WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground return ratio

  1. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  2. Consumption-Wealth Ratio and Expected Housing Return

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kundan Kishor; Swati Kumari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate expected return on housing by exploiting information from the variations in the consumption- wealth ratio. We combine a present-value model of consumption with an unobserved component model to express the excess consumption-assets ratio (consumption in excess of labor income) as a linear function of unobserved return on housing assets, financial assets, and consumption growth. We apply a Kalman filter to extract expected housing asset returns from the history of rea...

  3. ANALISA PENGARUH BETA, SIZE PERUSAHAAN, DER DAN PBV RATIO TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Sugiarto

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan beberapa variabel yang menjadi pemrediksi stock return. Variabel tersebut adalah Beta, Company Size, DER ratio and PBV ratio. Berdasarkan analisis regresi, beta mempunyai dampak yang positif terhadap stock return tetapi tidak signifikan, besar kecilnya perusahaan dan rasio PBV mempunyai dampak positif dan signifikan, sedangkan rasio DER mempunyai dampak negative dan signifikan terhadap stock return. Dampak variabel-variabel pada stock return pada ...

  4. ANALISA PENGARUH BETA, SIZE PERUSAHAAN, DER DAN PBV RATIO TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Sugiarto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan beberapa variabel yang menjadi pemrediksi stock return. Variabel tersebut adalah Beta, Company Size, DER ratio and PBV ratio. Berdasarkan analisis regresi, beta mempunyai dampak yang positif terhadap stock return tetapi tidak signifikan, besar kecilnya perusahaan dan rasio PBV mempunyai dampak positif dan signifikan, sedangkan rasio DER mempunyai dampak negative dan signifikan terhadap stock return. Dampak variabel-variabel pada stock return pada perusahaan-perusahaan yang terdaftar di Main Board Index (MBX lebih tinggi daripada perusahaan-perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Development Board Index (DBX. The research has a purpose for showing some factors that become the predictor for the stock return. They are Beta, Company Size, DER ratio and PBV ratio. From the reggresion analysis, the results say that beta have a positive effect to the stock return, but it is not significant; the company size and PBV ratio have a positive and significant effect to the stock return; while the DER ratio have a negative and significant effect to the stock return. The variables effect on stock return in companies that listed in Main Board Index (MBX is higher than in companies listed in Development Board Index (DBX.

  5. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  6. Research on the kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment in the form of low supply–middle return in the large space of brine experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in this article is a 1:15 brine model experiment rig with an actual large space building as the research object, which provides different concentration brine for a simulation of the stratified air conditioning in the steady-state flow field featured with columnar air supply in the bottom, heat source on the ground, the central air return, and air exhaust from roof in a large space. According to the similarity theory, it is concluded that the similarity criterion numbers applied here are Reynolds number (Re and Archimedes number (Ar for designation of experiment rig size, choosing device type, and confirming experiment condition. In the designation of key components of experiment rig, the application of automation control makes brine recovery and recycling in the process; designation of electrical control system makes a centralized control of experiment start–stop and the adjustment of the pipeline flow, realizing automation in the whole experiment process. Particle image velocimetry testing technology is used to get velocity vector field of air return mouth area in the model under various working conditions, and also proper orthogonal decomposition method is applied to analyze flow field structure of air return mouth area and reconstruct it. Consequently, we can get a kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment of lower air-conditioning section and upper non-air-conditioning section in large space. Experiments show that under the conditions of same air supply, indoor environment temperature difference, and height and direction of return air inlet, fastening the speed of return air suction, the entrainment of flow field around it strengthens accordingly. The entrainment of return air inlet has more kinetic energy in the lower air-conditioning section than the upper non-air-conditioning section.

  7. Ratio K: a New Way of Metering and Evaluating the Risk and Return of Stock Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑珍; 朱静怡

    2003-01-01

    Although widely used, both the Markowitz model and VAR (Value at Risk) model have some limitations in evaluating the risk and return of stock investnent.By the analysis of the conceptions of risk and return,together with the three hypotheses of technological analysis, a novelty model of metering and evaluating the risk and return of stock investnent is established.The major indicator of this model , risk-return ratio K, combines the characteristic indicators of risk and return. Regardless of the form of the risk-return probability density functions, this indicator K can always reflect the risk-return performances of the invested stocks clearly and accurately. How to use the model to make optimum investment and how to make portfolio combined with clustering analysis is also explained.

  8. The Relationship between Operational Financial Ratios and Firm’s Abnormal Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Ghasempour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The investment in stock market and other stocks issued by the firms require sufficient knowledge and understanding of the financial reports and information of the business firms. This study aims to investigate the effects of three types of financial ratios, i.e., profitability/liquidity, continuity and efficiency of business firms over the investors’ abnormal stock returns. To achieve the aim of the study, the ratios were categorized into two groups namely fundamental ratios and risk-proxy ratios. The financial ratios make a relationship between various economic variables of a firm and make it possible to compare financial information of various firms. The financial ratios also make it easier to evaluate the firm’s performance through examining the relationship between the variables of the financial statements. The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the most fundamental accounting variables, i.e., return on assets, operational cash flow, changes in return on assets, changes in net profit margin and total asset turnover. The existence of this relationship shows the high dependence of abnormal stock returns on its intrinsic fundamental variables. However, there was not any relationship the liquidity ratio and stock returns. Moreover, there was not any significant relationship between the majority of risk proxy variables i.e., the ratio of accruals, operating leverage and stock issuance indicating the independence of abnormal stock returns from risk proxy variables.

  9. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AUTONOMY RATIO AND THE RETURN ON EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    Considering the relationship between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk as well as the relationship between the autonomy ratio and the return on equity, it is concluded that the optimum value of the autonomy ratio is placed within the interval [50%; 100%].

  10. Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.

  11. Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, A.; Sari, P. K.; Sharif, O. O.; Sofyan, E.

    2016-04-01

    Web site performance, especially returning visitor is an important metric for an information provider web site. Since high returning visitor is a good indication of a web site’s visitor loyalty, it is important to find a way to improve this metric. This research investigated if there is any difference on returning visitor metric among three web traffic sources namely direct, referral and search. Monthly returning visitor and total visitor from each source is retrieved from Google Analytics tools and then calculated to measure returning visitor ratio. The period of data observation is from July 2012 to June 2015 resulting in a total of 108 samples. These data then analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to address our research question. The results showed that different traffic source has significantly different returning visitor ratio especially between referral traffic source and the other two traffic sources. On the other hand, this research did not find any significant difference between returning visitor ratio from direct and search traffic sources. The owner of the web site can focus to multiply referral links from other relevant sites.

  12. Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing To Deposit Ratio Terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Benget M.

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk menganalisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing to Deposit Ratio terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia Jenis data yang akan diolah dan diteliti adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan seperti neraca dan laporan laba-rugi serta bahan publikasi lain yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti. Tahun buku akuntansi yang dipilih adalah tahun buku 2007 sampai dengan t...

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Return On Asset, Size, Debt To Equity Ratio Dan Cash Ratio Terhadap Dividend Payout Ratio Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Liandra, Yoga

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Return on Assets, Size, Debt To Equity Ratio and Cash Ratio on Dividend Payout Ratio at manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange the period 2008-2011 using the SPSS program. This study uses secondary data, in the form of financial statements obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website. The samples used were 19 companies that distribute dividends in the year 2008-2011 in the sample selection is done by sampling puposive....

  14. Estimating Stocks Return with Decomposition of the Book-to-Market Ratio: Evidences from Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ribeiro de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The book-to-market (BM ratio differs across stocks because to differences in expected cashflows and expected returns. The central hypothesis is that the evolution of BM, in terms of past changes in price and book equity, contains information about future cashflows that can be used to improve estimates of expected returns. This article used a database of Economática to extract a sample of non-financial companies shares listed on BOVESPA and test this hypothesis. The estimated regressions were performed monthly during the period July 1996 to June 2008. Both for large and mid caps as for small caps, the results do not favor this hypothesis and show that only the most recent BM is important to predict the assets returns. Furthermore, stock issues and repurchases are also related to future cashflows and it is expected to improve estimates of expected returns. However, the results provide no evidence favoring that.

  15. Ground-based integrated path coherent differential absorption lidar measurement of CO2: foothill target return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ishii

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT has made a great deal of effort to develop a coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL for measuring CO2 and wind speed. First, coherent Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA lidar experiments were conducted using the Co2DiaWiL and a foothill target (tree and ground surface located about 7.12 km south of NICT on 11, 27, and 28 December 2010. The detection sensitivity of a 2 μm IPDA lidar was examined in detail using the CO2 concentration measured by the foothill reflection. The precisions of CO2 measurements for the foothill target and 900, 4500 and 27 000 shot pairs were 6.5, 2.8, and 1.2%, respectively. The results indicated that a coherent IPDA lidar with a laser operating at a high pulse repetition frequency of a few tens of KHz is necessary for XCO2 (column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 measurement with a precision of 1–2 ppm in order to observe temporal and spatial variations in the CO2. Statistical comparisons indicated that, although a small amount of in situ data and the fact that they were not co-located with the foothill target made comparison difficult, the CO2 volume mixing ratio obtained by the Co2DiaWiL measurements for the foothill target and atmospheric returns was about −5 ppm lower than the 5 min running averages of the in situ sensor. Not only actual difference of sensing volume or the natural variability of CO2 but also the fluctuations of temperature could cause this difference. The statistical results indicated that there were no biases between the foothill target and atmospheric return measurements. The 2 μm coherent IPDA lidar can detect the CO2 volume mixing ratio change of 3% in the 5 min signal integration. In order to detect the position of the foothill target, to measure a range with a high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio, and to reduce uncertainty due to the presence of aerosols and clouds, it is

  16. Interannual variability of fisheries economic returns and energy ratios is mostly explained by gear type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, Verena M; Daurès, Fabienne; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Lorance, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    According to portfolio theory applied to fisheries management, economic returns are stabilised by harvesting in a portfolio stocks of species whose returns are negatively correlated and for which the portfolio economic return variance is smaller than the sum of stock specific return variances. Also, variability is expected to decrease with portfolio width. Using a range of indicators, these predictions were tested for the French fishing fleets in the Bay of Biscay (Northeast Atlantic) during the period 2001-2009. For this, vessels were grouped into eight fishing fleets based on the gears used and exploited species were grouped into five functional groups. The portfolio width of fleets ranged from 1-3 functional groups, or 4-19 species. Economic fleet returns (sale revenues minus fishing costs) varied strongly between years; the interannual variability was independent of portfolio width (species or functional groups). Energy ratio expressed by the ratio between fuel energy used for fishing and energy contained in landings varied from 0.3 for purse seines to 9.7 for trawlers using bottom trawls alone or in combination with pelagic trawls independent of portfolio width. Interannual variability in total sale revenues was larger than the sum of species specific sales revenue variability, except for fleets using hooks and pelagic trawlers; it increased with the number of species exploited. In conclusion, the interannual variability of economic returns or energy ratios of French fisheries in the Bay of Biscay did not decrease with the number of species or functional groups exploited, though it varied between fleets.

  17. A study on the effect of P/E and PEG ratios on stock returns: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Lajevardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the ratios of P/E and PEG on stock returns of the firms accepted on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study uses regression and Pearson Correlation Coefficient based on the performance of 138 firms over the period 2004- 2009 according to the Iranian calendar to investigate the effects of P/E and PEG on stock returns. The study also uses the models originally proposed by Chahin and Choudhry (2010 [Chahin, S., & Choudhry, T. (2010. Price to earnings, growth radio and value growth based strategies. Social Science Research Network, 19(4.] to discuss the strategies of investing on stocks. The results show that the ratio of P/E had more effect on stock returns than the ratio of PEG and stocks returns had a direct relationship with P/E and an inverse relationship with PEG. In addition, the returns of growth stock were more than value stock.

  18. Ground-based integrated path coherent differential absorption lidar measurement of CO2: hard target return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sato

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT have made a great deal of effort to develop a coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL for measuring CO2 and wind speed. First, coherent Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA lidar experiments were conducted using the Co2DiaWiL and a hard target (surface return located about 7.12 km south of NICT on 11, 27, and 28 December 2010. The detection sensitivity of a 2-μm IPDA lidar was examined in detail using the CO2 concentration measured by the hard target. The precisions of CO2 measurement for the hard target and 900, 4500 and 27 000 shot pairs were 6.5, 2.8, and 1.2%, respectively. The results indicated that a coherent IPDA lidar with a laser operating at a high pulse repetition frequency of a few tens of KHz is necessary for measuring the CO2 concentration of the hard target with a precision of 1–2 ppm. Statistical comparisons indicated that, although a small amount of in situ data and the fact that they were not co-located with the hard target made comparison difficult, the CO2 volume mixing ratio measured with the Co2DiaWiL was about 5 ppm lower than that measured with the in situ sensor. The statistical results indicated that there were no differences between the hard target and atmospheric return measurements. A precision of 1.5% was achieved from the atmospheric return, which is lower than that obtained from the hard-target returns. Although long-range DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL CO2 measurement with the atmospheric return can result in highly precise measurement, the precision of the atmospheric return measurement was widely distributed comparing to that of the hard target return. Our results indicated that it is important to use a Q-switched laser to measure the range-gated differential absorption optical depth with the atmospheric return and that it is better to simultaneously conduct both hard target and atmospheric return

  19. Edible protein energy return on investment ratio (ep-EROI) for Spanish seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Moreira, M Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2014-04-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed into a useful methodology to assess energy consumption of fishing fleets and their derived seafood products, as well as the associated environmental burdens. In this study, however, the life cycle inventory data is used to provide a dimensionless ratio between energy inputs and the energy provided by the fish: the edible protein energy return on investment (ep-EROI). The main objective was to perform a critical comparison of seafood products landed in Galicia (NW Spain) in terms of ep-EROI. The combination of energy return on investment (EROI) with LCA, the latter having standardized mechanisms regarding data acquisition and system boundary delimitation, allowed a reduction of uncertainties in EROI estimations. Results allow a deeper understanding of the energy efficiency in the Galician fishing sector, showing that small pelagic species present the highest ep-EROI values if captured using specific fishing techniques. Finally, results are expected to provide useful guidelines for policy support in the EU's Common Fisheries Policy.

  20. PENGARUH DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO, RETURN ON ASSET DAN EARNING VARIABILITY TERHADAP BETA SAHAM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kustini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan  penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan efek dari Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR, Return on Assets (ROA and earning variability terhadap saham beta sariah. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah semua perusahaan yang terdaftar dalam Stock Exchange and the Jakarta Islamic Index. Teknik sampling yang digunakan  adalah purposive sampling. Teknik tersebut digunakan untuk medapatkan 10 perusahaan yang sesuai dengan kriteria. Metode pengumpulan datanya adalah dokumentasi. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan multiple linear-regressions. Hasil penelitian pada tes yang simultan adalah (1 DPR, ROA and earnings variability tidak berefek pada saham beta shariah, (2 partial test dalam variabel DPR negative dan tidak signifikan pada saham beta sharia, (3 the ROA variable dan variabilitas pendapatan dan tidak signifikan pada saham beta shariah. The objective of study is to determine the effect of Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR, Return on Assets (ROA and earning variability to the stock of beta sharia. The population of study is all public companies listed on the Stock Exchange and the Jakarta Islamic Index. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. It is to obtain 10 companies that meet the criteria. The method for collecting the data is documentation. Data analyzed by using multiple linear-regressions. The results of research on simultaneous test reveal that (1 DPR, ROA and earnings variability do not have effect on the stock of beta sharia, (2 partial test in the DPR variable is negative and it is not significant on the stock of beta sharia, (3 the ROA variable and earnings variability are positive and they are not significant on the stock of beta sharia. Moreover, regression model does not have competence to indicate the dependent variable variation or it does not have contribution to independent variable. Partially, only 21,3% of DPR variable has influence or contribution to the stock of beta shariah.

  1. Investigating the Relationship between the Price to Earnings Ratio with the Return of Adjusted Stock in Capital Market of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Bagheri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate and analyze the relationship between the prices to earnings ratio with the return of adjusted stock through total risk of companies listed on the Stock Exchange market of Tehran in Iran. The main objective of any investment is to achieve higher efficiency. Investors in shares of listed companies on the exchange considered several factors. The price to earnings ratio, return and risk are the factors that investors should consider when they want to invest in them. Therefore 100 companies have been investigated during the period 2004-2008. To test the hypothesis we used the regression analysis and correlation, also the significant of patterns were determined by using F and T test and correlation coefficients. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the prices to earnings ratio and adjusted stock returns in the 95% confidence level.

  2. Navigating the Return Trip from the Moon Using Earth-Based Ground Tracking and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kevin; Carpenter, Russell; Moreau, Michael C.; Lee, Taesul; Holt, Gregg N.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is planning a human return to the Moon late in the next decade. From a navigation perspective, one of the most critical phases of a lunar mission is the series of burns performed to leave lunar orbit, insert onto a trans-Earth trajectory, and target a precise re-entry corridor in the Earth s atmosphere. A study was conducted to examine sensitivity of the navigation performance during this phase of the mission to the type and availability of tracking data from Earth-based ground stations, and the sensitivity to key error sources. This study also investigated whether GPS measurements could be used to augment Earth-based tracking data, and how far from the Earth GPS measurements would be useful. The ability to track and utilize weak GPS signals transmitted across the limb of the Earth is highly dependent on the configuration and sensitivity of the GPS receiver being used. For this study three GPS configurations were considered: a "standard" GPS receiver with zero dB antenna gain, a "weak signal" GPS receiver with zero dB antenna gain, and a "weak signal" GPS receiver with an Earth-pointing direction antenna (providing 10 dB additional gain). The analysis indicates that with proper selection and configuration of the GPS receiver on the Orion spacecraft, GPS can potentially improve navigation performance during the critical final phases of flight prior to Earth atmospheric entry interface, and may reduce reliance on two-way range tracking from Earth-based ground stations.

  3. Retrieving the aerosol lidar ratio profile by combining ground- and space-based elastic lidars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiyue, Mao; Wei, Gong; Yingying, Ma

    2012-02-15

    The aerosol lidar ratio is a key parameter for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties from elastic lidar, which changes largely for aerosols with different chemical and physical properties. We proposed a method for retrieving the aerosol lidar ratio profile by combining simultaneous ground- and space-based elastic lidars. The method was tested by a simulated case and a real case at 532 nm wavelength. The results demonstrated that our method is robust and can obtain accurate lidar ratio and extinction coefficient profiles. Our method can be useful for determining the local and global lidar ratio and validating space-based lidar datasets.

  4. A study on the effect of size and ratio of book value to market value on excessive return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Mozdabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stock market plays an important role on demonstrating economy direction and it provides good opportunities for people who wish to purchase a small portion of different firms' shares. In this paper, we propose an empirical study to measure the impact of the market size and the ratio of book value on market value on excessive return. The study gathers the necessary information from some of active stock shares traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of 2010-2011. The proposed model of this paper uses linear regression analysis to investigate the relationship between the excessive return and other factors. The study divides the information into seven equal groups and fits the regression model using ordinary least square technique. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between size and excessive return and a positive relationship between the ratio of BV/MV and excessive return. Although the results of both tests are positive, we have to be more cautious about what have reported on the second hypothesis.

  5. Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin; Ray, Hami E; Lai, San-Huei; Alwood, Joshua S; Globus, Ruth K

    2016-01-01

    Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved. The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C. Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH). Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7

  6. Effects of soil amplification ratio and multiple wave interference for ground motion due to earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota

    2004-01-01

    Influences on the ground motion simulations by soil amplification effects and multiple seismic wave interferences in the heterogeneous medium are investigated. Detailed velocity structure obtained from the microtremor array survey is adopted in the ground motion simulation. Analyses for amplification ratios of core samples of ten drill holes with 40 m deep in the sedimentary layers show that the soil amplification ratio influences nonlinearly the seismic ground motion. Based on the above analysis results, the ground motion in the heavily damaged zone in the Japanese Kobe earthquake of 1995 is simulated in a digital SH seismic wave model by using the pseudospectral method with the staggered grid RFFT differentiation (SGRFFTD). The simulated results suggest that the heterogeneous velocity structure results in a complicated distribution of the maximum amplitudes of acceleration waveforms with multiple peaks at the surface. Spatial distribution of the maximum amplitudes coincides well with that of collapse ratios of buildings in Kobe. The dual peaks of the collapse ratios away from the earthquake fault coincide well with the double peak amplitudes of simulated seismic acceleration waves also. The cause for the first peak amplitude of the ground motion is attributable to the interference of the secondary surface wave from the bedrock propagating horizontally along the surface sedimentary layer and the body wave from the basin bottom according to analyses of wave snapshots propagating in inhomogeneous structure of the Osaka group layers. The second peak amplitude of the ground motion may be attributive to the interference of the secondary surface wave from the tunneling waves in the shallow sediments and the body wave. It is important for the study on complicated distributions of earthquake damages to investigate influences on the ground motion by soil amplification effects and multiple seismic wave interferences due to the structure. Explorations of the structure to the

  7. The evolution of discharge current and channel radius in cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xuejuan; Cen, Jianyong; Chang, Xuan; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    The spectra of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharge processes with multi-return strokes are obtained by a slit-less high-speed spectrograph, which the temporal resolution is 110 μs. Combined with the synchronous electrical observation data and theoretical calculation, the physical characteristics during return strokes process are analysed. A positive correlation between discharge current and intensity of ionic lines in the spectra is verified, and based on this feature, the current evolution characteristics during four return strokes are investigated. The results show that the time from peak current to the half-peak value estimated by multi point-fitting is about 101 μs-139 μs. The Joule heat in per unit length of four return strokes channel is in the order of 105J/m-106 J/m. The radius of arc discharge channel is positively related to the discharge current, and the more intense the current is, the greater the radius of channel is. Furthermore, the evolution for radius of arc core channel in the process of return stroke is consistent with the change trend of discharge current after the peak value. Compared with the decay of the current, the temperature decreases more slowly.

  8. Boron abundances and isotopic ratios of olivine grains on Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Ott, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We report the B abundances and isotopic ratios of two olivine grains from the S-type asteroid Itokawa sampled by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Olivine grains from the Dar al Gani (DaG) 989 LL6 chondrite were used as a reference. Since we analyzed polished thin sections in both cases, we expect the contribution from the solar wind B (rich in 10B) to be minimal because the solar wind was implanted only within very thin layers of the grain surface. The Itokawa and DaG 989 olivine grains have homogeneous B abundances (~400 ppb) and 11B/10B ratios compatible with the terrestrial standard and bulk chondrites. The observed homogeneous B abundances and isotopic ratios of the Itokawa olivine grains are likely the result of thermal metamorphism which occurred in the parent asteroid of Itokawa, which had a similar composition as LL chondrites. The chondritic B isotopic ratios of the Itokawa samples suggest that they contain little cosmogenic B (from cosmic-ray spallation reactions) rich in 10B. This observation is consistent with the short cosmic-ray exposure ages of Itokawa samples inferred from the small concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne. If other Itokawa samples have little cosmogenic B as well, the enrichment in 10B found previously on the surface of another Itokawa particle (as opposed to the bulk grain study here) may be attributed to implanted solar wind B.

  9. The Work Ratio--modeling the likelihood of return to work for workers with musculoskeletal disorders: A fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalit, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The world of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is complicated and fuzzy. Fuzzy logic provides a precise framework for complex problems characterized by uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. Although fuzzy logic would appear to be an ideal modeling language to help address the complexity of MSDs, little research has been done in this regard. The Work Ratio is a novel mathematical model that uses fuzzy logic to provide a numerical and linguistic valuation of the likelihood of return to work and remaining at work. It can be used for a worker with any MSD at any point in time. Basic mathematical concepts from set theory and fuzzy logic are reviewed. A case study is then used to illustrate the use of the Work Ratio. Its potential strengths and limitations are discussed. Further research of its use with a variety of MSDs, settings and multidisciplinary teams is needed to confirm its universal value.

  10. Return and Risk of Pairs Trading Using a Simulation-Based Bayesian Procedure for Predicting Stable Ratios of Stock Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ardia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the direct connection between the uncertainty related to estimated stable ratios of stock prices and risk and return of two pairs trading strategies: a conditional statistical arbitrage method and an implicit arbitrage one. A simulation-based Bayesian procedure is introduced for predicting stable stock price ratios, defined in a cointegration model. Using this class of models and the proposed inferential technique, we are able to connect estimation and model uncertainty with risk and return of stock trading. In terms of methodology, we show the effect that using an encompassing prior, which is shown to be equivalent to a Jeffreys’ prior, has under an orthogonal normalization for the selection of pairs of cointegrated stock prices and further, its effect for the estimation and prediction of the spread between cointegrated stock prices. We distinguish between models with a normal and Student t distribution since the latter typically provides a better description of daily changes of prices on financial markets. As an empirical application, stocks are used that are ingredients of the Dow Jones Composite Average index. The results show that normalization has little effect on the selection of pairs of cointegrated stocks on the basis of Bayes factors. However, the results stress the importance of the orthogonal normalization for the estimation and prediction of the spread—the deviation from the equilibrium relationship—which leads to better results in terms of profit per capital engagement and risk than using a standard linear normalization.

  11. The effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility of investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jalal Golmohammadi; Mahboubeh Jafari

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities...

  12. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  13. Observations on the leader-return stroke of cloud-to-ground lightning with the broadband interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董万胜; 刘欣生; 张义军; 张广庶

    2002-01-01

    Radio frequency observations of cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) were made in 1999 in Guangdong Province with the broadband lightning interferometer. In this paper, radiation source locations and electric field waveforms are analyzed for different types of breakdown events, including the preliminary breakdown of in-cloud activities, the stepped leaders of initial strokes to ground and activities during and following return strokes. It is shown that the structure and development of lightning discharges and associated breakdown processes can be reconstructed by using this new type of lightning radiation source location system. The detectable radiation of lightning was primarily produced by the negative breakdown process. The channel was concentrated with few branches during the preliminary breakdown stage of CG lightning flashes. The radiation sources appeared generally at the tip of the channel. During the late period of the stepped leader, the radiation sources were dispersed with branches extended away from the main channel. The radiation sources were in a certain length segment of the channel and the altitude of the segment descended along with the propagation of the leader to the ground. During the preliminary breakdown and the stepped leader of initial strokes to the ground, a sequence of fast negative streamers were observed to start continually from or farther away the lightning-initiated region and propagate along the developed leader channel, which may supply negative charge that assisted the leader's development. The progression speed of fast negative streamers was about ten times faster than the average speed of lightning channel.

  14. Pile-soil stress ratio in bidirectionally reinforced composite ground by considering soil arching effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新军; 杨眉; 赵明华; 杨小礼

    2008-01-01

    To discuss the soil arching effect on the load transferring model and sharing ratios by the piles and inter-pile subsoil in the bidirectionally reinforced composite ground, the forming mechanism, mechanical behavior and its effect factors were discussed in detail. Then, the unified strength theory was introduced to set up the elastoplastic equilibrium differential equation of the subsoil under the limit equilibrium state. And from the equation, the solutions were derived with the corresponding formulas presented to calculate the earth pressure over and beneath the horizontal reinforced cushion or pillow, the stress of inter-pile subsoil and the pile-soil stress ratio. Based on the obtained solutions and measured data from an engineering project, the influence rules by the soil property parameters (i.e., the cohesion c and internal friction angle φ) and pile spacing on the pile-soil stress ratio n were discussed respectively. The results show that to improve the load sharing ratio by the piles, the more effective means for filling materials with a larger value of φ is to increase the ratio of pile cap size to spacing, while to reduce the pile spacing properly and increase the value of cohesion c is advisable for those filling materials with a smaller value of φ.

  15. Correlation between the spectral features and electric field changes of multiple return strokes in negative cloud-to-ground lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Liu, Guorong

    2017-05-01

    Using high time-resolved spectra and simultaneous records of the electric field change of three negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes with multiple return strokes, the correlations between the total intensity of ionic lines in the spectra and the corresponding amplitude of the initial electric field change, as well as between the total intensity of the spectra and the channel apparent diameter, have been analyzed. The analysis shows the following: (1) The amplitude of the initial electric field change is roughly proportional to the total intensity of ionic lines. (2) The total intensity of the spectra shows a significant linear correlation with the apparent diameter of the channel. (3) The total intensity of ionic lines for 17 analyzed return strokes decreases with increasing height along the channel, which is consistent with the current variation along the channel in the modified transmission line model; the Master, Uman, Lin, and Standler model; and the Diendorfer-Uman model. Meanwhile, the total intensity of ionic lines for other two analyzed return strokes along the channel without attenuation, this is consistent with the current variation along the channel in the Bruce-Golde model, the transmission line model, and the Traveling Current Source model.

  16. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  17. Light intensity at the return place and encirclement power ratio for the distorted reflected beam based on cat-eye effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-zhong; SUN Hua-yan; ZHANG Lai-xian; ZHENG Yong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the definition of second order moment and the approximate three-dimensional analytical formula for probe detected laser beam passing through a cat-eye optical lens with center shelter and oblique detector,the analytical expression of the encirclement power ratio of the cat-eye effect reflected light under far-field condition has been deduced.Variable laws of light intensity at the return place and encirclement power ratio are performed by numerical calculation,and are analyzed physically.The results show that the light intensity at the return place decreases monotonically with the increases of the diameter,incidence angle,tilted angle of the detector and the center shelter ratio,but the relationships between these parameters and the encirclement power ratio are all nonmonotonic.The reasonable choice of the focal shift size would result in the largest light intensity at the return place and the largest erirclenent power ratio.

  18. Ground return effect on wave propagation parameters of overhead power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo Machado, V.M.; Brandao Faria, J.A.; Borges da Silva, J.F. (Centro de Electrotecnia da Univ. Tecnia de Lisboa, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT))

    1990-04-01

    The propagation properties of overhead three-phase cables are usually analyzed assuming that the pipe conductor establishes a perfect shielding between the inner conductor set and any outer conductor, i.e., the power cable is assumed as an isolated system. The influence of a lossy ground plane in the neighborhood of the cable is examined in this paper. The propagation parameters for both approaches are compared---significative differences being found to exist, in the zero mode, at low working frequencies.

  19. Analisis Pengaruh Likuiditas (Current Ratio), Profitabilitas (Return On Equity, Return On Investment, Earning Per Share), dan Inventory Turnover Terhadap Harga Saham Pada Perusahaan Tekstil Dan Garmen Yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Ahmad Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze financial performance consisting of the current ratio, return on equity, return on investment, earnings pershare, and inventory turnover and simultaneous partial effect significantly to the stock price on the textile and garment companies listed on the Stock Exchange Indonesia. The population in this study amounted to 25 textile and garment industry companies listed on the Stock Exchange in the period from 2009 to 2012 and the sample ...

  20. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...... impact measures, the 3R can not be manipulated ad infinitum through journal self-citations....

  1. The effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility of investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Golmohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities. The study selects 102 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange and, using regression technique with Panel data, examines five different hypotheses over the period 2008-2012. The results indicate that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between return of investment and the ratio of debt to equities and a positive and meaningful relationship between sales growth and the ratio of debt to equities. Moreover, there were positive and meaningful relationships between volatility of investment as well as cash flow and the ratio of debt to equities. Finally, the survey has indicated that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between the structure of institutional shareholders and the ratio of debt to equities.

  2. Is the P/E ratio good predictor of Stock Return in Saudi Stock Market both in long and short term?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rashoud, Abdullah

    2005-01-01

    Since a long time ago, people were looking for opportunities in the market where they can make profits with lower risk or similar risk but with excess return. Stocks with low price earnings (P/E) ratio is claimed to be one of those opportunities. The Saudi stock market is an emerging market with low efficiency. This dissertation is supposed to find out whether the P/E ratio is a good predictor of Stock Return in Saudi Stock Market both in long and short term.

  3. Analysis of the return on preventive measures in musculoskeletal disorders through the benefitecost ratio: A case study in a hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Delfina G.; Arezes, Pedro M.; Afonso, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are among the most costly health problems that society is facing today. Prevention involves investments and it is important for organizations to make a cost ebenefit analysis of ergonomic projects. Return on prevention is a recent concern in the domain of occupational safety and health (OSH). There are many studies concerning the return on the prevention of WMSDs, in terms of the benefits for the organization in which the preventive m...

  4. Pengaruh Firm Size, Leverage, Return On Investment (Roi) Free Cash Flow (Fcf), Dividend Payout Ratio (Dpr),Dan Price Earning Ratio (Per) Terhadap Earning Management Pada Perusahaan Manufakturyang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Siallagan, Evi Handayani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of firm size, leverage, free cash flow, return on investment, dividend payout ratio, and price earning ratio on earning management. Earning management is measured by discretionary accruals using Kaznik Model. This study uses secondary data were taken from the manufacturing companies which are listed in . Sample selection is done by purposive sampling method and sample obatained from this researh were 36 of a total 141 companies. Met...

  5. Has the athlete trained enough to return to play safely? The acute:chronic workload ratio permits clinicians to quantify a player's risk of subsequent injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The return to sport from injury is a difficult multifactorial decision, and risk of reinjury is an important component. Most protocols for ascertaining the return to play status involve assessment of the healing status of the original injury and functional tests which have little proven predictive ability. Little attention has been paid to ascertaining whether an athlete has completed sufficient training to be prepared for competition. Recently, we have completed a series of studies in cricket, rugby league and Australian rules football that have shown that when an athlete's training and playing load for a given week (acute load) spikes above what they have been doing on average over the past 4 weeks (chronic load), they are more likely to be injured. This spike in the acute:chronic workload ratio may be from an unusual week or an ebbing of the athlete's training load over a period of time as in recuperation from injury. Our findings demonstrate a strong predictive (R(2)=0.53) polynomial relationship between acute:chronic workload ratio and injury likelihood. In the elite team setting, it is possible to quantify the loads we are expecting athletes to endure when returning to sport, so assessment of the acute:chronic workload ratio should be included in the return to play decision-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Surveying effects of forward-backward P/E‎‎ ratios on stock's return and ‎fluctuation in Tehran's stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos VakilAlroaia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study the relationship between forward-backward effects on stock return, which normally depends on Price-Earnings ratio (P/E‎ and stock fluctuation in stock exchange. Monthly time series pattern of Tehran stock exchange are used monthly from 2006 to 2010. The data contains all available companies in exchange where the shares were traded at the least 120 days during for the recent 12 months. The results of this research show that the independent variables investigated in this research have meaningful effects on the research's dependent variable. This means that the effects of company’s systematic risk and markets risk on companies’ stock return are positive.

  7. Big and tall soldiers are more likely to survive battle: a possible explanation for the 'returning soldier effect' on the secondary sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    It is widely known that more boys are born during and immediately after wars, but there has not been any ultimate (evolutionary) explanation for this 'returning soldier effect'. Here, I suggest that the higher sex ratios during and immediately after wars might be a byproduct of the fact that taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle and that taller parents are more likely to have sons. I analyze a large sample of British Army service records during World War I. Surviving soldiers were on average more than one inch (3.33 cm) taller than fallen soldiers. Conservative estimates suggest that the one-inch height advantage alone is more than twice as sufficient to account for all the excess boys born in the UK during and after World War I. While it remains unclear why taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle, I predict that the returning soldier effect will not happen in more recent and future wars.

  8. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  9. Analisis Pengaruh Return On Asset, Debt To Equity Ratio, Total Asset Turn Over, Earning Per Share, Price Earning Ratio, Dan Current Ratio Terhadap Perusahaan Otomotif Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Irwin

    2015-01-01

    This research is a type of causal research, which used data from a population of 18 automotive companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling and acquired companies that pass the test sample as many as 12 companies and 48 the number of observations. The data used are the financial statements of each company sample www.idx.com published on the site. The variables associated with this research is the Return On Assets, Debt to Equity...

  10. Prognostic value of the ratio of ground glass opacity on computed tomography in small lung adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiao-Hui; Yao, Yan-Wen; Yuan, Dong-Mei; Lv, Yan-Ling; Zhan, Ping; Lv, Tang-Feng; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated death. In many countries, adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type in lung cancer. Previously, few factors are identified to be prognostic indicators for the patients with small lung adenocarcinoma. Recently, the ground glass opacity (GGO) area found on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning was identified as a prognostic indicator in some studies. But no clear consensus has been defined. Methods The PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library and SpringerLink electronic databases were searched for articles related to ground glass opacity on computed tomography in patients with small lung adenocarcinoma. Data was extracted and analyzed independently by two investigators. An estimate of the hazard ratio (HR) for comparing high GGO ratio with low GGO ratio was extracted. The respective HRs was combined into a pooled HR, and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each study. The publication heterogeneity was assessed graphically using performing Beggs’ funnel plot. All the statistical tests used in our meta-analysis were performed with STATA version 11. Results Thirteen studies, encompassing 2,027 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Ten of these studies revealed that the GGO ratio in small lung adenocarcinoma is a good prognostic indicator. Seven studies were combined in a meta-analysis using overall survival (OS) as the end point of interest. The weighted HR of 7 studies was 0.85, with relative 95% CI ranging from 0.78 to 0.93 (P=0.009). For the surgical patient population, the primary endpoint of relapse-free survival (RFS) was superior with high GGO area on computed tomography (The combined HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.90; P=0.007). Conclusions The result of our meta-analysis suggested that the GGO area measured on HRCT had a prognostic value of overall survival and relapse-free survival in small lung adenocarcinoma. The GGO ratio may be an independent prognostic

  11. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D., E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael [Department of Oncology, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia)

    2012-06-18

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25{sup hi}Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  12. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24213326

  13. Demographic structure, sex ratio and growth rates of southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) on the spawning ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jessica H; Eveson, J Paige; Davis, Tim L O; Andamari, Retno; Proctor, Craig H; Nugraha, Budi; Davies, Campbell R

    2014-01-01

    The demographics of the southern bluefin tuna (SBT) Thunnus maccoyii spawning stock were examined through a large-scale monitoring program of the Indonesian longline catch on the spawning ground between 1995 and 2012. The size and age structure of the spawning population has undergone significant changes since monitoring began. There has been a reduction in the relative abundance of larger/older SBT in the catch since the early 2000s, and a corresponding decrease in mean length and age, but there was no evidence of a significant truncation of the age distribution. Pulses of young SBT appear in the catches in the early- and mid-2000s and may be the first evidence of increased recruitment into the spawning stock since 1995. Fish in these two recruitment pulses were spawned around 1991 and 1997. Size-related variations in sex ratio were also observed with female bias for fish less than 170 cm FL and male bias for fish greater than 170 cm FL. This trend of increasing proportion of males with size above 170 cm FL is likely to be related to sexual dimorphism in growth rates as male length-at-age is greater than that for females after age 10 years. Mean length-at-age of fish aged 8-10 years was greater for both males and females on the spawning ground than off the spawning ground, suggesting that size may be the dominant factor determining timing of maturation in SBT. In addition to these direct results, the data and samples from this program have been central to the assessment and management of this internationally harvested stock.

  14. Lightning return stroke current radiation in presence of a conducting ground: 1. Theory and numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto

    2008-03-01

    The general theory describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning stroke over a conducting ground is presented in this paper. The derivation of the Green functions necessary to solve the problem is discussed in detail, and the determination of the expressions for the electromagnetic field components is carried out in a form that minimizes the final computational costs. A method for the numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic field is then proposed, and it is shown that it can be used starting from any "engineering model" representation for the lightning current distribution along the channel. Such method is based on a new efficient evaluation of the so-called Sommerfeld's integrals appearing in the electromagnetic field expressions, without resorting to any kind of approximated formulas for them. The numerical treatment of the Sommerfeld's integrals is characterized by a proper subdivision of the integration domain, the use of the Romberg technique and the determination of a suitable upper bound for the error due to the integral truncation. In the second part of this work it will be shown how the results provided by the developed theory can be used in order to assess the validity of the most common simplified approach for the calculation of the lightning radiation over a lossy ground plane.

  15. Influence of the Extinction Ratio on the Intrachannel Nonlinear Distortion of 40-Gb/s Return-to-Zero Transmission Systems Over Standard Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    The impact of the extinction ratio (ER) on the performance of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero transmission system over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) is presented. Several dispersion maps are analyzed in order to minimize the distortion due to the intrachannel nonlinear effects, namely, intrachannel cross-phase modulation and intrachannel four wave mixing (IFWM). The decrease of the ER until a specific value leads to an increase of the intensity distortion, which is mainly due to IFWM. As a consequence, two distinct transmission regimes are identified, depending on the input average power of each section and the ER of the optical signals. The first regime has previously been called the pseudolinear regime in the literature and occurs when high ERs are considered. The optimum dispersion map of this regime has a given optical precompensation and a total residual dispersion near zero. The second regime occurs with the decrease of the ER. Under such a circumstance, the optimum dispersion map obtained in the pseudolinear regime leads to significant degradation, which is mainly due to ghost pulses appearing in the symbol “0.” This effect can be reduced by a system with residual dispersion that is significantly different from zero, leading to a detected eye pattern with low degradation in the symbol “0” but high timing jitter, which limits the use of such signals in feasible transmission systems. We call this new regime pseudosolitonic as the intrachannel nonlinear effects are apparently reduced by the residual group velocity dispersion (as it is observed in the solitonic regime occurring at lower bit rates), but strong waveform degradation occurs along the SSMF transmission. The exact value of ER for which the change between the two transmission regimes is observed depends on the optical average power at the input of each section. A simple expression to predict the system conditions (namely, ER, input average power of each section, and number of sections) for which

  16. Return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  17. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei X.; Braverman J.; Miranda, M.; Rosario, M.E.; Costantino, C.J.

    2015-02-25

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  18. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Braverman, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rosario, M. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  19. Study Configuration of the Protection of Transfer between Ground Return and Metallic Return in the Tian-Guang HVDC Project%天广直流输电系统中大地回线和金属回线转换的保护配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵军

    2012-01-01

      天广直流输电工程采用南瑞PCS-9550直流控制保护系统,在直流系统单极大地回线和单极金属回线转换过程中配置了金属回线转换开关保护(MRTB)和金属回线开关保护(MRS),避免了天广直流系统运行中因为LC振荡回路故障,MRTB和MRS开关断口间电弧重燃或者直流系统控制保护软件缺陷、硬件板卡、测量装置故障,导致在金属和大地回线转换失败,造成直流系统停用的严重后果,提高了天广直流系统运行的可靠性。%  Tian-Guang HVDC transmission project with NARI PCS-9550 DC control and protection system, between Ground Return and Metal ic Return in the Tian-Guang HVDC Project configurat the Metal ic Return Transform-breaker protection(MRTB) and the Metal ic Return Switch protection (MRS),to avoid the operation of the Tian-Guang HVDC Project, Because the LC oscil ator circuit failure, MRTB and MRS Switch-Fracture Arc reneweding and DC system control and protection software bugs, hardware board, measuring device failure, Resulting the Serious consequences of theTransfering between Ground Return and Metal ic Return failed creating DC system disabled. Improve Tian-Guang HVDC system operated reliability.

  20. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification. The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R and volume linear depolarization (δV ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4, which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l. since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p- and perpendicular (s- polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times. Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC, as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS, parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function

  1. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1 in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs are determined from early-morning enhancement ratios and compared to emission ratios calculated from the PMF results. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of 2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing and to estimate OVOC emission ratios. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. The total PIT-MS signal was summed to estimate the fraction of identified vs. unidentified VOC species.

  2. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio in the atmosphere from ground level to balloon altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.N. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A measurement of the cosmic ray muon flux in the atmosphere has been carried out from the data collected by the MASS2 (Matter Antimatter Spectrometer System) apparatus during the ascent of the 1991 flight. The experiment was performed on September 23, 1991 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (USA) at a geomagnetic cutoff of about 4.5 GV/c. The negative muon spectrum has been determined in different depth ranges in the momentum interval 0.33-40 GeV/c with higher statistics and better background rejection than reported before. Taking advantage of the high geomagnetic cutoff and of the high performances of the instrument, the positive muon spectrum has also been determined and the altitude dependence of the muon charge ratio has been investigated in the 0.33-1.5 GeV/c momentum range.

  3. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  4. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1 in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of ~2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  5. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility.

  6. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  7. A Survey of \\delta18O and \\delta15N Ratios in Ground Water from an Agricultural Community in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, S. D.; Suen, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    We studied ground water samples from domestic and monitoring wells in an agricultural community in the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley, California. The study area is rich in alluvial soils creating an extremely fertile farmland. Livestock farms and agricultural fields are abundant in the area. Fifty-four ground water samples were analyzed for \\delta18O and \\delta15N in dissolved nitrate, in addition to nutrients and major minerals. Nitrate concentration levels in groundwater are elevated and affected by agricultural and other activities. Possible sources of nutrients include: a municipal waste-water treatment facility, a raisin processing plant, a meat processing plant, a turkey farm, diary operations, and agricultural fields. However, except for the turkey farm and a diary, we found no statistical significant contribution of nitrate from the other facilities as compared to the rest of the area. The \\delta18O versus \\delta15N ratios plot of dissolved ground water nitrate shows most samples clustered around an area consistent with soil organic nitrogen. In addition, the rest of the samples show a trend that is indicative of denitrification process. Generally, high \\delta15N values are associated with low nitrate concentrations. The isotopic signal of denitrification is particularly pronounced in samples in the vicinity of the waste water treatment facility, where the highest values of \\delta15N and the lowest nitrate concentrations are observed. However, these samples also have elevated chloride concentrations indicating a waste-water source. These data suggest that the denitrification in the subsurface may have been enhanced by bacteria species introduced by the effluence of the plant. [This study was performed with the collaboration of Steven R Silva of USGS, Menlo Park, and Iris Yamagata and Holly Jo Ferrin of California Department of Water Resources.

  8. Determining the maximum cumulative ratios for mixtures observed in ground water wells used as drinking water supplies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianglu; Price, Paul S

    2011-12-01

    The maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) developed in previous work is a tool to evaluate the need to perform cumulative risk assessments. MCR is the ratio of the cumulative exposures to multiple chemicals to the maximum exposure from one of the chemicals when exposures are described using a common metric. This tool is used to evaluate mixtures of chemicals measured in samples of untreated ground water as source for drinking water systems in the United States. The mixtures of chemicals in this dataset differ from those examined in our previous work both in terms of the predicted toxicity and compounds measured. Despite these differences, MCR values in this study follow patterns similar to those seen earlier. MCR values for the mixtures have a mean (range) of 2.2 (1.03-5.4) that is much smaller than the mean (range) of 16 (5-34) in the mixtures in previous study. The MCR values of the mixtures decline as Hazard Index (HI) values increase. MCR values for mixtures with larger HI values are not affected by possible contributions from chemicals that may occur at levels below the detection limits. This work provides a second example of use of the MCR tool in the evaluation of mixtures that occur in the environment.

  9. Determining the Maximum Cumulative Ratios for Mixtures Observed in Ground Water Wells Used as Drinking Water Supplies in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglu Han

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum cumulative ratio (MCR developed in previous work is a tool to evaluate the need to perform cumulative risk assessments. MCR is the ratio of the cumulative exposures to multiple chemicals to the maximum exposure from one of the chemicals when exposures are described using a common metric. This tool is used to evaluate mixtures of chemicals measured in samples of untreated ground water as source for drinking water systems in the United States. The mixtures of chemicals in this dataset differ from those examined in our previous work both in terms of the predicted toxicity and compounds measured. Despite these differences, MCR values in this study follow patterns similar to those seen earlier. MCR values for the mixtures have a mean (range of 2.2 (1.03–5.4 that is much smaller than the mean (range of 16 (5–34 in the mixtures in previous study. The MCR values of the mixtures decline as Hazard Index (HI values increase. MCR values for mixtures with larger HI values are not affected by possible contributions from chemicals that may occur at levels below the detection limits. This work provides a second example of use of the MCR tool in the evaluation of mixtures that occur in the environment.

  10. Impact of seasonal forecast use on agricultural income in a system with varying crop costs and returns: an empirically-grounded simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Bazuin, J. T.; Nay, J.; Yeung, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    Access to seasonal climate forecasts can benefit farmers by allowing them to make more informed decisions about their farming practices. However, it is unclear whether farmers realize these benefits when crop choices available to farmers have different and variable costs and returns; multiple countries have programs that incentivize production of certain crops while other crops are subject to market fluctuations. We hypothesize that the benefits of forecasts on farmer livelihoods will be moderated by the combined impact of differing crop economics and changing climate. Drawing upon methods and insights from both physical and social sciences, we develop a model of farmer decision-making to evaluate this hypothesis. The model dynamics are explored using empirical data from Sri Lanka; primary sources include survey and interview information as well as game-based experiments conducted with farmers in the field. Our simulations show that a farmer using seasonal forecasts has more diversified crop selections, which drive increases in average agricultural income. Increases in income are particularly notable under a drier climate scenario, when a farmer using seasonal forecasts is more likely to plant onions, a crop with higher possible returns. Our results indicate that, when water resources are scarce (i.e. drier climate scenario), farmer incomes could become stratified, potentially compounding existing disparities in farmers’ financial and technical abilities to use forecasts to inform their crop selections. This analysis highlights that while programs that promote production of certain crops may ensure food security in the short-term, the long-term implications of these dynamics need careful evaluation.

  11. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices...... and partake in important social remittance practices that represent a vision for impacting local development...

  12. Characteristics of the Radiation Field Waveforms Produced by Lightning Return Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bok-Hee; Eom, Ju-Hong; Kang, Sung-Man; Paek, Seung-Kwon; Kawamura, Tatsuo

    2004-07-01

    Some features of the radiation field waveforms produced by cloud-to-ground lightning return strokes were investigated. A transient analyzer was used together with electric and magnetic field measuring devices with frequency bandwidths of 200 Hz to 1.6 MHz and 270 Hz to 2.3 MHz, respectively. The initial peak of the first lightning return stroke fields is followed by several large subsidiary peaks, whose amplitudes are a fraction of that of the initial peak and decrease with time. The subsidiary peaks of the first lightning return stroke fields may be caused by the effect of branches of leader channels. The mean amplitude ratios of the subsidiary peaks to the first return stroke field peak were widely distributed over the ranges of 0.25-0.8, and the mean time interval between the subsidiary peaks ranged from 5 to 15 μs. Detailed statistical analysis showed that the time interval between the subsidiary peaks and the ratio of the subsidiary peaks to the first lightning return stroke field peak in the present work are less than those obtained in subtropical and tropical regions. The parameters characterizing the wave tail of lightning return stroke fields are closely related to the propagation velocity and length of return stroke throughout the entire leader channel, and the subsidiary large pulses in the wave tail of return stroke fields seem to be associated with the resonance in major branches of lightning return stroke channels.

  13. Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen ratio system, and ground based micro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumantra

    We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen ratio data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in

  14. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  15. Study on Segmentation of Stock A Markets and Stock B Markets in Shanghai and Shenzhen——Based on Study of the Causality Relationship of Returns Ratio Volatility of GARCH-Model%沪深A、B股市场分割的实证研究——基于GARCH模型的收益率波动引导关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蓓

    2012-01-01

    运用计量经济学中GARCH模型和Granger因果性检验。分阶段实证检验了B股市场自对内开放以及汇率制度改革以来,沪深两市A、B指收益率波动的引导关系。得到的结论主要有:B股市场对内开放以来,沪深两市收益率波动的引导关系以及A、B指收益率波动的引导关系有所增强;特别是汇率制度改革以来,A、B股市场收益率波动的引导关系表现得更加显著。%With GARCH Model and Granger Causality Test of econometrics,this article makes an exploration of the causality relationships between Stock A returns ratio volatility and Stock B returns ratio volatility of Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Markets in three periods.Results demonstrate that after B Stock Market allowed domestic investors to participate,the causality relationship of returns ratio volatility between Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Markets and between Stock A and Stock B Markets has strengthened,especially after the Foreign Exchange Regime Reform in 2005 the causality relationship of returns ratio volatility between Stock A and Stock B Markets seems to be more significant.

  16. Estimating FPAR of maize canopy using airborne discrete-return LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shezhou; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Pan, Feifei

    2014-03-10

    The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is a key parameter for ecosystem modeling, crop growth monitoring and yield prediction. Ground-based FPAR measurements are time consuming and labor intensive. Remote sensing provides an alternative method to obtain repeated, rapid and inexpensive estimates of FPAR over large areas. LiDAR is an active remote sensing technology and can be used to extract accurate canopy structure parameters. A method to estimating FPAR of maize from airborne discrete-return LiDAR data was developed and tested in this study. The raw LiDAR point clouds were processed to separate ground returns from vegetation returns using a filter method over a maize field in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The fractional cover (fCover) of maize canopy was computed using the ratio of canopy return counts or intensity sums to the total of returns or intensities. FPAR estimation models were established based on linear regression analysis between the LiDAR-derived fCover and the field-measured FPAR (R(2) = 0.90, RMSE = 0.032, p LiDAR-predicted FPARs and results show that the LiDAR-predicted FPAR has a high accuracy (R(2) = 0.89, RMSE = 0.034). In summary, this study suggests that the airborne discrete-return LiDAR data could be adopted to accurately estimate FPAR of maize.

  17. Restricting the above ground sink corrects the root/shoot ratio and substantially boosts the yield potential per panicle in field-grown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Reham M; Abogadallah, Gaber M

    2016-04-01

    Rice has shallow, weak roots, but it is unknown how much increase in yield potential could be achieved if the root/shoot ratio is corrected. Removing all tillers except the main one, in a japonica (Sakha 101) and an indica (IR64) rice cultivar, instantly increased the root/shoot ratio from 0.21 to 1.16 in Sakha 101 and from 0.16 to 1.46 in IR64. Over 30 days after detillering, the root/shoot ratios of the detillered plants decreased to 0.49 in Sakha 101 and 0.46 in IR64 but remained significantly higher than in the controls. The detillered plants showed two- or fourfold increase in the main tiller fresh weight, as a consequence of more positive midday leaf relative water content (RWC), and consistently higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, but not transpiration, compared with the controls. The enhanced photosynthesis in Sakha 101 after detillering resulted from both improved water status and higher Rubisco contents whereas in IR64, increasing the Rubisco content did not contribute to improving photosynthesis. Detillering did not increase the carbohydrate contents of leaves but prevented starch depletion at the end of grain filling. The leaf protein content during vegetative and reproductive stages, the grain filling rate, the number of filled grains per panicle were greatly improved, bringing about 38.3 and 35.9% increase in the harvested grain dry weight per panicle in Sakha 101 and IR64, respectively. We provide evidence that improving the root performance by increasing the root/shoot ratio would eliminate the current limitations to photosynthesis and growth in rice.

  18. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Zhou, Hao

    predicting high (low) future returns. The magnitude of the return predictability of the variance risk premium easily dominates that afforded by standard predictor variables like the P/E ratio, the dividend yield, the default spread, and the consumption-wealth ratio (CAY). Moreover, combining the variance...... risk premium with the P/E ratio results in an R2 for the quarterly returns of more than twenty-five percent. The results depend crucially on the use of "model-free", as opposed to standard Black-Scholes, implied variances, and realized variances constructed from high-frequency intraday, as opposed...

  19. Return on current assets, working capital and required rate of return on equity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The problem of return on current assets and return on working capital related to the cost of equity invested in a company is analyzed in this paper. Risk – return and liquidity – profitability trade-offs influence the company’s equilibrium and management decisions. Liquidity is measured by the cash conversion cycle and it is related to the working capital strategy, measured by current ratio. Rate of return on current assets should be related to the rate of return on working capital that is li...

  20. Understanding the multifractality in portfolio excess returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    The multifractality in stock returns have been investigated extensively. However, whether the autocorrelations in portfolio returns are multifractal have not been considered in the literature. In this paper, we detect multifractal behavior of returns of portfolios constructed based on two popular trading rules, size and book-to-market (BM) ratio. Using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that the portfolio returns are significantly multifractal and the multifractality is mainly attributed to long-range dependence. We also investigate the multifractal cross-correlation between portfolio return and market average return using the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Our results show that the cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent, while those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent.

  1. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Zhou, Hao

    We find that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain more than fifteen percent of the ex-post time series variation in quarterly excess returns on the market portfolio over the 1990 to 2005 sample period, with high (low) premia...... predicting high (low) future returns. The magnitude of the return predictability of the variance risk premium easily dominates that afforded by standard predictor variables like the P/E ratio, the dividend yield, the default spread, and the consumption-wealth ratio (CAY). Moreover, combining the variance...... risk premium with the P/E ratio results in an R2 for the quarterly returns of more than twenty-five percent. The results depend crucially on the use of "model-free", as opposed to standard Black-Scholes, implied variances, and realized variances constructed from high-frequency intraday, as opposed...

  2. 沪深A股市场市盈率与投资组合超额收益关系的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Abnormal Return of Investment Portfolio in Relation to Their P/E Ratio in the Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林钢锋; 卜庆军

    2012-01-01

    Price-earnings ratio is a measure of risk and value of stock. The relationship between priceearnings ratio and abnormal return has great significance on investment decisions. This paper based on the data of price-earnlngs ratio and abnormal return of investment portfolio in the Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share market from 2005 to 2009. Through comparative analysis, variance analysis and correlation analysis, we find out that China A-share market does not exist "low price-earnings ratio effect" or "high price?earnings ratio effect".%市盈率是衡量个股风险和投资价值的重要指标,目前主流的观点偏向于认为低市盈率股票投资价值高,能带来超额收益。本文根据2005年-2009年沪深A股市场个股市盈率与超额收益率的数据,通过对比分析、方差分析和相关性分析发现:在1年的投资周期上.总体上“高市盈率投资策略”战胜了“低市盈率投资策略”:同时,在1年期的投资周期上,市盈率与超额投资收益率之间不一定存在相关性关系。

  3. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Tauchen, George; Zhou, Hao

    constructed from high-frequency intraday, as opposed to daily, data. The magnitude of the predictability is particularly strong at the intermediate quarterly return horizon, where it dominates that afforded by other popular predictor variables, like the P/E ratio, the default spread, and the consumption......-wealth ratio (CAY)....

  4. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  5. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow and the effect of rising and sustained high river stage on the method of estimation in Cibola Valley, Arizona and California, 1983 and 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1990-01-01

    In Cibola Valley, Arizona, water is pumped from the Colorado River to irrigate crops and to maintain wildlife habitat. Unused water percolates to the water table and, as groundwater, moves downgradient into areas of phreatophytes, into a drainage ditch, out of the flood plain, and back to the river. In 1983 and 1984, groundwater return flow was negligible because in most of Cibola Valley the river lost water to the aquifer. Evapotranspiration was used as an approximation for consumptive use by vegetation. Evapotranspiration was calculated as the sum of the products of the area of vegetation types and water-use rate by vegetation type. Evapotranspiration was estimated to be 70,100 acre-ft in 1983 and 62,600 acre-ft in 1984. These estimates may be in error because of the effect of sustained inundation on the rate of water use by phreatophytes. The effects cannot be quantified and therefore adjustments to rates calculated for dry-surface conditions could not be made. The method of estimating consumptive use of water by vegetation and groundwater return flow is affected by changing conditions during years of rising and sustained high river stage caused by flood-control releases at Parker Dam. Most of the bank storage that will return to the river when the high river stage subsides did not originate as irrigation water. High river stage caused some areas to be flooded directly or raised groundwater levels above the land surface. No crops could be grown in flooded fields. The decreased depth to water and inundation with fresh water resulted in new phreatophyte growth in some areas. In some areas that were flooded, many phreatophytes died. Changes in the inundated and flooded areas throughout the years made it difficult to estimate the evaporation losses from the increased water surface. (USGS)

  6. Financial Constraints and the Risk-Return Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wang

    2007-01-01

    Stock return volatilities are related to firms' financial status. Financially constrained firms are more volatile. Their stock return volatilities react more negatively to lagged return changes than financially unconstrained firms. This strong negative relation between volatilities and lagged returns for financially constrained firms are not affected by industry differences or firm leverage. Moreover, the debt-equity ratio is not as important as financial constraints for the firm-level risk-r...

  7. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    This paper provides detailed insights into predictability of the entire stock and bond return distribution through the use of quantile regression. This allows us to examine speci…c parts of the return distribution such as the tails or the center, and for a suf…ciently …ne grid of quantiles we can...... are predictable as a function of economic state variables. The results are, however, very different for stocks and bonds. The state variables primarily predict only location shifts in the stock return distribution, while they also predict changes in higher-order moments in the bond return distribution. Out...... trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions...

  8. College Risk and Return

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castex

    2011-01-01

    Attending college is thought of as a very profitable investment decision, as its estimated annualized return ranges from 8% to 13%. However, a large fraction of high school graduates do not enroll in college. I reconcile the observed high average returns to schooling with relatively low attendance rates when considering college as a risky investment decision. A high dropout risk has two important effects on the estimated average returns to college: selection bias and risk premium. In order to...

  9. 零序电流比例增量法在小电流接地故障选线中的应用%Application of the zero sequence current incremental ratio method in small current grounding fault line identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新超; 张玉海

    2011-01-01

    通过对小电流接地系统电路特点的深入研究发现,故障后在各条支路上流动的零序电容电流只决定于系统的零序电压与支路的对地电容,而不决定于故障发生在哪条支路上,且故障发生前后的支路对地电容几乎不变.非故障支路上流动的是零序电容电流,故障支路上流动着的是零序电容电流与接地电流的叠加.正是基于这一分析结果提出了一种零序电流比例增量法,定义了基准零序电流比例系数序列和参考基准电流分度系数等中间参量.其工作特点是可以剥离各支路的零序电容电流,并通过比较剥离后各支路增量的最大者,即故障支路.进一步的仿真表明该法稳定可靠,具有良好的适应能力.该法对其他判别法提高判别精度也有帮助.%Intensive studying on the characteristics of small current grounding system circuit finds that the zero sequence capacitive current in each powerline depends merely on the system's zero-sequence voltage and powerline-to-ground capacitances when a single-phase grounding failure happens, and does not depend on that the failure occurrs in which powerline, and the powerline-to-ground capacitances are almost unchanged before or after the failure. Non-fault powerline currents are zero sequence capacitive currents, but fault powerline current is the zero sequence capacitance current plus the grounding current. Based on the results of this analysis a zero sequence current proportion incremental method is given, which defines some medium-parameters such as the zero sequence current ratio standard coefficient array and reference current gauge coefficient. Characteristics of the method is that zero-sequence capacitive currents are stripped, and the maximum increment of the powerline is found, which is the fault one. Further simulations show that the method is stable and reliable, with good adaptability. The method can also improve identification accuracy of other

  10. The limits to stock return predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D.; Wright, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examine predictive return regressions from a new angle. We ask what observable\\ud univariate properties of returns tell us about the “predictive space” that defines the true\\ud predictive model: the triplet ¡\\ud λ, R2\\ud x, ρ¢\\ud , where λ is the predictor’s persistence, R2\\ud x is the\\ud predictive R-squared, and ρ is the "Stambaugh Correlation" (between innovations in the\\ud predictive system). When returns are nearly white noise, and the variance ratio slopes\\ud downwards, the predictive...

  11. The Log-Linear Return Approximation, Bubbles, and Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We study in detail the log-linear return approximation introduced by Campbell and Shiller (1988a). First, we derive an upper bound for the mean approximation error, given stationarity of the log dividend-price ratio. Next, we simulate various rational bubbles which have explosive conditional....... Finally, we show that a bubble model in which expected returns are constant can explain the predictability of stock returns from the dividend-price ratio that many previous studies have documented....

  12. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  13. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  14. Empirical analysis of relations between stock returns and price earnings ratio of appliances stocks:a case of Shenzhen stock market%家电板块股票收益与市盈率关系的实证分析∗--以深圳股市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 王招娣; 陈昊

    2015-01-01

    2009年开始的一系列家电补贴政策退市后,家电行业股票价格大涨大跌,投资者迫切需要相关指标来指导其进行股票投资决策。采用文献研究和回归统计方法,选取深圳股市2004年1月到2013年12月共10年的月度数据作为样本,对深圳市场股票收益率与市盈率的关系进行实证分析,最终筛选出市盈率、市场超额收益率和账面市值比因子为回归模型的显著变量。从上市公司规模、成长性、股利等方面对原因予以分析,并从投资者和相关政府部门的角度提出了政策建议。%After the abolishment of a series of subsidy policies to appliances since 2009 , the stock prices of appliances industry goes up and down drastically. Investors need urgently the related indicators to guide their stock investment decisions. Through literature study and regression analysis, the monthly data of Shenzhen Stock Exchange from January 2004 to December 2013 are selected as sample, and empirical analysis is produced on the relationship between stock returns ratio and market earnings ratio. Finally the factors of earnings ratio, market excess returns ratio and book-market ratio are selected as significant variables of the regression model. The reasons are analyzed from the scale, growth trend, dividends and other aspects of listed companies, and policy suggestions are brought forward from aspects of investors and relevant government departments.

  15. ANALISIS PENGARUH ROA, EPS, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, PROCEED TERHADAP INITIAL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhi Wijayanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Riset ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ROA, EPS, Financial Leverage dan Proceed terhadap initial return. Initial return diperoleh dengan mengukur perbedaan harga pada hari pertama perdangangan di pasar sekunder dengan harga saat IPO. Penelitian ini menduga bahwa ROA, EPS, Proceed mempunyai pengaruh negatif dengan initial return, disisi lain, Financial Leverage diduga mempunyai pengaruh yang positif terhadap initial return. Data pada penelitian ini terdapat dalam prospectus perusahaan. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling dengan dua kriteria yaitu terdiri dari perusahaan yang IPO selama periode tahun 2000-2006 dan underpriced. Dengan kriteria tersebut, 67 perusahaan dijadikan sebagai sampel. Metode analisis menggunakan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian ini adalah Earning Per-Share (EPS, dan Proceed mempunyai pengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap initial return, sedangkan Return on Assets Ratio (ROA, dan Financial Leverage tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap initial return. This research aimed to examine the influence of ROA, EPS, Financial Leverage, and Proceed on initial return. Initial return was measured by the difference between the firm’s stock price on the first day in the secondary market and it’s IPO. This research expected that return on assets ratio (ROA, earning per-share (EPS, and proceed negatively associated with initial return. On other hand, financial leverage ratio expected to positively associate with initial return. Data in this study were obtained from company prospectus, ICMD. Sample had been taken by using purposive sampling method with two criterions such as conducted IPO during period 2000-2006 and underpriced. With criterions, 67 companies obtains as sample. The analytical methods used multiple regressions, the empirical result of this research indicate that EPS, and proceed significantly associated with initial returns. Whereas ROA, and financial leverage ratio not

  16. RETURN ON CURRENT ASSETS, WORKING CAPITAL AND REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN ON EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bolek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of return on current assets and return on working capital related to the cost of equity invested in a company is analyzed in this paper. Risk – return and liquidity – profitability trade-offs influence the company’s equilibrium and management decisions. Liquidity is measured by the cash conversion cycle and it is related to the working capital strategy, measured by current ratio. Rate of return on current assets should be related to the rate of return on working capital that is linked to the cost of capital and the required rate of return. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between the return on current assets and cash conversion cycle, a positive relationship between cost of equity and return on working capital meaning that the working capital, cash conversion cycle and current assets management are related to profitability, and cost of equity is determined by the required rate of return calculated based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model.

  17. Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when work tasks can be upgraded to full duty. What can a person returning to work do? ... to-work program that includes transitional work for employees is an important component of a company's healthy ...

  18. A wavelet based investigation of long memory in stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei P.; Galagedera, Don U. A.; Maharaj, Elizabeth A.

    2012-04-01

    Using a wavelet-based maximum likelihood fractional integration estimator, we test long memory (return predictability) in the returns at the market, industry and firm level. In an analysis of emerging market daily returns over the full sample period, we find that long-memory is not present and in approximately twenty percent of 175 stocks there is evidence of long memory. The absence of long memory in the market returns may be a consequence of contemporaneous aggregation of stock returns. However, when the analysis is carried out with rolling windows evidence of long memory is observed in certain time frames. These results are largely consistent with that of detrended fluctuation analysis. A test of firm-level information in explaining stock return predictability using a logistic regression model reveal that returns of large firms are more likely to possess long memory feature than in the returns of small firms. There is no evidence to suggest that turnover, earnings per share, book-to-market ratio, systematic risk and abnormal return with respect to the market model is associated with return predictability. However, degree of long-range dependence appears to be associated positively with earnings per share, systematic risk and abnormal return and negatively with book-to-market ratio.

  19. Risk Measures for Autocorrelated Hedge Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio); Ph.A. Stork (Philip); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStandard risk metrics tend to underestimate the true risks of hedge funds because of serial correlation in the reported returns. Getmansky et al. (2004) derive mean, variance, Sharpe ratio, and beta formulae adjusted for serial correlation. Following their lead, adjusted downside and glo

  20. To return permanently or to return temporarily?: Explaining migrants' intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilgili, Ö.; Siegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies migrants' intentions to return to their origin country by making the distinction between permanent return, temporary return and participation in temporary return programmes. Using survey data from first generation migrants in the Netherlands, we explore how migrants' experiences r

  1. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  2. Returning to the Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Benedikte Møller

    This PhD thesis is about shamanism among the Duha in Mongolia. It is based on 22 months of fieldwork (1999 - 2012) among the Duha reindeer nomads in Northern Mongolia, and examines why the Duha return to their traditional livelihood as hunters and herders in the taiga has resulted in a turn to ward...

  3. Higher Education Endowments Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  4. The 'successful' return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Research on female migrant caregivers has tended to focus upon the emotional and social problems they encounter working abroad, given women’s traditional role as caregivers for their own families. This article analyses how Caribbean women who have returned after a period abroad as domestic workers...

  5. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  6. Returning to the Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Benedikte Møller

    This PhD thesis is about shamanism among the Duha in Mongolia. It is based on 22 months of fieldwork (1999 - 2012) among the Duha reindeer nomads in Northern Mongolia, and examines why the Duha return to their traditional livelihood as hunters and herders in the taiga has resulted in a turn to wa...

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. Multi-channel non-return-to-zero format to return-to-zero format conversion with duplicate output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate multi-channel regenerative non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to return-to-zero (RZ) conversions with tunable output pulse-width and single-to-dual function, using a phase modulator and an array waveguide grating (AWG). Transmission and bit error ratio (BER) show a good performance for the converted RZ signal compared with conventional one.

  9. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  10. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Tauchen, George; Zhou, Hao

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized self-contained general equilibrium model incorporating the effects of time-varying economic uncertainty, we show that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain a non-trivial fraction...... of the time series variation in post 1990 aggregate stock market returns, with high (low) premia predicting high (low) future returns. Our empirical results depend crucially on the use of "model-free," as opposed to Black- Scholes, options implied volatilities, along with accurate realized variation measures...... constructed from high-frequency intraday, as opposed to daily, data. The magnitude of the predictability is particularly strong at the intermediate quarterly return horizon, where it dominates that afforded by other popular predictor variables, like the P/E ratio, the default spread, and the consumption...

  11. Design of ground segments for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Guy

    1994-01-01

    New concepts must be implemented when designing a Ground Segment (GS) for small satellites to conform to their specific mission characteristics: low cost, one main instrument, spacecraft autonomy, optimized mission return, etc. This paper presents the key cost drivers of such ground segments, the main design features, and the comparison of various design options that can meet the user requirements.

  12. Zizek's return to Lenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical discussion of the thesis about the revived philosophical and political significance of Lenin, as recently propounded by Slavoj Zizek. Analyzing Zizek's writings, the author argues that the call for a "return to Lenin" derives from Zizek's strategy of "textual provocation" and the frustrating position of the leftist, radical tradition of political thought after the collapse of communism.

  13. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  14. Myth and reality: the return of Kosovan Albanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marsden

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In public statements up until 25 June 1999, UNHCR voiced both its concern that refugees should not return prematurely and also its expectation that, despite warning refugees against an early return, the refugee camps in Macedonia would empty very quickly. The speed of the return over the following days confirmed UNHCR’s expectations and gave the impression of an undifferentiated mass response to NATO’s entry intoKosovo. The reality on the ground, however, has turned out to be quite different.

  15. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  16. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen L. Lee

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  17. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  18. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.

    1998-01-01

    We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the

  19. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.

    1998-01-01

    We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the r

  20. Titan Science Return Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  1. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  2. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  3. The stocks at stake : return and risk in socially responsible investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.J.; Plantinga, A.; Scholtens, B.

    2008-01-01

    We relate US portfolio returns, book-to-market values and excess stock returns to different dimensions of socially responsible performance. We find that socially responsible investing (SRI) impacts on stock returns by lowering the book-to-market ratio and not by generating positive alphas. Our resul

  4. The stocks at stake : return and risk in socially responsible investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.J.; Plantinga, A.; Scholtens, B.

    2008-01-01

    We relate US portfolio returns, book-to-market values and excess stock returns to different dimensions of socially responsible performance. We find that socially responsible investing (SRI) impacts on stock returns by lowering the book-to-market ratio and not by generating positive alphas. Our

  5. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the r...

  6. Homeward bound: Yemeni return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, N A

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the return migration of Yemenis from Saudi Arabia during the period 1970-1989. "Through the use of original, empirical data collected in Yemen, this article sheds light on who these returning migrants are, where they have come from, and what sort of future awaits them.... The survey conducted on return migration was administered in the winter and spring of 1989 in a region of North Yemen called al-Hujariyya."

  7. Understanding Guyton's venous return curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Daniel A; Feigl, Eric O

    2011-01-01

    ...) was experimentally increased the right atrial pressure decreased, Arthur Guyton and coworkers proposed an interpretation that right atrial pressure represents a back pressure restricting venous return...

  8. The Statistical Properties of Hedge Fund Index Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Brooks; Harry M. Kat

    2001-01-01

    he monthly return distributions of many hedge fund indices exhibit highly unusual skewness and kurtosis properties as well as first-order serial correlation. This has important consequences for investors. We demonstrate that although hedge fund indices are highly attractive in mean-variance terms, this is much less the case when skewness, kurtosis and autocorrelation are taken into account. Sharpe Ratios will substantially overestimate the true risk-return performance of (portfolios containin...

  9. Financial Ratio and Its Influence to Profitability in Islamic Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO to Return on Asset (ROA in Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega. The data analysis method used in this research is multiple regression analysis. From the test results show that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO simultaneously effect to Return on Asset (ROA. Based on the test results of the t statistic was concluded that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF and the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR partially no significant effect to Return on Asset (ROA, while Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO partially significant effect to Return on Asset (ROADOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1700

  10. The effect of precipitation on wind-profiler clear air returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A small number of studies have indicated that reductions in the signal strength of clear air returns can be observed at low altitudes in regions of precipitation. This study uses data from the NERC MST radar facility in Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W and co-located tipping bucket rain gauge data to determine whether this effect can be observed for all periods where high rainfall rates were observed at the ground. The period selected for examination includes all of the days where a peak rainfall rate of 6mm h-1 was exceeded in 2001. A statistical examination of VHF radar signal power during periods with and without surface rainfall suggests that the returned power is reduced by the presence of precipitating clouds. The corrected spectral width of the Doppler spectra is also significantly wider during periods of precipitation. The process which causes the decrease in the VHF signal power seems to be associated with a reduction in Fresnel reflection within precipitating clouds. This, in turn, may be due to a reduction of humidity gradients in clouds. UHF wind profiler data is also used to show that there is a relationship between enhanced UHF returns (signifying precipitation and reduced VHF returns. To clarify the processes and effects observed we examine three case studies which show typical relationships between the VHF signal power and surface rainfall or enhanced UHF signal-to-noise ratios. The effect of precipitation on the signal processing scheme's derivation of signal power and spectral width is explored using individual Doppler spectra.

  11. UK annuity rates and pension replacement ratios 1957-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Edmund; Tonks, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  12. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  13. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  14. [Return to the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaidou, N G

    1993-08-01

    Sahelian countries occupy an inglorious place in the global list of human development. The human development index is superior to the gross national product (GNP) at measuring the progress of a country in terms of development, because it includes income, longevity, and educational level. The highest ranked Sahelian country holds the 114th position out of a 173 countries. The low human development index scores for the Sahel reflects the socioeconomic crisis which has overcome these countries. In 1991, only 3 of 9 Sahelian countries had a mean GP equal or superior to US$500. Just 2 countries had a life expectancy greater than 50 years. In fact, the Sahel had a lower life expectancy than all of Africa (50 years) and much lower than Asia (64 years) and Latin America (67 years). The economic crisis is worse than the cold statistics show. It destabilizes the most disadvantaged populations. The pressure it exerts often leads public authorities to adopt unpopular measures. It depreciates some sociocultural values and disintegrates traditional social structures. It is accentuated by the effects of war and drought. Internal and external migration increases even as urban hope is uncertain. For most people, the family (the traditional framework of individual development) is ready to break apart, leaving only a disincarnate nuclear entity to subsist. Yet, African history is built around the extended family: the place of reproduction, production, distribution, formation, management, perpetuation of demographic behavior, and social control. Senegal and Mali have created ministries which invest in families. The Third African Conference on Population, in 1992, chose its theme to be the relationship between family, population, and sustainable development. It is important to return to the natural or primordial framework--family--as a refuge against the economic crisis.

  15. PROFILE OF ROMANIAN RETURNED MIGRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.

  16. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  17. Energy return on investment for aquaponics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Danner, Ragnar; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Energy use in food production is linked to environmental impact as most agricultural practices are reliant on fossil fuels. It is therefore of importance to locate food production methods that are less energy intensive than current methods and are less polluting. Energy return on investment (EROI......) is the ratio between the energy used to construct and maintain a given system, against the energy that is provided by the system. Aquaponic systems have environmental benefits over conventional aquaculture systems as the waste is used within the system as fertilizer for plants. In this paper, we analyse...

  18. THE RETURN ON EQUITY INDICATORS SYSTEM – METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present a suggestion for the methodical decomposition rate of return on equity (ROE. The developed ROE decomposition model includes nine factors: the rate of value added, the rate of depreciation costs, salaries expense ratio, the ratio of other operating income and expenses, the rate of fi nancial income and expenses, the rate of extraordinary events, the rate of tax, the assets rotation and capital gearing. In addition, based on deterministic methods, the study presents the analysis of changes in the level of return on equity on the example of the domestic furniture manufacturing sector in the period 2009–2013.

  19. Estimating Marginal Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pedro; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates marginal returns to college for individuals induced to enroll in college by different marginal policy changes. The recent instrumental variables literature seeks to estimate this parameter, but in general it does so only under strong assumptions that are tested and found wanting. We show how to utilize economic theory and local instrumental variables estimators to estimate the effect of marginal policy changes. Our empirical analysis shows that returns are higher for individuals with values of unobservables that make them more likely to attend college. We contrast our estimates with IV estimates of the return to schooling. PMID:25110355

  20. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness......We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial......, and kurtosis of currency returns....

  1. Metal Returns, Stock Returns and Stock Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zevallos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the extensive participation of mining stocks in the Peruvian stock market, the Lima Stock Exchange (BVL provides an ideal setting for exploring both the impact of metal returns on mining stock returns and stock market volatility, and the comovements between mining stock returns and metal returns. This research is a first attempt to explore these issues using international metal prices and the prices of the most important mining stocks on the BVL and the IGBVL index. To achieve this, we use univariate GARCH models to model individual volatilities, and the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA method and multivariate GARCH models with time-varying correlations to model comovements in returns. We found that Peruvian mining stock volatilities mimic the behavior of metal volatilities and that there are important correlation levels between metals and mining stock returns. In addition, we found time-varying correlations with distinctive behavior in different periods, with rises potentially related to international and local historical events.

  2. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ON SHARE RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nurul Huda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effect of financial performances of Economic Value Added (EVA, Market Value Added (MVA as well as financial ratios (Fixed Asset Turnover, Return on Investment, Debt to Equity Ratio, Price to Book Value, Total Asset Turnover on Stock Return. This study used the data of six representative palm oil companies which were listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The analysis models that were used included three multiple regression equations for EVA, MVA and Stock Return. The results indicate that DER significantly influences EVA and PBV, and TATO significantly influences MVA. Return Shares are significantly only affected by EVA. The company's fundamentals, especially EVA, PBV, TATO and DER were used by investors to predict the Stock Return in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2009–2014 period. This study confirmed the previous studies that these variables are involved on regression model to predict the Stock Return. The results of the analysis of the company's financial performance with EVA and MVA and financial fundamental variables provide a better alternative picture on the achievement of the company so that the benefits in investing in the palm oil business in Indonesia can be maximally managed.Keywords: Indonesia Stock Exchange, investor, market, multiple regression, stock

  4. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  5. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  6. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Lightning Return Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Frota Mattos, Marcos Andre

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Several lightning return stroke models were developed in this work. Initially very simple models were developed, and subsequently many of the main features of the channel were added. The corona effect, the geometrical parameters, non-linear losses and the cloud losses are these features. To solve the RLC network model of the channel the numerical technique known as TLM was used. A numerical sensitivity study was made to analyse the influence of the filtering and the Gibbs effects on the results. A sensitivity study of the channel's parameters was also made. For the first time three of the main measured lightning channel quantities were calculated showing good agreement with observations. These quantities are the electromagnetic field, current waveshape at ground and the velocity of propagation. The surge impedence and the current rise-time were also calculated at all heights.

  8. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  9. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  10. Short Interest and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Asquith; Pathak, Parag A.; Jay R. Ritter

    2004-01-01

    Using a longer time period and both NYSE-Amex and Nasdaq stocks, this paper examines short interest and stock returns in more detail than any previous study and finds that many documented patterns are not robust. While equally weighted high short interest portfolios generally underperform, value weighted portfolios do not. In addition, there is a negative correlation between market returns and short interest over our whole period. Finally, inferences from short time periods, such as 1988-1994...

  11. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  12. OSIRIS-REx Asterod Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messinger, Keiki; Connolly, Harold C. Jr.; Messenger, Scott; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2017-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is NASA's third New Frontiers Program mission, following New Horizons that completed a flyby of Pluto in 2015 and the Juno mission to Jupiter that has just begun science operations. The OSIRIS-REx mission's primary objective is to collect pristine surface samples of a carbonaceous asteroid and return to Earth for analysis. Carbonaceous asteroids and comets are 'primitive' bodies that preserved remnants of the Solar System starting materials and through their study scientists can learn about the origin and the earliest evolution of the Solar System. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft was successfully launched on September 8, 2016, beginning its seven year journey to asteroid 101955 Bennu. The robotic arm will collect 60-2000 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and will return to Earth in 2023 for worldwide distribution by the Astromaterials Curation Facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. The name OSIRIS-REx embodies the mission objectives (1) Origins: Return and analyze a sample of a carbonaceous asteroid, (2) Spectral Interpretation: Provide ground-truth for remote observation of asteroids, (3) Resource Identification: Determine the mineral and chemical makeup of a near-Earth asteroid (4) Security: Measure the non-gravitational that changes asteroidal orbits and (5) Regolith Explorer: Determine the properties of the material covering an asteroid surface. Asteroid Bennu may preserve remnants of stardust, interstellar materials and the first solids to form in the Solar System and the molecular precursors to the origin of life and the Earth's oceans. Bennu is a potentially hazardous asteroid, with an approximately 1 in 2700 chance of impacting the Earth late in the 22nd century. OSIRIS-REx collects from Bennu will help formulate the types of operations and identify mission activities that astronauts will perform during their expeditions. Such information is crucial in preparing for humanity's next steps beyond low Earthy orbit and on to deep space

  13. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  14. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Smith, D. A.; LeVine, D. M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphological difference between the electromagnetic radiation-field waveforms of "first" and "subsequent" return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes is well known and can be used to identify the formation of new channels to ground. This difference is generally believed due to the existence of branches on first-stroke channels, whereas subsequent strokes re-illuminate only the main channel of a previous stroke; but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is relatively weak. It has been argued for the influence of channel geometry on the fine structure of radiation from subsequent return strokes by comparing the field-change waveforms recorded at the same station from strokes within the same flash and between different flashes of both natural and triggered lightning. The present paper introduces new evidence for both of these hypotheses from a comparison of waveforms between sensors in different directions from the same stroke.

  15. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  16. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  17. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  18. A Sharpe-ratio-based measure for currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Prado-Dominguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe Ratio offers an excellent summary of the excess return required per unit of risk invested. This work presents an adaptation of the ex-ante Sharpe Ratio for currencies where we consider a random walk approach for the currency behavior and implied volatility as a proxy for market expectations of future realized volatility. The outcome of the proposed measure seems to gauge some information on the expected required return attached to the “peso problem”.

  19. Return to work following ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  20. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  1. Return-to-work coordination programmes for improving return to work in workers on sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nicole; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Ebrahim, Shanil; de Boer, Wout El; Busse, Jason W; Kunz, Regina

    2017-03-30

    To limit long-term sick leave and associated consequences, insurers, healthcare providers and employers provide programmes to facilitate disabled people's return to work. These programmes include a variety of coordinated and individualised interventions. Despite the increasing popularity of such programmes, their benefits remain uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to determine the long-term effectiveness of return-to-work coordination programmes compared to usual practice in workers at risk for long-term disability. To assess the effects of return-to-work coordination programmes versus usual practice for workers on sick leave or disability. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO up to 1 November 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled workers absent from work for at least four weeks and randomly assigned them to return-to-work coordination programmes or usual practice. Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full-text articles for study eligibility; extracted data; and assessed risk of bias from eligible trials. We contacted authors for additional data where required. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified 14 studies from nine countries that enrolled 12,568 workers. Eleven studies focused on musculoskeletal problems, two on mental health and one on both. Most studies (11 of 14) followed workers 12 months or longer. Risk of bias was low in 10 and high in 4 studies, but findings were not sensitive to their exclusion.We found no benefits for return-to-work coordination programmes on return-to-work outcomes.For short-term follow-up of six months, we found no effect on time to return to work (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.88, low-quality evidence), cumulative sickness absence (mean difference (MD) -16.18 work

  2. The Rate of Return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Savelyev, Peter A; Yavitz, Adam

    2010-02-01

    This paper estimates the rate of return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an early intervention program targeted toward disadvantaged African-American youth. Estimates of the rate of return to the Perry program are widely cited to support the claim of substantial economic benefits from preschool education programs. Previous studies of the rate of return to this program ignore the compromises that occurred in the randomization protocol. They do not report standard errors. The rates of return estimated in this paper account for these factors. We conduct an extensive analysis of sensitivity to alternative plausible assumptions. Estimated annual social rates of return generally fall between 7-10 percent, with most estimates substantially lower than those previously reported in the literature. However, returns are generally statistically significantly different from zero for both males and females and are above the historical return on equity. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios support this conclusion.

  3. Earnings quality measures and excess returns: A case study of Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hemmati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between earning quality measure and excess returns on selected firms trading on Tehran Stock Exchange. The purpose of this study is to find the relative advantage of income figures reported in formal financial statements. The study uses hedge return, six accounting ratios and three market ratios and performs the study over the period of 2001-2011 using 56 firms whose shares were traded on Tehran Stock Exchange. The proposed study uses regression analysis as well as structural equation modeling. The results of this study indicate that market based figures are more influencing than accounting based ratios on hedge return. In other words, hedge return for persistency index was more predictable than smoothness and abnormal accruals. However, on the contrary to what we expected, hedge return for accruals was not more than other accounting based figures.

  4. Returning method of hot water in geothermal power generation and structure of pipeline for hot water returning; Zinetsu hatsuden ni okeru nessui no kangen shori hoho oyobi kangen nessuiyo haikan kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Y.

    1997-06-17

    According to the invention, the geothermal fluid consisting of steam and hot water gushing out of steam production well is separated into steam and hot water by means of gas-liquid separator, and the hot water is returned into the ground through the returning well without being exposed to the atmosphere. At that time, the temperature of the hot water to be returned to the ground is lower than the temperature of the hot water remained in the well. Before returning the hot water to the ground, the hot water level in the return well is lowered by means of compressed air so as to keep the temperature of hot water remained in the well being higher than the temperature of hot water to be returned. The pipeline of the hot water closed system including the production well and return well is either upward inclined or downward inclined in the flowing direction. In these ways, the hot water can be returned safely to the ground without causing hammering. 2 tabs.

  5. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  6. Return of the Red Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mainland stock boom is drawing many profitable Hong Kong-listed Chinese companies back home September saw a wave of Hong Kong-listed Chinese companies returning to the mainland stock market,helping the Shanghai Stock Exchange surpass Hong Kong to become the sixth largest stock exchange in the world.

  7. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  8. The Return of the Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Daniel Bell's latest book,China's New Confucianism,is an in-depth look at how one of the Middle Kingdom's oldest and greatest traditions is gradually returning,and how a growing number of Chinese citizens are embracing its once-forgotten ideals.

  9. Return Migration of Foreign Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Using administrative panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in the Netherlands. We focus on how individual labour market changes and marriage formation influence their decision to leave. Our model allows for correlated unobserved h

  10. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…

  11. Return migration of foreign students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Using unique administrative micro panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in The Netherlands. The life course experiences of these students in the host, both on the labour market and in marriage formation, impact their decision to

  12. How well do financial and macroeconomic variables predict stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    Recent evidence of mean reversion in stock returns has led to an explosion in the development of forecasting variables. This paper evaluates the relative performance of these many variables in both time-series and cross-sectional setups. We collect the different measures and compare...... their forecasting ability for stock returns, and we examine the forecasting variables' ability to reduce pricing errors in the conditional C-CAPM. A key result of the analysis is that the traditional pricedividend ratio performs surprisingly well compared to the many new forecasting variables. We also find......-dividend ratio, the price-consumption ratio of Menzly et al. (2004), and the price-output variable of Rangvid (2006) outperform the other variables. These variables also turn out to be superior in reducing pricing errors in the conditional C-CAPM. Thus, the same set of variables dominate in both time...

  13. An evaluation of the accounting rate of return : evidence for Dutch quoted firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Dick W.; Huijgen, Carel A.; Wang, Hua

    2000-01-01

    Although the accounting rate of return (ARR) is traditionally regarded as an important profitability measure in ratio analysis, there has been relatively little theoretical and empirical analysis on its statistical properties and its intrinsic ability to explain market returns. This paper provides a

  14. The Cross-Section of Credit Risk Premia and Equity Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friewald, Nils; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    that rms' equity returns and Sharpe ratios increase with estimated credit risk premia and that the returns of buying high and selling low credit risk premium rms cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Credit risk premia contain equity-relevant information neither captured by risk-neutral nor...

  15. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  16. FDTD simulation of LEMP propagation over lossy ground: Influence of distance, ground conductivity, and source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masanori; Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2015-08-01

    We have computed lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMPs), including the azimuthal magnetic field Hφ, vertical electric field Ez, and horizontal (radial) electric field Eh that propagated over 5 to 200 km of flat lossy ground, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in the 2-D cylindrical coordinate system. This is the first systematic full-wave study of LEMP propagation effects based on a realistic return-stroke model and including the complete return-stroke frequency range. Influences of the return-stroke wavefront speed (ranging from c/2 to c, where c is the speed of light), current risetime (ranging from 0.5 to 5 µs), and ground conductivity (ranging from 0.1 mS/m to ∞) on Hφ, Ez, and Eh have been investigated. Also, the FDTD-computed waveforms of Eh have been compared with the corresponding ones computed using the Cooray-Rubinstein formula. Peaks of Hφ, Ez, and Eh are nearly proportional to the return-stroke wavefront speed. The peak of Eh decreases with increasing current risetime, while those of Hφ and Ez are only slightly influenced by it. The peaks of Hφ and Ez are essentially independent of the ground conductivity at a distance of 5 km. Beyond this distance, they appreciably decrease relative to the perfectly conducting ground case, and the decrease is stronger for lower ground conductivity values. The peak of Eh increases with decreasing ground conductivity. The computed Eh/Ez is consistent with measurements of Thomson et al. (1988). The observed decrease of Ez peak and increase of Ez risetime due to propagation over 200 km of Florida soil are reasonably well reproduced by the FDTD simulation with ground conductivity of 1 mS/m.

  17. MARKETING MARGIN AND DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURN OF WATERMELON MARKETING IN YENAGOA METROPOLIS OF BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted from May, 2013 to July, 2013 for determining the marketing margin and examines the determinants of net return of watermelon marketing in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was adopted in drawing the sample. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, and multiple regression models. The results showed that watermelon marketing was female dominated (73.3% with mean marketing experience of 5 years which can conclude that watermelon marketing in the Niger Delta Area is gaining ground. In age group, majority (70.0% were within the age of 21-40 years, while majority (38.3% had household size of 5–10, and (61.7% had secondary education. Marketing of watermelon in the area was profitable with monthly marketing margin and net return of N 16, 466.35 and N 14, 767.51 respectively. Marketing efficiency and benefit- cost ratio was 0.588 and 1.53 respectively, meaning that marketing of watermelon was inefficient (0.588 < 1.The study further showed that price of watermelon had positive and significant relationship with net return (t = 8.682; p<0.05, suggesting that the higher the price of watermelon, the higher the net returns. Major constraints of watermelon marketing were spoilage of fruits, .transport risk, small size watermelon, irregular supply, and inadequate capital. Thus improved storage facilities, electricity, good road network linking distributing centers, pooling of accumulated capital is imminent to sustain availability of watermelon and enhance price stability in the area

  18. RASIO KEUANGAN PENGUKUR KINERJA PERUSAHAAN DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP EKSPEKTASI RETURN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnest Yarnest

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was intended to know and to describe BUMN firm performance listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange.It measured finance ratios and its impact to expectation return good stock partially and simultaneously.This observational object was corporate BUMN listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange, period 2005-2009. Thisresearch used design ex post facto. Exhaustive observational corporate BUMN listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange(BEI were 13 firms. Because of little population, the method used was census method. Analysis techniquesused were analysis multiple regression, quiz f and quiz t, data processing by programs Aviews version 6.0. Theresult of observation showed that liquidity ratio, leverage ratio, activity ratio, profitability ratio and stock ratiocould measure simultaneous firm and performance impacted significant to expectation return stock. Activityratio consisted of average collection period and inventory turnover and stock ratio consisted of price earning ratioand book value per share partially impacted significant to expectation return stock. Meanwhile ratio was liquidity,leverage ratio. Profitability ratio partially did not impact significantly to expectation return stock. Stock ratiomeasured by book value per share constituting impacted as the dominant factor on exspectation return stock.

  19. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  20. Pengaruh Rasio Likuiditas, Rasio Leverage, dan Rasio Aktivitas dengan Return on Investment Perusahaan Makanan dan Minuman yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Falentina

    2011-01-01

    This research entitles The Influence of Liquidity Ratio, Leverange Ratio, and Activity Ratio to Return on Investment of Food and Beverage Companies in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) from the period 2006-2009. The purpose of this research is to determine whether there is influence of liquidity ratio, leverage ratio and Ratio of Activity to Return on Investment of Food and Beverage Companies at the Bursa Efek Indonesia. The total of populations are 9 Food and Beverage Companies at...

  1. Consumption growth and time-varying expected stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2008-01-01

    When the consumption growth rate is measured based upon fourth quarter data, it tracks predictable variation in future excess stock returns. Low fourth quarter consumption growth rates predict high future excess stock returns such that expected returns are high at business cycle troughs and low...... at business cycle peaks. The consumption growth rate loses predictive power when it is measured based upon other quarters. This is consistent with the insight of Jagannathan and Wang [2007. Journal of Finance 62, 1623-1661] that investors tend to review their consumption and investment plans during the end...... of each calendar year, and at possibly random times in between. The consumption growth rate measured based upon fourth quarter data is a much stronger predictive variable than benchmark predictive variables such as the dividend-price ratio, the term spread, and the default spread....

  2. Measuring and Modelling Variation in the Risk-Return Trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Lettau, Martin; Ludvigson, Sydney

    2001-01-01

    Are excess stock market returns predictable over time and, if so, at what horizons and with which economic indicators? Can stock return predictability be explained by changes in stock market volatility? How does the mean return per unit risk change over time? This chapter reviews what is known about the time-series evolution of the risk-return tradeoff for stock market investment, and presents some new empirical evidence using a proxy for the log consumption-aggregate wealth ratio as a predic...

  3. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  4. Philopatry: A return to origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The word “philopatry” is a combination of the prefix philo (from the Greekphilos, “beloved”) and the Latin patria, which means “fatherland” or “homeland.” Since the first English-language use of “philopatry” in an ornithological context by Huntington (1951), the term has been applied to two types of site-faithful behavior in birds. Closest to the etymological meaning is the first, “natal philopatry,” which means not dispersing far from, or returning to, a birthplace for reproduction. The second is “breeding philopatry,” which means returning to the same breeding area each year, though that area may not be an individual’s birth place (Shields 1982, Anderson et al. 1992). Therefore, any assessment of breeding philopatry likely includes some immigrant individuals, whereas assessments of natal philopatry include only locally hatched or born individuals.

  5. Returns to Tenure or Seniority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; Portela, Miguel; Teulings, Coen

    at the moment of separation). The LIFO rule provides a stronger bargaining position for senior workers, leading to a return to seniority in wages. Efficiency in hiring requires the workers' .bargaining power to be in line with their share in the cost of specific investment. Then, the LIFO rule is a way...... to protect their property right on the specific investment. We consider the effects of Employment Protection Legislation and risk aversion....

  6. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  7. A study on relationship between the return of value/growth portfolio and market return: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mashhadi Ramezanali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the returns of two value and growth portfolios and the return of market on 15 selected firms on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2011. The study divides the firms into two groups in terms of the ratios of price on earning as well as price on book value into two groups of value and growth portfolios. Using some regression analysis, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between value portfolio and market return when the market is on the upside but this relationship is not meaningful during the bear session. The results indicate that during the bull sessions, value portfolios provide better investment opportunities than growth ones do.

  8. Lightning Return Stroke Current Analysis Using Electromagnetic Models and the 3D-FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaddour Arzag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The three dimensions finite difference time domain method (3D-FDTD is employed to calculate lightning return stoke current distributions in a vertical lightning channel. The latter is excited at its bottom by a lumped current source above a flat perfectly conducting ground. In this study four lightning return stroke electromagnetic models are used. The calculating approach, which is based on Taflove formulation of the 3D-FDTD method combined to the UPML boundary conditions, is implemented on Matlab environment. For validation needs, the obtained lightning return stroke space and time distributions are compared with others taken from specialized literature.

  9. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  10. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons simultane

  11. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  12. Contemporary Impact Analysis Methodology for Planetary Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Scott V.; Bayandor, Javid; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Armand, Sasan C.

    2015-01-01

    Development of an Earth entry vehicle and the methodology created to evaluate the vehicle's impact landing response when returning to Earth is reported. NASA's future Mars Sample Return Mission requires a robust vehicle to return Martian samples back to Earth for analysis. The Earth entry vehicle is a proposed solution to this Mars mission requirement. During Earth reentry, the vehicle slows within the atmosphere and then impacts the ground at its terminal velocity. To protect the Martian samples, a spherical energy absorber called an impact sphere is under development. The impact sphere is composed of hybrid composite and crushable foam elements that endure large plastic deformations during impact and cause a highly nonlinear vehicle response. The developed analysis methodology captures a range of complex structural interactions and much of the failure physics that occurs during impact. Numerical models were created and benchmarked against experimental tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The postimpact structural damage assessment showed close correlation between simulation predictions and experimental results. Acceleration, velocity, displacement, damage modes, and failure mechanisms were all effectively captured. These investigations demonstrate that the Earth entry vehicle has great potential in facilitating future sample return missions.

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records §...

  14. INVESTOR SENTIMENT PROXIES AND PREDICTABILITY OF EQUITY RETURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah KELEŞ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investor sentiment is one of the base on which behavioral models ground. Contrary to classical theories, these models offers empricial findings that irrational investors lead to over- or under-reactions, hence prices do not come back to fundamental levels. Investor sentiment is known as the unexplained beliefs of investors/traders in the market by facts in hand. Effects of sentiment is attractive therefore. Return predictability tests are convenient to measure these effects. In this study, we document a number of sentiment measures and argue the success of the representative indicators in terms of representing sentiment. This study that offers deep literature survey about sentiment proxies, reports closed-end fund discounts, Baker ve Wurgler composite sentiment index and surveys about consumer confidence/senti- ment in detail, and argue their predictive powers in return predictability. We aim to guide researchers in choice of investor sentiment proxies.

  15. VLSI technology for smaller, cheaper, faster return link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzetta, Kathy; Ghuman, Parminder; Bennett, Toby; Solomon, Jeff; Dowling, Jason; Welling, John

    1994-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Application-specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology has enabled substantially smaller, cheaper, and more capable telemetry data systems. However, the rapid growth in available ASIC fabrication densities has far outpaced the application of this technology to telemetry systems. Available densities have grown by well over an order magnitude since NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) first began developing ASIC's for ground telemetry systems in 1985. To take advantage of these higher integration levels, a new generation of ASIC's for return link telemetry processing is under development. These new submicron devices are designed to further reduce the cost and size of NASA return link processing systems while improving performance. This paper describes these highly integrated processing components.

  16. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  17. Characteristics of Preliminary Breakdown Pulses in Positive Ground Flashes during Summer Thunderstorms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalina Johari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBP in 51 positive ground flashes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Sweden. Electric field measurements were conducted remotely using a broadband antenna system (up to 100 MHz for a recording length of 1 s with 200 ms trigger time. In the analysis, PBP trains were observed in 86% of the cases. Based on the number of trains preceding the first return stroke, the PBP were classified into single and multiple train PBP. Characteristics of the first PBP train were determined and based on the initial polarity of the pulses, three types of PBP were identified. Characteristics of the subsequent PBP trains in the multiple train PBP were also analyzed and they were compared with the first PBP train. Based on the conceptual charge cloud configuration, we found that the inverted dipole is consistent with our observation. We also found that PBP in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak since the average ratios of the PBP peak to the first return stroke peak lie only between 0.21 and 0.26. Possible reasons for no detection of PBP and the different types of PBP observed were also discussed.

  18. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  19. The newsboy problem with resalable returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Mostard (Julien); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a newsboy problem with resalable returns. A single order is placed before the selling season starts. Purchased products may be returned by the customer for a full refund within a certain time interval. Returned products are resalable, provided they arrive back before the end o

  20. The Newsboy Problem with Resalable Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mostard (Julien); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a newsboy problem with resalable returns. A single order is placed before the selling season starts. Purchased products may be returned by the customer for a full refund within a certain time interval. Returned products are resalable, provided they arrive back before the end o

  1. Return Predictability, Model Uncertainty, and Robust Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel

    Stock return predictability is subject to great uncertainty. In this paper we use the model confidence set approach to quantify uncertainty about expected utility from investment, accounting for potential return predictability. For monthly US data and six representative return prediction models, we...

  2. The effects of prosthetic ankle dorsiflexion and energy return on below-knee amputee leg loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-03-01

    Prosthetic devices are intended to return lower limb amputees to their pre-amputation functional status. However, prosthetic devices designed for unilateral below-knee amputees have yet to completely restore the biomechanical functions normally provided by the ankle muscles, leading to gait asymmetries and increased reliance on their intact leg. In an effort to improve amputee gait, energy storage and return feet have been developed that store mechanical energy in elastic structures in early to mid-stance and return it in late stance. However, little is known regarding how ankle compliance and the level of energy return influences walking mechanics. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of prosthetic ankle dorsiflexion and energy storage and return on leg loading during steady-state walking. Compliant ankles with different stiffness levels were attached to a Seattle Lightfoot2 in different orientations (forward- and reverse-facing). The ankles decreased residual leg vertical ground reaction forces in late stance, increased residual leg propulsive ground reaction force impulses and increased residual leg knee joint extensor moments. The reverse-facing ankles increased residual leg vertical ground reaction forces in early stance, and the compliant forward-facing ankle increased residual leg braking impulses. In contrast to previous studies, increased energy storage and return from compliant ankles did not decrease hip joint powers or the intact leg vertical ground reaction forces. These results provide insight into the relationships between ankle dorsiflexion, energy storage and return, and leg loading, which may lead to more effective prosthetic devices to improve amputee gait. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hematospermia in a returned traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient's microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection.

  4. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

    2012-06-06

    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  5. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  6. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  7. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  8. Return to sport following amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F

    2014-08-01

    Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.

  9. RETURN MIGRATION – REASONS, CONSEQUENCES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Return migration is probably the aspect of the migration cycle, which was granted the lowest attention, perhaps because most research resources are located in highly developed countries, while most of the returning most returnees return to developing countries. This is especially unfortunate because perceptions about the process of returning to the country of origin and attitudes towards returning migrants have a significant impact on migrants and their host communities. Rollback, sometimes called remigration, is considered by some authors as the final stage of the migration process, which further comprises the step preparation / decision to migrate and actual migration phase or installation of migrant destination country selected.

  10. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL...: Substitute returns. If any person required by this part to make returns shall fail or refuse to make any such...

  11. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  12. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  13. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Davies

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  14. Stock return comovement and Korean business groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group.

  15. Evaluation of Horizontal Electric Field Under Different Lightning Current Models by Perfect Ground Assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jianfeng; LI Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Lightning electromagnetics can affect the reliability of the power system or communication system.Therefore,evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return stroke is indispensable.Arnold sommerfeld proposed a model to calculate the electromagnetic field,but it involved the time-consuming sommerfeld integral.However,perfect conductor ground assumption can account for fast calculation,thus this paper reviews the perfect ground equation for evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields,presents three engineering lightning return stroke models,and calculates the horizontal electric field caused by three lightning return stroke models.According to the results,the amplitude of lightning return stroke has a strong impact on horizontal electric fields,and the steepness of lightning return stroke influences the horizontal electric fields.Moreover,the perfect ground method is faster than the sommerfeld integral method.

  16. Performance evaluation of a 1.6-µm methane DIAL system from ground, aircraft and UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F; Ismail, Syed; Nehrir, Amin R; Hair, John W; Crawford, James H; Leifer, Ira; Shuman, Timothy

    2013-12-16

    Methane is an efficient absorber of infrared radiation and a potent greenhouse gas with a warming potential 72 times greater than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis. Development of methane active remote sensing capability using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique enables scientific assessments of the gas emission and impacts on the climate. A performance evaluation of a pulsed DIAL system for monitoring atmospheric methane is presented. This system leverages a robust injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) laser technology operating in the 1.645 µm spectral band. The system also leverages an efficient low noise, commercially available, InGaAs avalanche photo-detector (APD). Lidar signals and error budget are analyzed for system operation on ground in the range-resolved DIAL mode and from airborne platforms in the integrated path DIAL (IPDA) mode. Results indicate system capability of measuring methane concentration profiles with <1.0% total error up to 4.5 km range with 5 minute averaging from ground. For airborne IPDA, the total error in the column dry mixing ratio is less than 0.3% with 0.1 sec average using ground returns. This system has a unique capability of combining signals from the atmospheric scattering from layers above the surface with ground return signals, which provides methane column measurement between the atmospheric scattering layer and the ground directly. In such case 0.5% and 1.2% total errors are achieved with 10 sec average from airborne platforms at 8 km and 15.24 km altitudes, respectively. Due to the pulsed nature of the transmitter, the system is relatively insensitive to aerosol and cloud interferences. Such DIAL system would be ideal for investigating high latitude methane releases over polar ice sheets, permafrost regions, wetlands, and over ocean during day and night. This system would have commercial potential for fossil fuel leaks detection and industrial monitoring applications.

  17. Healing a Vulnerable Self : Exploring Return to Work for Women With Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory

  18. Healing a Vulnerable Self : Exploring Return to Work for Women With Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjortkjaer, Charlotte; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems (MHPs) such as stress and depression are among the leading causes of work disability. In this article we explore how women with MHPs experience sickness absence and subsequent return to work. We conducted 16 semistructured interviews and employed constructivist grounded theory

  19. Melioidosis in a returning traveller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Alaa; Buckley, Adam; Dubrey, Simon William

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man returned to the UK from Thailand with a 2-week history of new confusion, hallucinations, fever with rigours and productive cough. He had not responded to (unspecified) antibiotic treatment in Thailand. On examination he was afebrile, with an abbreviated mental test score of 8/10 and no other findings on systemic examination. He was treated with ceftriaxone in response to discovery of a Gram-negative organism in blood. This was converted to meropenem on the clinical suspicion of our microbiologist, on the basis of a history of contact with surface water in the Far East. A blood culture subsequently confirmed Burkholderia pseudomallei. His condition remained stable for approximately 4 days, but then deteriorated over the course of the next 2 weeks with pneumonia and subsequent formation of disseminated abscesses. Treatment was withdrawn as his condition deteriorated to the point at which survival was deemed impossible and he subsequently died. PMID:23605844

  20. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  1. (UBS Pensions series 8) UK Annuity Rates and Pension Replacement Ratios 1957 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Tonks

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  2. THOR: Cloud Thickness from Off beam Lidar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; McGill, Matthew; Kolasinski, John; Varnai, Tamas; Yetzer, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is that lidar pulses do not significantly penetrate clouds having optical thickness exceeding about tau = 2, and that no returns are detectable from more than a shallow skin depth. Yet optically thicker clouds of tau much greater than 2 reflect a larger fraction of visible photons, and account for much of Earth s global average albedo. As cloud layer thickness grows, an increasing fraction of reflected photons are scattered multiple times within the cloud, and return from a diffuse concentric halo that grows around the incident pulse, increasing in horizontal area with layer physical thickness. The reflected halo is largely undetected by narrow field-of-view (FoV) receivers commonly used in lidar applications. THOR - Thickness from Off-beam Returns - is an airborne wide-angle detection system with multiple FoVs, capable of observing the diffuse halo, detecting wide-angle signal from which physical thickness of optically thick clouds can be retrieved. In this paper we describe the THOR system, demonstrate that the halo signal is stronger for thicker clouds, and validate physical thickness retrievals for clouds having z > 20, from NASA P-3B flights over the Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Southern Great Plains site, using the lidar, radar and other ancillary ground-based data.

  3. The Cross-Section of Credit Risk Premia and Equity Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friewald, Nils; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    Structural models a la Merton (1974) imply that rms' risk premia in equity and credit markets are related. We explore this relation, using the joint crosssection of stock returns and risk premia estimated from forward credit default swap (CDS) spreads. Consistent with structural models, we nd...... that rms' equity returns and Sharpe ratios increase with estimated credit risk premia and that the returns of buying high and selling low credit risk premium rms cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Credit risk premia contain equity-relevant information neither captured by risk-neutral nor...... by actual default probabilities. This sheds new light on the distress puzzle, i.e. the lack of a positive relation between equity returns and default probabilities reported in previous studies. Our results are robust across pre-crisis and crisis sub-samples, return weighting schemes, full- and out...

  4. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  5. Risk/Return Performance of Diversified Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Bettis; Vijay Mahajan

    1985-01-01

    Based on a sample of 80 firms, this paper examines the risk/return performance of related and unrelated diversified firms at the level of accounting data. The results suggest that although on the average related diversified firms outperform unrelated diversified firms, related diversification offers no guarantee of a favorable risk/return performance. (Many low performers are related diversifiers.) In fact, different diversification strategies can result in similar risk/return performance. Ho...

  6. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  7. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  8. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  9. Specialized ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  10. The Bubbles of China Stock Market Based on Return Decomposition and Cumulative Return

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-xia; WU Chong-feng

    2006-01-01

    Using Capital Asset Pricing Model Integrating both Firm and Market (CAPMIFM), we first decompose the asset return into two components. One is called the fundamental return,which is related to the intrinsic value of the asset. The other is called bubble return, which is derived from the asset bubbles. Then a stock bubble return model bused on cumulative return is proposed. The model exhibits characterizing log-periodic oscillations and a power law acceleration of the cumulative return. Empirical results suggest that the model has a good fit for the bubbles of China stock market.

  11. The OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission from Asteroid Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Dante; Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security‒Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return and analyze a sample of pristine regolith from asteroid 101955 Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid and also a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. Returned samples are expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. In addition, the OSIRIS-REx mission will obtain valuable information on sample context by imaging the sample site; characterize its global geology; map global chemistry and mineralogy; investigate dynamic history by measuring the Yarkovsky effect; and advance asteroid astronomy by characterizing surface properties for direct comparison with ground-based telescopic observations of the entire asteroid population. Following launch in September 2016, the spacecraft will encounter Bennu in August 2018, then embark on a systematic study of geophysical and morphological characteristics of this ~500-meter-diameter object, including a systematic search for satellites and plumes. For determination of context, composition, and sampleability of various candidate sites, advanced instruments for remote global observations include OVIRS (visible to mid-IR spectrometric mapper), OTES (mid- to far-IR mineral and thermal emission mapper), OLA (mapping laser altimeter), and a suite of scientific cameras (OCAMS) with sub-cm pixel size from low-altitude Reconnaissance passes. A unique sample acquisition mechanism (SAM) capable of collecting up to one liter of regolith under ideal conditions (abundant small particulates tested in ground tests, and also on reduced-gravity airplane flights, to evaluate collection efficiency for various surfaces. Special cleaning techniques and contamination monitoring with in-flight witness plates are employed to assure a pristine sample. In September 2023, the entire TAGSAM end-effector stowed

  12. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  13. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.51 Fraudulent return. If...

  15. Liquidity, volume and dividend yields in stock return data: Evidence from London Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Chrysovalantis; Samitas, Aristeidis

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates monthly liquidity in FTSE 100 equity index in London Stock Exchange over the period 1986 to 2005. The relationship between excess returns, order flow, dividend yields and earning-price ratio was examined using GARCH(1,1). The variables found insignificant, but the unexpected shocks were significant. This research also examined financial crises in October 1987 and in August 1998 as dummy variables in excess returns. These dummies found to have great impact in excess ret...

  16. Convolutional Models for Landmine Identification with Ground Penetrating Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, F.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents new developments in the area of target identification with ground penetrating radar (GPR) intended for the identification of plastic and metal cased antipersonnel (AP) landmines from a single measured GPR return signal, called A-scan. The target identification is formulated as a

  17. Return-to-Work Program for Injured Workers: Factors of Successful Return to Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Shahabudin, Sharifah Muhairah; Mansor, Norma

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the factors of successful return to employment among participants in the return to work program (RTW) following work-related injury. Data were obtained from the Social Security Organization database containing 9850 injured workers who underwent RTW in 2010 to 2013. About 65% had successfully returned to employment. Significant factors of successful return include gender, employer interest, motivation, age, intervention duration, and type of injury. Male and motivated employees were more likely to return to employment compared with female and unmotivated employees, respectively. Participants from interested employers were 23.22 times more likely to return to work than those from uninterested employers, whereas participants whose intervention period exceeded 5 months were 41% less likely to return to work compared with those whose intervention period was within 3 months. Appropriate strategy and enhanced collaboration between the stakeholders would improve the proportion of successful return to employment. © 2016 APJPH.

  18. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  19. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  20. What stock market returns to expect for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P A

    2000-01-01

    . But lower savings as growth slows should partially or fully offset that effect. The present high stock prices, together with projected slow economic growth, are not consistent with a 7.0 percent return. With a plausible level of adjusted dividends (dividends plus net share repurchases), the ratio of stock value to gross domestic product (GDP) would rise more than 20-fold over 75 years. Similarly, the steady-state Gordon formula--that stock returns equal the adjusted dividend yield plus the growth rate of stock prices (equal to that of GDP)--suggests a return of roughly 4.0 percent to 4.5 percent. Moreover, when relative stock values have been high, returns over the following decade have tended to be low. To eliminate the inconsistency posed by the assumed 7.0 percent return, one could assume higher GDP growth, a lower long-run stock return, or a lower short-run stock return with a 7.0 percent return on a lower base thereafter. For example, with an adjusted dividend yield of 2.5 percent to 3.0 percent, the market would have to decline about 35 percent to 45 percent in real terms over the next decade to reach steady state. In short, either the stock market is overvalued and requires a correction to justify a 7.0 percent return thereafter, or it is correctly valued and the long-run return is substantially lower than 7.0 percent (or some combination). This article argues that the "overvalued" view is more convincing, since the "correctly valued" hypothesis implies an implausibly small equity premium. Although OCACT could adopt a lower rate for the entire 75-year period, a better approach would be to assume lower returns over the next decade and a 7.0 percent return thereafter.

  1. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  2. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  3. Returning to work after stroke: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Barbara; Grace, Marty

    2009-06-01

    This review focuses on the experiences and rehabilitation needs of working age, higher functioning stroke survivors in relation to their 'return to work'. It grew out of the poststroke experience of one of the authors and her realization of the inadequacy of services to facilitate return to work and optimal recovery from stroke. The authors' aim is to present a practice-oriented review that can provide information for future practice and research. Returning to work and sustaining employment are considered key aspects of rehabilitation and recovery by younger stroke survivors. From a psychosocial perspective, successful return to work can enhance recovery and life satisfaction by consolidating self-esteem, confidence and social identity. However, even higher functioning stroke survivors with minimal or no obvious physical disability may experience workplace challenges relating to their neurological condition. Appropriate rehabilitation would include specific preparation for return to work, education within the workplace to facilitate return to work, participation by the stroke survivor in all aspects of the management of their return to work, and an ongoing role for a stroke educator/workplace advocate. In conclusion, further research is required in this area to support stroke survivors in returning to and maintaining employment to achieve their poststroke potential. Thirteen recommendations arising from the existing literature and the lived experience of one of the authors are presented at the end of the review.

  4. The Stages of Mailed Questionnaire Returning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Daniel C.

    1984-01-01

    Six stages are hypothesized that define the behavior of returning mailed questionnaires: receiving the questionnaire, opening the mail, forming an overall impression, answering the questions, returning the questionnaire, and dealing with nonrespondents. The researcher must provide incentives at each stage if potential respondents are to complete a…

  5. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  6. Economic and accounting rates of return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Wang, H.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of return on invested capital is a central concept in financial analysis. The purpose of calculating the rate of return on investment in general is to measure the financial performance, to assess the desirability of a project and to make decisions on the valuation of firms. Financial statem

  7. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... works restraining debris from the mine; (2) The name and location of the mine; (3) The name and address... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return...

  8. Excess Asset Returns and Limited Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertini, Luisa; Azariadis, Costas

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of limited enforcement of contracts on asset returns in a three-period pure- exchange overlapping generations economy. We consider a life-cycle setting with a safe and a risky asset and find that lack of commitment can significantly affect the rate of returns of these assets and possibly generate large equity premia.

  9. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  10. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the re

  11. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  12. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  13. The Returns to Quality in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the monetary return to quality in US graduate education, controlling for cognitive ability and self-selection across award level, program quality, and field-of-study. In most program types, I cannot reject the hypothesis of no returns to either degree completion or program quality. Important exceptions include master's…

  14. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...

  15. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationshi...

  16. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  17. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  18. Anomalous pulmonary venous return: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyeong Min; Kang, MinJin; Lee, Han Bee; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jaehe; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a type of congenital pulmonary venous anomaly. We present a rare type of partial pulmonary venous return, subaortic vertical vein drains left lung to superior vena cava, accompanying hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung and pulmonary artery. We also review the previous report and relationship of these structures.

  19. PRODUCTION ELASTICITIES, RETURN TO SCALE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    A return to scale of 1.434 indicated increasing returns to scale. ... productivity gains in agricultural production (including yam production) are considered as ... selected using simple random sampling technique. .... household size of six persons, indicating that yam farmers in the study area had relatively low .... Sigma square.

  20. Social return bij inkoop door gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.; Smit, A.

    2011-01-01

    Social return is sterk in opkomst. De rijksoverheid heeft besloten om met ingang van 1 juli 2011 bij inkopen en aanbestedingen ‘social return’ als contractvoorwaarde op te nemen. Het Brabants Expertisecentrum Socialer Ondernemen (BESO) bracht in dezelfde periode de handleiding ‘Social return bij ink

  1. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  2. Maximizing your return on people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture.

  3. 75 FR 76940 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... provide further guidance relating to the requirement for ``specified tax return prepares,''. FOR...

  4. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...) providing guidance to specified tax return preparers who prepare and file individual income tax...

  5. Trends in return migration to the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L H; Hansen, K A

    1975-11-01

    The rate of return migration to the South rose by nearly 19 percent between the late 1950's and the late 1960's and was an important factor in changing the South's overall migration pattern. But an increase in the rate of return migration was somewhat less important in changing Southern migration than (1) a decline in the rate of out-migration of native Southerners and (2) an increase in the rate at which non-Southern-born persons move to the South. The probability of former migrants returning to the South was over four times greater for whites than for blacks in the 1955-1960 period and three and one-fourth times greater in the 1965-1970 period. Since 1970 the rate of return migration has apparently continued to rise at a faster rate for blacks, but the black rate of return migration is still below the white rate.

  6. Poetic Return in Afghanistan Persian Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shafagh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poetic return movement was started by a group of poets like Moshtagh and Shole Esfehani in the second half of 12 century. Their goal was restoring Persian poem and deliverance of Hindi style decline. Esfahan’s poets initiative was considered only in Iran but in other Persian language and literature areas like India, Afghanistan and Transoxiana it was ignored. After the failure of constitutional Movement in Afghanistan, motion similar poetic return was happened that caused poetic themes, which had gone towards modernism, return to Hindi style again.The present paper attempts to analyze the poetic atmosphere in Afghanistan synchronous the poetic return movement in Iran and investigate socio- political backgrounds of return to Hindi style in Afghanistan after constitution failure.

  7. A risk-adjusted approach to comparing the return on investment in health care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Pedram; Al, Maiwenn J; Zimmermann, Heinz

    2004-09-01

    The league table approach to rank ordering health care programs according to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is a common method to guide policy makers in setting priorities for resource allocation. In the presence of uncertainty, however, ranking programs is complicated by the degree of variability associated with each program. Confidence intervals for cost-effectiveness ratios may be overlapping. Moreover, confidence intervals may include negative ratios and the interpretation of negative cost-effectiveness ratios is ambiguous. We suggest to rank mutually exclusive health care programs according to their rate of return which is defined as the net monetary benefit over the costs of the program. However, how does a program with a higher expected return but higher uncertainty compare to a program with a lower expected return but lower risk? In the present paper we propose a risk-adjusted measure to compare the return on investment in health care programs. Financing a health care program is treated as an investment in a risky asset. The risky asset is combined with a risk-free asset in order to construct a combined portfolio. The weights attributed to the risk-free and risky assets are chosen in such a manner that all programs under consideration exhibit the same degree of uncertainty. We can then compare the performance of the individual programs by constructing a risk-adjusted league table of expected returns.

  8. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  9. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  10. Estimation of the vertical distribution of tree biomass using last significant return laser altimetry returns from Eucalypt trees in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, I. J.; Walker, J.; Gurney, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Snow mass and soil moisture are important features of the environment governing the availability of drinking and irrigation water, food and hydro-power. They are estimated globally by measuring the microwave emission of the Earth’s surface. Soil’s microwave emissivity is strongly affected by its liquid moisture content, and the attenuation of soil-emitted radiation by snow is a function of the snow mass. The high water content of vegetation affects these results through attenuation, scattering and emission, so improving knowledge of vegetation mass and distribution will enable more accurate global characterisation of snow and soil moisture. Airborne laser altimetry systems acquire information about the environment by pulsing laser light at the ground, and interpreting the returning light curve using onboard differential GPS and inertial navigation systems. Such systems are primarily used to acquire topography by assuming that the last light returning to the sensor has been returned from the ground. By continuously recording the intensity of the light returned before the ground return, information about the vegetation between the aircraft and the ground can be derived. Recording the full intensity curves consumes a large volume of recording space, however, and is a relatively new instrument innovation, having in the past usually been combined with a reduced pulse rate to conserve storage. Deriving some information from systems which only record the last light returned would be of use in characterising large areas without using complete light curve return recording systems, allowing greater spatial cover and resolution with the same instrument and resources. Our previous work has characterised the error budget of single-return laser altimetry systems, and used this to distinguish different soil roughness at the centimetric scale, and show vegetation density variations within crops around 2m high. This work shows the vertical information on vegetation density that

  11. Preliminary results of ground reflectivity measurements using noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślikowski, Łukasz; Krysik, Piotr; Dąbrowska-Zielińska, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Wanda; Bartold, Maciej

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes experimental L-band ground reflectivity measurement using noise radar demonstrator working as a scatterometer. The radar ground return is usually described with a scattering coefficient, a quantity that is independent from the scatterometer system. To calculate the coefficient in a function of incidence angle, range profile values obtained after range compression were used. In order to improve dynamic range of the measurement, antenna cross-path interference was removed using lattice filter. The ground return was measured at L band both for HH and VV polarizations of radar wave as well as for HV and VH crosspolarizations using log-periodic antennas placed at a 10 m high mast directed towards a meadow surface. In the paper the theoretical considerations, noise radar setup, measurement campaign and the results are described.

  12. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  13. Acoustic seafloor discrimination with echo shape parameters: A comparison with the ground truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Tȩgowski, J.; Laban, C.; Simons, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Features extracted from echosounder bottom returns are compared with the ground truth in a North Sea survey area. The ground truth consists of 50 grab samples for which the grain size distribution, and the gravel and shell contents were determined. Echo envelopes are analysed for two single-beam ech

  14. Financial ratios used by equity analysts in Mexico and stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Omar Trejo Pech; Magdy Noguera; Susan White

    2015-01-01

    Se estudia una muestra de recomendaciones por analistas del mercado de capital en México. Proponemos un grupo de razones financieras “preferidas” en base a esa muestra. Encontramos que las razones financieras preferidas de los analistas, un grupo sofisticado de usuarios de información financiera, no son aquellas Se estudia una muestra de recomendaciones por analistas del mercado de capital en México. Proponemos un grupo de razones financieras “preferidas” en base a esa muestra. Encontramos qu...

  15. Financial ratios used by equity analysts in Mexico and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Omar Trejo Pech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia una muestra de recomendaciones por analistas del mercado de capital en México. Proponemos un grupo de razones financieras “preferidas” en base a esa muestra. Encontramos que las razones financieras preferidas de los analistas, un grupo sofisticado de usuarios de información financiera, no son aquellas Se estudia una muestra de recomendaciones por analistas del mercado de capital en México. Proponemos un grupo de razones financieras “preferidas” en base a esa muestra. Encontramos que las razones financieras preferidas de los analistas, un grupo sofisticado de usuarios de información financiera, no son aquellastípicamente incluidas en los libros de texto de finanzas. Más aún, usando análisis de regresión de panel, probamos estadísticamente la relación entre razones financieras y rendimientos futuros de acciones durante el periodo de 1995–2011. En general, en consistencia con la hipótesis de mercados eficientes, los resultados muestran que los coeficientes de las razones financieras preferidas por analistas tienen capacidad predictiva sobre rendimientos futuros a un año. No encontramos evidencia de capacidad predictiva en rendimientos a dos años

  16. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  17. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  18. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  19. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  20. Stock return distribution in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short. Our main findings are that the distribution of stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

  1. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  2. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  3. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  4. Returning to Work After Electrical Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.

    2014-01-01

    . The most common advice to others after electrical injuries included: 1) avoiding electrical injury; 2) feeling ready to return to work; 3) filing a Workplace Safety and Insurance Board injury/claims report; 4) proactive self-advocacy; and 5) garnering the assistance of individuals who understood electrical...... injuries to advocate on their behalf. Immediate and persistent physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and support factors can affect individuals' abilities to successfully return to work after an electrical injury. Specialized services and advocacy were viewed as beneficial to successful return to work....

  5. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  6. Concussion in professional football: players returning to the same game--part 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C; Casson, Ira R; Arfken, Cynthia; Feuer, Henry

    2005-01-01

    A 6-year study was conducted to determine the signs, symptoms, and outcome of players who were concussed and either returned immediately or were rested and returned to the same game in the National Football League (NFL). From 1996 to 2001, concussions were recorded by NFL teams by use of a special standardized reporting form filled out by team physicians. Signs and symptoms were grouped by general symptoms, somatic complaints, cranial nerve effects, cognition problems, memory problems, and unconsciousness. Action taken after concussion was recorded for 887 patients. There were 135 players (15.2%) who returned immediately and 304 (34.3%) who rested and returned to the same game after concussion. There were few differences by player position or team activity about the injury or action taken. However, the mean number of signs and symptoms progressively increased from those who returned immediately (1.52), rested and returned to play (2.07), were removed from play (3.51), or were hospitalized (6.55). Immediate recall problems (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.94), memory problems (OR, 1.52; CI, 1.06-2.19), and the number of signs and symptoms (OR, 1.39; CI, 1.25-1.55) were predictive of removal from play or hospitalization. There was no statistical association between return to play in the same game and a subsequent concussion or a more serious concussion involving 7+ days out. Players who are concussed and return to the same game have fewer initial signs and symptoms than those removed from play. Return to play does not involve a significant risk of a second injury either in the same game or during the season. The current decision-making of NFL team physicians seems appropriate for return to the game after a concussion, when the player has become asymptomatic and does not have memory or cognitive problems.

  7. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  8. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  9. Parental Language and Return Visits to the Emergency Department After Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Kalow, Margaret E; Stack, Anne M; Amico, Kendra; Porter, Stephen C

    2017-06-01

    Return visits to the emergency department (ED) are used as a marker of quality of care. Limited English proficiency, along with other demographic and disease-specific factors, has been associated with increased risk of return visit, but the relationship between language, short-term return visits, and overall ED use has not been well characterized. This is a planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort examining the ED discharge process for English- or Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 2 months to 2 years with fever and/or respiratory illness. At 1 year after the index visit, a standardized chart review was performed. The primary outcome was the number of ED visits within 72 hours of the index visit. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relative importance of predictor variables and adjust for confounders. There were 202 parents eligible for inclusion, of whom 23% were Spanish speaking. In addition, 6.9% of the sample had a return visit within 72 hours. After adjustment for confounders, Spanish language was associated with return visit within 72 hours (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-11.90) but decreased risk of a second visit within the year (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.66). Spanish-speaking parents are at an increased risk of 72-hour return ED visit but do not seem to be at increased risk of ED use during the year after their ED visit.

  10. 47 CFR 65.600 - Rate of return reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of return reports. 65.600 Section 65.600... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate of Return Reports § 65.600 Rate of return...) months after the end of each calendar year, an annual rate of return monitoring report which shall be...

  11. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  12. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  13. Parametric Return Density Estimation for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Morimura, Tetsuro; Kashima, Hisashi; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Most conventional Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms aim to optimize decision- making rules in terms of the expected re- turns. However, especially for risk man- agement purposes, other risk-sensitive crite- ria such as the value-at-risk or the expected shortfall are sometimes preferred in real ap- plications. Here, we describe a parametric method for estimating density of the returns, which allows us to handle various criteria in a unified manner. We first extend the Bellman equation for the conditional expected return to cover a conditional probability density of the returns. Then we derive an extension of the TD-learning algorithm for estimating the return densities in an unknown environment. As test instances, several parametric density estimation algorithms are presented for the Gaussian, Laplace, and skewed Laplace dis- tributions. We show that these algorithms lead to risk-sensitive as well as robust RL paradigms through numerical experiments.

  14. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Keywords: Litterfall, Nutrient returns, Seasonal variation, Southern Nigeria, Terminalia catappa, Tropical rainforest. ... patterns of small-scale variation in resource .... Samples T-Test Analysis was employed to ... Source: Field work. Fig.

  15. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the Apollo era, sample return missions have been primarily limited to asteroid sampling. More comprehensive sampling could yield critical information on the...

  16. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  17. DESIGNING THE RETURN MIGRATION OF ROMANIAN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian youth migration is an increasing phenomenon, due to subjective and objective factors as economical reasons, professional carrer and increasingly more international competition for talent. In these circumstances, the present article aims to evaluate determinant factors that contribute to the decision of Romanian graduates to return national labour market. We sustain that young Romanians consider carefully and hardly decide their professional future. A particular attention is given to their personal reasons and motivations as well as family and friends network. For designing returning factors we present the results of a questionnaire survey, asking young pupils and students about their future educational way and personal reasons underlying the decision to study in a foreign country and taking into consideration the returning decision. As far international student migration is seen as a first step to migration for work, our work desires to fight for returning home of Romanian well-educated graduates.

  18. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to return to the sport with your doctor, physical therapist, or other health care providers? Have you been ... a contact sport, talk to your provider and physical therapist about whether you can do this safely. Contact ...

  19. Investigating the effect among size, growth opportunity and cumulative abnormal returns of the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil bevali behbahani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stockholders and investors require identifying main variables that explain stock return. Being aware of variables and achieving an appropriate model can lead to improve their investment and considering that each wise and economic person’s goal is obtain high and more returns, the current research is sought to investigate the effect of company’s characteristics and the ratio of investment on company’s cumulative abnormal returns. Statistical sample which has been used in current research includes 256 listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during 2002 to 2013. Dependent variable of current research is cumulative abnormal return. The independent variables whose effects are investigated on cumulative abnormal return include company’s size, growth opportunity. The data are collected and were inserted in Excel file as information database. Testing hypotheses also has been done from multi-variable regression models based on combined data technique using econometric software Eviews. The findings of the research show that there is a positive and significant relationship between company’s size and company’s cumulative abnormal return. There is also a negative and significant relationship between growth opportunities and company’s cumulative abnormal return.

  20. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  1. Performance Improvement of a Return Channel in a Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Using Multiobjective Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nishida, Hideo; Sugimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-01

    The effect of the design parameters of a return channel on the performance of a multistage centrifugal compressor was numerically investigated, and the shape of the return channel was optimized using a multiobjective optimization method based on a genetic algorithm to improve the performance of the centrifugal compressor. The results of sensitivity analysis using Latin hypercube sampling suggested that the inlet-to-outlet area ratio of the return vane affected the total pressure loss in the return channel, and that the inlet-to-outlet radius ratio of the return vane affected the outlet flow angle from the return vane. Moreover, this analysis suggested that the number of return vanes affected both the loss and the flow angle at the outlet. As a result of optimization, the number of return vane was increased from 14 to 22 and the area ratio was decreased from 0.71 to 0.66. The radius ratio was also decreased from 2.1 to 2.0. Performance tests on a centrifugal compressor with two return channels (the original design and optimized design) were carried out using two-stage test apparatus. The measured flow distribution exhibited a swirl flow in the center region and a reversed swirl flow near the hub and shroud sides. The exit flow of the optimized design was more uniform than that of the original design. For the optimized design, the overall two-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were increased by 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, the second-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were respectively increased by 1.0% and 3.2%. It is considered that the increase in the second-stage efficiency was caused by the increased uniformity of the flow, and the rise in the pressure coefficient was caused by a decrease in the residual swirl flow. It was thus concluded from the numerical and experimental results that the optimized return channel improved the performance of the multistage centrifugal compressor.

  2. Do MENA stock market returns follow a random walk process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Lahmiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, three variance ratio tests: the standard variance ratio test, the wild bootstrap multiple variance ratio test, and the non-parametric rank scores test are adopted to test the random walk hypothesis (RWH of stock markets in Middle East and North Africa (MENA region using most recent data from January 2010 to September 2012. The empirical results obtained by all three econometric tests show that the RWH is strongly rejected for Kuwait, Tunisia, and Morocco. However, the standard variance ratio test and the wild bootstrap multiple variance ratio test reject the null hypothesis of random walk in Jordan and KSA, while non-parametric rank scores test do not. We may conclude that Jordan and KSA stock market are weak efficient. In sum, the empirical results suggest that return series in Kuwait, Tunisia, and Morocco are predictable. In other words, predictable patterns that can be exploited in these markets still exit. Therefore, investors may make profits in such less efficient markets.

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. African return migration: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V

    1983-01-01

    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  6. Exploring Longitudinal Risk-return Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben J.; Bettis, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk...... can lead to the inverse longitudinal risk-return relationships observed empirically. We discuss this apparent paradox and the possible resolution between mindless and conscious behavior as plausible causes of the longitudinal Bowman Paradox....

  7. Federal Securities Regulations and Stock Market Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Tung Liu; Gary Santoni; Courtenay Cliff Stone

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of federal securities statutes (seven major legislative acts and 535 amendments) on the mean and variance of total real U.S. stock market returns. In contrast to previous work, this study controls for the persistence of the variability of stock returns, employs a longer time period, utilizes a broader array of stocks and examines the impact of seven federal securities regulations and their selected amendments from 1933 through 2001. Despite the popular appeal of...

  8. The Influence of the Endogenous and Exogenous Factors on Credit Institutions’ Return on Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltes Nicolae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The research’s purpose is to study the credit institutions’ performance, from the shareholders’ point of view, through return on equity (ROE. It aims to identify a dependency relationship between return on equity (ROE and endogenous factors (the growth rate of credit portfolio, the growth rate provisions, the solvency ratio, on the one hand and, on the other hand between ROE and the exogenous ones (GDP and inflation rate. The research was done over an horizon of 10 years (2004-2013 on the evolution of the return on equity indicator of two credit institutions listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange (Carpathian Commercial Bank SA and Banca Transilvania SA, highlights their vulnerability to economic conditions. The results obtained indicates, that in both credit institutions, the variation of return on capital is determined in a significant proportion by intern factors and it is conditioned in a insignificant share by the exogenous factors

  9. Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Sienz, F.

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of extreme event return times and their correlations are analyzed in observed and simulated long-term memory (LTM) time series with 1/f power spectra. The analysis is based on tropical temperature and mixing ratio (specific humidity) time series from TOGA COARE with 1 min resolution and an approximate 1/f power spectrum. Extreme events are determined by Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) crossing. The Weibull distribution represents a reasonable fit to the return time distributions while the power-law predicted by the stretched exponential for 1/f deviates considerably. For a comparison and an analysis of the return time predictability, a very long simulated time series with an approximate 1/f spectrum is produced by a fractionally differenced (FD) process. This simulated data confirms the Weibull distribution (a power law can be excluded). The return time sequences show distinctly weaker long-term correlations than the original time series (correlation exponent γ≍0.56).

  10. The Newsvendor Problem with Different Delivery Time, Resalable Returns, and an Additional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fue Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a B2C scenario, the retailer is confronted with two kinds of demand. One requires an immediate delivery after placing an order, while the other prefers a delayed shipment due to some personal reasons. Considering demands for different delivery time, we explore a newsvendor model with resalable returns and an additional order to optimize the procurement decision under a stochastic demand distribution. The impact of the proportion of the instant delivery needs and the return rate on the order quantity and the expected profit is illustrated through numerical tests. It is shown that the expected profit decreases as the ratios of immediate delivery needs and returned products increase. Besides, if the sum of the percentage of the instant delivery needs and the return rate is less than 1, the expected profit is always greater than the result if the sum of them is equal to or greater than 1. Management implications are also discussed.

  11. Loss-Averse Retailer’s Optimal Ordering Policies for Perishable Products with Customer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policies for perishable product with customer returns. With the introduction of the segmental loss utility function, we depict the retailer’s loss aversion decision bias and establish the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policy model. We derive that the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns exists and is unique. By comparison, we obtain that both the risk-neutral and the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantities depend on the inventory holding cost and the marginal shortage cost. Through the sensitivity analysis, we also discuss the effect of loss-averse coefficient and the ratio of return on the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns.

  12. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  13. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  14. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  15. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  16. Blocked Shape Memory Effect in Negative Poisson's Ratio Polymer Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Katarzyna; Bianchi, Matteo; McCombe, Greg; Gatt, Ruben; Griffin, Anselm C; Richardson, Robert M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hamerton, Ian; Grima, Joseph N

    2016-08-10

    We describe a new class of negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) open cell PU-PE foams produced by blocking the shape memory effect in the polymer. Contrary to classical NPR open cell thermoset and thermoplastic foams that return to their auxetic phase after reheating (and therefore limit their use in technological applications), this new class of cellular solids has a permanent negative Poisson's ratio behavior, generated through multiple shape memory (mSM) treatments that lead to a fixity of the topology of the cell foam. The mSM-NPR foams have Poisson's ratio values similar to the auxetic foams prior their return to the conventional phase, but compressive stress-strain curves similar to the ones of conventional foams. The results show that by manipulating the shape memory effect in polymer microstructures it is possible to obtain new classes of materials with unusual deformation mechanisms.

  17. OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Balram-Knutson, S. S.; Beshore, E.; Boynton, W. V.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Enos, H. L.; Golish, D. R.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Howell, E. S.; Bennett, C. A.; Morton, E. T.; Nolan, M. C.; Rizk, B.; Roper, H. L.; Bartels, A. E.; Bos, B. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Highsmith, D. E.; Lorenz, D. A.; Lim, L. F.; Mink, R.; Moreau, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Simon, A. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Bryan, B. H.; Ballouz, R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Walsh, K. J.; Chesley, S. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. E.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Daly, M. G.; Emery, J. P.; McCoy, T. J.; McMahon, J. W.; Scheeres, D. J.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Sandford, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in November 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennu's resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

  18. The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Chinelo; Glover, Saundra; Probst, Janice; Liu, Jihong; Hussey, James

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the effect of maternity leave length and time of first return to work on breastfeeding. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Restricting our sample to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondents at the 9-month interview and worked in the 12 months before delivery (N = 6150), we classified the length of total maternity leave (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and did not take; paid maternity leave (weeks) as 0, 1 to 6, ≥ 7, and did not take; and time of return to work postpartum (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and not yet returned. Analyses included χ(2) tests and multiple logistic regressions. In our study population, 69.4% initiated breastfeeding with positive variation by both total and paid maternity leave length, and time of return to work. In adjusted analyses, neither total nor paid maternity leave length had any impact on breastfeeding initiation or duration. Compared with those returning to work within 1 to 6 weeks, women who had not yet returned to work had a greater odds of initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46 [1.08-1.97]; risk ratios [RR]: 1.13 [1.03-1.22]), continuing any breastfeeding beyond 6 months (OR: 1.41 [0.87-2.27]; RR: 1.25 [0.91-1.61]), and predominant breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.01 [1.06-3.80]; RR: 1.70 [1.05-2.53]). Women who returned to work at or after 13 weeks postpartum had higher odds of predominantly breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.54 [1.51-4.27]; RR: 1.99 [1.38-2.69]). If new mothers delay their time of return to work, then duration of breastfeeding among US mothers may lengthen.

  19. Risk Factors Associated With Emergency Department Return Visits Following Trauma System Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttan, Timothy; Lawson, Karla A; Piper, Karen; Wilkinson, Matthew

    2017-06-06

    Little evidence exists in the pediatric trauma literature regarding what factors are associated with re-presentation to the hospital for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective cohort study of trauma system activations at a pediatric trauma center from June 30, 2007, through June 30, 2013, who were subsequently discharged from the ED or after a brief inpatient stay. Returns within 30 days were reviewed. χ, Student t test, and univariate logistical regression were used to compare predictive factors for those returning and not. One thousand eight hundred sixty-three patient encounters were included in the cohort. Seventy-two patients (3.9%) had at least 1 return visit that was related to the original trauma activation. Age, sex, language, race/ethnicity, ED length of stay, arrival mode, level of trauma activation, and transfer from an outside hospital did not vary significantly between the groups. Patients with public insurance were almost 2 times more likely to return compared with those with private insurance (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.35). Income by zip code was associated with the risk of a return visit, with patients in neighborhoods at less than the 50th percentile income twice as likely to return to the ED (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-3.54). Patients with public insurance and those from low-income neighborhoods were significantly more likely to return to the ED after trauma system activation. These data can be used to target interventions to decrease returns in high-risk trauma patients.

  20. Urban residentship and return migration to Shanghai in the aftermath of the cultural revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, P K; Liu, Q

    1998-01-01

    "Young people were sent to the countryside during the Cultural Revolution and were later allowed to return home in the 1970s. This paper examines the return migration of Chinese youth from the countryside based on officially sanctioned reasons and grounds. The most often used reasons or grounds were in fact claims to urban residentship arising from connections to the city by previous residence, by birth and by family. Claimants negotiated with the state in a cultural language which rationalizes the claimed needs in terms of traditional social codes. The study reveals that the passive and submissive image the Chinese civil society outwardly present is deceptive. Their claims, however, still fall short of modern social citizenship."

  1. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  2. Temporal Oculomotor Inhibition of Return and Spatial Facilitation of Return in a Visual Encoding Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Luke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Oculomotor inhibition of return (O-IOR is an increase in saccade latency prior to an eye movement to a recently fixated location compared to other locations. It has been proposed that this temporal O-IOR may have spatial consequences, facilitating foraging by inhibiting return to previously attended regions. In order to test this possibility, participants viewed arrays of objects and of words while their eye movements were recorded. Temporal O-IOR was observed, with equivalent effects for object and word arrays, indicating that temporal O-IOR is an oculomotor phenomenon independent of array content. There was no evidence for spatial inhibition of return. Instead, spatial facilitation of return was observed: Participants were significantly more likely than chance to make return saccades and to refixate just-visited locations. Further, the likelihood of making a return saccade to an object or word was contingent on the amount of time spent viewing that object or word before leaving it. This suggests that, unlike temporal O-IOR, return probability is influenced by cognitive processing. Taken together, these results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of return functions as a foraging facilitator. The results also provide strong evidence for a different oculomotor bias that could serve as a foraging facilitator: saccadic momentum, a tendency to repeat the most recently executed saccade program. We suggest that models of visual attention could incorporate saccadic momentum in place of inhibition of return.

  3. Factors Associated with Return to Work Postinjury: Can the Modified Rankin Scale Be Used to Predict Return to Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anirudh; Chao, Edward; Spielman, Daniel; Sugano, Dordaneh; Srivastava, Abhishek; Dayama, Anand; Lederman, Andrew; Stern, Michelle; Reddy, Srinivas H; Teperman, Sheldon; Stone, Melvin E

    2016-02-01

    The ability to return to work (RTW) postinjury is one of the primary goals of rehabilitation. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is a validated simple scale used to assess the functional status of stroke patients during rehabilitation. We sought to determine the applicability of mRS in predicting RTW postinjury in a general trauma population. The trauma registry was queried for patients, aged 18 to 65 years, discharged from 2012 to 2013. A telephone interview for each patient included questions about employment status and physical ability to determine the mRS. Patients who had RTW postinjury were compared with those who had not (nRTW). Two hundred and thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 171 (72.5%) patients RTW and 63 (26.7%) did nRTW. Patients who did nRTW were significantly older, had longer length of stay and higher rates of in-hospital complications. Multivariate analysis revealed that older patients were less likely to RTW (odds ratio = 0.961, P = 0.011) and patients with a modified Rankin score ≤2 were 15 times more likely to RTW (odds ratio = 14.932, P returning to work postinjury. This is the first study that shows applicability of the mRS for predicting RTW postinjury in a trauma population.

  4. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  5. [Total Joint Replacement and Return to Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, N; Schmidt, T; Niemeier, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: An increasing number of physically active patients not only need to know if they will basically be able to engage in sports after undergoing arthroplasty. They also would like to know whether or not they will be able to resume their preoperative activity levels. This article aims to provide an overview of recent data regarding the following questions on hip, knee and shoulder arthroplasty: (1) What is the impact of physical activity on an endoprosthesis? (2) What level of sports can be achieved after an arthroplasty procedure? (3) What types of sport are recommended for patients with an endoprosthesis? Methods: PubMed-based review of the literature. Narrative review focusing on current data from the years 2010 to 2016. Results: The commonly known recommendation to exercise low-impact sports such as hiking, swimming, cycling or golf at a moderate intensity remains valid for all types of prostheses in all joints. There is broad consensus that the benefits of these sports outweigh the negative effects. Having undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty, most patients with a high preoperative activity level return to sports after 3-6 months, albeit with a clear tendency to lower intensity and a shift from high-impact to low-impact sports. Some key questions have to be answered regarding the effects of low-impact sports that are exercised with high intensity, the effects resulting from high-impact sports, effects specific to different types of sport, and possibilities provided by different prosthesis types. In this context, a lot remains to be done to investigate the limits between positive and negative effects resulting from physical activity of varying intensity. New data suggests that generally a higher physical performance level may be achieved than has been traditionally recommended. Early results of unicondylar knee prostheses are far better than those achieved with bicondylar prostheses. In contrast to expert recommendations, shoulder endoprostheses show

  6. STUDI EMPIRIS TERHADAP DUA FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI RETURN SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI FOOD & BEVERAGES DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Suharli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examine two factors that influence return of stock investment. The factors are leverage and systematic risk. Leverage is measured by debt to equity ratio, compute total debts divide total equities. Systematic risk is measured by beta of stock, compute according to capital assets pricing model (CAPM theory. This research focuses on food and beverages industry. The objects are companies that listing in Jakarta Stock Exchange in 2001-2004. Data is analyzed by multi regression analysis, using SPSS program. The result, both of factors have no significant influence toward return of stock. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Riset ini merupakan penelitian empiris terhadap factor yang mempengaruhi return (tingkat pengembalian saham. Objek penelitian adalah perusahaan public di bidang industri food and beverages yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ dengan periode laporan keuangan tahun 2001-2004. Return saham dihitung dari persentase perubahan harga saham penutupan setiap akhir tahun. Faktor yang diduga mempengaruhi return saham pada penelitian ini adalah rasio hutang (debt to equity ratio dan tingkat risiko yang diukur dengan beta saham berdasarkan teori capital assest pricing model (CAPM. Data dianalisa dengan menggunakan regresi berganda dengan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa rasio hutang dan tingkat risiko tidak memberikan pengaruh signifikan terhadap return saham. Kata kunci: return saham, debt to equity ratio, tingkat risiko

  7. Evolution of Rates of Return to Schooling in Tunisia: 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Zouari- Bouatour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the theory of human capital, we estimate the Mincerian earnings functions based on individual data from national surveys of population and employment in 1980 and 1999. We show that the rates of return to education are, in 1980 and 1999, increasing proportionally with educational level. This growth of return rates means that the incentives for human capital accumulation continue to be strong. This result is general, it is observed for men and women, and in urban and rural areas. However, between 1980 and 1999, the average rate of return to education declined from 9.5% to 5.9%. Furthermore, this decline in the rates of return is general for all levels of education. This phenomenon affects the urban and rural areas as well as men and women. But the decline in the rate of return increases when the education level is low: the less the education level is, the bigger the decline in the rate of return is. This can result in a general deficiency in demand for labor by companies which seriously affects low qualified people. Following Heckman (1979, we re-estimate the earnings functions corrected for selection bias due to Mill's reversed ratio. The new findings of education return rates are superior to those obtained from the standard estimates. The results prove that education return rates increase when the education level increases; moreover, it explained the decline that happened between 1980 and 1999, which touched all education levels. However, the relative decrease in returns to education becomes larger in higher education levels; the lack of demand for labor would be felt more for the more educated.

  8. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    ]. Current Plan: At the 1st flyby of Enceladus at high plume altitude (~150 km), we would survey the status of the plume and jets by making in situ measurements of the gas and dust densities, compositions, and velocities. We would also collect solid ice/volatile samples based upon prior ground planning. The 2nd and final flyby (determined via optimal trajectory from the 1st flyby) will be conducted at low altitude (~20 km), and would perform in situ measurements and collect solid ice and volatile samples. During the 5 year return cruise, we would maintain the samples in their captured state (frozen) under desiccating conditions of low temperature and pressure. After a direct Earth reentry, we would transport the frozen samples from the sample return capsule into a sealed sample transport container, which would then be transported to a higher Biosafety Level (BSL) facility from JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) for sample return capsule de-integration and sample distribution. Planetary Protection: Several options for sample return have been conceived and some even demonstrated on previous flight missions (STARDUST, Genesis and Hayabusa). To date, a flight qualified sample containment system does not exist in the US, and it would be cost prohibitive to flight-qualify such a system for use by LIFE under a Discovery Program. Harsh sterilization of the samples would destroy valuable molecular information, defeating the very purpose of returning samples to assess the habitability of Enceladus. The LIFE team has found a viable approach by teaming with JAXA/ISAS. Their Hayabusa II sample containment is a third generation device that can be further improved to meet these NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements in an Integrated Sample Subsystem for LIFE. Another aspect of LIFE is the initial de-integration and certification of the returned samples in a higher BSL facility. JAMSTEC is the world’s leading oceanography organization. They are

  9. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L H; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-03-09

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  10. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L J; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-02-14

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Return probability and k-step measures

    CERN Document Server

    Dronen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The notion of return probability -- explored most famously by George P\\'{o}lya on d-dimensional lattices -- has potential as a measure for the analysis of networks. We present an efficient method for finding return probability distributions for connected undirected graphs. We argue that return probability has the same discriminatory power as existing k-step measures -- in particular, beta centrality (with negative beta), the graph-theoretical power index (GPI), and subgraph centrality. We compare the running time of our algorithm to beta centrality and subgraph centrality and find that it is significantly faster. When return probability is used to measure the same phenomena as beta centrality, it runs in linear time -- O(n+m), where n and m are the number of nodes and edges, respectively -- which takes much less time than either the matrix inversion or the sequence of matrix multiplications required for calculating the exact or approximate forms of beta centrality, respectively. We call this form of return pr...

  13. HUBUNGAN RETURN SAHAM DAN INFLASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Triaryati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inflation to the stock return research had been held since three decades ago based on GeneralizeFisher’s Hypotheses, but ‘how inflation influenced stock return’ had become a debate until today. In Indonesiamost of the related research used inflation as one of the variables that influenced stock return despite of others inshort period of time. This research investigated the effect of inflation to the stock return in Indonesia within fifteenyears, which was divided into 3 (three periods of time reflecting different economic growth for each of it. Thepurpose of this allotment was to see the consistency how inflation influenced the stock market. Using a secondarydata from monthly inflation and IHSG period 1998 until 2012, included three hundred and sixty observation,simple regression model analyses was applied. This research acknowledged that inflation negatively influencedstock return in a long time period, but it did not exist in the short time period, except when the level of inflationreached 10%. In conclusion, inflation influence on the stock return was not ascertained by how long the investigationwas held but if there was any inflation rate reaching 10% within the period of investigation.

  14. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  15. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  16. Consumer returns policies with endogenous deadline and supply chain coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yongjian; Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers returns policies under which consumers' valuation depends on the refund amount they receive and the length of time theymustwait after the item is returned. Consumers face an uncertain valuation before purchase, and the realization of that purchase's value occurs only after...... the return deadline has passed. Depending on the product lifecycle length and magnitude of return rate, a retailer decides on strategies for that product's return deadline, including return prohibition, life-cycle return, and fixed return deadline. In addition, the influence of the return deadline...... on consumers' behavior and the pricing and inventory policies of the retailer are systematically investigated. Moreover, based on the analysis of consumer return behavior on a traditional buy-back contract, we present a new differentiated buy-back contract, contingent on return deadline, to coordinate a supply...

  17. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, H

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation." (EXCERPT)

  18. Return Migration: A Study of College Graduates Returning to Rural U.S. Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions of return migration experiences and gain knowledge from rural residents who have left to obtain a college education and start careers in non-rural areas, and who then returned to their rural hometowns with the social and economic benefits of a college education, and other valuable resources. This…

  19. Where Are "Women Returners" Returning From? Deconstructing Domestication in the Context of Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia

    The question of where "women returners" to education are returning from was examined through an exploration of the life histories of 18 women in southern England. The study focused on the biographies of women who regarded themselves as primarily responsible for the care of others and yet whose aspirations involved some form of continuing…

  20. The return of risk : on the interrelations between risk, return and human decisions*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Arie

    2003-01-01

    For many years, optimism and euphoria reigned on the European and US stock markets. The major market indices consistently showed a substantial rate of return. Many new investors were attracted to the stock markets, initially earning wonderful returns on their portfolios. In the late nineties and t

  1. The return of risk : on the interrelations between risk, return and human decisions*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Arie

    2003-01-01

    For many years, optimism and euphoria reigned on the European and US stock markets. The major market indices consistently showed a substantial rate of return. Many new investors were attracted to the stock markets, initially earning wonderful returns on their portfolios. In the late nineties and

  2. Post-return experiences and transnational belonging of return migrants: A Dutch-Moroccan case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, J. de; Davids, T.; Haas, H.G. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the links between return migration, belonging and transnationalism among migrants who returned from the Netherlands to northeast Morocco. While transnationalism is commonly discussed from the perspective of a receiving country, this study shows that transnationalism also p

  3. Assessing symmetry of financial returns series

    CERN Document Server

    Coronel-Brizio, H F; Rodriguez-Achach, M

    2007-01-01

    Testing symmetry of a probability distribution is a common question arising from applications in several fields. Particularly, in the study of observables used in the analysis of stock market index variations, the question of symmetry has not been fully investigated by means of statistical procedures. In this work a distribution-free test statistic Tn for testing symmetry, derived by Einmahl and McKeague, based on the empirical likelihood approach, is used to address the study of symmetry of financial returns. The asymptotic points of the test statistic Tn are also calculated and a procedure for assessing symmetry for the analysis of the returns of stock market indices is presented.

  4. Male and Female Marriage Returns to Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf

    A collective marriage matching model is estimated and calibrated to quantify the share of returns to schooling that is realized through marriage. The predictions of the model are matched with US data on the relationship between schooling and wage rates, the division of time within the household......, and the extent to which men and women sort positively on several traits in marriage. Counterfactual analysis conducted with the model, suggests that US middle aged men and women are earning in the order of 30 percent of their return to schooling through improved marital outcomes....

  5. Returns to beauty over the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes returns to facial beauty over the life course with respect to four outcomes: Socioeconomic status (SES), marital success, spouse’s SES, and health. I use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study which, based on high school yearbook photos, has collected data on respondents......’ facial attractiveness as well as data on SES, marital, and health outcomes from their mid-20s to their mid-60s. I find that beauty has lasting positive returns for women since more beautiful women have higher SES throughout their working life, have a higher probability of being married at age 25...

  6. The return branch of viscous fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, F

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple experiment of two-dimensional pattern formation in a circular Hele-Shaw cell, showing the appearance of a return branch that is equivalent to the upward-connecting leader of lightning. Injecting water from the center into a foam filled cell, we obtained patterns similar to dendrites of two-dimensional dielectric breakdown experiments. When we repeat this experiment allowing the presence of water in the outer (low pressure) region, dendrites grow initially as in a normal experiment, but when a branch is near the outer boundary, the low pressure water begins to penetrate the foam against the pressure field, forming several return branches.

  7. Tail Risk Premia and Return Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Viktor; Xu, Lai

    The variance risk premium, defined as the difference between actual and risk-neutralized expectations of the forward aggregate market variation, helps predict future market returns. Relying on new essentially model-free estimation procedure, we show that much of this predictability may be attribu......The variance risk premium, defined as the difference between actual and risk-neutralized expectations of the forward aggregate market variation, helps predict future market returns. Relying on new essentially model-free estimation procedure, we show that much of this predictability may......-varying economic uncertainty and changes in risk aversion, or market fears, respectively....

  8. Hisse Senetleri Fiyatlarının Belirlenmesinde Finansal Oranların Rolü(The Role of Financial Ratios in Determining the Stock Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan AYDEMİR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, financial ratios being effective in determining stock prices are investigated by panel data analysis. In this aim, data set belonging to 73 companies indexed in Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE and operating in manufacturing sector over the period of 1990-2000 is used. Empirical results suggest that profitability and liquidity ratios have a positive effect on stock returns. Moreover, leverage ratio taken as an indicator of indebtedness has the same effect. However, it is seen that operating ratios have no impact on stock returns. Consequently, it may be said that the role of financial ratios in determining the stock returns is low.

  9. POSSIBILISTIC SHARPE RATIO BASED NOVICE PORTFOLIO SELECTION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Bhattacharyya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the concept of possibilistic risk aversion to propose a new approach for portfolio selection in fuzzy environment. Using possibility theory, the possibilistic mean, variance, standard deviation and risk premium of a fuzzy number are established. Possibilistic Sharpe ratio is defined as the ratio of possibilistic risk premium and possibilistic standard deviation of a portfolio. The Sharpe ratio is a measure of the performance of the portfolio compared to the risk taken. The higher the Sharpe ratio, the better the performance of the portfolio is and the greater the profits of taking risk. New models of fuzzy portfolio selection considering the possibilistic Sharpe ratio, return and skewness of the portfolio are considered. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by numerical example extracted from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE, India and is solved by multiple objective genetic algorithm (MOGA.

  10. Lifting off the Ground to Return Anew: Mediated Praxis, Transformative Learning, and Social Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Vossoughi, Shirin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a praxis model of teacher education and advances a new method for engaging novice teachers in reflective practice and robust teacher learning. Social design experiments--cultural historical formations designed to promote transformative learning for adults and children--are organized around expansive notions of learning and…

  11. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  12. MarcoPolo-R: Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2012-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected for the assessment study in the framework of ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-25 program. MarcoPolo-R is an European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive carbon-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 foresees a single primary spacecraft, carrying the Earth re-entry capsule and sample acquisition and transfer system, launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou. The scientific payload includes state-of-the-art instruments, e.g. a camera system for high resolution imaging from orbit and on the surface, spectrometers covering visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, a neutral-particle analyser, a radio science experiment and optional laser altimeter. If resources are available, an optional Lander will be added to perform in-situ characterization close to the sampling site, and internal structure investigations. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be

  13. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  14. The Economic Returns to Lifelong Learning in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Addison, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines recent returns to schooling and vocational and occupational training in OECD countries. Provides estimates of short-cut, Mincer-type, and internal rates of return to schooling and alternative estimates of returns to formal and informal post-school training investments. High-return countries include Austria, Canada, France, Mexico,…

  15. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife... income or deductions. For rules for determining whether individuals occupy the status of husband and wife... disaffirm a timely joint return made by the surviving spouse. (2) A joint return of a husband and wife...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI)...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For...

  19. Laser based bi-directional Gbit ground links with the Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Frank; Saucke, Karen; Troendle, Daniel; Motzigemba, Matthias; Bischl, Hermann; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Henninger, Hennes; Meyer, Rolf; Richter, Ines; Sodnik, Zoran

    2017-02-01

    Optical ground stations can be an alternative to radio frequency based transmit (forward) and receive (return) systems for data relay services and other applications including direct to earth optical communications from low earth orbit spacecrafts, deep space receivers, space based quantum key distribution systems and Tbps capacity feeder links to geostationary spacecrafts. The Tesat Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station is operational since September 2015 at the European Space Agency site in Tenerife, Spain.. This paper reports about the results of the 2016 experimental campaigns including the characterization of the optical channel from Tenerife for an optimized coding scheme, the performance of the T-AOGS under different atmospheric conditions and the first successful measurements of the suitability of the Alphasat LCT optical downlink performance for future continuous variable quantum key distribution systems.

  20. High-Ratio Gear Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  1. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  2. Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Erika; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Teruel, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    We use data from three rounds of the Mexican Family Life Survey to examine whether migrants in the United States returning to Mexico in the period 2005-2012 have worse health than those remaining in the United States. Despite extensive interest by demographers in health-related selection, this has been a neglected area of study in the literature on U.S.-Mexico migration, and the few results to date have been contradictory and inconclusive. Using five self-reported health variables collected while migrants resided in the United States and subsequent migration history, we find direct evidence of higher probabilities of return migration for Mexican migrants in poor health as well as lower probabilities of return for migrants with improving health. These findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders reflecting the migrants' demographic characteristics, economic situation, family ties, and origin and destination characteristics. We anticipate that in the coming decade, health may become an even more salient issue in migrants' decisions about returning to Mexico, given the recent expansion in access to health insurance in Mexico.

  3. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  4. The returns to foreign R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Lokshin, B.; Sadowski, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on R&D internationalization has not examined how effective foreign R&D investments are in generating positive returns for the investing firms, in particular in comparison and conjunction with the effects of domestic R&D investments. We examine the effectiveness of international

  5. Early Learning: Return on Investment. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers seek to determine if contemporary pre-K programs provide the strong return on investment found by researchers in the 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. Research then showed that these two programs created positive academic effects that accompanied their students as they…

  6. Social return in het mkb vereist creativiteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhof, Gert; Woude, Marius van der

    2014-01-01

    Op papier biedt de nieuwe Aanbestedingswet meer kansen voor het mkb. In de praktijk hebben kleine bedrijven de grootste moeite deel te nemen aan aanbestedingen, vooral als social return daarbij een rol speelt. Lector Gert Walhof en docent Marius van der Woude vinden dat mkb-bedrijven met aantoonbare

  7. An Editor's Journey: Return to Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    This paper recounts the author's story as she returned to Haiti in February to join a building project near Port-Au-Prince and to document efforts by U.S. higher education institutions to help the country rebound from the devastating 2010 earthquake. The author describes how consortiums have been formed in order to support the development of the…

  8. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  9. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual no

  10. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  11. State anxiety modulates the return of fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Mertens, Gaetan; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for anxiety disorders are effective but limited by the high frequency of clinical relapse. Processes underlying relapse are thought to be experimentally modeled in fear conditioning experiments with return fear (ROF) inductions. Thereby reinstatement-induced ROF might be considere

  12. Portfolio Return Characteristics of Different Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Pouchkarev (Igor); J. Spronk (Jaap); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOver the last decade we have witnessed the rise and fall of the so-called new economy stocks. One central question is to what extent these new firms differ from traditional firms. Empirical evidence suggests that stock returns are not normally distributed. In this article we investigate

  13. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  14. Inflation risk and international asset returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe show that inflation risk is priced in international asset returns. We analyze inflation risk in a framework that encompasses the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) of Adler and Dumas (1983). In contrast to the extant empirical literature on the ICAPM, we relax the

  15. Problems and Issues Raised by Returning Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, Katharine

    1980-01-01

    The problems and needs of adults returning for higher education are discussed. It is important for learning institutions and nontraditional programs to investigate the types and the scope of these problems and needs and the availability of support the student will receive from others to help overcome the problems. (Author/MLW)

  16. Nonsynchronous Trading Model and Return Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-mao; LI Chu-lin; ZHANG Jun

    2002-01-01

    Nonsynchronous trading is one of the hot issues in financial high-frequency data processing.This paper extends the nonsynchronous trading model studied in [1] and [2] for the financial security, and considers the moment functions of the observable return series for the extended model. At last, the estimators of parameters are obtained.

  17. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  18. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Burke

    Full Text Available Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  19. An Editor's Journey: Return to Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    This paper recounts the author's story as she returned to Haiti in February to join a building project near Port-Au-Prince and to document efforts by U.S. higher education institutions to help the country rebound from the devastating 2010 earthquake. The author describes how consortiums have been formed in order to support the development of the…

  20. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Moen (Maaike); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes); M. Maas (Mario); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple methodologic

  1. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin pre...

  2. NASA returns rocks from a comet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Don S

    2006-12-15

    Cometary particles returned by the Stardust Discovery Mission are primarily silicate materials of solar system origin. Some of the grains were formed at high temperatures close to the Sun, but then transported far out to the Kuiper belt region of the solar system before being incorporated in the comet.

  3. Heterogeneity of Human Capital and the Return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2015-01-01

    Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital...

  4. Investment Horizon and the Cross Section of Expected Returns: Evidence from the Tokyo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pin-Huang Chou; Yuan-Lin Hsu; Guofu Zhou

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, we study how beta, size, and ratio of book to market equity (BE/ME) account for the cross-section of expected stock returns over different lengths of investment horizons. We find that $\\beta$, adjusted for infrequent trading or not, fails to explain the cross-section of monthly expected returns, but does a much better job for horizons over half- and one-year. However, either the size or the BE/ME alone is still a significant factor in explaining the c...

  5. Return migration and occupational change: the case of Pakistani migrants returned from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, G M; Irfan, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the factors affecting occupational composition of Pakistani workers upon their return from Middle East employment locations as determined by using the 1986 ILO/ARTEP Survey of Return Migrant Households. Three issues related to post-migration occupation change of return migrants were explored: 1) the comparison of occupational composition in the pre-migration phase with the composition during migration; 2) the direction of occupational change; and 3) the factors affecting these changes after return. 44% of the total employed in the ILO sample changed their pre-migration occupations upon return from employment in production or service jobs to smallbusinessrelated employment; the highest level of occupational change was observed in nonirrigated areas. Occupational change was strongly related to migrants' duration of stay in the Middle East, their ages upon returning, and their level of educational attainment. Occupational mobility experienced by the returnees was mainly towards the business sectora direction approved by the Pakistan Government. The preference of the returnees to work independently might have enabled them to earn sufficient money to maintain their higher standard of living into the period following return migration. It is concluded that in order to achieve stability in the businesses established by the returnees, the Overseas Pakistanis' Foundation should provide services, including project-oriented training courses and loan plans, that will aid the returnees in managing their small businesses.

  6. Return times of polynomials as meta-Fibonacci numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Nathaniel D.

    2004-01-01

    We consider generalized closest return times of a complex polynomial of degree at least two. Most previous studies on this subject have focused on the properties of polynomials with particular return times, especially the Fibonacci numbers. We study the general form of these closest return times. The main result of this paper is that these closest return times are meta-Fibonacci numbers. This result applies to the return times of a principal nest of a polynomial. Furthermore, we show that an ...

  7. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  8. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Recycling water within the local ground-water system can increase the quantity of water available for use, control or avoid environmental pollution, and control temperature of the water supply. Pumped ground water supplied a fish-rearing facility for 15 months, and the waste water recharged the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond. Eighty-three percent of the recharged water returned to the well (recycled). Make-up water from the ground-water system provided the remaining 17 percent.

  9. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the Internal...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  11. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records...

  12. [Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment and Return to Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernyi, Lena; Hölzle, Patricia; Hamann, Johannes

    2017-05-12

    Objective People with mental diseases have a high risk of unemployment and they have only limited access to the labor market. The return to work is often associated with fears.The present study aims to provide an overview of the number of hospitalized psychiatric patients with permanent employment. Moreover it should give an insight into the process of return to work, the experiences patients gain and the support they receive. Methods In the participating clinics we measured the number of patients with permanent employment. The main inclusion criteria for further survey were the status of permanent employment and age between 18 and 65. The participating patients were interviewed on two occasions, at the time of inclusion and 3 months after the patient was discharged. The questions addressed working conditions, job satisfaction and the process of return-to-work. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviations) were used. Results Only 21 % of n = 815 inpatients of the participating hospitals were permanently employed. Many patients did not return to work after being discharged. In many cases the interviewed patients saw a connection between their job and their current episode of illness. In this context patients reported unsatisfying workplace conditions such as long working hours, bad work organization and social conflicts. Conclusions For mentally ill patients, the employment rate in the primary labor market is devastating low. After psychiatric inpatient treatment patients are at high risk to lose their jobs. In order to prevent this development, work-related stress factors should be discussed with inpatients at an early stage and support should be provided during the return-to-work-process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Negotiating a successful return to work program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guida, A W

    1995-02-01

    This article has examined selected reasons why companies resist implementation of return to work programs. The reasons include many fears that companies can readily justify. Nearly all the fears can be eliminated when the occupational health nurse applies both nursing and management principles. As a specialized line manager in the company, with a specialty in people and systems management, the occupational health nurse is the most likely person to plan and implement a successful program. To design, implement, and manage the plan to a successful end, the occupational health nurse must enhance skills in language, salesmanship, and quantifying results. Success must be measured in both people and dollar terms to have relevance to the company, its bottom line, and its employees. People results, the harder of the two to measure, have value in helping to establish positive attitudes of program participants toward the company. People results also help prevent the development of disability syndrome by ill or injured employees by keeping them connected to work and productivity. People results also can be measured by the change in culture the return to work program is likely to produce among managers and employees. The resulting culture will reflect a sense of caring by the company about employees, and expectation that manipulation of the company by opportunists will be reduced, as scarce company resources will be conserved. The early return to work program is managed within employee capabilities in a therapeutic environment during the recovery process. In the long term, financial success of the return to work program can be measured by reduced costs per claim annually. Using the nursing, management, financial, and marketing principles discussed in this article, the occupational health nurse can improve chances of negotiating implementation of a successful early return to work program.

  14. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  15. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  16. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  17. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  18. Pengaruh Rasio Modal Saham Terhadap Return Saham Perusahaan-Perusahaan Telekomunikasi Go Public di Indonesia Periode 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wijaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the influence of market value ratio to return in the telecommunication go public companies in Indonesia. This research uses multiple regression linear method, examination of hypothesis by using t test, F test and R2 test. The result of this analysis indicates that simultaneously all independent variables (ROE, PER, BVPS, and PTBV do not have a positive and significant effect to dependent variable (return. It means that return variable influenced by other variables which do not included in this research. Partially, all independent variables (ROE, PER, BVPS, and PTBV do not have a positive and significant effect to dependent variable (return Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio modal saham terhadap return pada perusahaan-perusahaan telekomunikasi terbuka di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi linier berganda, pengujian hipotesis dengan menggunakan uji t, uji F, dan uji R2. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa secara simultan (secara bersama-sama, semua variabel independen (ROE, PER, BVPS, dan PTBV secara signifikan dan positif tidak memiliki pengaruh terhadap variabel dependen (return. Hal ini berarti bahwa variabel return dipengaruhi oleh variabel-variabel lain yang tidak termasuk dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial, semua variabel independen (ROE, PER, BVPS, dan PTBV tidak memiliki pengaruh secara signifikan dan positif terhadap variabel dependen (Return. Kata kunci: Laba atas ekuitas, harga-laba, nilai buku per lembar saham, harga saham per nilai buku, imbal hasil

  19. Ground-Wave Propagation Effects on Transmission Lines through Error Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transient calculation of overhead transmission lines is strongly influenced by the natural resistivity of the ground. This varies from 1-10K (Ω·m depending on several media factors and on the physical composition of the ground. The accuracy on the calculation of a system transient response depends in part in the ground return model, which should consider the line geometry, the electrical resistivity and the frequency dependence of the power source. Up to date, there are only a few reports on the specialized literature about analyzing the effects produced by the presence of an imperfectly conducting ground of transmission lines in a transient state. A broad range analysis of three of the most often used ground-return models for calculating electromagnetic transients of overhead transmission lines is performed in this paper. The behavior of modal propagation in ground is analyzed here into effects of first and second order. Finally, a numerical tool based on relative error images is proposed in this paper as an aid for the analyst engineer to estimate the incurred error by using approximate ground-return models when calculating transients of overhead transmission lines.

  20. OSIRIS-REx, Returning the Asteroid Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajluni, Thomas, M.; Everett, David F.; Linn, Timothy; Mink, Ronald; Willcockson, William; Wood, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the technical aspects of the sample return system for the upcoming Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission. The overall mission design and current implementation are presented as an overview to establish a context for the technical description of the reentry and landing segment of the mission.The prime objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to sample a primitive, carbonaceous asteroid and to return that sample to Earth in pristine condition for detailed laboratory analysis. Targeting the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, the mission launches in September 2016 with an Earth reentry date of September 24, 2023.OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize asteroid Bennu providing knowledge of the nature of near-Earth asteroids that is fundamental to understanding planet formation and the origin of life. The return to Earth of pristine samples with known geologic context will enable precise analyses that cannot be duplicated by spacecraft-based instruments, revolutionizing our understanding of the early Solar System. Bennu is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid and one of the most potentially Earth-hazardous asteroids known. Study of Bennu addresses multiple NASA objectives to understand the origin of the Solar System and the origin of life and will provide a greater understanding of both the hazards and resources in near-Earth space, serving as a precursor to future human missions to asteroids.This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) design and concept of operations, including trajectory design and reentry retrieval. Highlights of the mission are included below.The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft provides the essential functions for an asteroid characterization and sample return mission: attitude control propulsion power thermal control telecommunications command and data handling structural support to ensure successful

  1. Return to work after vocational rehabilitation: does mindfulness matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindholmen S

    2014-02-01

    predicted RTW. However, when the data were analyzed after stratification by education level, the "observation" facet of mindfulness made a significant contribution to the model (odds ratio =1.28, confidence interval =1.03–1.59 for "high educated" participants.Conclusion: These data suggest that mindfulness may enhance RTW and work ability through QOL. Furthermore, for "high educated" participants the observation facet of mindfulness significantly predicted RTW.Keywords: work ability, quality of life, multidisciplinary, mindfulness, return to work, vocational rehabilitation

  2. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  3. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  4. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich Heine Universität, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  5. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  6. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  7. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  8. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  9. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  10. Returns management in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The aim of this exploratory empirical research was to evaluate the level of cooperation in the area of reverse logistics between selected retail chains and logistics operators and suppliers; to identify and evaluate the influence the procedures of handling returns have on the relationships with customers, cost reduction, value recovery, inventory reduction and increasing profitability; as well as determining to what extent logistics operators are involved in the procedures of handling returns in the analysed chains. Methods: Based on the literature and the experience of researchers from developed countries a questionnaire was constructed which was subsequently used to conduct empirical research in selected retail chains operating in two provinces in Poland. The questionnaire survey involved the sales personnel of selected retail chains in the clothing industry. Overall, 105 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Results: Various aspects of cooperation with suppliers and logistics operators in respect of handling returns were evaluated. Most indicators of cooperation were evaluated favourably, with the exception of joint access to the database, the use of inventory data available online, and access to information from the warehouse, which received low marks from the respondents. In the case of the studied stores, some of the activities in the area of reverse logistics are outsourced; for example, obtaining products from users, logistics, and the transport of returns are typically done by an outside operator. Inspection, sorting, appraisal, repairs, as well as the sales of refurbished products are usually performed within the studied retail corporations. Conclusions: The research has shown that the retail chains developed very good programmes for handling returns in the supply chain, as evidenced by the presented and highly rated indicators of cooperation, with the exception of information exchange where there is still much

  11. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...

  12. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  13. Returns to Returning: Who Went Abroad and What Does it Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Co, Catherine Y.; Yun, Myeong-Su; Gang, Ira N.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the labor market performance of return migrants using the Hungarian Household Panel Survey. Two distinct selection issues are considered in the estimation of the earnings equation. The result that there is a ?premium? to work experience abroad for women is robust across models we considered. This premium varies by former host country. For men, the return to working abroad is not generally significant, except for those Hungarians who worked in non-European OECD countries.

  14. End-of-the-year economic growth and time-varying expected returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We show that macroeconomic growth at the end of the year (fourth quarter or December) strongly influences expected returns on risky financial assets, whereas economic growth during the rest of the year does not. We find this pattern for many different asset classes, across different time periods...... quarters of the year. Our findings suggest that expected returns, risk aversion, and economic growth are particularly related at the end of the year, when we also expect consumers׳ portfolio adjustments to be concentrated......., and for US and international data. We also show that movements in the surplus consumption ratio of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) , a theoretically well-founded measure of time-varying risk aversion linked to macroeconomic growth, influence expected returns stronger during the fourth quarter than the other...

  15. Orientation effect on ground motion measurement for Mexican subduction earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.P Hong; A. Pozos-Estrada; R. Gomez

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the principal directions of the ground motion based on Arias intensity is well-known. These principal directions do not necessarily coincide with the orientations of recording sensors or with the orientations along which the ground motion parameters such as the peak ground acceleration and the pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) are maximum. This is evidenced by the fact that the maximum PSA at different natural vibration periods for horizontal excitations do not correspond to the same orientation. A recent analysis carried out for California earthquake records suggests that an orientation-dependent ground motion measurement for horizontal excitations can be developed. The main objective of this study is to investigate and provide seismic ground motion measurements in the horizontal plane, including bidirectional horizontal ground motions, for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquake records. Extensive statistical analyses of PSA are conducted for the assessment, The analysis results suggest that similar to the case of California records, the average behavior of the ratio of the PSA to the maximum resulting PSA can be approximated by a quarter of an ellipse in one quadrant; and that the ratio can be considered to be independent of the value of the maximum resulting PSA, earthquake magnitude, earthquake distance and the focal depth. Sets of response ratios and attenuation relationships that can be used to represent a bidirectional horizontal ground motion measurement for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquakes were also developed.

  16. Fast initial continuous current pulses versus return stroke pulses in tower-initiated lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadifar, Mohammad; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Paolone, Mario; Pavanello, Davide; Metz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    We present a study focused on pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current of upward negative discharges. The study is based on experimental data consisting of correlated lightning current waveforms recorded at the instrumented Säntis Tower in Switzerland and electric fields recorded at a distance of 14.7 km from the tower. Two different types of pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current were identified: (1) M-component-type pulses, for which the microsecond-scale electric field pulse occurs significantly earlier than the onset of the current pulse, and (2) fast pulses, for which the onset of the field matches that of the current pulse. We analyze the currents and fields associated with these fast pulses (return-stroke type (RS-type) initial continuous current (ICC) pulses) and compare their characteristics with those of return strokes. A total of nine flashes containing 44 RS-type ICC pulses and 24 return strokes were analyzed. The median current peaks associated with RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes are, respectively, 3.4 kA and 8 kA. The associated median E-field peaks normalized to 100 km are 1.5 V/m and 4.4 V/m, respectively. On the other hand, the electric field peaks versus current peaks for the two data sets (RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes) are characterized by very similar linear regression slopes, namely, 3.67 V/(m kA) for the ICC pulses and 3.77 V/(m kA) for the return strokes. Assuming the field-current relation based on the transmission line model, we estimated the apparent speed of both the RS-type ICC pulses and return strokes to be about 1.4 × 108 m/s. A strong linear correlation is observed between the E-field risetime and the current risetime for the ICC pulses, similar to the relation observed between the E-field risetime and current risetime for return strokes. The similarity of the RS-type ICC pulses with return strokes suggests that these pulses are associated with the mixed mode of charge transfer to ground.

  17. Bandwidth and Return Loss Improvement of H-shaped Patch Microstrip Antenna using EBG structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Bhai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The future development of personal communication devices will aim to provide image, speech and data anywhere around the world at any time. This indicates that the future communication terminal antennas must meet the requirements of wideband to sufficiently cover the possible operating bands. The aim of this paper is to improve the bandwidth and return loss of H-shaped patch microstrip antenna using EBG structure on ground plane. EBG structure is a periodic arrangement of dielectric materials and metallic conductors on ground plane of antennas. Microstrip antennas mounted can radiate only a small amount of its power into free space as more power leakage through the dielectric substrate. To improve the efficiency of the antenna, the propagation through the substrate must be prohibited so the antenna can radiate more power towards the main beam direction and hence improve its efficiency. As the proposed antenna has resonant frequency at 2.496 GHz so suitable for ISMband applications. For designing this, we uses CST software tool. The designed antenna offers much improved bandwidth of 59.9 MHz and return loss is -30.02 dB as compared to conventional H-shaped patch microstrip antenna which having bandwidth of 33 MHz and return loss is -12.43 dB.

  18. Phase-ratio technique as applied to the assessment of lunar surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Videen, Gorden; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    Regoliths of atmosphereless celestial bodies demonstrate prominent light backscattering that is common for particulate surfaces. This occurs over a wide range of phase angles and can be seen in the phase function [1]. The slope of the function may characterize the complexity of planetary surface structure. Imagery of such a parameter suggests that information can be obtained about the surface, like variations of unresolved surface roughness and microtopography [2]. Phase-ratio imagery allows one to characterize the phase function slope. This imagery requires the ratio of two co-registered images acquired at different phase angles. One important advantage of the procedure is that the inherent albedo variations of the surface are suppressed, and, therefore, the resulting image is sensitive to the surface structure variation [2,3]. The phase-ratio image characterizes surface roughness variation at spatial scales on the order of the incident wavelengths to that of the image resolution. Applying the phase-ratio technique to ground-based telescope data has allowed us to find new lunar surface formations in the southern part of Oceanus Procellarum. These are suggested to be weak swirls [4]. We also combined the phase-ratio technique with the space-derived photometry data acquired from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with high spatial resolution. Thus we exploited the method to analyze the sites of Apollo landings and Soviet sample-return missions. Phase-ratio imagery has revealed anomalies of the phase-curve slope indicating a smoothing of the surface microstructure at the sites caused by dust uplifted by the engine jets of the descent and ascent modules [5,6]. Analysis of phase-ratios helps to understand how the regolith properties have been affected by robotic and human activity on the Moon [7,8]. We have demonstrated the use of the method to search for fresh natural disturbances of surface structure, e.g., to detect areas of fresh slumps, accumulated material on

  19. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".

  20. STARDUST: finessing expensive cometary sample returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D E; Tsou, P; Atkins, K L; Yen, C W; Vellinga, J M; Price, S; Clark, B C

    1996-01-01

    The STARDUST Discovery mission will collect samples of cometary coma and interstellar dust and return them to Earth. Five years after launch in February 1999, coma dust in the 1- to 100-micrometers size range will be captured by impact into ultra-low-density silica aerogel during a 6 kms-1 flyby of Comet Wild 2. The returned samples will be investigated at laboratories where the most critical information on these primitive materials is retained. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory will provide project management with Lockheed Martin Astronauts as the spacecraft industrial partner. STARDUST management will aggressively and innovatively achieve cost control through the use of Total Quality Management principles, the chief of which will be organization in a Project Engineering and Integration Team that "flattens" the traditional hierarchical structure by including all project elements from the beginning, in a concurrent engineering framework focusing on evolving Integrated Mission Capability.

  1. Splenic abscesses in a returning traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Richard F; Wong, Frances L; Perez, Mario L

    2015-02-24

    Burkholderia, an aerobic gram-negative rod, is the causative organism behind melioidosis and is a common soil and water organism found predominantly in South-East Asia. We report the case of a 68 year-old man returning from an extended trip to the Philippines, with splenic hypodense lesions on abdominal computer tomography scan, later confirmed to be culture-positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous ceftazidime followed by eradication therapy with oral doxycycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. He recovered with complete resolution of symptoms at follow up. In a returning traveler from an endemic area, melioidosis should be considered as part of the differential for any febrile illness with abscesses.

  2. The Returns to Education in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The returns to education in self-employment are addressed in four different specifications of the relationship between log income and years of schooling. The specifications range from a standard Mincer equation with a constant percentage increase in income for an additional year of schooling...... to the most flexible specification with dummy variables for different combinations of years of schooling and fields of study. Based on the more flexible specifications, important non-linearities and heterogeneity in the returns to education in self-employment are found. These results are robust across...... different estimation methods: OLS, Heckit correction models handling sample selection, and IV dealing with the potential endogeneity of years of schooling. Moreover, the results are robust to the use of different sample years, different definitions of self-employment, and different income measures...

  3. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... shows that our tests have power to reject unpredictability in both expansions and recessions. To judge the economic significance of the results we compute utility gains for a meanvariance investor who takes the predictability patterns into account and show that utility gains are positive in expansions...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...

  4. Stroke patients' experiences of return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Jennie; Barajas, Josefin; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2006-09-15

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of return to work (RTW) after stroke from the patient's perspective.Method. Six patients who had their first ever stroke in 2001, were working at the time of their stroke were included. Information was obtained via an open-ended interview. The material was transcribed verbatim and analysed using Giorgi's empirical phenomenology.Results. Rehabilitation was perceived as primarily aimed at restoring bodily functions and a return to everyday activities, rather than at promoting a return to work. It was not experienced as adapted to the participants' needs or their age. The workplace was experienced as very important in the rehabilitation process. When the informants experienced that the rehabilitation professionals were not taking action, they took control of the situation themselves. The informants expressed pride in their own capacity to take the initiative and in their ability to take action. Both self-employed and employed informants said they had possibilities and opportunities to take action since their work situation was flexible. The informants' adaptation to a new role at work was perceived as facilitated by the understanding and positive attitude of co-workers.Conclusion. Among this group of stroke patients, the individual patient's capacity and ability to return to work was enhanced by motivation or "will" and self-efficacy in combination with external support. Self-efficacy was not only a personal trait or internal factor; it was enhanced and encouraged in interaction with contextual conditions. There are similarities between the RTW process and processes of health promotion.

  5. Documenting investment policy boosts safety, returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovener, R R

    1992-02-01

    The process and responsibility for a healthcare organization's investment decisions should be clearly documented in an investment policy. Any investment policy should contain at least seven elements: how investments relate to the organization's mission; responsibilities of involved parties; long- and short-term objectives; desired balance between return and risk; proportions of a portfolio held in stocks, bonds, and other investments; disposition of donated assets; desired investment reports; and the process for keeping the policy current.

  6. Return migration to Scotland: some direct evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I

    1982-04-01

    The author presents a critique of a paper by Bell and Kirwan in which they contend that the probability of return migration will tend to be equal for Scottish migrants to England and Wales and for English or Welsh migrants to Scotland. In the present article, comparable data for the United States and Scotland are evaluated, and comments are presented on the regression equations used. A reply by Bell and Kirwan is also included (pp. 135-6).

  7. Employer Learning And The Returns To Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas K.; John P. Haisken-DeNew

    2000-01-01

    We examine the dynamic role of education and experience as determinants of wages. It is hypothesized that an employee's education is an important signal to the employer initially. Over time, the returns to schooling should decrease with labour market experience and increase with initially unobserved ability, since the employer gradually obtains better information on the productivity of an employee. Replicating US studies using data from a large German panel data set (GSOEP), we find no eviden...

  8. Multifractal Models, Intertrade Durations and Return Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Segnon, Mawuli Kouami

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the application of multifractal processes in modeling financial time series. It aims to demonstrate the capacity and the robustness of the multifractal processes to better model return volatility and ultra high frequency financial data than both the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH)-type and autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) models currently used in research and practice. The thesis is comprised of four main parts that ...

  9. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  10. Management of the Returning Traveler with Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20—60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers. PMID:21180583

  11. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  12. Management of the returning traveler with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saussure, Philippe P H

    2009-11-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20-60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers.

  13. Returns to education in rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Litao

    2007-01-01

    Based on one of the most widely used datasets by foreign-based sociologists,this paper examines the rate of returns to education in rural China.Compared with the previous studies that showed rather low rates in rural areas throughout the 1980s,this study finds a considerably higher rate in 1996.A chief contributor is the rapid non-agricultural development,which creates enormous upward mobility opportunities,particularly for the more educated.Due to the uneven economic development nationwide,the rate of returns to education varies widely across regions.In areas with less developed non-agricultural sectors,it remains low.In contrast,where off-farm employment is widespread,it is much higher.In addition,the labor market is functioning to allocate the more educated to better-paid jobs,but has yet to produce higher returns to education in nonagricultural sectors than in the agricultural sector.However,changes may be occurring in coastal regions.

  14. An experimental test of the 'transmission-line model' of electromagnetic radiation from triggered lightning return strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Leteinturier, C.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1988-01-01

    Peak currents, two-dimensional average propagation speeds, and electric field waveforms for a number of subsequent return strikes in rocket-triggered lightning flashes were measured in order to test the 'transmission-line model' of return-stroke radiation of Uman and McLain (1970). Reasonable agreement is found between the propagation speeds measured with the streak camera and those deduced from the transmission-line model. A modification of the model is proposed in which two wave fronts travel upward and downward away from a junction point a short distance above the ground.

  15. Return-to-work according to impairment type among occupationally injured workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Jeongbae; Jeong, Inchul; Won, Jong Uk

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the association between return-to-work and impairment type. Database of the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service was used to identify disabled persons; and return-to-work information was obtained from the Korea Employment Information Services database. The study participants were 79,328 persons who received Workers' compensation and who were confirmed as disabled during 2009-2011. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between return-to-work and impairment type, adjusted by age, sex, impairment severity, pre-injury businesses size, and pre-injury occupational category. Compared to injuries of the upper limbs, the odds ratio of return-to-work was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.65) for injuries involving the lower limbs, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.66) for the spine, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.66-0.86) for the eyes, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.77-1.25) for the oral cavity, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.37-0.53) for the ears, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.83-1.25) for the figure, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.79) for pain, and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.32-0.41) for neuropsychiatric impairment. These findings indicate that impairment type influences return-to-work rates.

  16. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  17. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  18. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Evelyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Walter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slemmons, Alice K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  19. Returns Effect, Shocks and Volatility Transmission between Foreign Exchange-Stock Markets in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agya Atabani Adi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined effect of passed return on current return, shocks spillover and volatility transmission between FX-Stock markets. Using result obtained from VAR-GARCH models, we also calculate the optimal weight and risk minimizing hedging ratio for FX-Stock markets and employed the newly developed bivariate GARCH framework Findings reveal evidence of short term predictability in both markets through time. One period lagged returns significantly impact current return in both markets, and impact was greater in FX market both VAR-GARCH and VAR-AGARCH models. There were evidence of bi-directional volatility transmission in both markets and uni-directional shocks spillover from stock to FX market in both models. VAR-AGARCH model showed evidence of leverage effect; bad news has more impact on volatility than positive news of the same magnitude. We showed that optimal polio of FX-Stock market should holds more foreign exchange to stocks in their asset polio. Our result showed evidence of effective hedging in FX-Stock markets in Nigerian. Hence, the inclusion of stocks in diversified polio of foreign exchange could improve it risks adjusted performance of hedging ratio.

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  1. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  2. Return to work following breast cancer treatment: the employers' side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; Donceel, Peter; de Rijk, Angelique; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2014-09-01

    Research on employers' experiences with return to work (RTW) of employees with breast cancer is lacking. Employers seem to be the key people to create good working conditions. Our aim is to explore how Belgian employers experience their role and responsibility in RTW of employees with breast cancer. Using a qualitative design (Grounded Theory) 17 employers from the public (7), private (5) and non-profit (5) sector, directly involved in the RTW process, were interviewed. The analysis was based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL) with constant data comparison and interactive team dialogue as important guiding characteristics. RTW of employees with breast cancer is experienced by employers as an intangible process that is difficult to manage. This was expressed in (1) concern, referring to the employer's personal and emotional involvement, (2) uncertainty about the course of illness and the guidance needed by the employee and (3) specific dilemmas in the RTW process (when does one infringe on employee privacy; employee vs. organization interest; employers' personal vs. professional role). The degree to which this was experienced related to variety in organizational, employer, and employee factors. The findings of this study confirm the importance of the employer's involvement in RTW of employees with breast cancer and contribute to a better understanding of its complexity. The employers did their best to grasp the intangibility of the RTW process. Further research is needed to refine these findings and to discover the specific needs of employers regarding supporting RTW of breast cancer patients.

  3. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  4. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  5. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  6. Take Me "Home": Return Migration among Germany's Older Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines the determinants of return migration as foreign-born men approach old age in Germany. Return migration in later life engages a different set of conditions than return migration earlier on, including the framing of return as a possible retirement strategy. Using 23 years of longitudinal data from the German Socioeconomic Panel, this paper investigates how social and economic resources of immigrant men influence decisions to return "home." Results suggest that immigrants from former guest worker recruitment countries within the European Union are more likely to return than non-E.U. immigrants. In addition, return migrants are "negatively selected" such that those with the least education and weakest attachments to the labor force are more likely to emigrate. However, findings vary greatly depending on the immigrant's age and country of origin. Results from this paper highlight the heterogeneity of older immigrants and the factors that motivate their return "home."

  7. Nurses' views about returning to practice after a career break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mary Alison; Randhawa, Gurch

    Shortages in nursing staff have led to recruitment campaigns targeting nurses who have left the profession. The present study explored reasons why career-break nurses decide for or against a return to practice, as well as perceptions of nursing following return. Semistructured interview were conducted with 24 nurses who had returned recently to the profession and 28 nurses on a "career break". Findings revealed that those who returned did so when their personal circumstances allowed, and half returned as bank nurses in order to work flexible, family-friendly hours. Some non-returners reported that they could not afford to return because of childcare costs. Although still a caring one, the nurse's role is seen by returners as becoming increasingly technologically and administratively demanding. Flexibility with regard to working practices, increased salaries and demonstrating that it values its staff, were highlighted by interviewees generally as priority issues for the NHS if it wishes to recruit career-break nurses.

  8. Behavioral Implications of Risk-Return Associations: An Application of

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ranjan Dasgupta

    2017-01-01

    ...) and Tversky and Kahneman (1992). It hypothesizes that for below target returns, a large majority of Indian companies would be risk-seeking, and for above target returns, most of them would be risk-averse...

  9. Monetary Policy Shocks and Stock Returns Reactions: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that positive interest rate innovations are associated with ... stock returns of companies listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange (BSE). ... policy shocks explain a relatively small proportion of stock returns variability.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Risk, Return and Diversification of Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Funds have become a widely popular and effective way for investors to participate in financial markets in an easy, low-cost fashion, while muting risk characteristics by spreading the investment across different types of securities, also known as diversification. It can play a central role in an individual's investment strategy. With the plethora of schemes available in the Indian markets, an investors needs to evaluate and consider various factors before making an investment decision. The present investigation is aimed to examine the performance of safest investment instrument in the security market in the eyes of investors. Five mutual fund large cap scheme have been selected for this purpose. The examination is achieved by assessing various financial tests like Sharpe Ratio, Standard Deviation, Alpha, and Beta. Furthermore, in-depth analysis also has been done by considering return over the period of last five years on various basis, expenses ratio, corpus-size etc. The data has been taken from various websites of mutual fund schemes and from www.valueresearch.com. The study will be helpful for the researchers and financial analysts to analyze various securities or funds while selecting the best investment alternative out of the galaxy of investment alternatives.

  11. Lightning return stroke velocities in the thunderstorm research international program (TRIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, Vincent P.; Orville, Richard E.

    1982-06-01

    We have used high-speed streaking photographic techniques to time-resolve the luminous components of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. Two-dimensional return stroke velocities have been measured for 63 strokes representing, we believe, the largest set of return stroke velocity measurements obtained to date. All recordings were made during our participation in the Thunderstorm Reseach International Program conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 and at the Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico, during the summer of 1979. The mean return stroke velocity, near ground (channel length ≤1.3 km), was found to be 11×107 m/s, with a maximum relative error estimate in most cases of 35% or less. The distribution of velocities peaks strongly at approximately 9×107 m/s. Thirty-two of the 63 values (51%) fall within the interval of 8-12 × 107 m/s. The range of observed velocities spans the interval of 2.9-24×107 m/s. Based on the presence of branches in the time-resolved recordings, 17 strokes are considered to be first return strokes, with a mean velocity, near ground, of 9.6×107 m/s. The mean velocity for subsequent strokes is 12×107 m/s. A further breakdown of the results for Florida and New Mexico, respectively, reveals mean first return stroke velocities of 6.6×107 m/s and 15 × 107 m/s as well as mean subsequent stroke velocities of 11×107 m/s and 13 × 107 m/s. Velocity variations for 17 of the best events are presented, with the return stroke velocity observed to decrease with height in every case except one. The velocity reduction can be substantial; velocities in upper channel lengths were often reduced by 25% or more relative to velocities near ground, even for subsequent strokes. The variation of velocity between strokes in multistroke flashes was found to be significant in some cases and minor in others. The results of this study are compared with the earlier major works of Schonland and of Mc

  12. Aerocapture guidance and navigation for the Rosetta Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martinez, J. B.; Hechler, M.

    The aerocapture/reentry phase of the Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission Rosetta when returning from the Comet back to earth is discussed. The guidance and navigation process for a guided atmospheric entry to ground from an entry velocity of over 15 km/s has been simulated and the feasibility of such an entry at an entry angle of -10.5 deg, using an Apollo shape vehicle and guidance methods similar to those used for Apollo and the Shuttle Orbiter, has been demonstrated. Landing precision of less than 10 km at accelerations below 20 g can be reached. Critical areas of system design like the center of gravity location of the entry vehicle are addressed.

  13. PENGARUH FAKTOR FUNDAMENTAL DAN RISIKO (BETA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN YANG TERMASUK DALAM INDEKS LQ 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ismayanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the infl uence of fundamental factors (DER, ROE, PER, EPS and NPM and risk (Beta on stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. The study sample consisted of 17 companies which for 4 years in a row including the LQ 45. The statiscaly methods used to test the hypothesis in this study, is multiple linear regression technique and obtained the following results: 1.  Simultaneous  way,  all  independent  variables  used  in  this  study  affect  the stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. 2.  Partially independent variables which affect the stock returns of companies included in the index is variable LQ 45 Debt Equity Ratio (X1, Earning Per  Share  (X4,  Net  Profi t  Margin  (X5  and  Beta  (X6.  Return  on  Equity (X2 and Price Earning Ratio (X3 variable had no effect on stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. Keywords :Fundamental factor, Beta and return saham

  14. PENGARUH FAKTOR FUNDAMENTAL DAN RISIKO (BETA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN YANG TERMASUK DALAM INDEKS LQ 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ismayanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the infl uence of fundamental factors (DER, ROE, PER, EPS and NPM and risk (Beta on stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. The study sample consisted of 17 companies which for 4 years in a row including the LQ 45. The statiscaly methods used to test the hypothesis in this study, is multiple linear regression technique and obtained the following results: 1.  Simultaneous  way,  all  independent  variables  used  in  this  study  affect  the stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. 2.  Partially independent variables which affect the stock returns of companies included in the index is variable LQ 45 Debt Equity Ratio (X1, Earning Per  Share  (X4,  Net  Profi t  Margin  (X5  and  Beta  (X6.  Return  on  Equity (X2 and Price Earning Ratio (X3 variable had no effect on stock returns of companies included in the index LQ 45. Keywords :Fundamental factor, Beta and return saham

  15. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Buddy enhanced return routability for authentication in mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew E. N.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved form of authentication security for Mobile IPv6 called buddy enhanced return routability. Enhanced return routability builds on the foundation of return routability and extends that technique through the use of stochastic route selection for authentication messages. Theoretical work and simulation results show that enhanced return routability strengthens authentication security without adding restrictive overhead requirements or opening up new security holes.

  17. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  18. The Return to College: Selection Bias and Dropout Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    We study two long-standing questions: (i) What part of the measured return to education is due to selection? (ii) The ex post return to schooling is higher than the return to most financial assets. How large are the contributions of various frictions to the "high" return to schooling? We focus in particular on the roles of college dropout risk, borrowing constraints, and learning about ability. We develop and calibrate a model of school choice. Key model features are: (i) ability heterogeneit...

  19. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  20. Spatial distribution of near-fault ground motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启方; 袁一凡; 金星

    2004-01-01

    Near-fault strong ground motion of strike-slip and dip-slip of vertical and inclined rectangular fault in half-space and layered half-space is analyzed by dislocation source model. The Fourier spectra ratio of ground motion is adopted to study the characteristics of near-fault ground motion. For both slip models, near-fault strong ground motion with high amplitude is located in a narrow belt area along the projection of the fault on the ground and mainly controlled by the sub-faults nearby. Directivity of strike-slip fault is more dominant in long period for components perpendicular to the fault, and more dominant in long period for components parallel to the fault for dip-slip fault. The deeper the location of the source is, the more slowly the amplitude of ground motion attenuates.There is obvious hanging wall effect in ground motion of inclined fault, and the spatial distribution of ground motion is asymmetric which coincides with observational data. Finally, a fitting function of spatial distribution for near-fault ground motion is proposed and compared with near source factors of the 1997 Uniform Building Code of USA.

  1. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  2. Why we need asteroid sample return mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Small bodies retain evidence of the primordial solar nebula and the earliest solar system processes that shaped their evolution. They may also contain pre-solar material as well as complex organic molecules, which could have a major role to the development of life on Earth. For these reasons, asteroids and comets have been targets of interest for missions for over three decades. However, our knowledge of these bodies is still very limited, and each asteroid or comet visited by space mission has revealed unexpected scientific results, e.g. the structure and nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) visited by the Rosetta mission. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms a small body regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. For those reasons, sample return missions are considered a high priority by a number of the leading space agencies. Abundant within the inner Solar System and the main impactors on terrestrial planets, small bodies may have been the principal contributors of the water and organic material essential to create life on Earth. Small bodies can therefore be considered to be equivalent to DNA for unravelling our solar system's history, offering us a unique window to investigate both the formation of planets and the origin of life. A sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) has been study at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions "How does the Solar System work?" and "What are the conditions for life and planetary formations?". The returned material

  3. Studying the Formation Mechanism of New Ground Strike Points in Natural Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Cummins, K. L.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Data from three-dimensional VHF mapping, high-speed video and slow electric field antenna of multiple ground contact flashes (MGCFs) have been analyzed in an attempt to characterize the process through which new ground terminations in natural lightning are formed. The three-dimensional VHF mapping data (obtained by a Lightning Mapping Array, LMA) provided valuable information on the processes that occurred inside the cloud during the interval between strokes. Detailed case studies of over 30 MGCFs observed in the vicinity of a wind farm in Kansas, USA, have allowed the identification and qualitative description of three mechanisms through which a given flash may touch ground at different locations. In events of Type I, the dart leader that initiates the subsequent stroke starts in the original channel and then diverges from the original path of the first stroke, ionizing a new channel and reaching ground at a different location. In high-speed video records, these events eventually have their "diverging" point visible below cloud base and their strike locations are separated by a few hundreds of meters. Type II, on the other hand, comprises flashes in which the subsequent stroke is initiated in an in-cloud branch that is farther from the inception region of the first return stroke, moving in another direction and touching ground at farther distances (up to more than 10 km from the initial strike location). Finally, Type III flashes typically gave rise to several return strokes, each with different ground strike points. Stepped leaders initiated in the same general region in the cloud give rise to these strokes with typical interstroke intervals below 100 milliseconds but no common channel branches among them could be conclusively identified. Representative events of each type are discussed in detail.

  4. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the...

  5. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically on the employee's status and intent to return to work. The employer's policy regarding such reports...

  6. Platform skin return and retrodirective cross-eye jamming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of platform skin return on retrodirective cross-eye jamming is analysed, allowing the parameters of a cross-eye jammer in the presence of skin return to be determined. The inherently unknown phase of the platform skin return is accounted...

  7. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...

  8. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  9. Consumption Risk and the Cross Section of Expected Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jonathan A.; Julliard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the central insight of the consumption capital asset pricing model that an asset's expected return is determined by its equilibrium risk to consumption. Rather than measure risk by the contemporaneous covariance of an asset's return and consumption growth, we measure risk by the covariance of an asset's return and consumption…

  10. 78 FR 41128 - Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... United States Postal Service of Market Test of Experimental Product--International Merchandise Return... returns as an important part of ] international shipping. Id. It concludes that the IMRS-NPR market test...

  11. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  12. 76 FR 78816 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... contains final regulations that modify existing regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties... and to improve compliance with the tax return preparer due diligence requirements of section...

  13. Consumption Risk and the Cross Section of Expected Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jonathan A.; Julliard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the central insight of the consumption capital asset pricing model that an asset's expected return is determined by its equilibrium risk to consumption. Rather than measure risk by the contemporaneous covariance of an asset's return and consumption growth, we measure risk by the covariance of an asset's return and consumption…

  14. 31 CFR 10.28 - Return of client's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of client's records. 10.28... § 10.28 Return of client's records. (a) In general, a practitioner must, at the request of a client, promptly return any and all records of the client that are necessary for the client to comply with his or...

  15. Family Background and Returns to Schooling in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Segundo, Maria F.; Valiente, Asuncion

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between returns to education and family background using samples of male and female workers drawn from the Spanish Survey on Class Structure. Results for males show a positive relationship between parents' education (or occupation) and returns to schools. Returns for females are mixed: Least-squares estimates show…

  16. Recommended Maximum Temperature For Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Hays, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Returned Sample Science Board (RSSB) was established in 2015 by NASA to provide expertise from the planetary sample community to the Mars 2020 Project. The RSSB's first task was to address the effect of heating during acquisition and storage of samples on scientific investigations that could be expected to be conducted if the samples are returned to Earth. Sample heating may cause changes that could ad-versely affect scientific investigations. Previous studies of temperature requirements for returned mar-tian samples fall within a wide range (-73 to 50 degrees Centigrade) and, for mission concepts that have a life detection component, the recommended threshold was less than or equal to -20 degrees Centigrade. The RSSB was asked by the Mars 2020 project to determine whether or not a temperature requirement was needed within the range of 30 to 70 degrees Centigrade. There are eight expected temperature regimes to which the samples could be exposed, from the moment that they are drilled until they are placed into a temperature-controlled environment on Earth. Two of those - heating during sample acquisition (drilling) and heating while cached on the Martian surface - potentially subject samples to the highest temperatures. The RSSB focused on the upper temperature limit that Mars samples should be allowed to reach. We considered 11 scientific investigations where thermal excursions may have an adverse effect on the science outcome. Those are: (T-1) organic geochemistry, (T-2) stable isotope geochemistry, (T-3) prevention of mineral hydration/dehydration and phase transformation, (T-4) retention of water, (T-5) characterization of amorphous materials, (T-6) putative Martian organisms, (T-7) oxidation/reduction reactions, (T-8) (sup 4) He thermochronometry, (T-9) radiometric dating using fission, cosmic-ray or solar-flare tracks, (T-10) analyses of trapped gasses, and (T-11) magnetic studies.

  17. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Return Saham Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Olga Theolina

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study is to analyze factors influence stock return consist of earnings per share, earning management, investment opportunity set, risk (beta), companies size, leverage and sales price ratio. Population of this research are go public manufacturing companies which enlist at Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2006-2009 and samples are taken by purposive sampling method, that is taking samples by some criteria. Sample that used in this research are 36 manufacturing companies li...

  18. Long-term portfolio investments: New insight into return and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramov

    2015-09-01

    Emphasis is placed on the need for regular adjustments to long-term investors’ portfolios. As portfolios get older, those investors see a reduction in the returns’ dispersion, while differences in risk between various portfolios increase. This means that to maintain a fixed risk–return ratio for a portfolio as the horizon increases, an investor needs to increase the share of lower-risk financial assets during asset allocation process. This thesis becomes especially relevant in the context of retirement savings management.

  19. Serial and cross-correlation in the Spanish Stock Market returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, J.; L. A. GIL-ALANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we test if stock index prices follow random walks in the Spanish Stock Market by means of variance ratios. We find strong evidence of positive autocorrelation for both IGBM and IBEX35 daily returns until 1977, but not after that date. Although weekly and monthly index positive autocorrelations are not significant during the years 1972-2002, there is significant positive monthly cross-correlation between portfolios based on size. In particular, large stock portfolios seem to lea...

  20. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  1. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  2. Life Insurance Actuarial Model with Returnable Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanhuaiLang

    2004-01-01

    Insurance is the important aspect of finance. It has been fully developed in the western developed countries. With the fast development of market economy in our country,it is necessary to introduce the alien modern theories and techniques, and at the same time,adapt them to our concrete situation. The model of general life insurance product is to be established in this paper, including deferred life annuities, increasing whole life insurance and returnable premiums. Then through the regulation of various parameters, we can obtain various insurance products.

  3. Return to equilibrium in the XY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, L.; Robinson, D.W.

    1986-09-01

    We prove that the locally perturbed XY model returns to equilibrium under the unperturbed evolution but the unperturbed model does not necessarily approach equilibrium under the perturbed evolution. In fact this latter property is false for perturbation by a local magnetization. The failure is directly attributable to the formation of bound states. If the perturbation is quadratic these problems are reduced to spectral analysis of the one-particle Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that the perturbed Hamiltonian has a finite set of eigenvalues of finite multiplicity together with some absolutely continuous spectrum. Eigenvalues can occur in the continuum if, and only if, the perturbation dislocates the system. Singular continuous spectrum cannot occur.

  4. The return on investment for information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, B P; Bergeron, R A

    1998-01-01

    Investment in information technology accounts for an increasingly large component of the cost of modern health care. In most businesses, a quantitative return on investment analysis forms the basis for decisions regarding technology investment. As a whole, the medical community lags behind in the quantitative analysis of the benefits of information technology. However, economic pressures are forcing health care organizations to step back and understand the implications of technology investments and how they can best be applied to create a more productive staff and, in the end, better patient care.

  5. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  6. Identifying the critical financial ratios for stocks evaluation: A fuzzy delphi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mazura; Shuib, Adibah; Mohamad, Daud

    2014-12-01

    Stocks evaluation has always been an interesting and challenging problem for both researchers and practitioners. Generally, the evaluation can be made based on a set of financial ratios. Nevertheless, there are a variety of financial ratios that can be considered and if all ratios in the set are placed into the evaluation process, data collection would be more difficult and time consuming. Thus, the objective of this paper is to identify the most important financial ratios upon which to focus in order to evaluate the stock's performance. For this purpose, a survey was carried out using an approach which is based on an expert judgement, namely the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The results of this study indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share and debt to equity are the most important ratios.

  7. Support vector data description for detecting the air-ground interface in ground penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua; Wilson, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In using GPR images for landmine detection it is often useful to identify the air-ground interface in the GRP signal for alignment purposes. A common simple technique for doing this is to assume that the highest return in an A-scan is from the reflection due to the ground and to use that as the location of the interface. However there are many situations, such as the presence of nose clutter or shallow sub-surface objects, that can cause the global maximum estimate to be incorrect. A Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is a one-class classifier related to the SVM which encloses the class in a hyper-sphere as opposed to using a hyper-plane as a decision boundary. We apply SVDD to the problem of detection of the air-ground interface by treating each sample in an A-scan, with some number of leading and trailing samples, as a feature vector. Training is done using a set of feature vectors based on known interfaces and detection is done by creating feature vectors from each of the samples in an A-scan, applying the trained SVDD to them and selecting the one with the least distance from the center of the hyper-sphere. We compare this approach with the global maximum approach, examining both the performance on human truthed data and how each method affects false alarm and true positive rates when used as the alignment method in mine detection algorithms.

  8. RF radiation observations of positive cloud-to-ground flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X. M.; Rhodes, C. T.; Holden, D. N.

    1999-04-01

    During the summers of 1995 and 1996 we conducted broadband HF-UHF and narrowband VHF radio frequency (RF) observations of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes at Langmuir and Los Alamos laboratories, New Mexico. These observations indicate that positive leaders to ground produce no or very weak radiation from HF to UHF. The broadband system was able to record 2 ms data each time it was triggered. For a +CG the system was usually triggered by the return stroke, and a 1 ms pretrigger period was coincident with the positive leader process. It was commonly observed that no or little radiation was associated with the leader process in the 1 ms pretrigger period. The narrowband VHF system employed a logarithmic power amplifier and recorded one 1 s data each time it was triggered. The narrowband observations show that strong and often continuous radiation occurs at the beginning of the +CGs, but the radiation usually becomes intermittent and impulsive during the last few tens of milliseconds preceding the return strokes. The observations for most of the +CGs also show complete lack of radiation a few ms before the beginning of the return strokes, suggesting that the ongoing downward positive leaders were quiet at VHF, at least during the final few ms. The results of this study for natural positive leaders are in agreement with the results obtained from laboratory gap discharges and rocket-triggered lightning.

  9. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  10. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  11. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  12. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  13. [Early kidney transplant failure and return to peritoneal dialysis: preliminary study of permeability and dialysis efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Cigarrán-Guldrís, Secundino; Herrero-Calvo, José A; Delgado-Córdova, Margarita; Rodríguez-Cubillo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The return to dialysis after kidney transplant (TX) failure is increasingly common. On returning to dialysis after TX failure, there is usually a similar or worse clinical situation than in patients who are on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the first time. Although there are several studies on the clinical situation of patients who return to PD after long periods with a functioning TX, there is hardly any information on the progression of a patient subgroup returning to PD after TX failure a few days or weeks after transplantation. Assess whether a short period of time on suboptimal TX and aggressive treatment/measures may influence membrane permeability, the clinical situation and dialysis efficacy on returning to PD. In 9 patients (53.5 ± 15.4 years of age, 5 males and 4 females) who had previously been on PD before early TX failure and had returned to PD (25 ± 23 days, range 10-64) over the last five years, we studied laboratory data including inflammation, nutrition, kidney function, permeability and PD efficacy, at four points during progression: before TX, immediately after returning to PD and after one month and three months on PD. We did not detect significant differences in the progression of nutrition and inflammation parameters. Diuresis decreased significantly from pre-TX volume to diuresis on return to PD and after one month on PD (p=.032), remaining at low levels after three months on PD. UF decreased from 1407 to 951 ml/day (p=.022) and from 314 to 260 ml/4h (p=.018) in the peritoneal equilibration test after three months on PD, without changes being observed in the creatinine dialysate/plasma ratio. Kt/V and weekly creatinine clearance decreased slightly and remained at adequate efficacy levels. In this small sample of patients, who returned to PD after early TX failure, it does not appear that the measures involved in managing a graft at risk over a short period of time have a major effect on clinical parameters and permeability or

  14. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...), specifically refers to the act of ``filing'' the individual income tax return by the tax return preparer or... Assistance Act of 2009 (the Act), the IRS was prohibited from requiring filers of individual income tax... File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  15. 75 FR 75439 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... contains proposed regulations relating to the requirement for ``specified tax return preparers,''...

  16. What determines the embeddedness of forced return migrants? Rethinking the role of pre- and post-return assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Houte, M. van; Davids, T.

    2009-01-01

    Return migration is not always a process of simply "going home." Particularly when return is not fully voluntarily, returnees face severe obstacles. This study argues that such return can only become sustainable when returnees are provided with possibilities to become re-embedded in terms of

  17. On the Rough Ground: Instantiations of the Practical across the Teacher Professional Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mistilina; Kern, Anne L.; McDonald, Eric; Rogers, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    We draw on the philosophical works of Aristotle, Gadamer, Arendt, and Sockett to argue for a return to the rough ground of reason and deliberation in teaching. We offer a conceptualization of teaching and teacher development within a framework that honors the technical and practical nature of knowledge, experience, and practice. Through examples…

  18. On the Rough Ground: Instantiations of the Practical across the Teacher Professional Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mistilina; Kern, Anne L.; McDonald, Eric; Rogers, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    We draw on the philosophical works of Aristotle, Gadamer, Arendt, and Sockett to argue for a return to the rough ground of reason and deliberation in teaching. We offer a conceptualization of teaching and teacher development within a framework that honors the technical and practical nature of knowledge, experience, and practice. Through examples…

  19. The return of the Andromedids meteor shower

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegert, Paul A; Weryk, Robert J; Wong, Daniel K

    2012-01-01

    The Andromedid meteor shower underwent spectacular outbursts in 1872 and 1885, producing thousands of visual meteors per hour and described as `stars fell like rain' in Chinese records of the time. The shower originates from comet 3D/Biela whose disintegration in the mid-1800's is linked to the outbursts, but the shower has been weak or absent since the late 19th Century. This shower returned in December 2011 with a zenithal hourly rate of approximately 50, the strongest return in over a hundred years. Some 122 probable Andromedid orbits were detected by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar. The shower outburst occurred during 2011 Dec 3-5. The radiant at RA +$18\\degree$ and Dec +$56\\degree$ is typical of the `classical' Andromedids of the early 1800's, whose radiant was actually in Cassiopeia. The orbital elements indicate that the material involved was released before 3D/Biela's breakup prior to 1846. The observed shower in 2011 had a slow geocentric speed (16 km s$^{-1}$) and was comprised of small particles: t...

  20. Fractal asset returns, arbitrage and option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potgieter, Petrus H. [Department of Decision Sciences, School of Economic Sciences, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria 0003 (South Africa)], E-mail: php@member.ams.org

    2009-11-15

    In the discrete-time fractional random walk model a market with one risky asset affords an arbitrage opportunity as described by Cutland et al. [Cutland NJ, Kopp PE, Willinger W. Stock price returns and the Joseph effect: a fractional version of the Black-Scholes model. In: Russo Francesco, Bolthausen Erwin, Dozzi Marco, editors. Seminar on 6 stochastic analysis, random fields and applications, pp. 327-351. Seminar on stochastic analysis, random fields and applications. Ascona: Centro Stefano Franscini; 1993, Progress in probability 36. Birkhauser Verlag; 1995.] and Sottinen [Sottinen Tommi. Fractional Brownian motion, random walks and binary market models. Finance Stoch 2001;5(3):343-355]. We briefly discuss these results and compute a numerical example in a fractional binomial model as illustration and mention an option pricing model for assets the returns of which are driven by a fractional Brownian motion [Yaozhong Hu, Bernt Oksendal. Fractional white noise calculus and applications to finance. Infin Dimens Anal Quant Probability Rel Top 2003;6:1-32, ISSN 0219-0257; Fajardo J, Cajueiro DO. Volatility estimation and option pricing with fractional Brownian motion, October 2003. Available from: (http://ideas.repec.org/p/ibm/finlab/flwp53.html)].