WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground sensor displays

  1. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles

    2003-09-01

    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  2. Interactive display/graphics systems for remote sensor data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, W. G.; Loe, D. L.; Wilson, E. L.; Whitley, S. L.; Sachen, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    A color-television display system and interactive graphics equipment on-line to an IBM 360/44 computer are used to develop a variety of interactive displays which aid in analyzing remote sensor data. These interactive displays are used to: (1) analyze data from a multispectral scanner; (2) develop automatic pattern recognition systems based on multispectral scanner measurements; and (3) analyze data from non-imaging sensors such as the infrared radiometer and microwave scatterometer.

  3. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  4. Design of PH sensor signal acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Huifa; Zhang, Quanzhu; Deng, Yonghong

    2017-06-01

    With the continuous development of sensor manufacturing technology, how to better deal with the signal is particularly important. PH value of the sensor voltage generated by the signal as a signal, through the MCU acquisition A / D conversion, and ultimately through the digital display of its PH value. The system uses hardware and software to achieve the results obtained with the high-precision PH meter to strive to improve the accuracy and reduce error.

  5. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  6. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  7. Ground strain measuring system using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadanobu; Honda, Riki; Shibata, Shunjiro; Takegawa, Naoki

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the dynamic horizontal shear strain of the ground during earthquake. The proposed device consists of a bronze plate with fiber Bragg grating sensors attached on it. The device is vertically installed in the ground, and horizontal shear strain of the ground is measured as deflection angle of the plate. Employment of optical fiber sensors makes the proposed device simple in mechanism and highly durable, which makes it easy to install our device in the ground. We conducted shaking table tests using ground model to verify applicability of the proposed device.

  8. OLED displays in a ground-mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Lorimer, S.

    2008-04-01

    OLED technology has matured sufficiently to consider it a realistic candidate for military display applications. Manufacturing sources are transitioning from an early developer to a business focused and often rationalised supply base that already has a sustainable business model. New commercial products, with a growing list of applications are slowly swelling the list of available OLED display components that can be considered for military requirements. This paper describes an exploratory application of OLED technology to the Towed Artillery Digitisation (TAD) programme. The Gunners Display function in this system endures the most difficult environment available in Army programmes. By replicating the Gunners Display, we have confirmed that OLED technology is compatible with and technically almost ready for rugged military applications using newly available commercial sources.

  9. Development of Mine Explosion Ground Truth Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF MINE EXPLOSION GROUND TRUTH SMART SENSORS Steven R. Taylor1, Phillip E. Harben1, Steve Jarpe2, and David B. Harris3 Rocky...improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the...National Laboratories and seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location

  10. Applications of FBG-based sensors to ground stability monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Bin Huang; Chien-Chih Wang; Jui-Ting Lee; Yen-Te Ho

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many optical fiber sensing techniques have been developed. Among these available sensing methods, optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is probably the most popular one. With its unique capabilities, FBG-based geotechnical sensors can be used as a sensor array for distributive (profile) measurements, deployed under water (submersible), for localized high resolution and/or dif-ferential measurements. The authors have developed a series of FBG-based transducers that include inclination, linear displacement and gauge/differential pore pressure sensors. Techniques that involve the field deployment of FBG inclination, extension and pore-pressure sensor arrays for automated slope stability and ground subsidence monitoring have been developed. The paper provides a background of FBG and the design concepts behind the FBG-based field monitoring sensors. Cases of field monitoring using the FBG sensor arrays are presented, and their practical implications are discussed.

  11. The Design and Evaluation of the Lighting Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldi, B.; Hodanish, S.; Sharp, D.; Williams, E.; Goodman, Steven; Raghavan, R.; Matlin, A.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design and evaluation of the Lightning Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD). The ultimate goal of the LISDAD system is to quantify the utility of total lightning information in short-term, severe-weather forecasting operations. To this end, scientists from NASA, NWS, and MIT organized an effort to study the relationship of lightning and severe-weather on a storm-by-storm, and even cell-by-cell basis for as many storms as possible near Melbourne, Florida. Melbourne was chosen as it offers a unique combination of high probability of severe weather and proximity to major relevant sensors - specifically: NASA's total lightning mapping system at Kennedy Space Center (the LDAR system at KSC); a NWS/NEXRAD radar (at Melbourne); and a prototype Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS, at Orlando), which obtains cloud-to-ground lightning Information from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and also uses NSSL's Severe Storm Algorithm (NSSL/SSAP) to obtain information about various storm-cell parameters. To assist in realizing this project's goal, an interactive, real-time data processing system (the LISDAD system) has been developed that supports both operational short-term weather forecasting and post facto severe-storm research. Suggestions have been drawn from the operational users (NWS/Melbourne) in the design of the data display and its salient behavior. The initial concept for the users Graphical Situation Display (GSD) was simply to overlay radar data with lightning data, but as the association between rapid upward trends in the total lightning rate and severe weather became evident, the display was significantly redesigned. The focus changed to support the display of time series of storm-parameter data and the automatic recognition of cells that display rapid changes in the total-lightning flash rate. The latter is calculated by grouping discrete LDAR radiation sources into lightning flashes using a time-space association algorithm

  12. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  13. Passive localization processing for tactical unattended ground sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Breitfeller, E.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes our preliminary results of a development effort to assess the potential capability of a system of unattended ground sensors to detect, classify, and localize underground sources. This report also discusses the pertinent signal processing methodologies, demonstrates the approach with computer simulations, and validates the simulations with experimental data. Specific localization methods discussed include triangulation and measurement of time difference of arrival from multiple sensor arrays.

  14. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  15. Compact networked radars for Army unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David A.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Wellman, Ronald; Clark, John; Kurtz, Jim; Pulskamp, Jeff; Proie, Robert; Ivanov, Tony; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Adler, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is in partnership with the University of Florida - Electronics Communications Laboratory to develop compact radar technology and demonstrate that it is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight platforms (<10 lbs.) to meet Army mission needs in persistent surveillance, unattended ground sensor (UGS), unmanned systems, and man-portable sensor applications. The advantage of this compact radar is its steerable beam technology and relatively long-range capability compared to other small, battery-powered radar concepts. This paper will review the ongoing development of the sensor and presents a sample of the collected data thus far.

  16. Retina-like sensor image coordinates transformation and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengmei; Cao, Nan; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-03-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera, the image acquisition, coordinates transformation and interpolation need to be realized. Both of the coordinates transformation and interpolation are computed in polar coordinate due to the sensor's particular pixels distribution. The image interpolation is based on sub-pixel interpolation and its relative weights are got in polar coordinates. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes the real-time image acquisition, coordinate transformation and interpolation.

  17. Interactive dynamic three-dimensional scene for the ground-based three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peining; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) displays provides valuable tools for many fields, such as scientific experiment, education, information transmission, medical imaging and physical simulation. Ground based 360° 3D display with dynamic and controllable scene can find some special applications, such as design and construction of buildings, aeronautics, military sand table and so on. It can be utilized to evaluate and visualize the dynamic scene of the battlefield, surgical operation and the 3D canvas of art. In order to achieve the ground based 3D display, the public focus plane should be parallel to the camera's imaging planes, and optical axes should be offset to the center of public focus plane in both vertical and horizontal directions. Virtual cameras are used to display 3D dynamic scene with Unity 3D engine. Parameters of virtual cameras for capturing scene are designed and analyzed, and locations of virtual cameras are determined by the observer's eye positions in the observing space world. An interactive dynamic 3D scene for ground based 360° 3D display is demonstrated, which provides high-immersion 3D visualization.

  18. OPART: an intelligent sensor dedicated to ground robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Luzeaux, Dominique; Hoffmann, Patrik W.

    2001-09-01

    We present an intelligent sensor, consisting in 2 CCDs with different field of view sharing the same optical motion, which can be controlled independently or not in their horizontal, vertical and rotational axis, and are connected in a closed loop to image processing resources. The goal of such a sensor is to be a testbed of image processing algorithms in real conditions. It illustrates the active perception paradigm and is used for autonomous navigation and target detection/tracking missions. Such a sensor has to meet many requirements : it is designed to be easily mounted on a standard tracked or wheeled military vehicle evolving in offroad conditions. Due to the rather wide range of missions UGVs may be involved in and to the computing cost of image processing, its computing resources have to be reprogrammable, of great power (real-time constraints), modular at the software level as well as at the hardware level and able to communicate with other systems. First, the paper details the mechanical, electronical and software design of the whole sensor. Then, we explain its functioning, the constraints due to its parallel processing architecture, the image processing algorithms that have been implemented for it and their current uses and performances. Finally, we describe experiments conducted on tracked and wheeled vehicles and conclude on the future development and use of this sensor for unmanned ground vehicles.

  19. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  20. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  1. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  2. The fiber optic gyroscope - a portable rotational ground motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, J. M.; Bernauer, F.; Guattari, F.; Igel, H.

    2016-12-01

    It was already shown that a portable broadband rotational ground motion sensor will have large impact on several fields of seismological research such as volcanology, marine geophysics, seismic tomography and planetary seismology. Here, we present results of tests and experiments with one of the first broadband rotational motion sensors available. BlueSeis-3A, is a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology, developed by iXBlue, France, in close collaboration with researchers financed by the European Research council project ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). We first present the instrument characteristics which were estimated by different standard laboratory tests, e.g. self noise using operational range diagrams or Allan deviation. Next we present the results of a field experiment which was designed to demonstrate the value of a 6C measurement (3 components of translation and 3 components of rotation). This field test took place at Mt. Stromboli volcano, Italy, and is accompanied by seismic array installation to proof the FOG output against more commonly known array derived rotation. As already shown with synthetic data an additional direct measurement of three components of rotation can reduce the ambiguity in source mechanism estimation and can be taken to correct for dynamic tilt of the translational sensors (i.e. seismometers). We can therefore demonstrate that the deployment of a weak motion broadband rotational motion sensor is in fact producing superior results by a reduction of the number of deployed instruments.

  3. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  4. Battery-free power for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Vera A.

    2003-09-01

    In our current military environment, many operations are fought with small, highly mobile reconnaissance and strike forces that must move in and out of hostile terrain, setting up temporary bases and perimeters. As such, today's warfighter has to be well equipped to insure independent operation and survival of small, deployed groups. The use of unattended ground sensors in reconfigurable sensor networks can provide portable perimeter security for such special operations. Since all of the equipment for the missions must be carried by the warfighter, weight is a critical issue. Currently, batteries constitute much of that weight, as batteries are short-lived and unreliable. An alternative power source is required to eliminate the need for carrying multiple replacement batteries to support special operations. Such a battery-free, replenishable, energy management technology has been developed by Ambient Control Systems. Ambient has developed an advanced mid-door photovoltaic technology, which converts light to energy over a wide range of lighting conditions. The energy is then stored in supercapacitors, a highly robust, long-term storage medium. Ambient's advanced energy management technology will power remote sensor and control systems 24 hours/day, 7 days/week for over 20 years, without batteries, providing for ongoing detection, surveillance and other remote operations.

  5. Changing requirements and solutions for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gervasio; Johnson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) were first used to monitor Viet Cong activity along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the 1960's. In the 1980's, significant improvement in the capabilities of UGS became possible with the development of digital signal processors; this led to their use as fire control devices for smart munitions (for example: the Wide Area Mine) and later to monitor the movements of mobile missile launchers. In these applications, the targets of interest were large military vehicles with strong acoustic, seismic and magnetic signatures. Currently, the requirements imposed by new terrorist threats and illegal border crossings have changed the emphasis to the monitoring of light vehicles and foot traffic. These new requirements have changed the way UGS are used. To improve performance against targets with lower emissions, sensors are used in multi-modal arrangements. Non-imaging sensors (acoustic, seismic, magnetic and passive infrared) are now being used principally as activity sensors to cue imagers and remote cameras. The availability of better imaging technology has made imagers the preferred source of "actionable intelligence". Infrared cameras are now based on un-cooled detector-arrays that have made their application in UGS possible in terms of their cost and power consumption. Visible light imagers are also more sensitive extending their utility well beyond twilight. The imagers are equipped with sophisticated image processing capabilities (image enhancement, moving target detection and tracking, image compression). Various commercial satellite services now provide relatively inexpensive long-range communications and the Internet provides fast worldwide access to the data.

  6. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  7. Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai

    2011-06-01

    The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.

  8. Environmental Perception and Sensor Data Fusion for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs that can drive autonomously in cross-country environment have received a good deal of attention in recent years. They must have the ability to determine whether the current terrain is traversable or not by using onboard sensors. This paper explores new methods related to environment perception based on computer image processing, pattern recognition, multisensors data fusion, and multidisciplinary theory. Kalman filter is used for low-level fusion of physical level, thus using the D-S evidence theory for high-level data fusion. Probability Test and Gaussian Mixture Model are proposed to obtain the traversable region in the forward-facing camera view for UGV. One feature set including color and texture information is extracted from areas of interest and combined with a classifier approach to resolve two types of terrain (traversable or not. Also, three-dimension data are employed; the feature set contains components such as distance contrast of three-dimension data, edge chain-code curvature of camera image, and covariance matrix based on the principal component method. This paper puts forward one new method that is suitable for distributing basic probability assignment (BPA, based on which D-S theory of evidence is employed to integrate sensors information and recognize the obstacle. The subordination obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation is applied to calculate the basic probability assignment. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. More accurate results of object identification are achieved by using the D-S theory of evidence. Control on motion behavior or autonomous navigation for UGV is based on the method, which is necessary for UGV high speed driving in cross-country environment. The experiment results have demonstrated the viability of the new method.

  9. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  10. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeonghwan; Kim, Seung Mok; Eom, Won-Jin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2017-04-03

    This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR) of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  11. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeonghwan Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  12. A skin-integrated transparent and stretchable strain sensor with interactive color-changing electrochromic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Kim, Dong Sik; Hong, Soo Yeong; Kim, Chulmin; Yun, Jun Yeong; Oh, Seung Yun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report on the development of a stretchable, transparent, and skin-attachable strain sensor integrated with a flexible electrochromic device as a human skin-inspired interactive color-changing system. The strain sensor consists of a spin-coated conductive nanocomposite film of poly(vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The sensor exhibits excellent performance of high sensitivity, high durability, fast response, and high transparency. An electrochromic device (ECD) made of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline nanofibers and V2O5 on an indium-tin-oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate film experiences a change in color from yellow to dark blue on application of voltage. The strain sensor and ECD are integrated on skin via an Arduino circuit for an interactive color change with the variation of the applied strain, which enables a real-time visual display of body motion. This integrated system demonstrates high potential for use in interactive wearable devices, military applications, and smart robots.

  13. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guyu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…

  14. The Android smartphone as an inexpensive sentry ground sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamm, Riqui; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    A key challenge of sentry and monitoring duties is detection of approaching people in areas of little human traffic. We are exploring smartphones as easily available, easily portable, and less expensive alternatives to traditional military sensors for this task, where the sensors are already integrated into the package. We developed an application program for the Android smartphone that uses its sensors to detect people passing nearby; it takes their pictures for subsequent transmission to a central monitoring station. We experimented with the microphone, light sensor, vibration sensor, proximity sensor, orientation sensor, and magnetic sensor of the Android. We got best results with the microphone (looking for footsteps) and light sensor (looking for abrupt changes in light), and sometimes good results with the vibration sensor. We ran a variety of tests with subjects walking at various distances from the phone under different environmental conditions to measure limits on acceptable detection. We got best results by combining average loudness over a 200 millisecond period with a brightness threshold adjusted to the background brightness, and we set our phones to trigger pictures no more than twice a second. Subjects needed to be within ten feet of the phone for reliable triggering, and some surfaces gave poorer results. We primarily tested using the Motorola Atrix 4G (Android 2.3.4) and HTC Evo 4G (Android 2.3.3) and found only a few differences in performance running the same program, which we attribute to differences in the hardware. We also tested two older Android phones that had problems with crashing when running our program. Our results provide good guidance for when and where to use this approach to inexpensive sensing.

  15. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  16. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Asadoor, M.; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; O'Toole, A.; Peña Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Shaner, M.; Sobacchi, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of {1}{ × 10^{-11}}textrm { m}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}}. We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of {5.7}{ × 10^{-9}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 10 mHz and {6.4}{ × 10^{-10}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  17. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, V., E-mail: volodya@caltech.edu [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); DeSalvo, R. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Sannio, C.so Garibaldi 107, Benevento 82100 (Italy); Asadoor, M. [Mayfield Senior School, 500 Bellefontaine Street, Pasadena, California 91105 (United States); Oklahoma State University, 219 Student Union, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States); Bhawal, A. [Arcadia High School, 180 Campus Drive, Arcadia, California 91007 (United States); Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Gong, P. [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Industrial and System Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0205 (United States); Kim, C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lottarini, A. [Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Minenkov, Y. [Sezione INFN Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica  1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Murphy, C. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); University of Melbourne Grattan Street, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); O' Toole, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Peña Arellano, F. E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  18. Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

    2010-04-01

    A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

  19. Solid state magnetic field sensors for micro unattended ground networks using spin dependent tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondra, Mark; Nordman, Catherine A.; Lange, Erik H.; Reed, Daniel; Jander, Albrect; Akou, Seraphin; Daughton, James

    2001-09-01

    Micro Unattended Ground Sensor Networks will likely employ magnetic sensors, primarily for discrimination of objects as opposed to initial detection. These magnetic sensors, then, must fit within very small cost, size, and power budgets to be compatible with the envisioned sensor suites. Also, a high degree of sensitivity is required to minimize the number of sensor cells required to survey a given area in the field. Solid state magnetoresistive sensors, with their low cost, small size, and ease of integration, are excellent candidates for these applications assuming that their power and sensitivity performance are acceptable. SDT devices have been fabricated into prototype magnetic field sensors suitable for use in micro unattended ground sensor networks. They are housed in tiny SOIC 8-pin packages and mounted on a circuit board with required voltage regulation, signal amplification and conditioning, and sensor control and communications functions. The best sensitivity results to date are 289 pT/rt. Hz at 1 Hz, and and 7 pT/rt. Hz at f > 10 kHz. Expected near term improvements in performance would bring these levels to approximately 10 pT/rt Hz at 1 Hz and approximately 1 pT/rt. Hz at > 1 kHz.

  20. Tomographic Imaging on Distributed Unattended Ground Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    around the next corner, what is upstairs, where is the person in a red jacket , or even what was the person in the red jacket doing 5 minutes ago...cameras and detectors to seismic , acoustic, magnetic, smoke, toxin, and temperature sensors. A working example of just such a network was developed at

  1. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  2. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing Space-Based SSA Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND...Propagation (Both sensor and target) Sensor/Target State Vectors & Target Radiometric Properties Millennium Space Systems Tasker/Scheduler...capability of converting visual magnitudes to radiometric quantities. However, since the model covers the full range of light (from UV through VLWIR) a

  3. Real-time EO/IR sensor fusion on a portable computer and head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2007-04-01

    Multi-sensor platforms are widely used in surveillance video systems for both military and civilian applications. The complimentary nature of different types of sensors (e.g. EO and IR sensors) makes it possible to observe the scene under almost any condition (day/night/fog/smoke). In this paper, we propose an innovative EO/IR sensor registration and fusion algorithm which runs real-time on a portable computing unit with head-mounted display. The EO/IR sensor suite is mounted on a helmet for a dismounted soldier and the fused scene is shown in the goggle display upon the processing on a portable computing unit. The linear homography transformation between images from the two sensors is precomputed for the mid-to-far scene, which reduces the computational cost for the online calibration of the sensors. The system is implemented in a highly optimized C++ code, with MMX/SSE, and performing a real-time registration. The experimental results on real captured video show the system works very well both in speed and in performance.

  4. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  5. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Enviro-Net: From Networks of Ground-Based Sensor Systems to a Web Platform for Sensor Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Nascimento

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis.

  7. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  9. Commercial off the Shelf Ground Control Supports Calibration and Conflation from Ground to Space Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielová, M.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    The need for rapid deployment of aerial and satellite imagery in support of GIS and engineering integration projects require new sources of geodetic control to ensure the accuracy for geospatial projects. In the past, teams of surveyors would need to deploy to project areas to provide targeted or photo identifiable points that are used to provide data for orthorecificaion, QA/QC and calibration for multi-platform sensors. The challenge of integrating street view, UAS, airborne and Space based sensors to produce the common operational picture requires control to tie multiple sources together. Today commercial off the shelf delivery of existing photo identifiable control is increasing the speed of deployment of this data without having to revisit sites over and over again. The presentation will discuss the processes developed by CompassData to build a global library of 40,000 control points available today. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) based processes and initiatives ensure consistent quality of survey data, photo identifiable features selected and meta data to support photogrammetrist, engineers and GIS professionals to quickly deliver projects with better accuracy.

  10. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  11. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Sarma, Dhrubajyoti; Nath, Pabitra

    2015-05-01

    We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  12. Sensor and Display Human Factors Based Design Constraints for Head Mounted and Tele-Operation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For mobile imaging systems in head mounted displays and tele-operation systems it is important to maximize the amount of visual information transmitted to the human visual system without exceeding its input capacity. This paper aims to describe the design constraints on the imager and display systems of head mounted devices and tele-operated systems based upon the capabilities of the human visual system. We also present the experimental results of methods to improve the amount of visual information conveyed to a user when trying to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range display.

  13. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  14. New Research on MEMS Acoustic Vector Sensors Used in Pipeline Ground Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands of current pipeline detection systems, the above-ground marker (AGM system based on sound detection principle has been a major development trend in pipeline technology. A novel MEMS acoustic vector sensor for AGM systems which has advantages of high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and good low frequency performance has been put forward. Firstly, it is presented that the frequency of the detected sound signal is concentrated in a lower frequency range, and the sound attenuation is relatively low in soil. Secondly, the MEMS acoustic vector sensor structure and basic principles are introduced. Finally, experimental tests are conducted and the results show that in the range of 0°~90°, when r = 5 m, the proposed MEMS acoustic vector sensor can effectively detect sound signals in soil. The measurement errors of all angles are less than 5°.

  15. Torsion pendulum facility for ground testing of gravitational sensors for LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Hüller, M; Dolesi, R; Vitale, S; Weber, W J

    2002-01-01

    We report here on a torsion pendulum facility for ground-based testing of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational sensors. We aim to measure weak forces exerted by a capacitive position sensor on a lightweight version of the LISA test mass, suspended from a thin torsion fibre. This facility will permit measurement of the residual, springlike coupling between the test mass and the sensor and characterization of other stray forces relevant to LISA drag-free control. The expected force sensitivity of the proposed torsion pendulum is limited by the intrinsic thermal noise at approx 3x10 sup - sup 1 sup 3 N Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 at 1 mHz. We briefly describe the design and implementation of the apparatus, its expected performance and preliminary experimental data.

  16. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Las Fargeas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles’ paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders’ locations and selects the vehicles’ paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm’s completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  17. Ground penetrating detection using miniaturized radar system based on solid state microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B M; Fu, L; Chen, X S; Lu, W; Guo, H; Gui, Y S; Hu, C-M

    2013-12-01

    We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.

  18. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  19. Crosstalk suppression in networked resistive sensor arrays using virtual ground technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai Saxena, Raghvendra; Semwal, Sushil Kumar; Singh Rana, Pratap; Bhan, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    In 2D resistive sensor arrays, the interconnections are reduced considerably by sharing rows and columns among various sensor elements in such a way that one end of each sensor is connected to a row node and other end connected to a column node. This scheme results in total N + M interconnections for N × M array of sensors. Thus, it simplifies the interconnect complexity but suffers from the crosstalk problem among its elements. We experimentally demonstrate that this problem can be overcome by putting all the row nodes at virtually equal potential using virtual ground of high gain operational amplifiers in negative feedback. Although it requires large number of opamps, it solves the crosstalk problem to a large extent. Additionally, we get the response of all the sensors lying in a column simultaneously, resulting in a faster scanning capability. By performing lock-in-amplifier based measurements on a light dependent resistor at a randomly selected location in a 4 × 4 array of otherwise fixed valued resistors, we have shown that the technique can provide 86 dB crosstalk suppression even with a simple opamp. Finally, we demonstrate the circuit implementation of this technique for a 16 × 16 imaging array of light dependent resistors.

  20. Convolutional neural network based sensor fusion for forward looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn; Crosskey, Miles; Chen, David; Walenz, Brett; Morton, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is an alternative buried threat sensing technology designed to offer additional standoff compared to downward looking GPR systems. Due to additional flexibility in antenna configurations, FLGPR systems can accommodate multiple sensor modalities on the same platform that can provide complimentary information. The different sensor modalities present challenges in both developing informative feature extraction methods, and fusing sensor information in order to obtain the best discrimination performance. This work uses convolutional neural networks in order to jointly learn features across two sensor modalities and fuse the information in order to distinguish between target and non-target regions. This joint optimization is possible by modifying the traditional image-based convolutional neural network configuration to extract data from multiple sources. The filters generated by this process create a learned feature extraction method that is optimized to provide the best discrimination performance when fused. This paper presents the results of applying convolutional neural networks and compares these results to the use of fusion performed with a linear classifier. This paper also compares performance between convolutional neural networks architectures to show the benefit of fusing the sensor information in different ways.

  1. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor to advance ground collision avoidance for UAS platforms by providing real-time height maps for hazard anomaly...

  2. Acoustic detection and localization of weapons fire by unattended ground sensors and aerostat-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Marty, Ch.; Hengy, S.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection and localization of artillery guns on the battlefield is envisaged by means of acoustic and seismic waves. The main objective of this work is to examine the different frequency ranges usable for the detection of small arms, mortars, and artillery guns on the same hardware platform. The main stages of this study have consisted of: data acquisition of the acoustic signals of the different weapons used, signal processing and evaluation of the localization performance for various types of individual arrays, and modeling of the wave propagation in the atmosphere. The study of the propagation effects on the signatures of these weapons is done by comparing the acoustic signals measured during various days, at ground level and at the altitude of our aerostat (typically 200 m). Numerical modeling has also been performed to reinforce the interpretation of the experimental results.

  3. Information-based sensor management for the intelligent tasking of ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors in landmine detection pre-screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has introduced a framework for information-based sensor management that is capable of tasking multiple sensors searching for targets among a set of discrete objects or in a cell grid. However, in many real-world scenarios-- such as detecting landmines along a lane or road--an unknown number of targets are present in a continuous spatial region of interest. Consequently, this paper introduces a grid-free sensor management approach that allows multiple sensors to be managed in a sequential search for targets in a grid-free spatial region. Simple yet expressive Gaussian target models are introduced to model the spatial target responses that are observed by the sensors. The sensor manager is then formulated using a Bayesian approach, and sensors are directed to make new observations that maximize the expected information gain between the posterior density on the target parameters after a new observation and the current posterior target parameter density. The grid-free sensor manager is applied to a set of real landmine detection data collected with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors at a U.S. government test site. Results are presented that compare the performance of the sensor manager with the performance of an unmanaged joint pre-screener that fuses individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The sensor manager is demonstrated to provide improved detection performance while requiring substantially fewer sensor observations than are made with the unmanaged joint pre-screening approach.

  4. Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m−2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

  5. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  6. Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyeong Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  7. High-stability temperature control for ST-7/LISA Pathfinder gravitational reference sensor ground verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, S.; Allen, G.; Bencze, W.; Byer, R.; Dang, A.; DeBra, D. B.; Lauben, D.; Dorlybounxou, S.; Hanson, J.; Ho, L.; Huffman, G.; Sabur, F.; Sun, K.; Tavernetti, R.; Rolih, L.; Van Patten, R.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.

    2006-03-01

    This article demonstrates experimental results of a thermal control system developed for ST-7 gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability δT control of the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiate 1/f fluctuations. Although for ground testing these specifications can be met fairly readily with sufficient insulation and thermal mass, in contrast, for spacecraft the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can simultaneously meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements in the presence of long time delay; a considerable design challenge. Simple control laws presently provide ~ 1mK/surdHz for >24 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feedforward control algorithm will extend performance to <1 mK/surdHz at f < 0.01 mHz and possibly lower, extending LISA coverage of super massive black hole mergers.

  8. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  9. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  10. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  11. Fiber-optic ground settlement sensor based on low-coherent interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sun, Changsen

    2014-05-20

    Ground settlement (GS) monitoring is a basic prerequisite in civil engineering. A commercialized instrument to meet this requirement has been available with millimeter accuracy. Major difficulties to improve this to micrometer scale, which are needed in special cases such as in high-speed railways, are challenged by the long stability of the sensor in the condition of the extremely slow settlement. A fiber-optic GS methodology was proposed by using a scanning low-coherent Michelson interferometer. One of the paths of the interferometer is formed by the liquid surface, and therefore the readout of the interferometer can make the measurement of the surface approach a micrometer scale. The liquid-contained chambers are hydraulically connected together at the bottom by using a water-filled tube. The liquid surface inside each chamber is at the same level initially. One of the chambers is located on stable ground or at a point that can be easily surveyed, too. The others are located at the points where settlement or heave is to be measured. Differential settlement, or heave, between the chambers will result in an apparent rise or fall of the liquid level, which biased the initial equal status. The experimental results demonstrated that the best accuracy of ±20  μm for GS monitoring was obtained with a reference compensation sensor.

  12. Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plumes from Combined Ground-Airborne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Taylor; Honeycutt, Wes; Materer, Nicholas; Ley, Tyler; Clark, Peter

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid ground-airborne sensing network for real-time plume monitoring of CO2 and CH4 for carbon sequestration is investigated. Conventional soil gas monitoring has difficulty in distinguishing gas flux signals from leakage with those associated with meteorologically driven changes. A low-cost, lightweight sensor system has been developed and implemented onboard a small unmanned aircraft and is combined with a large-scale ground network that measures gas concentration. These are combined with other atmospheric diagnostics, including thermodynamic data and velocity from ultrasonic anemometers and multi-hole probes. To characterize the system behavior and verify its effectiveness, field tests have been conducted with simulated discharges of CO2 and CH4 from compressed gas tanks to mimic leaks and generate gaseous plumes, as well as field tests over the Farnsworth CO2-EOR site in the Anadarko Basin. Since the sensor response time is a function of vehicle airspeed, dynamic calibration models are required to determine accurate location of gas concentration in space and time. Comparisons are made between the two tests and results compared with historical models combining both flight and atmospheric dynamics. Supported by Department of Energy Award DE-FE0012173.

  13. Multi-band sensor-fused explosive hazards detection in forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Becker, John; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    Explosive hazard detection and remediation is a pertinent area of interest for the U.S. Army. There are many types of detection methods that the Army has or is currently investigating, including ground-penetrating radar, thermal and visible spectrum cameras, acoustic arrays, laser vibrometers, etc. Since standoff range is an important characteristic for sensor performance, forward-looking ground-penetrating radar has been investigated for some time. Recently, the Army has begun testing a forward-looking system that combines L-band and X-band radar arrays. Our work focuses on developing imaging and detection methods for this sensor-fused system. In this paper, we investigate approaches that fuse L-band radar and X-band radar for explosive hazard detection and false alarm rejection. We use multiple kernel learning with support vector machines as the classification method and histogram of gradients (HOG) and local statistics as the main feature descriptors. We also perform preliminary testing on a context aware approach for detection. Results on government furnished data show that our false alarm rejection method improves area-under-ROC by up to 158%.

  14. On Solving the Problem of Identifying Unreliable Sensors Without a Knowledge of the Ground Truth: The Case of Stochastic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Anis; Oommen, B John; Goodwin, Morten

    2016-04-28

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox. Legacy work and the reported literature (for example, in the so-called weighted majority algorithm) have merely addressed assessing the reliability of a sensor by comparing its reading to the ground truth either in an online or an offline manner. Unfortunately, the fundamental assumption of revealing the ground truth cannot be always guaranteed (or even expected) in many real life scenarios. While some extensions of the Condorcet jury theorem [9] can lead to a probabilistic guarantee on the quality of the fused process, they do not provide a solution to the unreliable sensor identification problem. The essence of our approach involves studying the agreement of each sensor with the rest of the sensors, and not comparing the reading of the individual sensors with the ground truth-as advocated in the literature. Under some mild conditions on the reliability of the sensors, we can prove that we can, indeed, filter out the unreliable ones. Our approach leverages the power of the theory of learning automata (LA) so as to gradually learn the identity of the reliable and unreliable sensors. To achieve this, we resort to a team of LA, where a distinct automaton is associated with each sensor. The solution provided here has been subjected to rigorous experimental tests, and the results presented are, in our opinion, both novel and

  15. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.

  16. Thermophysical properties along Curiosity's traverse in Gale crater, Mars, derived from the REMS ground temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael D.

    2017-03-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface-atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rover's traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock-dominated surfaces (∼350-550 J m-2 K-1 s-½) are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for mudstone sites and ∼700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  17. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  18. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...

  19. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  20. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  1. A Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach for Railway Corridor Ground Hazard Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Ryan; Hutchinson, Jean; Lato, Matt; Gauthier, Dave; Edwards, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing and monitoring ground hazard processes is a difficult endeavor along mountainous transportation corridors. This is primarily due to the quantity of hazard sites, complex topography, limited and sometimes hazardous access to sites, and obstructed views. The current hazard assessment approach for Canadian railways partly relies on the ability of inspection employees to assess hazard from track level, which isn't practical in complex slope environments. Various remote sensing sensors, implemented on numerous platforms have the potential to be used in these environments. They are frequently found to be complementary in their use, however, an optimum combination of these approaches has not yet been found for an operational rail setting. In this study, we investigate various cases where remote sensing technologies have been used to characterize and monitor ground hazards along railway corridors across the Canadian network, in order to better understand failure mechanisms, identify hazard source zones and to provide early warning. Since early 2012, a series of high resolution gigapixel images, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial laser scanning (ALS), ground based photogrammetry, oblique aerial photogrammetry (from helicopter and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms), have been collected at ground hazard sites throughout the Canadian rail network. On a network level scale, comparison of sequential ALS scanning data has been found to be an ideal methodology for observing large-scale change and prioritizing high hazard sites for more detailed monitoring with terrestrial methods. The combination of TLS and high resolution gigapixel imagery at various temporal scales has allowed for a detailed characterization of the hazard level posed by the slopes, the identification of the main failure modes, an analysis of hazard activity, and the observation failure precursors such as deformation, rockfall and tension crack opening. At sites not feasible for ground

  2. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  3. Fusion of ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors for landmine detection and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors provide complementary capabilities in detecting buried targets such as landmines, suggesting that the fusion of GPR and EMI modalities may provide improved detection performance over that obtained using only a single modality. This paper considers both pre-screening and the discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using real landmine data collected from a U.S. government test site as part of the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) landmine program. GPR and EMI pre-screeners are first reviewed and then a fusion pre-screener is presented that combines the GPR and EMI prescreeners using a distance-based likelihood ratio test (DLRT) classifier to produce a fused confidence for each pre-screener alarm. The fused pre-screener is demonstrated to provide substantially improved performance over the individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using feature-based classifiers is also considered. The GPR feature utilized is a pre-processed, spatially filtered normalized energy metric. Features used for the EMI sensor include model-based features generated from the AETC model and a dipole model as well as features from a matched subspace detector. The EMI and GPR features are then fused using a random forest classifier. The fused classifier performance is superior to the performance of classifiers using GPR or EMI features alone, again indicating that performance improvements may be obtained through the fusion of GPR and EMI sensors. The performance improvements obtained both for pre-screening and for discrimination have been verified by blind test results scored by an independent U.S. government contractor.

  4. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  5. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  6. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-05-11

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day(-1) ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg(-1) Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no practical adverse impact on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Realization to Extend the Orientation Estimation Range of Moving Target on the Ground by a Single Vector Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The DOA (direction of arrival estimation of seismic signals from the moving target on the ground bears great significance for unattended ground systems. The traditional DOA estimation of seismic signals is achieved by a sensor array and its corresponding algorithms. MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems vector vibration sensor, however, gets the vector information over the propagation of seismic signals and therefore can get a DOA estimation within a certain range through a single vector sensor. This paper proposes a new method to extend the orientation range through the rotation of the MEMS vector vibration axis. The experiment shows that this method shares the merits with simple systematic structure, high sensitivity and less than 5 degrees of error on average, which has an extensive wide application prospect.

  8. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  9. Tilt performance of the ground settlement sensor configured in a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Guo, Jingjing; Sun, Changsen

    2016-10-01

    Ground settlement (GS) is one of the causes that destroy the durability of reinforced concrete structures. It could lead to a deterioration in the structural basement and increase the risk of collapse. The methods used for GS monitoring were mostly electronic-based sensors for reading the changes in resistance, resonant frequencies, etc. These sensors often bear low accuracy in the long term. Our published work demonstrated that a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer configured in a Michelson interferometer was designed as a GS sensor, and a micro-meter resolution in the room environment was approached. However, the designed GS sensor, which in principle is based on a hydraulic connecting vessel, has to suffer from a tilt degeneration problem due to a strictly vertical requirement in practical installment. Here, we made a design for the GS sensor based on its robust tilt performance. The experimental tests show that the sensor can work well within a ±5° tilt. This could meet the requirements in most designed GS sensor installment applications.

  10. Cross-Characterization of Aerosol Properties from Multiple Spaceborne Sensors Facilitated by Regional Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol observations from space have become a standard source for retrieval of aerosol properties on both regional and global scales. Indeed, the large number of currently operational spaceborne sensors provides for unprecedented access to the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever to be available. Nonetheless, this resource remains under-utilized, largely due to the discrepancies and differences existing between the sensors and their aerosol products. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have designed and implemented an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) that facilitates the joint sampling of aerosol data from multiple sensors. MAPSS consistently samples aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors using a unified spatial and temporal resolution, where each dataset is sampled over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations together with coincident AERONET data samples. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between aerosol products from multiple sensors. Moreover, the well-characterized co-located ground-based AERONET data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products.

  11. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  12. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  13. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  14. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-07-19

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  15. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  16. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05). As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS) differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05). PMID:22163468

  17. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05. As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05.

  18. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  19. Absolute Position Sensing Based on a Robust Differential Capacitive Sensor with a Grounded Shield Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jinxin; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-05-11

    A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF) movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10(-4) pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.

  20. Adaptation of Dubins Paths for UAV Ground Obstacle Avoidance When Using a Low Cost On-Board GNSS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs shows a lot of interest in autonomous UAV navigation. This interest is mainly driven by the necessity to meet the rules and restrictions for small UAV flights that are issued by various international and national legal organizations. In order to lower these restrictions, new levels of automation and flight safety must be reached. In this paper, a new method for ground obstacle avoidance derived by using UAV navigation based on the Dubins paths algorithm is presented. The accuracy of the proposed method has been tested, and research results have been obtained by using Software-in-the-Loop (SITL simulation and real UAV flights, with the measurements done with a low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS sensor. All tests were carried out in a three-dimensional space, but the height accuracy was not assessed. The GNSS navigation data for the ground obstacle avoidance algorithm is evaluated statistically.

  1. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid

    2017-07-01

    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R (2) 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  2. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  3. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  4. Accuracy of PARTwear Inertial Sensor and Optojump Optical Measurement System for Measuring Ground Contact Time During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Rahel; Taube, Wolfgang; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ammann, R, Taube, W, and Wyss, T. Accuracy of PARTwear inertial sensor and Optojump optical measurement system for measuring ground contact time during running. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2057-2063, 2016-The aim of this study was to validate the detection of ground contact time (GCT) during running in 2 differently working systems: a small inertial measurement sensor, PARTwear (PW), worn on the shoe laces, and the optical measurement system, Optojump (OJ), placed on the track. Twelve well-trained subjects performed 12 runs each on an indoor track at speeds ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 m·s. GCT of one step per run (total 144) was simultaneously obtained by the PW, the OJ, and a high-speed video camera (HSC), whereby the latter served as reference system. The sampling rate was 1,000 Hz for all methods. Compared with the HSC, the PW and the OJ systems underestimated GCT by -1.3 ± 6.1% and -16.5 ± 6.7% (p-values ≤ 0.05), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients between PW and HSC and between OJ and HSC were 0.984 and 0.853 (p-values measurement systems.

  5. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  6. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegyu Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo. In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services SC (special committee-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  7. Real-time phasing and co-phasing of a ground-based interferometer with a pyramid wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérinaud, Christophe; Esposito, Simone

    The feasibility and remarkable performances of pyramid wavefront sensing in adaptive optics have already been demonstrated. In this paper, we investigate another potential of the pyramid wavefront sensor which is differential piston sensing in interferometry: this can be done by using a glass pyramid placed in a combined focal plane of the interferometer, and a CCD sampling the usual four diffracted images of the pupil, composed here by the interferometer apertures. From a purely geometrical point of view, no information about the differential phase between two pupils could be retrieved. However, as the sensor main component, the pyramid, is located directly in the interference pattern of the interferometer, the piston information present in the electric field of the combined focal plane modifies, after diffraction by the pyramid, the intensity distribution in the pupil plane. Thus, with only one sensor, the differential piston can be measured, in addition to the classical local tilts determination. In this paper we present the concept and give some simulation results showing the performances of a closed-loop adaptive optics correction for a ground-based two-telescope interferometer like the Large Binocular Telescope.

  8. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  9. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  10. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  11. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  12. Anomaly Detection for Data Reduction in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    information (shown with solid lines in the diagram). Typically, this would be a mobile ad-hoc network ( MANET ). The clusters are connected to other nodes...the detection algorithms be able to coordinate observations over the local MANET that interconnects UGSs within the cluster. Extrapolating from that...interquartile ranges MANET mobile ad-hoc network OSUS Open Standards for Unattended Sensors TOC tactical operations center UAVs unmanned aerial vehicles

  13. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  14. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  15. Using acoustic sensor technologies to create a more terrain capable unmanned ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odedra, Sid; Prior, Stephen D.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Shen, Siu-Tsen; International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicle’s (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in ma...

  16. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...

  17. Contact-Less High Speed Measurement over Ground with 61 GHz Radar Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muneeb

    2016-01-01

    Conventional FMCW radar principle was implemented on Symeo 61 GHz LPR®-1DHP-R radar sensor system. There were few limitations of the FMCW implementation which needed to be removed. First, target separation in multi target environment was not possible for objects at same distance. For example, there are two targets, one is moving and one is static. When the moving target approaches the static target and becomes parallel to static target, which means they are at the same distance. At this point...

  18. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhu Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0% using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra. Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications.

  19. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  20. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  1. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-05-11

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  2. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  3. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  4. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  5. Ground characterization and roof mapping:Online sensor signal-based change detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahrampour Soheil; Rostami Jamal; Ray Asok; Naeimipour Ali; Collins Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measurement while drilling systems are becoming an important part of excavation operations for rock characterization and ground support design that require reliable information on rock strength and loca-tion&frequency of joints or voids. This paper focuses on improving rock characterization algorithms for instrumented roof-bolter systems. For this purpose, an improved void detection algorithm is proposed, where the underlying theory is built upon the concept of mean change detection based on the feed pressure signals. In addition, the application of acoustic sensing for void detection is examined and it is shown that the variance of the filtered acoustic signal is correlated to the strength of the material being drilled. The proposed algorithm has been validated on the data collected from full-scale drilling tests in various concrete and rock samples at the J. H. Fletcher facility.

  6. Ground-based imaging remote sensing of ice clouds: uncertainties caused by sensor, method and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Tobias; Hausmann, Petra; Ewald, Florian; Bugliaro, Luca; Emde, Claudia; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    In this study a method is introduced for the retrieval of optical thickness and effective particle size of ice clouds over a wide range of optical thickness from ground-based transmitted radiance measurements. Low optical thickness of cirrus clouds and their complex microphysics present a challenge for cloud remote sensing. In transmittance, the relationship between optical depth and radiance is ambiguous. To resolve this ambiguity the retrieval utilizes the spectral slope of radiance between 485 and 560 nm in addition to the commonly employed combination of a visible and a short-wave infrared wavelength.An extensive test of retrieval sensitivity was conducted using synthetic test spectra in which all parameters introducing uncertainty into the retrieval were varied systematically: ice crystal habit and aerosol properties, instrument noise, calibration uncertainty and the interpolation in the lookup table required by the retrieval process. The most important source of errors identified are uncertainties due to habit assumption: Averaged over all test spectra, systematic biases in the effective radius retrieval of several micrometre can arise. The statistical uncertainties of any individual retrieval can easily exceed 10 µm. Optical thickness biases are mostly below 1, while statistical uncertainties are in the range of 1 to 2.5.For demonstration and comparison to satellite data the retrieval is applied to observations by the Munich hyperspectral imager specMACS (spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol and Cloud Scanner) at the Schneefernerhaus observatory (2650 m a.s.l.) during the ACRIDICON-Zugspitze campaign in September and October 2012. Results are compared to MODIS and SEVIRI satellite-based cirrus retrievals (ACRIDICON - Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems; MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; SEVIRI - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager). Considering the identified

  7. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  8. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  9. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu Cong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1 Dark Object Subtraction (DOS; (2 Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH and (3 the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these parameters are used integrat edly. The aim of this study is to assess the important oceanographic parameters detected from mu lti-sensor satellites (NO AA/AVHRR, Seawifs and Topex Poisedon for determining fishing ground of pelagic tunas in the North Papua waters at east season. The parameters include Sea Surface Temperature (STT, chlorophyl-a and currents. The ava ilability of data from optic sensor (Seawifs: chl-a and AVHRR: Thermal is limited by the presence of cloud cover. In that case, Topex Poseidon satellite data can be used to provide the currents data. The integration of data from multi-sensors increases the availability of the oceanographic parameters for prediction of the potential fishing zones in the study area.

  11. [Operational availability of ground-based emergency medical services in Rheinland-Palatinate: state-wide web-based system for collation, display and analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, T; van Lengen, R H; Wickenkamp, A; Kranz, T; Madler, C

    2011-05-01

    A growing number of reports have been published in Germany related to problems with the operational readiness of mobile emergency physician services, although no systematic analyses have yet been presented. However, such investigations form the prerequisite for the deployment of countermeasures. Rhineland-Palatinate (4,060,000 inhabitants, 7,753 mi(2)) is a typical territorial state in the southwest of Germany with extensive wooded areas covering 42% of the state and only few metropolitan areas. These basic conditions represent a challenge to the provision of state-wide emergency medical services (EMS). On behalf of the Ministry of the Interior a web-based platform for the collation, display and analysis of the operational readiness of all 68 ground-based physician-staffed emergency units within the state was developed. Of these units 61 are affiliated to hospitals and 7 units to medical practices and 89,000 emergency missions are carried out annually. Within the study period (April 2009-March 2010) 56 of the 68 units (82.4%) reported 1 or more periods of unavailability of operational readiness. In total 2,613 periods of temporary unavailability were documented with a mean duration of 8.9 h. The mean unavailability of operational readiness was 3.9% for the whole state, 6.2% for the northern and 1.6% for the southern EMS districts. In 7 of the units (10.3%) the degree of unavailability exceeded 5% and in 8 units (11.7%) it exceeded 10%. Two thirds of all suspended services were the result of shortages of emergency physicians, with considerably higher deficits at bases affiliated with hospitals of lower levels of care or in rural regions. This tool enables the large-scale collation and analysis of the operational readiness of physician-based ambulance services. Currently the state does not suffer from a general lack of emergency physicians. However, rural areas as well as bases affiliated with small hospitals show a considerable deficit in operational readiness

  12. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  13. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  14. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  15. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DEMONSTRATION REPORT Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification – Former Southwestern...concentrations. A total of 11.23 acres of dynamic surveys were conducted using MetalMapper advanced electromagnetic induction ( EMI ) sensor. A total of...Order Navigation Points ................................................................................13 5.2.3 Initial EMI Survey

  16. The Location Method of Battlefield Targets Based on Ground Sensors%基于地面传感器的战场目标定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍硕; 徐万里

    2016-01-01

    精确的网络节点定位是无线传感器网络各种应用和展开部署时自组网及网络管理的首要和基础条件,这就要求有很高的定位精度。战场侦察地面传感器系统中,大多使用声/震传感器结合时差定位法对地面目标进行定位,但其在近点定位效果较差,且若需在远点的测距精度达米级时,要求测时精度达纳秒级。无源红外传感器通过感知IR强度变化和方向对目标进行运动方向和数量的判别,它的测向误差在毫弧度级,理论上可采用多重采样相关定位法建立仿真模型,结果表明:基于红外传感器的地面目标定位算法对地面战场目标定位切实可行且定位精度较高。%Accurate network node localization is the most important and basic condition for the application and deployment of wireless sensor networks, which is the first and the basic condition of the network and the network management. Battlefield re-connaissance ground sensor system and are mainly used for acoustic/seismic sensors combined with TDOA location method to locate targets on the ground, but the in the near point positioning effect is poor, and if you need to in far ranging accuracy Damien level, measurement accuracy of Dana seconds level. Passive infrared sensor through perception about changes in the IR intensity and direction of target for discrimination of the direction and amount of the movement, the direction finding error in mrad level and theory using multiple sampling positioning method, the simulation model is established. The results show that:Based on infrared sensor ground target localization algorithm of ground battlefield target location is feasible and high positioning accuracy.

  17. The impact of ground-level fireworks (13 km long) display on the air quality during the traditional Yanshui Lantern Festival in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Lin, Ta-Hsiung; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chung-Te

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, NO(X), SO(2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), PM₁₀, and PM₂.₅ were continuously monitored before and after the fireworks display during the traditional Lantern Festival from March 2-7, 2007 in Yanshui Town, Taiwan. Major roads in Yanshui Town were surrounded by fireworks 13 km in length, with the display lasting for 45 min. More than 200 small firecracker towers popped up randomly in town, resulting in exceedingly inhomogeneous air quality until the end of display at 03:00 the next day, March 5. During the fireworks display, the hourly concentration of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at Yanshui Primary School reached about 429 and 250 μg m⁻³, respectively, which is 10 times the normal level, and 6 s values even went as high as 1,046 and 842 μg m⁻³, respectively. Similarly, BTEX concentration went up to about five to 10 times its normal value during the fireworks display. As indicated by the distribution of submicron particle sizes, the number of particles with a diameter less than 100 nm increased abruptly during the event period. Metal components with concentrations of more than 10 times higher than the normal value at Yanshui Primary School were Sr, K, Ba, Pb, Al, Mg, and Cu, in sequence. Among water-soluble ions, the content of K( + ), Mg²( + ), and Cl( - ) increased the most, all of which were related to the materials used in the fireworks. The results of this study indicate that fireworks can cause an abrupt increase in the concentration of trace substances in the air within a short period. Although the risks of these trace substances on public health remain to be further assessed, the study results can be utilized in the management of folk events.

  18. An improved DS acoustic-seismic modality fusion algorithm based on a new cascaded fuzzy classifier for ground-moving targets classification in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiang; Wei, Jianming; Cao, Hongbing; Li, Na; Liu, Haitao

    2007-04-01

    A new cascaded fuzzy classifier (CFC) is proposed to implement ground-moving targets classification tasks locally at sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN). The CFC is composed of three and two binary fuzzy classifiers (BFC) respectively in seismic and acoustic signal channel in order to classify person, Light-wheeled (LW) Vehicle, and Heavywheeled (HW) Vehicle in presence of environmental background noise. Base on the CFC, a new basic belief assignment (bba) function is defined for each component BFC to give out a piece of evidence instead of a hard decision label. An evidence generator is used to synthesize available evidences from BFCs into channel evidences and channel evidences are further temporal-fused. Finally, acoustic-seismic modality fusion using Dempster-Shafer method is performed. Our implementation gives significantly better performance than the implementation with majority-voting fusion method through leave-one-out experiments.

  19. Optimizing the configuration of precipitation stations in a space-ground integrated sensor network based on spatial-temporal coverage maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guan, Qingfeng; Chen, Nengcheng; Tong, Daoqin; Hu, Chuli; Peng, Yuling; Dong, Xianyong; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The two major rainfall observation techniques, ground-based measurements and remote sensing, have distinct coverage characteristics. Large-scale spatial coverage and long-term temporal coverage cannot be achieved simultaneously by using only ground-based precipitation stations or space-borne sensors. Given the temporal discontinuity of satellite coverage and limited ground-based observation resources, we propose a method for siting precipitation stations in conjunction with satellite-based rainfall sensors to maximize the total spatial-temporal coverage of weighted demand in a continuous observation period. Considering the special principles of deploying precipitation stations and the requirement for continuous coverage in space and time, a time-continuous maximal covering location problem (TMCLP) model is introduced. The maximal spatial coverage range of a precipitation station is determined based on the minimum density required and the site-specific terrain conditions. The coverage of a satellite sensor is calculated for each time period when it passes overhead. The polygon intersection point set (PIPS) is refined to identify finite candidate sites. By narrowing the continuous search space to a finite dominating set and discretizing the continuous observation period to sequential sub-periods, the siting problem is solved using the TMCLP model and refined PIPS. According to specific monitoring purposes, different weighting schemes can be used to evaluate the coverage priority of each demand object. The Jinsha River Basin is selected as the study region to test the proposed method. Satellite-borne precipitation radar is used to evaluate the satellite coverage. The results show that the proposed method is effective for precipitation station configuration optimization, and the model solution achieves higher coverage than the real-world deployment. The applicability of the proposed method, site selection criteria, deployment strategies in different observation modes

  20. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor concept for the mitigation of aircraft hazards due to reduced visibility in fog, drizzle and light rain and the...

  1. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  2. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  3. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  4. Successful marriage: American Panel Corporation and LG Philips LCD custom-designed avionic, shipboard, and rugged ground vehicle display modules from a consumer-oriented fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William; Garrett, Kimberly S.

    2001-09-01

    American panel corporation (APC) believes the use of custom designed (instead of ruggedized commercial) AMLCD cells is the only way to meet the specific environmental and performance requirements of the military/commercial avionic, shipboard and rugged ground vehicle markets. The APC/LG.Philips LCD (LG) custom approach mitigates risk to the end-user in many ways. As a part of the APC/LG long- term agreement LG has committed to provide module level equivalent (form, fit and function equivalent) panels for a period of ten years. No other commercial glass manufacturer has provided such an agreement. With the use of LG's commercial production manufacturing capabilities, APC/LG can provide the opportunity to procure a lifetime buy for any program with delivery of the entire lot within six months of order placement. This ensures that the entire production program will receive identical glass for every unit. The APC/LG relationship works where others have failed due to the number of years spent cultivating the mutual trust and respect necessary for establishing such a partnership, LG's interest in capturing the market share of this niche application, and the magnitude of the initial up-front investment by APC in engineering, tooling, facilities, production equipment, and LCD cell inventory.

  5. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  6. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Harbin, China, pp. 2784-2788. [10...military and commercial applications. Although earlier UGV platforms were typically exclusively small ground robots , recent efforts started...targeting passenger vehicle and larger size platforms. Due to their size and speed, these platforms have significantly different dynamics than small robots

  7. BlueSeis3A - full characterization of a 3C broadband rotational ground motion sensor for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Frenois, Arnaud; Krissou, Rahma; Bigueur, Alexandre; Gaillot, Arnaud; de Toldi, Elliot; Ponceau, Damien; Guattari, Frederic; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present a full characterization of the first three component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology. The sensor is called BlueSeis3A and is manufactured by iXBlue, France. It is developed in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of volcanology, ocean bottom seismology and geophysical exploration, a portable rotational motion sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding dynamic range, portability, power consumption and sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and magnetic field. For BlueSeis3A, power consumption is in an acceptable range for a portable and field deployable instrument. We will quantify sensor self noise by means of operating range diagrams as well as Allan variance and show results from tests on thermal and magnetic sensitivity. Tests on orthogonality and sensitivity to linear motion complete our full characterization.

  8. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  9. AIRCRAFT MOTION PARAMETER ESTIMATION VIA MULTIPATH TIME-DELAY USING A SINGLE GROUND-BASED PASSIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hongyan; Zou Hongxing

    2007-01-01

    The time-frequency analysis of the signal acquired by a single ground-based microphone shows a two-dimensional interference pattern in the time-frequency plane,which is caused by the time delay of the received signal emitted from a low flying aircraft via the direct path and the ground-reflected path.A model is developed for estimating the motion parameters of an aircraft flying along a straight line at a constant height and with a constant speed.Monte Carlo simulation results and experimental results are presented to validate the model,and an error analysis of the model is presented to verify the effectiveness of the estimation scheme advocated.

  10. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  11. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  12. Sentinel-1 and ground-based sensors for a continuous monitoring of the Corvara landslide kinematic (South Tirol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Kofler, Christian; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-1 mission allows us to have Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas every 6 days with spatial resolution of 20 m. This new open-source generation of satellites has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in Alpine environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in non-urban areas), atmospheric conditions or high ground surface velocity. In this study, kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tirol, Italy), are monitored by a network of 3 permanent and 13 monthly Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This analysis focuses on evaluating the limitations of Sentinel-1 imagery processed with Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in comparison to ground-based measurements for assessing the landslide kinematic linked to meteorological conditions. Selecting some particular acquisitions, coherence thresholds and unwrapping processes gives various results in terms of reliability and accuracy supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. The evolution of the coherence and phase signals are studied according to the changing field conditions and the monitored ground-based displacements. DInSAR deformation maps and residual topographic heights are finally compared with difference of high resolution Digital Elevation Models at local scale. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded

  13. Remote Sensing of Supercooled Cloud Layers in Cold Climate Using Ground Based Integrated Sensors System and Comparison with Pilot Reports and model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudala, Faisal; Wu, Di; Gultepe, Ismail; Anderson, Martha; turcotte, marie-france

    2017-04-01

    In-flight aircraft icing is one of the major weather hazards to aviation . It occurs when an aircraft passes through a cloud layer containing supercooled drops (SD). The SD in contact with the airframe freezes on the surface which degrades the performance of the aircraft.. Prediction of in-flight icing requires accurate prediction of SD sizes, liquid water content (LWC), and temperature. The current numerical weather predicting (NWP) models are not capable of making accurate prediction of SD sizes and associated LWC. Aircraft icing environment is normally studied by flying research aircraft, which is quite expensive. Thus, developing a ground based remote sensing system for detection of supercooled liquid clouds and characterization of their impact on severity of aircraft icing one of the important tasks for improving the NWPs based predictions and validations. In this respect, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) in cooperation with the Department of National Defense (DND) installed a number of specialized ground based remote sensing platforms and present weather sensors at Cold Lake, Alberta that includes a multi-channel microwave radiometer (MWR), K-band Micro Rain radar (MRR), Ceilometer, Parsivel distrometer and Vaisala PWD22 present weather sensor. In this study, a number of pilot reports confirming icing events and freezing precipitation that occurred at Cold Lake during the 2014-2016 winter periods and associated observation data for the same period are examined. The icing events are also examined using aircraft icing intensity estimated using ice accumulation model which is based on a cylindrical shape approximation of airfoil and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model predicted LWC, median volume diameter and temperature. The results related to vertical atmospheric profiling conditions, surface observations, and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model

  14. Aspects of sensor data fusion in interoperable ISR systems of systems for wide-area ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wolfgang; Ulmke, Martin; Biermann, Joachim; Sielemann, Marion

    2010-04-01

    Within the context of C4ISTAR information "systems of systems", we discuss sensor data fusion aspects that are aiming at the generation of higher-level in-formation according to the JDL model of data fusion. In particular, two issues are addressed: (1) Tracking-derived Situation Elements: Standard target tracking applications gain information related to 'Level 1 Fusion' according to the well-established terminology of the JDL model. Kinematic data of this type, however, are by no means the only information to be derived from tar-get tracks. In many cases, reliable and quantitative higher level information according to the JDL terminology can be obtained. (2) Anomaly Detection in Tracking Data Bases: Anomaly detection can be regarded as a process of information fusion that aims at focusing the attention of human decision makers or decision making systems is focused on particular events that are "irregular" or may cause harm and thus require special actions.

  15. GNSS as a sea ice sensor - detecting coastal freeze states with ground-based GNSS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Based on the idea of using freely available signals for remote sensing, ground-based GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R) has found more and more applications in hydrology, oceanography, agriculture and other Earth sciences. GNSS-R is based on analysing the elevation dependent SNR patterns of GNSS signals, and traditionally only the oscillation frequency and phase have been studied to retrieve parameters from the reflecting surfaces. However, recently Strandberg et al. (2016) developed an inversion algorithm that has changed the paradigms of ground-based GNSS-R as it enables direct access to the radiometric properties of the reflector. Using the signal envelope and the rate at which the magnitude of the SNR oscillations are damped w.r.t. satellite elevation, the algorithm retrieves the roughness of the reflector surface amongst other parameters. Based on this idea, we demonstrate for the first time that a GNSS installation situated close to the coastline can detect the presence of sea-ice unambiguously. Using data from the GTGU antenna at the Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the time series of the derived damping parameter clearly matches the occurrence of ice in the bay where the antenna is situated. Our results were validated against visual inspection logs as well as with the help of ice charts from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Our method is even sensitive to partial and intermediate ice formation stages, with clear difference in response between frazil ice and both open and solidly frozen water surfaces. As the GTGU installation is entirely built with standard geodetic equipment, the method can be applied directly to any coastal GNSS site, allowing analysis of both new and historical data. One can use the method as an automatic way of retrieving independent ground truth data for ice extent measurements for use in hydrology, cryosphere studies, and even societal interest fields such as sea transportation. Finally, the new method opens up for

  16. observation and analysis of the structure of winter precipitation-generating clouds using ground-based sensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez José Luis, Marcos; Gómez José Luis, Sánchez; Campano Laura, López; Ortega Eduardo, García; Suances Andrés, Merino; González Sergio, Fernández; Salvador Estíbaliz, Gascón; González Lucía, Hermida

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we used a 28-day database corresponding to December, January and February of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 campaigns to analyze cloud structure that produced precipitation in the Sierra Norte near Madrid, Spain. We used remote sensing measurements, both active type like the K-band Micro Rain Radar (MRR) and passive type like the Radiometrics MP-3000A multichannel microwave radiometer. Using reflectivity data from the MRR, we determined the important microphysical parameters of Ice Water Content (IWC) and its integrated value over the atmospheric column, or Ice Water Path (IWP). Among the measurements taken by the MP-3000A were Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV). By representing these data together, sharp declines in LWP and IWV were evident, coincident with IWP increases. This result indicates the ability of a K-band radar to measure the amount of ice in the atmospheric column, simultaneously revealing the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism. We also used a Present Weather Sensor (VPF-730; Biral Ltd., Bristol, UK) to determine the type and amount of precipitation at the surface. With these data, we used regression equations to establish the relationship between visibility and precipitation intensity. In addition, through theoretical precipitation visibility-intensity relationships, we estimated the type of crystal, degree of accretion (riming), and moisture content of fallen snow crystals.

  17. A Spatial Display for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    B. Data Colormap The original colormap for Gopher was a full rainbow . This colormap was chosen because it had superior contrast to standard black...only form of learning bias observed in the data was a small efficiency increase on the second interface; participants had a higher mean time per scenario...the operator rather than visualizing the raw temporal data in array form . This allows the human to provide signal classification and executive

  18. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  19. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  20. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  1. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    rate for traditional displays is not enough for some computational displays that show complex image patterns. The study focuses on displays with hidden channels, and their application to 3D+2D TV. By taking advantage of the fast growing power of computation and sensors, these four novel display setups - in combination with display algorithms - advance the frontier of computational display research.

  2. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an EnKF-model system that downscales satellite data and predicts catchment-scale RZSM content is especially timely, given the anticipated

  3. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  4. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  5. SAM-2 ground-truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement-2 (SAM 2) sensor on the Nimbus G satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Pepin, T. J.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SAM-2 will fly aboard the Nimbus-G satellite for launch in the fall of 1978 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol extinction in high latitude bands. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. The SAM-2 expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of polar stratospheric aerosols are used in the SAM-2 and correlative sensor analyses.

  6. Smart Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  7. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  8. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  9. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the intercomparison of aerosol data - Part 4: Combined maximum covariance analysis to bridge the gap between multi-sensor satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques has greatly advanced our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols. Various satellite sensors and the associated retrieval algorithms all add to the information of global aerosol variability, while well-designed surface networks provide time series of highly accurate measurements at specific locations. In studying the variability of aerosol properties, aerosol climate effects, and constraining aerosol fields in climate models, it is essential to make the best use of all of the available information. In the previous three parts of this series, we demonstrated the usefulness of several spectral decomposition techniques in the analysis and comparison of temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth using satellite and ground-based measurements. Specifically, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) successfully captures and isolates seasonal and interannual variability from different aerosol source regions, Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) provides a means to verify the variability in one satellite dataset against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, and Combined Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) realized parallel comparison among multi-satellite, multi-sensor datasets. As the final part of the study, this paper introduces a novel technique that integrates both multi-sensor datasets and ground observations, and thus effectively bridges the gap between these two types of measurements. The Combined Maximum Covariance Analysis (CMCA) decomposes the cross covariance matrix between the combined multi-sensor satellite data field and AERONET station data. We show that this new method not only confirms the seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol optical depth, aerosol source regions and events represented by different satellite datasets, but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in capturing the variability associated with sources, events or aerosol types. Furthermore, by examining the spread of

  10. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  11. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  12. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on clouds and precipitation over mountains in Wyoming. Part I: Project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Binod; Geerts, Bart

    2016-12-01

    The AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) campaign was conducted in early 2012 and 2013 over two mountain ranges in southern Wyoming to examine the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on snow growth in winter orographic clouds. The campaign was supported by a network of ground-based instruments, including microwave radiometers, two profiling Ka-band Micro-Rain Radars (MRRs), a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) X-band radar, and a Parsivel disdrometer. The University of Wyoming King Air operated the profiling Wyoming Cloud Radar, the Wyoming Cloud Lidar, and in situ cloud and precipitation particle probes. The characteristics of the orographic clouds, flow field, and upstream stability profiles in 27 intensive observation periods (IOPs) are described here. A composite analysis of the impact of seeding on snow growth is presented in Part II of this study (Pokharel et al., 2017).

  13. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment: Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS), U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the NRHP because it does not meet any criteria for listing ( Quist , 2008). The U.S. Army agreed with this recommendation and determined that...Knight Rachel Quist 75th Civil Engineering Group – Hill AFB Loni Johnson, CERC Kay Winn, CEVOR 75th Civil Engineering Group – Oasis Ronald... Quist , Rachel. 2008. Cultural Resources Management Officer, Dugway Proving Ground. Personal communication with Mary Peters, MBP Consulting

  14. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  15. Experimental analysis and prediction for aircraft ground frosting based on sensor%基于传感器的飞机地面结霜实验分析与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 孙闯; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    The frosting of aircraft on the ground destroys aerodynamic shape and has a negative effect on the flight performance. In order to monitor and forecast on aircraft frosting on the ground accurately,experimental research on airfoil frosting is carried out using variety of sensors;by analyzing frost layer growth curve of simulating airfoil in different environment conditions,law of airfoil frosting is researched. Analyze datas of frosting experiment,propose polynomial regression predicting model in different frosting environments. Meanwhile,multicollinearity is avoided by orthogonalizing polynomials,which make prediction model has high curve fitting and high precision,fast and accurate prediction for ground frosting of aircrafts is realized.%飞机在地面的结霜会破坏飞机的气动外形,对飞机的飞行性能产生不利的影响。为了对地面飞机结霜进行准确监测与预测,利用多种传感器对机翼的结霜环境进行实验研究,通过分析不同环境下模拟机翼的霜层生长曲线,探寻和统计飞机机翼的地面结霜规律。对结霜实验的数据进行分析,提出了不同结霜环境下的多项式回归预测模型。同时将多项式进行正交化,避免了多重共线性,使预测模型的曲线拟合程度高,预测值具有较高的精度,实现了对飞机的地面结霜进行快速精确的预测。

  16. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  17. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  18. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  19. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  20. A Generic Algorithm to Estimate LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER Variables from SPOT4_HRVIR and Landsat Sensors: Evaluation of the Consistency and Comparison with Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR are essential climatic variables in surface process models. FCOVER is also important to separate vegetation and soil for energy balance processes. Currently, several LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER satellite products are derived moderate to coarse spatial resolution. The launch of Sentinel-2 in 2015 will provide data at decametric resolution with a high revisit frequency to allow quantifying the canopy functioning at the local to regional scales. The aim of this study is thus to evaluate the performances of a neural network based algorithm to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products at decametric spatial resolution and high temporal sampling. The algorithm is generic, i.e., it is applied without any knowledge of the landcover. A time series of high spatial resolution SPOT4_HRVIR (16 scenes and Landsat 8 (18 scenes images acquired in 2013 over the France southwestern site were used to generate the LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products. For each sensor and each biophysical variable, a neural network was first trained over PROSPECT+SAIL radiative transfer model simulations of top of canopy reflectance data for green, red, near-infra red and short wave infra-red bands. Our results show a good spatial and temporal consistency between the variables derived from both sensors: almost half the pixels show an absolute difference between SPOT and LANDSAT estimates of lower that 0.5 unit for LAI, and 0.05 unit for FAPAR and FCOVER. Finally, downward-looking digital hemispherical cameras were completed over the main land cover types to validate the accuracy of the products. Results show that the derived products are strongly correlated with the field measurements (R2 > 0.79, corresponding to a RMSE = 0.49 for LAI, RMSE = 0.10 (RMSE = 0.12 for black-sky (white sky FAPAR and RMSE = 0.15 for FCOVER. It is concluded that the proposed generic algorithm provides a good

  1. Rotorwash wind sensor evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Curtis L.; Lake, Robert E.; Gordge, Dennis N.

    1993-08-01

    This project's purpose was to assess and document the ability of the Qualimetrics, Inc. model 2132 wind sensor (a cup and vane type sensor) to measure a rotor wash flow field as compared to the TSI, Inc. model 204D ion beam deflection sensor. The tests concentrated on the sensor's ability to capture dynamic characteristics of a helicopter rotor wash flow field. The project was conducted from April to November 1992 and consisted of quantitative laboratory and field testing. The laboratory testing included 9.5 hours of wind tunnel test time, subjecting each sensor to three step input tests at velocities of 20 knots, 50 knots, and 80 knots. Field test data were collected during one hour of SH-60B helicopter hover time at heights of 15 and 25 feet above ground level at distances of 35 and 70 feet from the wind sensors. Aircraft gross weights ranged between 19,600 and 20,500 pounds. All field test data were obtained in ambient wind conditions of approximately 8 knots at 40 degrees relative to the aircraft nose, -40 feet pressure altitude in an ambient temperature of 85 F. Laboratory data analysis indicates the model 2132 cup and vane sensor's time constant values were significantly higher than those of the model 204D ion beam sensor and varied relative to wind tunnel velocity settings. This indicates the model 2132 sensor's ability to accurately capture oscillations in a dynamic flow field is significantly less than the model 204D sensor. The model 2132 sensor did detect periodic or pulsating velocity magnitudes, but failed to capture significant oscillations as compared to the model 204D sensor. Comparative analysis of all field test event data indicate the model 2132 sensor only detected frequencies below 1.5 Hz and only captured an average of 46 percent of the model 204D sensor's maximum amplitude pulse values that were below 1.5 Hz. The model 2132 sensor's inability to capture many of the maximum pulse amplitudes is evidence of the sensor's limited capability to

  2. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  3. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  4. Ground-state and isomeric-state cross sections for display='inline'>181Ta( display='inline'>n,2n )display='inline'>180Ta between 8 and 15 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Gooden, M. E. [Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Tonchev, A. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Using the activation technique, the cross section for the reaction 181Ta(n,2n)180gTa was measured from 8 to 15 MeV in small energy steps to resolve inconsistencies in the existing database. The 93.4 keV γ ray from the decay of the 180gTa ground state was recorded with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The monitor reactions 27Al(n,α)24Na and 197Au(n,2n)196Au were used for neutron fluence determination. The ENDF VII.1 and TENDL 2011 evaluations are in considerable disagreement with the present data, which in turn agree very well with the majority of the existing data in the 14 MeV energy region. Furthermore, a detailed analysis using the code TALYS was performed to describe the present data and to predict the (n,2n) cross section to the isomeric state of 180Ta.

  5. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  6. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  7. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  8. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  9. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  10. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  11. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  12. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  13. Universal Smart Sensor Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground testing of propulsion systems requires highly accurate and precise sensor systems. Setting up such systems can be more time consuming than the test. The...

  14. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  15. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  16. Wrap-Around Out-the-Window Sensor Fusion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Boe, Eric A.; Delgado, Francisco; Secor, James B.; Clark, Michael R.; Ehlinger, Kevin D.; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Evaluation System (ACES) includes communication, computing, and display subsystems, mounted in a van, that synthesize out-the-window views to approximate the views of the outside world as it would be seen from the cockpit of a crewed spacecraft, aircraft, or remote control of a ground vehicle or UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The system includes five flat-panel display units arranged approximately in a semicircle around an operator, like cockpit windows. The scene displayed on each panel represents the view through the corresponding cockpit window. Each display unit is driven by a personal computer equipped with a video-capture card that accepts live input from any of a variety of sensors (typically, visible and/or infrared video cameras). Software running in the computers blends the live video images with synthetic images that could be generated, for example, from heads-up-display outputs, waypoints, corridors, or from satellite photographs of the same geographic region. Data from a Global Positioning System receiver and an inertial navigation system aboard the remote vehicle are used by the ACES software to keep the synthetic and live views in registration. If the live image were to fail, the synthetic scenes could still be displayed to maintain situational awareness.

  17. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  18. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  19. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  20. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  1. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  2. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  3. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  4. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  5. A wireless gait analysis system by digital textile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Ming; Chou, Chun-Mei; Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Hung, Shu-Hui; Yang, Chang-Hwa; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Tsi-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of spatio-temporal gait analysis based upon digital textile sensors. Digitized legs and feet patterns of healthy subjects and their relations with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analyzed. In the first experiment, spatio-temporal gait parameters were determined during over ground walking. In the second experiment, predicted running, backward walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs parameters were determined. From the results of the experiments, it is concluded that, for healthy subjects, the duration of subsequent stride cycles and left/right steps, the estimations of step length, cadence, walking speed, central of pressure and central of mass trajectory, can be obtained by analyzing the digital signals from the textile sensors on pants and socks. These parameters are easily displayed in several different graphs allowing the user to view the parameters during gait. Finally, the digital data are easily to analyze the feature of activity recognition.

  6. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  7. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  8. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  9. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their

  10. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  11. Ground-Referenced Visual Orientation with Imaging Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    autonomic nervous system has been linked to individual differences in personality by Wenger (1947; Wenger and Cullen 1972) and by Eysenck (1953), among...balance, refractive error, and introversion-extraversion as indicated by the Eysenck Personality Inventory. To measure autonomic balance she modified...20*w I/E ( Eysenck ) .10 .05 Mean Dark Focus (DF) -.21 -.15 .03 Dark-Focus Range (DFR) -.01 -.06 -.16* .07 Near Point (NP) -.04 -.18* .00 .26** -.10 Far

  12. 基于传感器的飞机地面除冰模拟实验研究%Study on simulation experiment for aircraft ground deicing based on sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 赵亮; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    飞机除冰是影响民航冬季安全运行的重要因素之一,为了优化飞机除冰液参数,设计了飞机地面除冰室外实验.在冬季室外条件下通过对结冰的模拟机体表面喷射加热的除冰液进行除冰,在除冰过程中对除冰液流量、除冰液温度进行控制,通过安装在机体上的温度传感器和光纤传感器得到飞机机体表面温度变化和冰层厚度变化情况.通过分析实验结果可得:在一定范围内,除冰液温度升高能有效提高除冰速率;除冰液流量增加也能提高除冰速率,但当除冰液流量超过一定值时,射流冲击成为除冰的主要动力.%Aircraft icing is one of the important factors that affect civil aviation safety in operation in winter.In order to optimize parameters of aircraft deicing fluid,aircraft ground deicing outdoor experiment is carried out.In winter outdoor conditions,aircraft deicing is operated by injecting heated deicing fluid to the aircraft surface.The temperature and the velocity of the flow must be changed regularly,and change of temperature and ice thickness can be detected by temperature sensor and fibre-optic sensor that are installed on the aircraft surface.By analyzing result of experiment,the conclusion is that,in certain range the temperature rise of deicing liquid increases apparently ice removal rate,but the jet impact force will be the main force of deicing when the velocity of flow exceeds certain value.

  13. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  14. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  15. A Tilt, Soil Moisture, and Pore Water Pressure Sensor System for Slope Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanno de Dios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and characterization of a sensor network intended for monitoring of slope deformation and potential failures. The sensor network system consists of a tilt and moisture sensor column, a pore water pressure sensor column and a personal computer for data storage and processing. The tilt sensor column consists of several pipe segments containing tri-axial accelerometers and signal processing electronics. Each segment is joined together by flexible joints to allow for the column to deform and subsequently track underground movement. Capacitive-type sensors for soil moisture measurement are also included in the sensor column, which are used to measure the soil moisture at different depths. The measurements at each segment are transferred via a Controller Area Network (CAN bus, where the CAN master node is located at the top of the column above ground. The CAN master node transmits the collected data from the slave nodes via a wireless connection to a personal computer that performs data storage, processing and display via a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI. The entire system was deployed and characterized on a small-scale slope model. Slope failure was induced via water seepage and the system was demonstrated to ably measure the inclination and soil moisture content throughout the landslide event.

  16. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  17. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  18. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  19. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  20. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  1. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  2. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  3. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  4. Software Development for Remote Control and Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano Pena, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The Launch Control System (LCS) developed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will be used to launch future spacecraft. Two of the many components of this system are the Application Control Language (ACL) and remote displays. ACL is a high level domain specific language that is used to write remote control applications for LCS. Remote displays are graphical user interfaces (GUIs) developed to display vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) data, they also provide the ability to send commands to control GSE and the vehicle. The remote displays and the control applications have many facets and this internship experience dealt with several of them.

  5. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  6. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  7. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  8. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  9. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  10. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  11. Spacesuit Data Display and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G.; Sells, Aaron; Shah, Hemal

    2009-01-01

    A prototype embedded avionics system has been designed for the next generation of NASA extra-vehicular-activity (EVA) spacesuits. The system performs biomedical and other sensor monitoring, image capture, data display, and data transmission. An existing NASA Phase I and II award winning design for an embedded computing system (ZIN vMetrics - BioWATCH) has been modified. The unit has a reliable, compact form factor with flexible packaging options. These innovations are significant, because current state-of-the-art EVA spacesuits do not provide capability for data displays or embedded data acquisition and management. The Phase 1 effort achieved Technology Readiness Level 4 (high fidelity breadboard demonstration). The breadboard uses a commercial-grade field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processor core that can be upgraded to a space-rated device for future revisions.

  12. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  13. Study on Ground Automatic Identification Technology for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Vision Sensor%基于视觉传感器的自主车辆地面自动辨识技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔根群; 余建明; 赵娴; 赵丛琳

    2011-01-01

    The ground automatic identification technology for intelligent vehicle is iaking Leobor-Edu autonomous vehicle as a test vector and using DH-HV2003UC-T vision sensor to collect image infarmaiion of five common lane roads( cobbled road, concrete road, dirt road, grass road, tile road) , then using MATLAB image processing module to perform coding compression, recovery reconstruction, smoothing, sharpening, enhancement, feature extraction and other related processing,then using MATLAB BP neural network module to carry on pattern recognition.Through analyzing the pattern recognition result, lt shows that the objective error is 20%, the road recognition rate has reached the intended requirement in the system,and it can be universally applied in the smart vehicle or robots and other related fields.%谊自主车辆地面自动辨识技术是以Leobot-Edu自主车辆作为试验载体,并应用DH-HV2003UC-T视觉传感器对常见的5种行车路面(石子路面、水泥路面、土壤路面、草地路面、砖地路面)进行图像信息的采集,应用Matlab图像处理模块对其依次进行压缩编码、复原重建、平滑、锐化、增强、特征提取等相关处理后,再应用Matlab BP神经网络模块进行模式识别.通过对模式识别结果分析可知,网络训练目标的函数误差为20%,该系统路面识别率达到预定要求,可以在智能车辆或移动机器人等相关领域普及使用.

  14. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  15. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  16. Real-time classification of ground from lidar data for helicopter navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkeil, Ferdinand; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Kühne, Uwe; Deussen, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Helicopter pilots often have to deal with bad weather conditions and degraded views. Such situations may decrease the pilots' situational awareness significantly. The worst-case scenario would be a complete loss of visual reference during an off-field landing due to brownout or white out. In order to increase the pilots' situational awareness, helicopters nowadays are equipped with different sensors that are used to gather information about the terrain ahead of the helicopter. Synthetic vision systems are used to capture and classify sensor data and to visualize them on multifunctional displays or pilot's head up displays. This requires the input data to be a reliably classified into obstacles and ground. In this paper, we present a regularization-based terrain classifier. Regularization is a popular segmentation method in computer vision and used in active contours. For a real-time application scenario with LIDAR data, we developed an optimization that uses different levels of detail depending on the accuracy of the sensor. After a preprocessing step where points are removed that cannot be ground, the method fits a shape underneath the recorded point cloud. Once this shape is calculated, the points below this shape can be distinguished from elevated objects and are classified as ground. Finally, we demonstrate the quality of our segmentation approach by its application on operational flight recordings. This method builds a part of an entire synthetic vision processing chain, where the classified points are used to support the generation of a real-time synthetic view of the terrain as an assistance tool for the helicopter pilot.

  17. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinck, Gerwin; Heremans, Paul; Nomoto, Kazumasa; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2010-09-08

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic transistors in the fields of flexible optical displays and microelectronics. The advantages associated with the use of OTFT technology are discussed with primary emphasis on the latest developments in the area of active-matrix electrophoretic and organic light-emitting diode displays based on OTFT backplanes and on the application of organic transistors in microelectronics including digital and analog circuits.

  18. Driver performance-based assessment of thermal display degradation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffner, John W.; Massimi, Michael S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Ferrett, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    The Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) is a thermal sensor and display combination currently being procured for use in U.S. Army combat and tactical wheeled vehicles. During the DVE production process, a given number of sensor or display pixels may either vary from the desired luminance values (nonuniform) or be inactive (nonresponsive). The amount and distribution of pixel luminance nonuniformity (NU) and nonresponsivity (NR) allowable in production DVEs is a significant cost factor. No driver performance-based criteria exist for determining the maximum amount of allowable NU and NR. For safety reasons, these characteristics are specified conservatively. This paper describes an experiment to assess the effects of different levels of display NU and NR on Army drivers' ability to identify scene features and obstacles using a simulated DVE display and videotaped driving scenarios. Baseline, NU, and NR display conditions were simulated using real-time image processing techniques and a computer graphics workstation. The results indicate that there is a small, but statistically insignificant decrease in identification performance with the NU conditions tested. The pattern of the performance-based results is consistent with drivers' subjective assessments of display adequacy. The implications of the results for specifying NU and NR criteria for the DVE display are discussed.

  19. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    76 Table 6. Subject Video Game Practice...Interface GPS Global Positioning System HMD Head-Mounted Display HUD Heads-Up Display IP Internet Protocol IR Infrared LCD Liquid-Crystal Display...Stress Disorder SDK Software Development Kit SOG Speed over Ground SWOS Surface Warfare Officer School USD United States Dollar USNS United States

  20. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.; Nomoto, K.; Anthopoulos, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic

  1. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  2. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  3. Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dohyun Kim; Ira Goldberg; Jack Judy

    2003-01-01

    A nitrate-sensing system that consists of a micromachined sensor substrate, nitrate-permeable membrane, integrated microfluidic channels, and standard fluidic connectors has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested. Our microsensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of nitrate concentrations in ground water. A silver electrode was patterned for amperometric nitrate detection. An electrochemically oxidized silver electrode was used as a reference electrode. Microfluidic channels were ...

  4. Tactile display device using an electrorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-08-01

    A tactile display device utilizes an electrorheological fluid to activate a plurality of tactile dots. A voltage is selectively produced uniformly across an electrorheological fluid flowing between a common ground electrode and a plurality of conductive dot electrodes, thereby producing an increase in the fluid's viscosity to the extent that fluid flow between the two electrodes is restricted. The flow restriction produces a build-up of electrorheological fluid in a corresponding dot actuator chamber. The resulting pressure increase in the chamber displaces an elastic diaphragm fixed to a display surface to form a lump which can be perceived by the reader as one dot in a Braille character cell. A flow regulation system provides a continually pressurized flow system and provides for free flow of the electrorheological fluid through the plurality of dot actuator chambers when they are not activated. The device is adaptable to printed circuit techniques and can simultaneously display tactile dots representative of a full page of Braille characters stored on a medium such as a tape cassette or to display tactile dots representative of non-Braille data appearing on a computer monitor or contained on another data storage medium. In an alternate embodiment, the elastic diaphragm drives a plurality of spring-loaded pins provided with positive stops to maintain consistent displacements of the pins in both their actuated and nonactuated positions.

  5. Millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Ibbott, A. C.; Parks, G. S.; Ricketts, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer system has been built and used on a helicopter to produce moderate-resolution (0.5 deg) images of the ground. This millimeter-wave sensor can be used for a variety of remote-sensing applications and produces images through clouds, smoke, and dust when visual and IR sensors are not usable. The system is described and imaging results are presented.

  6. Metamaterial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their intriguing properties, as well as the large potential applications for designing functional devices. In this paper, we review the current status of metamaterial sensors, with an emphasis on the evanescent wave amplification and the accompanying local field enhancement characteristics. Examples of the sensors are given to illustrate the principle and the performance of the metamaterial sensor. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterial sensor.

  7. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  8. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  9. Printable Organic Nanoelectronics for Memory, Sensors and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    free phthalocyanine nanocomposites and solution processed zinc oxide as active materials . For both cases, the size of the hysteresis and on-off...crystalline phthalocyanines in February 2014. Miss Tsegie Mariam Faris B Eng is registered with Brunel University for M Phil degree in Materials ...UNIVERSITY WOLFSON CENTRE FOR MATERIALS PROCESSING KINGSTON LANE UXBRIDGE UB8 3PH UNITED KINGDOM EOARD Grant 13-3018 Report Date: February

  10. Study to Expand Simulation Cockpit Displays of Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Data Systems Group Dr. Antonio J. Mendez Tarricia Du Puis John W. Doak Radar Systems Group William B. VanHorne LA0euuion For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TA• Texas...Low-Altitude and ~emna- Pe light./ ’A risoty’Grou p "*oe*%tb spadie Devyelopmien t ’(AGNARD)y;’AD-AO 5f0177, Ap~rii 1𔄃 7’y .Ŕ Hawkins, J. A., et al

  11. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  12. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  13. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  14. Fiber optic sensors for smart taxiways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Douglas D.; Fuerstenau, Norbert; Goetze, Wolfgang

    1995-09-01

    Fiber-optic sensors could offer advantages in the field of airport ground traffic monitoring: immunity to electromagnetic interference, installation without costly and time consuming airfield closures, and low loss, low noise optical connection between sensors and signal processing equipment. This paper describes fiber-optic sensors developed for airport taxiway monitoring and the first steps toward their installation in an experimental surface movement guidance and control system at the Braunschweig airport. Initial results obtained with fiber- optic light barriers and vibration sensors are reported. The feasibility of employing interferometric strain gauges for this application will be discussed based on sensor characteristics obtained through measurements of strain in an aircraft structure in flight.

  15. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  16. Comparison of Pilots' Situational Awareness While Monitoring Autoland Approaches Using Conventional and Advanced Flight Display Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation experiment was performed to assess situation awareness (SA) and workload of pilots while monitoring simulated autoland operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions with three advanced display concepts: two enhanced electronic flight information system (EFIS)-type display concepts and one totally synthetic, integrated pictorial display concept. Each concept incorporated sensor-derived wireframe runway and iconic depictions of sensor-detected traffic in different locations on the display media. Various scenarios, involving conflicting traffic situation assessments, main display failures, and navigation/autopilot system errors, were used to assess the pilots' SA and workload during autoland approaches with the display concepts. From the results, for each scenario, the integrated pictorial display concept provided the pilots with statistically equivalent or substantially improved SA over the other display concepts. In addition to increased SA, subjective rankings indicated that the pictorial concept offered reductions in overall pilot workload (in both mean ranking and spread) over the two enhanced EFIS-type display concepts. Out of the display concepts flown, the pilots ranked the pictorial concept as the display that was easiest to use to maintain situational awareness, to monitor an autoland approach, to interpret information from the runway and obstacle detecting sensor systems, and to make the decision to go around.

  17. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  18. Manual control displays for a four-dimensional landing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, J. T.; Swaim, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Six instrument rated pilots flew a STOL fixed base simulator to study the effectiveness of three displays for a four dimensional approach. The three examined displays were a digital readout of forward position error, a digital speed command, and an analog display showing forward position error and error prediction. A flight director was used in all conditions. All test runs were for a typical four dimensional approach in moderate turbulence that included a change in commanded ground speed, a change in flight path angle, and two standard rate sixty degree turns. Use of the digital forward position error display resulted in large overshoot in the forward position error. Some type of lead (rate or prediction information) was shown to be needed. The best overall performance was obtained using the speed command display. It was demonstrated that curved approaches can be flown with relative ease.

  19. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  20. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  1. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  2. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  3. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  4. Infrasound from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  5. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  7. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  8. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  9. Sensor Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Caberera, B; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cooper, W; Da Via, C; Demarteau, M; Fast, J; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Golwala, S; Haber, C; Hall, J; Hoppe, E; Irwin, K D; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Lee, A T; Lynn, D; Orrell, J; Pyle, M; Rusack, R; Sadrozinski, H; Sanchez, M C; Seiden, A; Trischuk, W; Vavra, J; Wetstein, M; Zhu, R-Y

    2013-01-01

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future ...

  10. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  11. Novel sensors for underground robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 3m) is presented. Machine sensing of both the environment and of humans is critical in a shared working environment. Here we discuss alternatives to the current sensors used above ground for machine perception. In the deep gold mines the geothermal...

  12. Wind Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaoyang; Ni, Jiqin

    2014-01-01

    Wind measurement is needed in many practical and scientific research situations. Some specific applications require to precisely measuring both wind direction and wind speed at the same time. Current commercial sensors for wind direction and wind speed measurement usually use ultrasonic technology and the sensors are very expensive (> $1500). In addition, the sensors are large in dimension and cannot measure airflow patterns in high spatial resolution. Therefore new and low cost wind speed an...

  13. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  14. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  15. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  16. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  17. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data,Taku Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  18. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Valdez Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  19. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Wolverine Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  20. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Eureka Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  1. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Scott Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  2. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Eklutna Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  3. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Gulkana Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  4. Raw Ground Penetrating Radar Data, Wolverine Glacier, Alaska; 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Common-offset GPR surveys were conducted with a Sensors and Software 500-MHz Pulse Ekko Pro system. We collected data from the ground, towed behind a researcher on...

  5. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  6. Remote Software Application and Display Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brandon T.

    2014-01-01

    The era of the shuttle program has come to an end, but only to give rise to newer and more exciting projects. Now is the time of the Orion spacecraft, a work of art designed to exceed all previous endeavors of man. NASA is exiting the time of exploration and is entering a new period, a period of pioneering. With this new mission, many of NASAs organizations must undergo a great deal of change and development to support the Orion missions. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the new system that will provide NASA the ability to launch rockets into orbit and thus control Orion and other spacecraft as the goal of populating Mars becomes ever increasingly tangible. Since the previous control system, Launch Processing System (LPS), was primarily designed to launch the shuttles, SCCS was needed as Kennedy Space Center (KSC) reorganized to a multiuser spaceport for commercial flights, providing a more versatile control over rockets. Within SCCS, is the Launch Control System (LCS), which is the remote software behind the command and monitoring of flight and ground system hardware. This internship at KSC has involved two main components in LCS, including Remote Software Application and Display development. The display environment provides a graphical user interface for an operator to view and see if any cautions are raised, while the remote applications are the backbone that communicate with hardware, and then relay the data back to the displays. These elements go hand in hand as they provide monitoring and control over hardware and software alike from the safety of the Launch Control Center. The remote software applications are written in Application Control Language (ACL), which must undergo unit testing to ensure data integrity. This paper describes both the implementation and writing of unit tests in ACL code for remote software applications, as well as the building of remote displays to be used in the Launch Control Center (LCC).

  7. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  8. COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern Italy) in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    To understand uplift phenomenon occurred during the April 2012 - January 2013 time interval at Campi Flegrei caldera, we exploited the displacement time series obtained by processing 90 SAR images acquired from the COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation along ascending orbits via the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as SBAS algorithm, and the measurements provided by 14 continuous GPS stations deployed within the caldera and belonging to the permanent INGV-OV monitoring network. In particular, the caldera has shown a rapid uplift of about 6 cm with a peak rate of about 3 cm/month in December 2012. This event led the Italian Civil Protection to raise the alert level of the volcano from green to yellow. Using a novel geodetic inversion technique we imaged the kinematics of the intrusion of a magmatic sill beneath the town of Pozzuoli at a depth of about 3100 m. The retrieved kinematics was then used as input to infer the dynamics of the sill intrusion using a recently developed numerical model. The best fit obtained by non-linear inverse approach that consider a time-varying deformation field is a penny-shaped source located at a depth of 3100 m. To study the detail of the intrusion process we have applied a geodetic imaging technique to determine the spatial and temporal kinematics of the ground deformation source in the selected period. The retrieved temporal pattern of the source geometry reflects that of a growing sill that, at the end of the considered period, has a roughly elliptical geometry with an extension of about 6 km in the EW direction and about 4 km in the NS one. The maximum aperture of the sill is of about 30 cm at its center. To understand the dynamics of this phenomenon we used a numerical model of the emplacement of a magmatic sill, to fit the retrieved geometry. The parameters to be determined are: the average magma viscosity, the amount of magma already present in the sill before the 2012-2013 episode and the magma injection rate. Results show

  9. Intelligent sensor networks the integration of sensor networks, signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning. Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, incl

  10. Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an antarctic feeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpert, Alison K; Peavey, Lindsey E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.

  11. Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an antarctic feeding ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K Stimpert

    Full Text Available Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.

  12. 2nd National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, Francesco; Natale, Corrado; Betta, Giovanni; Siciliano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Second National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 19-21 February 2014. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications. ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the Second Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  13. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  14. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  15. Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  16. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  17. Cloud speed sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE, and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI. The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s−1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s−1 when compared to LCE results.

  18. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elkington

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.

  19. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT)-Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Elkington; Nathan Cooling; Warwick Belcher; Dastoor, Paul C; Xiaojing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.

  20. Landmines Ground-Penetrating Radar Signal Enhancement by Digital Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Potin, Delphine; Duflos, Emmanuel; Vanheeghe, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Until now, humanitarian demining has been unable to provide a solution to the landmine removal problem. Furthermore, new low-cost methods have to be developed quickly. While much progress has been made with the introduction of new sensor types, other problems have been raised by these sensors. Ground-penetrating radars (GPRs) are key sensors for landmine detection as they are capable of detecting landmines with low metal contents. GPRs deliver so-called Bscan data, which are, roughly, vertica...

  1. Integrated Launch Operations Applications Remote Display Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric M., II

    2014-01-01

    This internship provides the opportunity to support the creation and use of Firing Room Displays and Firing Room Applications that use an abstraction layer called the Application Control Language (ACL). Required training included video watching, reading assignments, face-to-face instruction and job shadowing other Firing Room software developers as they completed their daily duties. During the training period various computer and access rights needed for creating the applications were obtained. The specific ground subsystems supported are the Cryogenics Subsystems, Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LO2). The cryogenics team is given the task of finding the best way to handle these very volatile liquids that are used to fuel the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion flight vehicles safely.

  2. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  4. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  5. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  6. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  7. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  8. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  9. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  10. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  11. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  12. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  13. Vibrissa Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Docket No. 300119 1 of 11 VIBRISSA SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention provides a... measured as strain. [0009] Thus, there is a need for a sensor utilizing a vibrissa that can detect dynamic and high frequency movement of the

  14. A Smart Spoofing Face Detector by Display Features Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChinLun Lai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a smart face liveness detector is proposed to prevent the biometric system from being “deceived” by the video or picture of a valid user that the counterfeiter took with a high definition handheld device (e.g., iPad with retina display. By analyzing the characteristics of the display platform and using an expert decision-making core, we can effectively detect whether a spoofing action comes from a fake face displayed in the high definition display by verifying the chromaticity regions in the captured face. That is, a live or spoof face can be distinguished precisely by the designed optical image sensor. To sum up, by the proposed method/system, a normal optical image sensor can be upgraded to a powerful version to detect the spoofing actions. The experimental results prove that the proposed detection system can achieve very high detection rate compared to the existing methods and thus be practical to implement directly in the authentication systems.

  15. Vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  16. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. L’utilizzo dei sensori di vibrazione per il monitoraggio delle frane e la salvaguardia del territorio - On the use of ground vibration sensors for landslide monitoring and land conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Arattano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available I sensori sismici ed acustici sembrano mostrare promettenti possibilità di utilizzo per la mitigazione del rischio da frana. Recenti ricerche sul M.te Cervino, ad esempio, hanno utilizzato reti microsismiche per individuare le sedi di crolli potenziali e per stabilire la relazione tra variazioni di temperatura ed emissioni acustiche in roccia. È invece attualmente in fase di sperimentazione l’utilizzo di sensori geofonici e sismometri per la realizzazione di innovativi sistemi di allarme per colate detritiche, capaci di rilevarne l’arrivo con un significativo margine di tempo di anticipo. Nell’articolo vengono illustrati e discussi in dettaglio alcuni esempi applicativi. ------ Seismic and acoustic sensors seem to show promising possibilities of employment for the mitigation of landslide hazards. Recent researches carried out on the Matterhorn, as an example, have used microseismic networks to locate potential areas of rockfalls and to establish a relationship between temperature variations and acoustic emissions in rocks. It is currently under investigation, instead, the use of geophone sensors and seismometers for the realization of innovative warning systems for debris flows, capable to detect their arrival with a significant amount of time in advance. In this article some practical examples will be presented and discussed in detail.

  18. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  19. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  20. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  1. Fishualization: a group feedback display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Boertjes, E.M.; Koldijk, S.J.; Wiertz, L.; Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kaptein, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution1 we present a novel psychological intervention that maps human computer activity to a group feedback device on the basis of a combination of various types of unobtrusive, low-level sensors. The goal is to enable employees to gain insights into their working habits, to reduce str

  2. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  3. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  4. Display implementation in the Abrams Main Battle Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrembelski, Rick J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of a major weapon system, the Abrams Main Battle Tank, as it relates to Flat Panel Display (FPD) technology. The Abrams pioneered FPD implementation in military ground vehicles in response to the integration of embedded computer systems into the tank. This major weapon system is poised to field the latest upgrade, the System Enhancement Package (SEP), with 2nd generation Flat Panel Displays. This has been accomplished by managing requirements, dynamic communication with FPD research and development programs, and aggressively leveraging those programs. The tank has progressed from implementing available FPDs to influencing the enabling of FPD technology. The experience gained offers valuable insight to following ground vehicle systems and to those diligently working to fully enable this critical technology.

  5. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  6. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  7. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  8. MEMS sensor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhuangde

    2012-01-01

    Since 1992 the author has led research group in Xi'an Jiaotong University to investigate and develop microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, including pressure sensor, acceleration sensor, gas sensor, viscosity & density sensor, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip and integrated sensor etc. This paper introduces the technologies and research results related to MEMS sensors we achieved in the last 20 years.

  9. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  10. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  11. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  12. Biomimetic virus-based colourimetric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Woo; Chung, Woo-Jae; Heo, Kwang; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Byung Yang; Wang, Eddie; Zueger, Chris; Wong, Winnie; Meyer, Joel; Kim, Chuntae; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Won-Geun; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Hexemer, Alexander; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-01-01

    Many materials in nature change colours in response to stimuli, making them attractive for use as sensor platform. However, both natural materials and their synthetic analogues lack selectivity towards specific chemicals, and introducing such selectivity remains a challenge. Here we report the self-assembly of genetically engineered viruses (M13 phage) into target-specific, colourimetric biosensors. The sensors are composed of phage-bundle nanostructures and exhibit viewing-angle independent colour, similar to collagen structures in turkey skin. On exposure to various volatile organic chemicals, the structures rapidly swell and undergo distinct colour changes. Furthermore, sensors composed of phage displaying trinitrotoluene (TNT)-binding peptide motifs identified from a phage display selectively distinguish TNT down to 300 p.p.b. over similarly structured chemicals. Our tunable, colourimetric sensors can be useful for the detection of a variety of harmful toxicants and pathogens to protect human health and national security.

  13. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  14. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  15. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  16. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  17. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  18. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  19. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  20. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  1. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  2. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  3. Ground truth and benchmarks for performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Shneier, Michael; Hong, Tsai Hong; Chang, Tommy; Scrapper, Christopher; Cheok, Geraldine S.

    2003-09-01

    Progress in algorithm development and transfer of results to practical applications such as military robotics requires the setup of standard tasks, of standard qualitative and quantitative measurements for performance evaluation and validation. Although the evaluation and validation of algorithms have been discussed for over a decade, the research community still faces a lack of well-defined and standardized methodology. The range of fundamental problems include a lack of quantifiable measures of performance, a lack of data from state-of-the-art sensors in calibrated real-world environments, and a lack of facilities for conducting realistic experiments. In this research, we propose three methods for creating ground truth databases and benchmarks using multiple sensors. The databases and benchmarks will provide researchers with high quality data from suites of sensors operating in complex environments representing real problems of great relevance to the development of autonomous driving systems. At NIST, we have prototyped a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) system with a suite of sensors including a Riegl ladar, GDRS ladar, stereo CCD, several color cameras, Global Position System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), pan/tilt encoders, and odometry . All sensors are calibrated with respect to each other in space and time. This allows a database of features and terrain elevation to be built. Ground truth for each sensor can then be extracted from the database. The main goal of this research is to provide ground truth databases for researchers and engineers to evaluate algorithms for effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness, thus advancing the development of algorithms.

  4. A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Mason

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is presented for in-situ monitoring of atmospheric hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen sensor network consists of multiple sensor nodes, equipped with titania nanotube hydrogen sensors, distributed throughout the area of interest; each node is both sensor, and data-relay station that enables extended wide area monitoring without a consequent increase of node power and thus node size. The hydrogen sensor is fabricated from a sheet of highly ordered titania nanotubes, made by anodization of a titanium thick film, to which platinum electrodes are connected. The electrical resistance of the hydrogen sensor varies from 245 Ω at 500 ppm hydrogen, to 10.23 kΩ at 0 ppm hydrogen (pure nitrogen environment. The measured resistance is converted to voltage, 0.049 V at 500 ppm to 2.046 V at 0 ppm, by interface circuitry. The microcontroller of the sensor node digitizes the voltage and transmits the digital information, using intermediate nodes as relays, to a host node that downloads measurement data to a computer for display. This paper describes the design and operation of the sensor network, the titania nanotube hydrogen sensors with an apparent low level resolution of approximately 0.05 ppm, and their integration in one widely useful device.

  5. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  6. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  7. Recce NG: from Recce sensor to image intelligence (IMINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Serge

    2001-12-01

    Recce NG (Reconnaissance New Generation) is presented as a complete and optimized Tactical Reconnaissance System. Based on a new generation Pod integrating high resolution Dual Band sensors, the system has been designed with the operational lessons learnt from the last Peace Keeping Operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. The technical solutions retained as component modules of a full IMINT acquisition system, take benefit of the state of art in the following key technologies: Advanced Mission Planning System for long range stand-off Manned Recce, Aircraft and/or Pod tasking, operating sophisticated back-up software tools, high resolution 3D geo data and improved/combat proven MMI to reduce planning delays, Mature Dual Band sensors technology to achieve the Day and Night Recce Mission, including advanced automatic operational functions, as azimuth and roll tracking capabilities, low risk in Pod integration and in carrier avionics, controls and displays upgrades, to save time in operational turn over and maintenance, High rate Imagery Down Link, for Real Time or Near Real Time transmission, fully compatible with STANAG 7085 requirements, Advanced IMINT Exploitation Ground Segment, combat proven, NATO interoperable (STANAG 7023), integrating high value software tools for accurate location, improved radiometric image processing and open link to the C4ISR systems. The choice of an industrial Prime contractor mastering across the full system, all the prior listed key products and technologies, is mandatory to a successful delivery in terms of low Cost, Risk and Time Schedule.

  8. A multi-sensor approach to monitor slope displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, E. H. Y.; Oommen, T.; Escobar-Wolf, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The use of remote sensing toward slope monitoring and landslide detection has been widespread. Common techniques include interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and optical photogrammetric methods. Each technique can measure ground motion when data over the same region are acquired through multiple acquisitions, with typical data outputs displayed in spatial form (e.g., displacement/velocity maps or two- and three-dimensional change detection models) or in temporal form (e.g., displacement time series). The authors apply a multi-sensor approach - combining satellite-based InSAR, terrestrial LiDAR, and aerial optical photogrammetry - in order to optimize these remote sensing techniques based on their advantages and limitations. This application is conducted over a railroad corridor in southeastern Nevada. InSAR results include the calculation of displacement rates across many slopes over a long period of time. Two slopes, identified as potentially hazardous, are further analyzed in greater detail using LiDAR and optical photogrammetry. Slope displacements are measured using a point-cloud change detection analysis; the potential for stacking acquisitions to create displacement time-series is also explored. Overall, the goal is to illustrate the benefits of using a multi-sensor, remote sensing approach towards the monitoring of slope instability.

  9. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  10. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  11. Wearable Sensor System for Human Dynamics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko; Zheng, Rencheng

    2010-01-01

    A new wearable sensor system was developed for measuring tri-directional ground reaction force (GRF) and segment orientations. A stationary force plate can not measure more than one stride; moreover, in studies of stair ascent and descent measurements, a complex system consisting of many stationary force plates and a data fusion method must be constructed (Stacoff et al., 2005; Della and Bonato, 2007). The wearable sensor system proposed in this chapter can be applied to successive walking tr...

  12. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information of the...... of the displacement. Systems for probing lateral displacements and in-plane vibrations (1-D and 2-D) are displayed, as will systems for probing angular velocity and torsional vibrations of rotating objects....

  13. Improving the detection of explosive hazards with LIDAR-based ground plane estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional point clouds generated by LIDAR offer the potential to build a more complete understanding of the environment in front of a moving vehicle. In particular, LIDAR data facilitates the development of a non-parametric ground plane model that can filter target predictions from other sensors into above-ground and below-ground sets. This allows for improved detection performance when, for example, a system designed to locate above-ground targets considers only the set of above-ground predictions. In this paper, we apply LIDAR-based ground plane filtering to a forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) sensor system and a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor system designed to detect explosive hazards along the side of a road. Additionally, we consider the value of the visual magnitude of the LIDAR return as a feature for identifying anomalies. The predictions from these sensors are evaluated independently with and without ground plane filtering and then fused to produce a combined prediction confidence. Sensor fusion is accomplished by interpolating the confidence scores of each sensor along the ground plane model to create a combined confidence vector at specified points in the environment. The methods are tested along an unpaved desert road at an arid U.S. Army test site.

  14. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  15. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JW

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Wook Lee,1 Jangwon Song,1,2 Mintai P Hwang,1 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology. Keywords: biosensing, M13 bacteriophage, T4 bacteriophage, bacterial detection, Escherichia coli, SPR sensor

  16. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  17. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  18. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  19. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  20. Computer-Controlled Photometry And Large-Screen Display Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Waldo R.

    1981-10-01

    A new method for measuring the resolution and contrast of calligraphic projection displays has been developed at NOSC (Naval Ocean Systems Center). The technique involves the use of a computer-controlled photometer and an X-Y plotter. The plotter is normally used to give hard copy records of the photometric data obtained from spectral or spatial scans and subsequently stored in the memory of the controlling computer. In this application the photo-metric sensor, a miniature integrating sphere with a slit aperture, is mounted on the X-Y plotter pen holder, which is in turn moved according to programmed instructions from the computer. With the X-Y plotter positioned vertically in front of a projection display, the projected brightness is measured and stored in the computer memory as a function of sensor position. The spatial displacement between measurements is under operator control and can be in increments as small as one-thousandth of an inch. After the data are stored in computer memory, they are made into hard copy with the X-Y plotter in one of several plotting modes. From this hard copy the display performance parameters of resolution and contrast can be extracted. The different plotting modes are used to enhance various differences when more scans than one are recorded on the same chart.

  1. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  2. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  3. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  4. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  5. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  6. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  7. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  8. Track score processing of multiple dissimilar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Patsikas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a data fusion problem when a number of different types of sensors are deployed in the vicinity of a ballistic missile launch is studied. An objective of this thesis is to calculate a scoring function for each sensor track, and the track file with the best (optimum) track score can then be used for guiding an interceptor to the threat within the boost phase. Seven active ground-based radars, two space-based passive infrared sensors and two active light detection and rangin...

  9. Passive Wireless SAW Sensors for IVHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Perey, Daniel F.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Future IVHM sensors need to be small, light weight, inexpensive, and wireless. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology meets all of these constraints. In addition it operates in harsh environments and over wide temperature ranges, and it is inherently radiation hardened. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new sensors that address anticipated IVHM needs for aerospace vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless SAW sensors from ground testing to high altitude aircraft operations are presented, along with some of the challenges and issues of the technology.

  10. Preproduction display R&D facility: a framework for developing flexible display systems reducing the war-fighters' load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenhausern, Frederick; Raupp, Gregory B.

    2004-09-01

    There is an ever increasing need for lightweight, flexible, inexpensive integrated systems encompassing displays, sensors, computers, and other electronics to provide unprecedented information capability to a broad range of war-fighters. During the next few years, a team of experts will be engaged in an intensive development program pursuing a two-pronged goal: (1) to integrate and fabricate reflective and emissive systems such as organic light emitting devices on flexible substrates including plastics, and (2) to develop materials and structural platforms that allow flexible backplane electronics to be integrated with ancillaries and display components, as well as to be mass-produced economically. An underlying theme of this effort continues to be leveraging emerging processing techniques, for example a-Si and poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) technologies, but also advanced micro-contact pattern transfer techniques for producing low cost product with molecular structures for combined communication and electronic appliances. The initial technology integration target is a 4" diagonal active matrix QVGA display on conformal plastic substrates. These advanced developments will be realized through a unique collaborative effort between the U.S. Army, Arizona State University (ASU) in close collaboration with its academic partners, and industry partners, who are united in our shared commitment to optimize the necessary production technologies for large area/large scale, low cost, cutting-edge display products and state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities. The newly formed Flexible Display Center (FDC) at Arizona State University provides a one-of-a-kind environment fully dedicated to fulfill the major technical challenges not addressed by display manufacturers producing glass-based flat panel displays.

  11. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  12. A modular display system for insect behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-01-30

    Flying insects exhibit stunning behavioral repertoires that are largely mediated by the visual control of flight. For this reason, presenting a controlled visual environment to tethered insects has been and continues to be a powerful tool for studying the sensory control of complex behaviors. To create an easily controlled, scalable, and customizable visual stimulus, we have designed a modular system, based on panels composed of an 8 x 8 array of individual LEDs, that may be connected together to 'tile' an experimental environment with controllable displays. The panels have been designed to be extremely bright, with the added flexibility of individual-pixel brightness control, allowing experimentation over a broad range of behaviorally relevant conditions. Patterns to be displayed may be designed using custom software, downloaded to a controller board, and displayed on the individually addressed panels via a rapid communication interface. The panels are controlled by a microprocessor-based display controller which, for most experiments, will not require a computer in the loop, greatly reducing the experimental infrastructure. This technology allows an experimenter to build and program a visual arena with a customized geometry in a matter of hours. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we present results from experiments with tethered Drosophila melanogaster: (1) in a cylindrical arena composed of 44 panels, used to test the contrast dependence of object orientation behavior, and (2) above a 30-panel floor display, used to examine the effects of ground motion on orientation during flight.

  13. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  14. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  15. Ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors : 6 month comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, A. [LufftUSA, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many wind power developers are looking to reduce the high cost of mechanical sensors by replacing them with ultrasonic sensors. This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to evaluate and compare ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors. The aim of the study was to determine is ultrasonic sensor data is reliable and accurate. Participants in the study included 2 sensor manufacturers and a third party engineering firm. Wind resource assessments, turbine pitch and yaw, and power curve tests were conducted on meteorological towers. Ground-based SODAR and LIDAR measurements were conducted for micrositing and resource assessment. An International Electrochemical Council (IEC) compliant methodology was used to test the sensors at various locations throughout the United States. The benefits of each sensor technology were considered, and a cost comparison was conducted. Results of the study showed that ultrasonic sensors are suitable for permanent tower installations and where resistance to ice and turbulence is required. tabs., figs.

  16. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  17. Semiconductor sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.hartmann@cern.c [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  18. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  19. Hover training display: rationale and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, David L.; Temme, Leonard A.

    2008-04-01

    Hover is an essential component of rotary wing aviation but learning to hover is extremely difficult. From the viewpoint inside the cockpit, the beginning student neither sees nor understands what needs to be done to control the aircraft. This is because the out-the-window real world visual cues suffer from two primary shortcomings. First, the real world visual cues are ambiguous. For example, the relative motion of the ground moving under the nose may indicate forward flight, pitching upward, vertical ascent, or any combination of these. Second, human ability to judge aircraft pitch by itself is insufficient to stabilize the aircraft; such other clues as relative motion or parallax are needed to augment pitch judgments to set aircraft attitude adequately. We report a training display (TD) designed to assist training rotary wing hover. The TD is specifically constructed to communicate aircraft performance and attitude to the student pilot and to disambiguate the external world's features and motions cues into symbology that allows each cue independently to support sufficient levels of parameter resolution. Our preliminary observations, based on pilot data collected during the design, parameterization, and calibration of the TD indicate that it meets its goals in a fashion that enables beginning flight students to understand and interpret the motion cues of the real world out-the-window view.

  20. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  1. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  2. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  3. Microscale, printed LEDs for unusual lighting and display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2011-02-01

    Current technology development in light emitting diodes has enabled high efficiency operation, low energy consumption and lifetimes, thereby creating new possibilities in conventional display and lighting industry. Recent work is also creating more unusual uses in biomedicine and in sensing applications, where conformal contact over curvilinear surfaces is required. Here, ultrathin device geometries and optimized mechanical designs, including neutral mechanical plane layouts and serpentine interconnects, provide indicators and lighting modules with arbitrary shapes capable of integrated on nearly any type of substrates. Biomedical devices such as light emitting suture threads, and glove-mounted optical proximity sensors demonstrate the versatility of this strategy and create great new opportunities.

  4. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  5. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  6. Mobile sensor platforms: categorisation and research applications in precision farming

    OpenAIRE

    Zecha, C. W.; Link, J; CLAUPEIN, W.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of mobile sensor platforms arose in research a few decades ago. Since the beginning of satellite sensing, measurement principles and analysing methods have become widely implemented for aerial and ground vehicles. Mainly in Europe, the United States and Australia, sensor platforms in precision farming are used for surveying, monitoring and scouting tasks. This review gives an overview of available sensor platforms used in recent agricultural and related research pr...

  7. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  8. Thermal flow micro sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow sensors and time of flight flow sensors. Anemometers may comprise several heaters and temperature sensors and from a geometric point of view are similar sometimes for calorimetric flow sensors. We fi...

  9. Identification of Soft Matter Binding Peptide Ligands Using Phage Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Kemal Arda; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-10-21

    Phage display is a powerful tool for the selection of highly affine, short peptide ligands. While originally primarily used for the identification of ligands to proteins, the scope of this technique has significantly expanded over the past two decades. Phage display nowadays is also increasingly applied to identify ligands that selectively bind with high affinity to a broad range of other substrates including natural and biological polymers as well as a variety of low-molecular-weight organic molecules. Such peptides are of interest for various reasons. The ability to selectively and with high affinity bind to the substrate of interest allows the conjugation or immobilization of, e.g., nanoparticles or biomolecules, or generally, facilitates interactions at materials interfaces. On the other hand, presentation of peptide ligands that selectively bind to low-molecular-weight organic materials is of interest for the development of sensor surfaces. The aim of this article is to highlight the opportunities provided by phage display for the identification of peptide ligands that bind to synthetic or natural polymer substrates or to small organic molecules. The article will first provide an overview of the different peptide ligands that have been identified by phage display that bind to these "soft matter" targets. The second part of the article will discuss the different characterization techniques that allow the determination of the affinity of the identified ligands to the respective substrates.

  10. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid (DAA) Displays for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Pack, Jessica S.; Shively, R. Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of government, industry and academia is currently working to establish minimum operational performance standards for Detect and Avoid (DAA) and Control and Communications (C2) systems in order to enable broader integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One subset of these performance standards will need to address the DAA display requirements that support an acceptable level of pilot performance. From a pilot's perspective, the DAA task is the maintenance of self separation and collision avoidance from other aircraft, utilizing the available information and controls within the Ground Control Station (GCS), including the DAA display. The pilot-in-the-loop DAA task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots' ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The authors propose an eight-stage pilot-DAA interaction timeline from which several pilot response time metrics can be extracted. These metrics were compared across the four display conditions. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays. Implications of the findings on understanding pilot performance on the DAA task, the

  11. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  12. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space l aunch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for Immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolics ground system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn tha.t meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  13. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  14. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  15. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  16. FlyTact : A tactile display improves a helicopter pilot's landing performance in degraded visual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect ta

  17. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    The display of peptide sequences on the surface of bacteria is a technology that offers exciting applications in biotechnology and medical research. Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli which mediate D-mannose-sensitive binding to different host surfaces by virtue of the Fim...... of biomatrices for bioremediation purposes or in the development of sensors for detection of heavy metals....

  18. Microcantilever sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  19. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  20. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  1. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  2. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  3. Investigation of the touch sensitivity of ER fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-05-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5x5 touch sensitive tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. In the meantime, it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display"s surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  4. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  5. Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality Mark A. Livingston∗ Naval Research Laboratory...effectively impossible with all icon styles, whereas in the case of partial overlap, the Ground Plane had a clear advantage. Keywords: Augmented reality , human

  6. JERS-1 Workshop on the Ground Station for ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    1990-11-01

    Presented in viewgraph format, the present status of the ground station and future plan for utilizing earth observation satellites in Thailand is outlined. Topics addressed include: data acquisition system; operation status of LANDSAT, SPOT, and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1); remote sensors of satellites; data output form; data correction level; data system in Thailand; ground station for MOS-1 satellite in Thailand; and future plan.

  7. Enhanced spatial-state feedback for night-vision goggle displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of visual flow cues as an aid to ground and vertical drift awareness during helicopter flight and targeting while using night vision goggles (NVGs). Three displays wee compared: (1) NVG display: simulated NVG image of cockpit and external environment. (2) Overlay display: NVG image with an overlay display but with symbology flow cue field and a surrounding wire-frame globe; (3) Cut-out display: same as the overlay display but with symbology removed from the central region. Three levels of contrast were also compared using each display type. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 by 50 degree field-of-view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. Three tasks were given: (1) Search task: designate enemy targets with a helmet-mounted sight; (2) Hover task: null out all transnational and yaw rates while in a hover; (3) Search/Hover task: perform both Search and Hover tasks simultaneously. These tasks were conducted in a fixed-based helicopter simulator which used the dynamics of a small-scale model helicopter. The following performance measures were collected: (1) Pilot ability to detect and recognize targets; (2) Pilots ability to null transnational and yaw rates; (3) Time scanning the instrument panel. Subjects also rated displays for efficacy in completing the three tasks. Target detection scores conducted during the Search and Search/Hover tasks were highest using the NVG display, followed by the cut-out display. Root-mean-square (RMS) drift rate error was comparable for all display types in the Hover and Hover/Search tasks, however RMS control input activity in all the translational axes was significantly higher in both rate-cueing displays than with the NVG display. From the control input and drift rate time histories it appears that the motion cues were more compelling in the overlay and cut- out displays than those perceived

  8. Treating student contributions as displays of understanding in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the analytic relevance of the talk's embeddedness within a particular sort of institutional activity. With regard to the last point, we will show how the supervisors' construction an evaluation and the work embarked upon by him or her following students' post-evaluation comprehension displays reflexively...... grounds the particular institutional setting. In spite of the particulars of these data, however, we nonetheless maintain that our analyses of them reveal generalities concerning how cognition can be viewed as distributed, situated, activity-bound and embodied....

  9. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  10. DNA and RNA sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; LIN; Lin; ZHAO; Hong; JIANG; Long

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in DNA sensor. Major areas of DNA sensor covered in this review include immobilization methods of DNA, general techniques of DNA detection and application of nanoparticles in DNA sensor.

  11. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  12. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  13. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  14. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  15. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  16. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  17. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  18. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  19. Organic Thin Film Devices for Displays and Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Oliver J.; Krause, Ralf; Paetzold, Ralph

    Organic materials can be used for fabrication of, e.g., electronic circuits, solar cells, light sensors, memory cells and light emitting diodes. Especially organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are increasingly attractive because of their huge market potential. The feasibility of efficient OLEDs was first shown in 1987 [3]. Only about ten years later the first product, a display for car radios, entered the market. Today monochrome and full colour OLED-displays can be found in many applications replacing established flat panel display technologies like TFT-LCDs. This substitution is a consequence of the outstanding attributes of OLED technology: Organic light emitting displays are self-emissive, thin, video capable and in addition they show a wide temperature operation range and allow a viewing angle of nearly 180 degree in conjunction with a low power consumption. As performance has steadily increased over the last years, today OLEDs are also under investigation as next generation light source. In contrast to inorganic LEDs, they can be built as flat 2-dimensional light sources that are lightweight, colour tunable, and potentially cheap. This will open up new degrees of freedom in design leading also to completely new applications. In this contribution we will have a brief view on the history of organic electroluminescent materials before we introduce the basic principles of OLEDs with a focus on the physical processes leading to light generation in thin organic films. Along with an overview of different concepts and technologies used to build OLEDs, the current status of OLED development will be illustrated. The last part focuses on the challenges that have to be overcome to enable a sustainable success in the display and lighting markets.

  20. A screen-printed flexible flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, A.; Syrovy, T.; Syrova, L.; Kaltsas, G.

    2017-04-01

    A thermal flow sensor was printed on a flexible plastic substrate using exclusively screen-printing techniques. The presented device was implemented with custom made screen-printed thermistors, which allows simple, cost-efficient production on a variety of flexible substrates while maintaining the typical advantages of thermal flow sensors. Evaluation was performed for both static (zero flow) and dynamic conditions using a combination of electrical measurements and IR imaging techniques in order to determine important characteristics, such as temperature response, output repeatability, etc. The flow sensor was characterized utilizing the hot-wire and calorimetric principles of operation, while the preliminary results appear to be very promising, since the sensor was successfully evaluated and displayed adequate sensitivity in a relatively wide flow range.

  1. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  2. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  3. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  4. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  5. Advances in wireless sensors and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Leung, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Written by experts, this book illustrates and collects recent advances in wireless sensors and sensor networks. It provides clever support for scientists, students and researchers in order to stimulate exchange and discussions for further developments.

  6. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  7. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  8. Accident Prevention by Eye Blinking Sensor and Alcohol Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa K B, Chaitra M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This system provides a unique method to curb drunken and drowsy people. This system has an alcohol sensor and eye blinking sensor embedded in the vehicles. Whenever the driver start vehicle, the sensors senses the eye blink and measures the content of alcohol in his breathe and automatically sends the signal to buzzer, gsm and lcd. In this system the outputs of sensors are given to the microcontroller for comparison. If the value reaches to fixed limit then automatically gsm will send the sms, buzzer will produces sound and lcd will display the message.

  9. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  10. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  11. An Arduino project to record ground motion and to learn on earthquake hazard at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Barnaba, Carla; Clocchiatti, Marco; Zuliani, David

    2015-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Technology education with Earth Sciences, we implemented an educational program to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. Using free software and low-cost open hardware, the students of a senior class of the high school Liceo Paschini in Tolmezzo (NE Italy) implemented a seismograph using the Arduino open-source electronics platform and the ADXL345 sensors to emulate a low cost seismometer (e.g. O-NAVI sensor of the Quake-Catcher Network, http://qcn.stanford.edu). To accomplish their task the students were addressed to use the web resources for technical support and troubleshooting. Shell scripts, running on local computers under Linux OS, controlled the process of recording and display data. The main part of the experiment was documented using the DokuWiki style. Some propaedeutic lessons in computer sciences and electronics were needed to build up the necessary skills of the students and to fill in the gap of their background knowledge. In addition lectures by seismologists and laboratory activity allowed the class to exploit different aspects of the physics of the earthquake and particularly of the seismic waves, and to become familiar with the topics of seismic hazard through an inquiry-based learning. The Arduino seismograph achieved can be used for educational purposes and it can display tremors on the local network of the school. For sure it can record the ground motion due to a seismic event that can occur in the area, but further improvements are necessary for a quantitative analysis of the recorded signals.

  12. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaczyk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

  13. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., has developed a software toolkit that filters and processes navigational data from multiple sensor sources. A key component of the toolkit is a trajectory optimization technique that reduces the sensitivity of Kalman filters with respect to model parameter uncertainties. The sensor fusion toolkit also integrates recent advances in adaptive Kalman and sigma-point filters for non-Gaussian problems with error statistics. This Phase II effort provides new filtering and sensor fusion techniques in a convenient package that can be used as a stand-alone application for ground support and/or onboard use. Its modular architecture enables ready integration with existing tools. A suite of sensor models and noise distribution as well as Monte Carlo analysis capability are included to enable statistical performance evaluations.

  14. Graphene Chemical Sensor for Heliophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species. In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as oxonium, hydron and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  15. Graphene chemical sensors for heliophysics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-10-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species (Schedin, F.; Geim, A.K.; Morozov, S.V.; Hill, E.W.; Blake, P.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Novoselov, K.S. Nat. Mater 2007, 6, 652-655. doi:10.1038/nmat1967). In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as O+, H+ and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  16. Laser-based displays: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  17. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  18. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  19. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  2. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  3. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  4. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  5. 1st National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    D’Amico, Arnaldo; Natale, Corrado; Siciliano, Pietro; Seeber, Renato; Stefano, Luca; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Andò, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the First National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 15-17 February 2011. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.   ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the First Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications;       ·        Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  6. Track classification within wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumerc, Robin; Pannetier, Benjamin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present our study on track classification by taking into account environmental information and target estimated states. The tracker uses several motion model adapted to different target dynamics (pedestrian, ground vehicle and SUAV, i.e. small unmanned aerial vehicle) and works in centralized architecture. The main idea is to explore both: classification given by heterogeneous sensors and classification obtained with our fusion module. The fusion module, presented in his paper, provides a class on each track according to track location, velocity and associated uncertainty. To model the likelihood on each class, a fuzzy approach is used considering constraints on target capability to move in the environment. Then the evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) is used to perform a time integration of this classifier output. The fusion rules are tested and compared on real data obtained with our wireless sensor network.In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of this system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  7. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  8. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  9. Laser docking sensor engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekome, Kent; Barr, Joseph M.

    NASA JSC has been involved in the development of Laser sensors for the past ten years in order to support future rendezvous and docking missions, both manned and unmanned. Although many candidate technologies have been breadboarded and evaluated, no sensor hardware designed specifically for rendezvous and docking applications has been demonstrated on-orbit. It has become apparent that representative sensors need to be flown and demonstrated as soon as possible, with minimal cost, to provide the capability of the technology in meeting NASA's future AR&C applications. Technology and commercial component reliability have progressed to where it is now feasible to fly hardware as a detailed test objective minimizing the overall cost and development time. This presentation will discuss the ongoing effort to convert an existing in-house developed breadboard to an engineering model configuration suitable for flight. The modifications include improving the ranger resolution and stability with an in-house design, replacing the rack mounted galvanometric scanner drivers with STD-bus cards, replacing the system controlling personal computer with a microcontroller, and repackaging the subsystems as appropriate. The sensor will use the performance parameters defined in previous JSC requirements working groups as design goals and be built to withstand the space environment where fiscally feasible. Testing of the in-house ranger design is expected to be completed in October. The results will be included in the presentation. Preliminary testing of the ranging circuitry indicates a range resolution of 4mm is possible. The sensor will be mounted in the payload bay on a shelf bracket and have command, control, and display capabilities using the payload general support computer via an RS422 data line.

  10. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor.

  11. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  12. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  13. Coordinated Optimization of Aircraft Routes and Locations of Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    optimization approaches allowing minimization of the total cost subject to linear inequality constraints can be formulated in terms of the binary...the calculations are not trivial. ERDC/CRREL TR-14-20 9 3.1 Coverage matrix for aircraft Coverage matrix A enters the inequality coverage...of target (a person versus a car): 8 ± 2 px • Identification of the target (a woman versus a man, a specific car): 13 ± 3 px; These criteria

  14. Unattended Ground Sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 Intelligence Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    research and analysis. Although well documented and tested in this thesis, the use of cellular and WiFi wireless technology in austere conditions may...research is unique to the establishment of a WiFi network for use in combat operations and one networked with UGS for a PISR capability. Evaluation of...communicate over both Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) channels , the latter including both line-of-sight and satellite links to

  15. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  16. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  17. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  18. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  19. Parallel large data visualization with display walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Luiz; Vo, Huy T.; Krüger, Jens; Silva, Cláudio T.; Comba, João L. D.

    2012-01-01

    While there exist popular software tools that leverage the power of arrays of tiled high resolution displays, they usually require either the use of a particular API or significant programming effort to be properly configured. We present PVW (Parallel Visualization using display Walls), a framework that uses display walls for scientific visualization, requiring minimum labor in setup, programming and configuration. PVW works as a plug-in to pipeline-based visualization software, and allows users to migrate existing visualizations designed for a single-workstation, single-display setup to a large tiled display running on a distributed machine. Our framework is also extensible, allowing different APIs and algorithms to be made display wall-aware with minimum effort.

  20. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  1. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  2. Increased ISR operator capability utilizing a centralized 360° full motion video display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryc, K.; Chamberlain, J.; Eagleson, T.; Gottschalk, G.; Kowal, B.; Kuzdeba, P.; LaValley, D.; Myers, E.; Quinn, S.; Rose, M.; Rusiecki, B.

    2012-06-01

    In many situations, the difference between success and failure comes down to taking the right actions quickly. While the myriad of electronic sensors available today can provide data quickly, it may overload the operator; where only a contextualized centralized display of information and intuitive human interface can help to support the quick and effective decisions needed. If these decisions are to result in quick actions, then the operator must be able to understand all of the data of his environment. In this paper we present a novel approach in contextualizing multi-sensor data onto a full motion video real-time 360 degree imaging display. The system described could function as a primary display system for command and control in security, military and observation posts. It has the ability to process and enable interactive control of multiple other sensor systems. It enhances the value of these other sensors by overlaying their information on a panorama of the surroundings. Also, it can be used to interface to other systems including: auxiliary electro-optical systems, aerial video, contact management, Hostile Fire Indicators (HFI), and Remote Weapon Stations (RWS).

  3. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  4. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  5. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  6. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-03-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  7. Using the Xbox Kinect sensor for positional data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Jorge; Pheatt, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    The Kinect sensor was introduced in November 2010 by Microsoft for the Xbox 360 video game system. It is designed to be positioned above or below a video display to track player body and hand movements in three dimensions (3D). The sensor contains a red, green, and blue (RGB) camera, a depth sensor, an infrared (IR) light source, a three-axis accelerometer, and a multi-array microphone, as well as hardware required to transmit sensor information to an external receiver. In this article, we evaluate the capabilities of the Kinect sensor as a 3D data-acquisition platform for use in physics experiments. Data obtained for a simple pendulum, a spherical pendulum, projectile motion, and a bouncing basketball are presented. Overall, the Kinect sensor is found to be a useful data-acquisition tool for motion studies in the physics laboratory.

  8. A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-05-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) based ammonia (NH3) sensor was implemented on a cotton yarn. Two types of sensors were fabricated: Au/sensing CNT/Au and conducting/sensing/conducting all CNT structures. Two perpendicular Au wires were designed to contact CNT-cotton yarn for metal-CNT sensor, whereas nanotubes were used for the electrode as well as sensing material for the all CNT sensor. The resistance shift of the CNT network upon NH3 was monitored in a chemiresistor approach. The CNT-cotton yarn sensors exhibited uniformity and repeatability. Furthermore, the sensors displayed good mechanical robustness against bending. The present approach can be utilized for low-cost smart textile applications.

  9. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  10. Self-powered biosensor for ascorbic acid with a Prussian blue electrochromic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloczewska, Adrianna; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Dorota; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2014-04-15

    We report on the development of a nanocarbon based anode for sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The oxidation of AA on this anode occurs at a quite low overpotential which enables the anode to be connected to a biocathode to form an ascorbic acid/O2 biofuel cell that functions as a self-powered biosensor. In conjunction with a Prussian blue electrochromic display the anode can also work as a truly self-powered sensor. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the anode leads to a reduction of the Prussian blue in the display. The reduced form of Prussian blue, called Prussian white, is transparent. The rate of change from blue to colourless is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. The display can easily be regenerated by connecting it to the biocathode which returns the Prussian blue to its oxidized form. In this way we have created the first self-powered electrochromic sensor that gives quantitative information about the analyte concentration. This is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice. The reported quantitative read-out electrochromic display can serve as a template for the creation of cheap, miniturizable sensors for other relevant analytes.

  11. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  12. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  13. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  14. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  15. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  16. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  17. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  18. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  19. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  20. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  1. Separation Monitoring with Four Types of Predictors on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, S.; Palmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    A clear and concise display format for use in later full mission simulator evaluation of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) concept was studied. This experiment required airline pilots to monitor a CDTI and make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft (ownship). The main experimental variable was the type of predictor used to display future position of each aircraft. Predictors were referenced to the ground or to ownship and they either included turn rate information or did not. Other variables were the aircraft's separation distance when the judgment was required and the type of encounter (straight or turning). Results indicate that under these experimental conditions fewer errors were made when the predictor included turn rate information. There was little difference in overall error rate for the curved ground referenced and the ownship referenced predictors.

  2. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  3. Experimental Investigation Into the Aerodynamic Ground Effect of a Tailless Chevron and Lambda-shaped UCAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Significant advances during the last quarter-century in computing capabilities, electronics miniaturization, communications , guidance, navigation, and...Grumman X-47. The X-45 will combine advance air vehicle hardware, including integrated sensors, communication , navigation equipment and low...USNR for UCAV Ground Effects Test**** %****** Re-adapted by Won In, Capt, USAF for UCAV Ground Efects Test ****** %******************* Calculation

  4. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  5. Tactile feedback display with spatial and temporal resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  6. Tactile Feedback Display with Spatial and Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W.; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-08-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  7. Sensors an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...

  8. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  9. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  10. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  11. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  12. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  13. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    applicable not only to robotics or agricultural applications, but most very low altitude or ground based hyperspectral sensors operating with natural light.

  14. A new selectophore for gadolinium selective sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Based on a selective complexation of N′-(2-oxo-1,2-di(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene)furan-2-carbohydrazide (L) with Gd(III) ions, it was used as a selectophore in construction of a Gd(III) selective PVC membrane sensor. Different compositions for the membrane were tested. The o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) was used as suitable plasticizer, and a mixture of sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) and oleic acid (OA) as anion excluders. The proposed sensor displayed a Nernstian behavior with the slope of 19.9 ± 0.6 mV decade{sup −1} in concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.0 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1}. Detection limit was 4.2 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} and response time was ∼ 10 s. Applicable pH range of the electrode was 4.2–8.0. Lifetime of the sensor is at least 10 weeks. Analysis of certified reference materials confirmed the accuracy of the proposed electrode. - Highlights: • This work reports design of membrane sensor for monitoring of Gd3+ ions. • The novelty of this work is the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Gd3+ ions. • The sensor is superior to the formerly reported Gd3+ sensors in terms of selectivity.

  15. Ubiquitous Sensor Network for Chemical Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Young Chung; Risto Myllylae

    2006-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been identified as one of the most important technologies for the 21st century. Recent advances in micro sensor fabrication technology and wireless communication technology enable the practical deployment of large-scale, low-power, inexpensive sensor networks. Such an approach offers an advantage over traditional sensing methods in many ways: large-scale, dense deployment not only extends spatial coverage and achieves higher resolution, but also increases the system's fault-tolerance and robustness. Moreover, the ad-hoc nature of wireless sensor networks makes them even more attractive for military and other risk-associated applications, such as environmental observation and habitat monitoring.

  16. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  17. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  18. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  19. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  20. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.