ASP. NET was given.

  14. [The ground reflectance spectrum retrieval from ETM images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Wu, Yu-Hang; Liu, Zhi-Ming; He, Hai-Jian

    2007-04-01

    Retrieval of ground reflectance spectrum from satellite sensor digital count requires knowledge of the atmospheric conditions. Images of spectral radiance from ground-atmosphere system recorded by the multi-spectral imager ETM which boarded Landsat-7 sensor can retrieve the ground reflectivity spectrum. The uncertainty of reflectance spectrum retrieval is no more than 17% at the band 1 of ETM, and less than 10% at the band 2 and 3 of ETM. It is superior to those arithmetics widely used at present. Retrieval of ground radiance spectrum from ground-atmosphere system can be used to synthesize the sRGB true color image, but the definition is not excellent. And it was proved that the color of the images can not reflect the actual nature of earth objects before being adjusted. And the accuracy of interpretation based on true color synthesized images is superior to those based on the source images. So the precision of such reflectance spectrum retrieval is not as good as expected if applied to the true color photography on the ground.

  15. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  16. Generic Sensor Modeling Using Pulse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Dennis L.; Choi, Taeyoung

    2005-01-01

    Recent development of high spatial resolution satellites such as IKONOS, Quickbird and Orbview enable observation of the Earth's surface with sub-meter resolution. Compared to the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 5 TM, the amount of information in the output image was dramatically increased. In this era of high spatial resolution, the estimation of spatial quality of images is gaining attention. Historically, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) concept has been used to estimate an imaging system's spatial quality. Sometimes classified by target shapes, various methods were developed in laboratory environment utilizing sinusoidal inputs, periodic bar patterns and narrow slits. On-orbit sensor MTF estimation was performed on 30-meter GSD Landsat4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the bridge pulse target as a pulse input . Because of a high resolution sensor s small Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), reasonably sized man-made edge, pulse, and impulse targets can be deployed on a uniform grassy area with accurate control of ground targets using tarps and convex mirrors. All the previous work cited calculated MTF without testing the MTF estimator's performance. In previous report, a numerical generic sensor model had been developed to simulate and improve the performance of on-orbit MTF estimating techniques. Results from the previous sensor modeling report that have been incorporated into standard MTF estimation work include Fermi edge detection and the newly developed 4th order modified Savitzky-Golay (MSG) interpolation technique. Noise sensitivity had been studied by performing simulations on known noise sources and a sensor model. Extensive investigation was done to characterize multi-resolution ground noise. Finally, angle simulation was tested by using synthetic pulse targets with angles from 2 to 15 degrees, several brightness levels, and different noise levels from both ground targets and imaging system. As a continuing research activity using the developed sensor

  17. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor

  18. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  19. Dynamic Accuracy of Inertial Magnetic Sensor Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    interpolate function to replace the repeating values to ensure the RMS value was only calculated with the ground truth data obtained directly from...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensor modules have extensive applications in inertial...and gravity , MARG, micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS, quaternion 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  20. A New User Interface for On-Demand Customizable Data Products for Sensors in a SensorWeb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stuart; Sohlberg, Rob; Ly, Vuong; Chien, Steve; Sullivan, Don

    2011-01-01

    A SensorWeb is a set of sensors, which can consist of ground, airborne and space-based sensors interoperating in an automated or autonomous collaborative manner. The NASA SensorWeb toolbox, developed at NASA/GSFC in collaboration with NASA/JPL, NASA/Ames and other partners, is a set of software and standards that (1) enables users to create virtual private networks of sensors over open networks; (2) provides the capability to orchestrate their actions; (3) provides the capability to customize the output data products and (4) enables automated delivery of the data products to the users desktop. A recent addition to the SensorWeb Toolbox is a new user interface, together with web services co-resident with the sensors, to enable rapid creation, loading and execution of new algorithms for processing sensor data. The web service along with the user interface follows the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard called Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). This presentation will detail the prototype that was built and how the WCPS was tested against a HyspIRI flight testbed and an elastic computation cloud on the ground with EO-1 data. HyspIRI is a future NASA decadal mission. The elastic computation cloud stores EO-1 data and runs software similar to Amazon online shopping.

  1. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  2. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  3. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    Sensor networks are being widely deployed for measurement, detection and surveillance applications. In these new applications, users issue long-running queries over a combination of stored data and sensor data. Most existing applications rely on a centralized system for collecting sensor data....... These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...

  4. Sensors for Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschulena, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sensors are one of the key elements for the automation in the manufacturing and process technology. The sensor field is presently within a restructuring process, directed to a stronger utilization of solid state technologies. This restructuring is governed by the utilization of solid state physical effects, by the use of reproducible fabrication techniques, and by the market driving forces. The state of the art of sensors in modern fabrication techniques will be demonstrated in examples, namely for sensors in silicon technology, in thin film technology and in thick film/screen printing technology. Some important physical and technological problems to be solved for the development of new and advanced sensor families will be outlined. Sensor development is strongly directed to the minaturization of devices and to the integration of different sensors to multisensors, as well as the integration between sensors and microelectronics.

  5. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  6. Nanomaterial-based robust oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Alam, Maksudul; Tseng, Derek; Majumdar, Arun K.; Kazemi, Alex A.

    2007-09-01

    Since the TWA flight 800 accident in July 1996, significant emphasis has been placed on fuel tank safety. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has focused research to support two primary methods of fuel tank protection - ground-based and on-board - both involving fuel tank inerting. Ground-based fuel tank inerting involves some combination of fuel scrubbing and ullage washing with Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) while the airplane is on the ground (applicable to all or most operating transport airplanes). On-board fuel tank inerting involves ullage washing with OBIGGS (on-board inert gas generating system), a system that generates NEA during aircraft operations. An OBIGGS generally encompasses an air separation module (ASM) to generate NEA, a compressor, storage tanks, and a distribution system. Essential to the utilization of OBIGGS is an oxygen sensor that can operate inside the aircraft's ullage and assess the effectiveness of the inerting systems. OBIGGS can function economically by precisely knowing when to start and when to stop. Toward achieving these goals, InnoSense LLC is developing an all-optical fuel tank ullage sensor (FTUS) prototype for detecting oxygen in the ullage of an aircraft fuel tank in flight conditions. Data would be presented to show response time and wide dynamic range of the sensor in simulated flight conditions and fuel tank environment.

  7. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ground penetrating radar (From [10]) B. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR Buried landmines and IED detection using electromagnetic induction (EMI) techniques is...5  A.  EXISTING DETECTION SYSTEMS ...........................................................5  B.  GROUND PENETRATING RADAR ...3.  Husky mine detection vehicle with ground penetrating radar (From [10]) .......6  Figure 4.  Propagation losses plotted against frequency for

  8. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  9. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  10. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  11. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  12. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  13. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  14. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow se

  15. Sensors for Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored. PMID:27428981

  16. Environmental Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Kirk; Hart, Jane; Ong, Royan

    2004-01-01

    Sensor networks for the natural environment require an understanding of earth science, combined with sensor, communications and computer technology. We discuss the evolution from data logging to sensor networks, describe our research from a glacial environment and highlight future challenges in this field.

  17. Optical waveguide sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.; Popma, Th.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the field of optical waveguide sensors is presented. Some emphasis is laid on the development of a single scheme under which the diversity of sensor principles can be arranged. First three types of sensors are distinguished: intrinsic, extrinsic and active. Next, two steps are disting

  18. Sensors and actuators, Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the organization and the research programme of the Sensor and Actuator (S&A) Research Unit of the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. It includes short descriptions of all present projects concerning: micromachined mechanical sensors and actuators, optical sensors,

  19. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  20. Sensors for Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  1. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  2. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  3. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  4. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  5. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  6. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  7. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  8. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  9. Fused performance of passive thermal and active polarimetric EO demining sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Jiao; Baertlein, Brian A.

    2002-08-01

    The potential for performance improvements through sensor fusion is explored for two electro-optical (EO) imaging sensors: a passive thermal IR camera and an active polarimetric system. Tests of decision-level fusion using a small data set (roughly 60 mine signatures) suggest that a significant performance improvement can be obtained by using an AND fusion approach. The source of this improvement derives from correlation among the sensors. Specifically, the sensors exhibit a strong positive correlation when a mine is present, and a negligible correlation when viewing clutter. The observed improvement is independent of the local ground clutter, but it depends strongly on the decision thresholds used for the individual sensors.

  10. Research and Experiments on a Unipolar Capacitive Voltage Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sensors are an important part of the electric system. In service, traditional voltage sensors need to directly contact a high-voltage charged body. Sensors involve a large volume, complex insulation structures, and high design costs. Typically an iron core structure is adopted. As a result, ferromagnetic resonance can occur easily during practical application. Moreover, owing to the multilevel capacitor divider, the sensor cannot reflect the changes of measured voltage in time. Based on the electric field coupling principle, this paper designs a new voltage sensor; the unipolar structure design solves many problems of traditional voltage sensors like the great insulation design difficulty and high costs caused by grounding electrodes. A differential signal input structure is adopted for the detection circuit, which effectively restrains the influence of the common-mode interference signal. Through sensor modeling, simulation and calculations, the structural design of the sensor electrode was optimized, miniaturization of the sensor was realized, the voltage division ratio of the sensor was enhanced, and the phase difference of sensor measurement was weakened. The voltage sensor is applied to a single-phase voltage class line of 10 kV for testing. According to the test results, the designed sensor is able to meet the requirements of accurate and real-time measurement for voltage of the charged conductor as well as to provide a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system. Therefore, it can satisfy the development demands of the smart power grid.

  11. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Jerolmack, Douglas; Lancaster, Nicholas; Nikolich, George; Reverdy, Paul; Roberts, Sonia; Shipley, Thomas; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Zobeck, Ted M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists' efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science

  12. Multi-Sensor Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki; Khan, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple sensors typically requires the fusion of data from different type of sensors. The combined use of such a data has the potential to give an efficient, high quality and reliable estimation. Input data from different sensors allows the introduction of target attributes (target type......, size) into the association logic. This requires a more general association logic, in which both the physical position parameters and the target attributes can be used simultaneously. Although, the data fusion from a number of sensors could provide better and reliable estimation but abundance...... processing units for same type of multiple sensors, typically radar in our case....

  13. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeijer, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roozeboom, Clifton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  14. Development of tools, technologies, and methodologies for imaging sensor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, H.; Bynum, K.; Steely, S.; Nicholson, R.; Horne, H.

    2013-05-01

    Ground testing of space- and air-borne imaging sensor systems is supported by Vis-to-LWIR imaging sensor calibration and characterization, as well as hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation with high-fidelity complex scene projection to validate sensor mission performance. To accomplish this successfully, there must be the development of tools, technologies, and methodologies that are used in space simulation chambers for such testing. This paper provides an overview of such efforts being investigated and implemented at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC).

  15. Measuring the performance of sensors that report uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Parry, M

    2014-01-01

    We provide methods to validate and compare sensor outputs, or inference algorithms applied to sensor data, by adapting statistical scoring rules. The reported output should either be in the form of a prediction interval or of a parameter estimate with corresponding uncertainty. Using knowledge of the `true' parameter values, scoring rules provide a method of ranking different sensors or algorithms for accuracy and precision. As an example, we apply the scoring rules to the inferred masses of cattle from ground force data and draw conclusions on which rules are most meaningful and in which way.

  16. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  17. Online Distributed Sensor Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Daniel; Krause, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A key problem in sensor networks is to decide which sensors to query when, in order to obtain the most useful information (e.g., for performing accurate prediction), subject to constraints (e.g., on power and bandwidth). In many applications the utility function is not known a priori, must be learned from data, and can even change over time. Furthermore for large sensor networks solving a centralized optimization problem to select sensors is not feasible, and thus we seek a fully distributed solution. In this paper, we present Distributed Online Greedy (DOG), an efficient, distributed algorithm for repeatedly selecting sensors online, only receiving feedback about the utility of the selected sensors. We prove very strong theoretical no-regret guarantees that apply whenever the (unknown) utility function satisfies a natural diminishing returns property called submodularity. Our algorithm has extremely low communication requirements, and scales well to large sensor deployments. We extend DOG to allow observatio...

  18. Silicon force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  19. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  20. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, Edward L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Mauck, Jerry L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Bockhorst, Richard M. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  1. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  2. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  3. A comparison of decision-level sensor-fusion methods for anti-personnel landmine detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Breejen, E. den

    2001-01-01

    We present the sensor-fusion results obtained from measurements within the European research project ground explosive ordinance detection (GEODE) system that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor, anti-personnel landmine-detection system for humanitarian de-mining. The syste

  4. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian demin

  5. A comparison of decision-level sensor-fusion methods for anti-personnel landmine detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Breejen, E. den

    2001-01-01

    We present the sensor-fusion results obtained from measurements within the European research project ground explosive ordinance detection (GEODE) system that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor, anti-personnel landmine-detection system for humanitarian de-mining. The

  6. Orientation effect on ground motion measurement for Mexican subduction earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.P Hong; A. Pozos-Estrada; R. Gomez

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the principal directions of the ground motion based on Arias intensity is well-known. These principal directions do not necessarily coincide with the orientations of recording sensors or with the orientations along which the ground motion parameters such as the peak ground acceleration and the pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) are maximum. This is evidenced by the fact that the maximum PSA at different natural vibration periods for horizontal excitations do not correspond to the same orientation. A recent analysis carried out for California earthquake records suggests that an orientation-dependent ground motion measurement for horizontal excitations can be developed. The main objective of this study is to investigate and provide seismic ground motion measurements in the horizontal plane, including bidirectional horizontal ground motions, for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquake records. Extensive statistical analyses of PSA are conducted for the assessment, The analysis results suggest that similar to the case of California records, the average behavior of the ratio of the PSA to the maximum resulting PSA can be approximated by a quarter of an ellipse in one quadrant; and that the ratio can be considered to be independent of the value of the maximum resulting PSA, earthquake magnitude, earthquake distance and the focal depth. Sets of response ratios and attenuation relationships that can be used to represent a bidirectional horizontal ground motion measurement for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquakes were also developed.

  7. Sensor Management for Tracking in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fuemmeler, Jason A; Veeravalli, Venugopal V

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of tracking an object moving through a network of wireless sensors. In order to conserve energy, the sensors may be put into a sleep mode with a timer that determines their sleep duration. It is assumed that an asleep sensor cannot be communicated with or woken up, and hence the sleep duration needs to be determined at the time the sensor goes to sleep based on all the information available to the sensor. Having sleeping sensors in the network could result in degraded tracking performance, therefore, there is a tradeoff between energy usage and tracking performance. We design sleeping policies that attempt to optimize this tradeoff and characterize their performance. As an extension to our previous work in this area [1], we consider generalized models for object movement, object sensing, and tracking cost. For discrete state spaces and continuous Gaussian observations, we derive a lower bound on the optimal energy-tracking tradeoff. It is shown that in the low tracking error regime, the g...

  8. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  9. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  10. Comparison of radar and infrared distance sensors for intelligent cruise control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoess, Alfred; Hosp, Werner; Rauner, Hans

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, infrared distance sensors are compared regarding technology, environmental, and practical aspects. Different methods for obtaining lateral resolution and covering the required detection range are presented for both sensor technologies. Possible positions for sensor installation at the test vehicle have been tested. Experimental results regarding cleaning devices and other environmental problems are presented. Finally, future aspects, e.g. speed over ground measurements or technological steps are discussed.

  11. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  12. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  13. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 25 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, N.Y.) from August through November 2007 to characterize the ground-water quality. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Of the 25 wells sampled, 13 were finished in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 were finished in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 225 physical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: color (1 sample), pH (2 samples), sodium (5 samples), nitrate plus nitrite (2 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (1 sample), manganese (7 samples), radon-222 (11 samples), and bacteria (1 sample). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in samples from wells finished in sand and gravel [median 5.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] were greater than those from wells finished in bedrock (median 0.4 mg/L). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.6); the median water temperature was 9.7 deg C. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate (median 123 mg/L) and calcium (median 33.9 mg/L). Ground water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (less than or equal to 120 mg/L as CaCO3) (median hardness 110 mg/L as CaCO3). Concentrations of

  14. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  15. Design of a Smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Hazardous Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Saurav

    2010-01-01

    A smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is designed and developed for some application specific missions to operate predominantly in hazardous environments. In our work, we have developed a small and lightweight vehicle to operate in general cross-country terrains in or without daylight. The UGV can send visual feedbacks to the operator at a remote location. Onboard infrared sensors can detect the obstacles around the UGV and sends signals to the operator.

  16. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  17. Clementine sensor suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  18. Sensor technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Jørgensen, Birte Holst; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2001-01-01

    The Sensor Technology Center A/S (STC) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory has carried out a sensor technology foresight in order to strengthen a strategic outlook on sensor technology. The technology foresight (with a timeframe of 2000 to2015) has been performed in the period October...... 2000 - September 2001. The conclusions of the sensor technology report are based on 1) a scanning of existing forward looking literature on sensor technology, 2) a number of workshops with Danish andinternational participants and 3) an international survey with 174 respondents. Half of the respondents...... came from universities and other research institutes, and approximately one-third came from industry. The study has analysed six types of sensors(covering 13 sub-types) and, in addition, a number of systemic issues. All three sources of information indicate the same pattern regarding future...

  19. Medical Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    is required, such as taking a blood sample, mailing it to a lab, where it is analysed and the result returned by mail. Due to the continuing size and cost reduction of electronic equipment, future medical sensors will be much smaller, cheaper and often disposable. Furthermore, integration of these sensors...... with the electronic health record (EHR) IT-systems will save a lot of work (and human errors), as the sensor readings will be directly recorded in the patient’s records by the sensors themselves, rather than by a transcription performed by a busy clinician. Although this development has been going on for at least...... a decade, most sensors are still quite big, heavy and difficult to operate, and a lot of research is revolving around minimising the instruments and making them easier to use. Several research experiments have demonstrated the utility of such sensors, but few of these experiments consider security...

  20. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408 used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process.

  1. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  2. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  3. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  4. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  5. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  6. The Ringcore Fluxgate Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A model describing the fundamental working principle of the "ringcore fluxgate sensor" is derived. The model is solely based on geometrical and measurable magnetic properties of the sensor and from this a number of fluxgate phenomenon can be described and estimated. The sensitivity of ringcore...... fluxgate sensors is measured for a large variety of geometries and is for all measurements found to fall between two limits obtained by the fluxgate model. The model is used to explain the zero field odd harmonic output of the fluxgate sensor, called the "feedthrough". By assuming a non ideal sensor...... with spatially distributed magnetization, the model predicts feedthrough signals which exactly reflects the measured signals. The non-linearities in a feedback compensated ringcore fluxgate sensors, called the "transverse field effect", can also be explained by the model. Measurements on stress annealed...

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, HYDROTECHNICS IN SITU FLOW SENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluated performance of HydroTechnics, Inc. flow sensors in measuring the three-dimensional flow pattern created by operation of the Wasatch Environmental, Inc. (WEI) ground...

  8. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  9. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  10. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  11. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  12. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  13. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  14. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  15. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  16. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  17. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  18. Acondicionamiento de sensores capacitivos

    OpenAIRE

    Campos López, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Los sensores son componentes de instrumentación cuyo objetivo principal es detectar una magnitud física del entorno y transforarla en una magnitud eléctrica. El posterior tratamiento de esta señal permite valorar la magnitud física en su unidad característica. Actualmente en el mercado se encuentra una gran variedad de sensores y la tendencia destaca su aumento año tras año. Un tipo de sensor es clasificado como sensor capacitivo, cuya característica eléctrica es el valor de...

  19. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  20. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Cheung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

  1. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  2. Infrasound Sensor and Porous-Hose Filter Characterization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D. M.; Harris, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEM R&D) program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as the primary center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for nuclear explosion monitoring. Over the past year much of our work has focused in the area of infrasound sensor characterization through the continuing development of an infrasound sensor characterization test-bed. Our main areas of focus have been in new sensor characterization and understanding the effects of porous-hose filters for reducing acoustic background signals. Three infrasound sensors were evaluated for characteristics of instrument response, linearity and self-noise. The sensors tested were Chaparral Physics model 2.5 low-gain, New Mexico Tech All-Sensor and the Inter-Mountain Labs model SS avalanche sensor. For the infrasound sensors tested, the test results allow us to conclude that two of the three sensors had sufficiently quiet noise floor to be at or below the Acoustic low-noise model from 0.1 to 7 Hz, which make those sensors suitable to explosion monitoring. The other area of focus has been to understand the characteristics of porous-hose filters used at some monitoring sites. For this, an experiment was designed in which two infrasound sensors were co- located. One sensor was connected to a typical porous-hose spatial filter consisting of eight individual hoses covering a 30m aperture and the second sensor was left open to unimpeded acoustic input. Data were collected for several days, power spectrum computed for two-hour windows and the relative gain of the porous-hose filters were estimated by dividing the power spectrum. The porous-hose filter appears to attenuate less than 3 dB (rel 1 Pa**2/Hz) below 0.1 Hz and as much as 25 dB at 1 Hz and between 20 to 10 dB above 10 Hz. Several more experiments will be designed to address the effects of different characteristics of the individual porous

  3. A Game Theoretic Sensor Resource Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Stubberud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor resource management system that employs fuzzy logic to provide the utility functions to a game theoretic approach is developed. The application looks at a virtual fence problem where several unattended ground sensors are placed in remote locations to act as virtual sentries. The goal of the approach is to maximize the battery life while tracking targets of interest. This research also considers the incorporation of uncertainty into the fuzzy membership functions. Both type-2 fuzzy logic and the use of conditional fuzzy membership function are employed. The type-2 fuzzy logic is employed in the case of acoustical sensor tracking accuracy degradation, while the condition-based membership functions are used to adapt to different conditions, such as environmental conditions and sensor performance degradation, over time. The resource management process uses fuzzy logic to determine which of the sensor systems on a sensor pod is used to provide initial classification of the target and which sensor or sensors are to be used in tracking and better classifying the target if it is determined to be of value to the mission. The three different approaches are compared to determine when the best times for the more complex approaches are warranted.

  4. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  5. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-12-26

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  6. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  7. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  8. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  9. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  10. Multi-sensor integration for unmanned terrain modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Yu, Sijie; Page, David L.; Koschan, Andreas F.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2006-05-01

    State-of-the-art unmanned ground vehicles are capable of understanding and adapting to arbitrary road terrain for navigation. The robotic mobility platforms mounted with sensors detect and report security concerns for subsequent action. Often, the information based on the localization of the unmanned vehicle is not sufficient for deploying army resources. In such a scenario, a three dimensional (3D) map of the area that the ground vehicle has surveyed in its trajectory would provide a priori spatial knowledge for directing resources in an efficient manner. To that end, we propose a mobile, modular imaging system that incorporates multi-modal sensors for mapping unstructured arbitrary terrain. Our proposed system leverages 3D laser-range sensors, video cameras, global positioning systems (GPS) and inertial measurement units (IMU) towards the generation of photo-realistic, geometrically accurate, geo-referenced 3D terrain models. Based on the summary of the state-of-the-art systems, we address the need and hence several challenges in the real-time deployment, integration and visualization of data from multiple sensors. We document design issues concerning each of these sensors and present a simple temporal alignment method to integrate multi-sensor data into textured 3D models. These 3D models, in addition to serving as a priori for path planning, can also be used in simulators that study vehicle-terrain interaction. Furthermore, we show our 3D models possessing the required accuracy even for crack detection towards road surface inspection in airfields and highways.

  11. Managing heterogeneous networks of mobile and stationary sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürkle, Axel; Solbrig, Peter; Segor, Florian; Bulatov, Dimitri; Wernerus, Peter; Müller, Sven

    2011-11-01

    Protecting critical infrastructure against intrusion, sabotage or vandalism is a task that requires a comprehensive situation picture. Modern security systems should provide a total solution including sensors, software, hardware, and a "control unit" to ensure complete security. Incorporating unmanned mobile sensors can significantly help to close information gaps and gain an ad hoc picture of areas where no pre-installed supervision infrastructure is available or damaged after an incident. Fraunhofer IOSB has developed the generic ground control station AMFIS which is capable of managing sensor data acquisition with all kinds of unattended stationary sensors, mobile ad hoc sensor networks, and mobile sensor platforms. The system is highly mobile and able to control various mobile platforms such as small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). In order to establish a real-time situation picture, also an image exploitation process is used. In this process, video frames from different sources (mainly from small UAVs) are georeferenced by means of a system of image registration methods. Relevant information can be obtained by a motion detection module. Thus, the image exploitation process can accelerate the situation assessment significantly.

  12. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-21

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, oftenresulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods,forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence,etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging stormscan be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF]sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales(using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio wavesemitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuouslydistant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number oflightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightningcharacteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, thepolarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shownthat changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are oftenrelated to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observingsystems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may beused to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility ofsupplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

  13. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting. PMID:27879700

  14. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  15. [The importance of temperature on storage of ground natural spices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, W D

    1976-02-27

    Several factors influencing the ingredients of volative oils of some ground natural spices have been investigated during storage. The effects on the aroma have been characterized sensorically; relations between the analytical and sensorical results are explained using anise as an example. Of the influencing factors studied such as packaging material, storage temperature and storage duration, the storage temperature must be regarded as the most important.

  16. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  17. ANALYSIS OF SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS AMONG DIFFERENT SENSORS BY USE OF SIMULATED RS IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This research, by use of RS image-simulating method, simulated apparent reflectance images at sensor level and ground-reflectance images of SPOT-HRV,CBERS-CCD,Landsat-TM and NOAA14-AVHRR' s corresponding bands. These images were used to analyze sensor's differences caused by spectral sensitivity and atmospheric impacts. The differences were analyzed on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI). The results showed that the differences of sensors' spectral characteristics cause changes of their NDVI and reflectance. When multiple sensors' data are applied to digital analysis, the error should be taken into account. Atmospheric effect makes NDVI smaller, and atn~pheric correction has the tendency of increasing NDVI values. The reflectance and their NDVIs of different sensors can be used to analyze the differences among sensor' s features. The spectral analysis method based on RS simulated images can provide a new way to design the spectral characteristics of new sensors.

  18. TDDFT Study on Different Sensing Mechanisms of Similar Cyanide Sensors Based on Michael Addition Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yue Li; Ping Song; Guo-zhong He

    2011-01-01

    The solvents and substituents of two similar fluorescent sensors for cyanide, 7-diethylamino-3-formylcoumarin (sensor a) and 7-diethylamino-3-(2-nitrovinyl)coumarin (sensor b), are proposed to account for their distinct sensing mechanisms and experimental phenomena.The time-dependent density functional theory has been applied to investigate the ground states and the first singlet excited electronic states of the sensor as well as their possible Michael reaction products with cyanide, with a view to monitoring their geometries and photophysical properties. The theoretical study indicates that the protic water solvent could lead to final Michael addition product of sensor a in the ground state, while the aprotic acetonitrile solvent could lead to carbanion as the final product of sensor b. Furthermore,the Michael reaction product of sensor a has been proved to have a torsion structure in its first singlet excited state. Correspondingly, sensor b also has a torsion structure around the nitrovinyl moiety in its first singlet excited state, while not in its carbanion structure. This could explain the observed strong fluorescence for sensor a and the quenching fluorescencefor the sensor b upon the addition of the cyanide anions in the relevant sensing mechanisms.

  19. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  20. A Wireless Sensor Network For Soil Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K.; Cogan, J.; Musaloiu-Elefteri, R.; Small, S.; Terzis, A.; Szalay, A.

    2005-12-01

    The most spatially complex stratum of a terrestrial ecosystem is its soil. Among the major challenges of studying the soil ecosystem are the diversity and the cryptic nature of biota, and the enormous heterogeneity of the soil substrate. Often this patchiness drives spatial distribution of soil organisms, yet our knowledge on the spatio-temporal patterns of soil conditions is limited. To monitor the environmental conditions at biologically meaningful spatial scales we have developed and deployed a wireless sensor network of thirty nodes. Each node is based on a MICAz mote connected to a custom-built sensor suite that includes a Watermark soil moisture sensor, an Irrometer soil temperature sensor, and sensors capable of recording ambient temperature and light intensity. To assess CO2 production at the ground level a subset of the nodes is equipped with Telaire 6004 CO2 sensor. We developed the software running on the motes from scratch, using the TinyOS development environment. Each mote collects measurements every minute, and stores them persistently in a non-volatile memory. The decision to store data locally at each node enables us to reliably retrieve the data in the face of network losses and premature node failures due to power depletion. Collected measurements are retrieved over the wireless network through a PC-class computer acting as a gateway between the sensor network and the Internet. Considering that motes are battery powered, the largest obstacle hindering long-term sensor network deployments is power consumption. To address this problem, our software powers down sensors between sampling cycles and turns off the radio (the most energy prohibitive mote component) when not in use. By doing so we were able to increase node lifetime by a factor of ten. We collected field data over several weeks. The data was ingested into a SQL Server database, which provides data access through a .NET web services interface. The database provides functions for spatial

  1. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  2. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  3. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  4. Sensor Data Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Alempijevic, S.R. Kodagoda, J.P. Underwood, S. Kumar, and G. Dissanayake. Mutual information based sensor registration and calibration. In Procedings of...Steven Scheding. Calibration of range sensor pose on mobile platforms. In Procedings of the 2007 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems

  5. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  6. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations.

  7. Sensors in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Sensors rapidly become available both for personal as well as scientific use. A wide range of applications exists for personal use e.g. safety in and around the house, sport, fitness and health. In this workshop we will explore how sensors are (can be) used in education. We start with an introducti

  8. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1999-01-01

    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the aqu

  9. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  10. Chalcogenide Fibre Displacement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Fibre optic technology offers the possibility for developing of a variety of physical sensors for a wide range of physical parameters. The main...integrating sphere. The use of chalcogenide rather quartz fibre optic highly increases the Sensitivity of the sensor. Experimental set-up, transmission characteristics and technical parameters are presented.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of the Shinyei PPD42NS Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Austin

    Full Text Available Finely resolved PM2.5 exposure measurements at the level of individual participants or over a targeted geographic area can be challenging due to the cost, size and weight of the monitoring equipment. We propose re-purposing the low-cost, portable and lightweight Shinyei PPD42NS particle counter as a particle counting device. Previous field deployment of this sensor suggests that it captures trends in ambient PM2.5 concentrations, but important characteristics of the sensor response have yet to be determined. Laboratory testing was undertaken in order to characterize performance.The Shinyei sensors, in-line with a TSI Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS model 3321, tracked particle decay within an aerosol exposure chamber. Test atmospheres were composed of monodisperse polystyrene spheres with diameters of 0.75, 1, 2 3 and 6 um as well as a polydisperse atmosphere of ASHRAE test dust #1.Two-minute block averages of the sensor response provide a measurement with low random error, within sensor, for particles in the 0.75-6μm range with a limit of detection of 1 μg/m3. The response slope of the sensors is idiomatic, and each sensor requires a unique response curve. A linear model captures the sensor response for concentrations below 50 μg/m3 and for concentrations above 50 μg/m3 a non-linear function captures the response and saturates at 800 μg/m3. The Limit of Detection (LOD is 1 μg/m3. The response time is on the order of minutes, making it appropriate for tracking short-term changes in concentration.When paired with prior evaluation, these sensors are appropriate for use as ambient particle counters for low and medium concentrations of respirable particles (< 100 ug/m3. Multiple sensors deployed over a spatial grid would provide valuable spatio-temporal variability in PM2.5 and could be used to validate exposure models. When paired with GPS tracking, these devices have the potential to provide time and space resolved exposure measurements for a

  12. 基于UG的双横臂独立悬架运动学分析系统%Kinematics Analysis System of Double-wishbone Independent Suspension Based on UG Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯永涛; 陆建辉; 周孔亢; 汪若尘

    2011-01-01

    A construction method for kinematics analysis system of the double-wishbone independent suspension based on UG software was proposed. The corresponding software prototype system using this method was developed and the frame structure of the system had been given account. Using the fast parameterized design function module of the system, the structure and geometric parameters of the double-wishbone suspension mechanism's simulation models could be rapid and convenient edited. By calling the MSC ADAMS or RecurDyn solver, which is integrated in UG/Motion, the kinematics simulation and analysis function module of the system could get the simulation results. The simulation results could be inspected using the drawing function of Matlab, which is integrated in this function module. Taking the minimum variation of the front wheel alignment parameters, minimum lateral displacement of the tires as the optimal object, the optimization design function module of suspension' s the structural parameters was constructed based on genetic algorithm. The correctness and the validity of the system and its function modules were verified by a design example. The frame structure of the system had good scalability and had been used in the optimum design of McPherson suspension.%提出了一种基于UG构建双横臂独立悬架运动学分析系统的方法,并应用该方法开发出了相应的原型系统,给出了系统的框架结构.系统的快速参数化设计模块可方便、快捷地对双横臂悬架运动仿真模型的结构参数、几何参数和定位参数进行修改;系统的运动学仿真分析模块通过调用UG/Motion集成的MSC ADAMS或Function Bay RecurDyn解算器来获取仿真分析结果,通过集成Matlab的绘图功能对分析结果进行输出查看;以前轮定位参数的变化量最小、车轮侧向滑移量最小为优化目标,采用遗传算法构建了系统的悬架机构结构参数优化设计模块.通过一个设计实例验证了系

  13. Sensor Network Motes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin

    This dissertation describes our efforts to improve sensor network performance evaluation and portability, within the context of the sensor network project Hogthrob. In Hogthrob, we faced the challenge of building an sensor network architecture for sow monitoring. This application has hard...... requirements on price and performance, and shows great potential for using sensor networks. Throughout the project we let the application requirements guide our design choices, leading us to push the technologies further to meet the specific goal of the application. In this dissertation, we attack two key...... to investigate these challenges and apart from developing the methodologies, we also present the results of our experiments. In particular, we present a new vector based methodology for performance evaluation of sensor network devices (motes) and applications, based on application specific benchmarking...

  14. Fibres For Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D. N.

    1984-11-01

    Sensors which rely on the external modulation of the properties of an optical fibre (intrinsic sensors) are receiving much attention since they can be made extremely sensitive, and can be used for distributed measurements. Distributed sensing provides some particularly exciting prospects for acoustic, magnetic and electric field monitoring. To date, however, the great majority of experimental and commercial fibre sensors employ telecommunications-grade fibres, largely as a result of their ready availability. Not only does this policy frequently lead to a design compromise, but in some cases makes the performance marginal or untenable as a result of excessive environmental sensitivity. Despite this, little attention has been given to the design of special sensor fibres with enhanced (or depressed) sensitivity to specific measurands. The position is somewhat better with respect to fibres designed to eliminate sensor polarisation problems (e.g. polar isation-maintaining fibres), but even here further work is required to provide the performance demanded.

  15. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...... to the occupied and empty regions. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors are interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sensor readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied to update the sonar array......  and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  16. Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology Integrated Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This booklet contains summary sheets that describe FY 1993 characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) development projects. Currently, 32 projects are funded, 22 through the OTD Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP), 8 through the OTD Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) activity managed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), and 2 through Interagency Agreements (IAGs). This booklet is not inclusive of those CMST projects which are funded through Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and other Integrated Programs (IPs). The projects are in six areas: Expedited Site Characterization; Contaminants in Soils and Groundwater; Geophysical and Hydrogeological Measurements; Mixed Wastes in Drums, Burial Grounds, and USTs; Remediation, D&D, and Waste Process Monitoring; and Performance Specifications and Program Support. A task description, technology needs, accomplishments and technology transfer information is given for each project.

  17. Cold atom quantum sensors for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-07-01

    Quantum sensors based on cold atoms offer the opportunity to perform highly accurate measurements of physical phenomena related to time, gravity and rotation. The deployment of such technologies in the microgravity environment of space may enable further enhancement of their performance, whilst permitting the detection of these physical phenomena over much larger scales than is possible with a ground-based instrument. In this talk, I will present an overview of the activities of the UK National Quantum Hub in Sensors and Metrology in developing cold atoms technology for space. Our activities are focused in two main areas: optical clocks and atom interferometers. I will also discuss our contributions to recent initiatives including STE-QUEST and AI-GOAT, the ESA/NASA initiative aiming at an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in space.

  18. Power for sensors; sensors for power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Mel

    2016-10-01

    As sensors are increasingly deployed in locations removed from mains power and increasingly expected to operate for times that are long compared to battery lifetimes we look to means for "harvesting" or "scavenging" energy from the sensors' operating environments. Whereas many sensors are "parametric" - their interaction with the environment causes a change in one or more of their electrical parameters - many other are true transducers - they perform their sensing function by extracting energy from their environment. These kinds of sensors can thus serve - under suitable operating conditions - both as measuring devices and as power supplies. In this paper we review this background, review the fundamental restrictions on our ability to extract energy from the environment, enumerate and summarize sensing principles that are promising candidates to double as power supplies, and provide several examples that span the range from already off-the-shelf at low cost to in laboratory prototype stage to sufficiently speculative that there might be reasonable doubt regarding whether they can actually work even in principle. Possibilities examined across this spectrum include thermal noise, ambient RF scavenging (briefly), thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and electrochemistry, especially including electrochemistry facilitated by microorganisms.

  19. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  20. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.