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Sample records for ground covers vines

  1. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  2. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  3. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards with on-going or recent herbicide programs compared with orchards having well-developed ground

  4. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  5. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  6. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  7. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  8. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  9. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  10. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  11. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  12. Law school design blends functionalism, energy conservation. [Earth-covered with ground-cover growing on roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Construction is under way on a new University of Minnesota Law School Building, whose distinctive features include a stepped design on its southern elevation and an earth-covered roof to promote energy conservation. The design is described with emphasis on the library facilities. Energy conservation was a major design factor. The portion of the earth-covered roof will be 15 inches thick planted with low ground-cover vegetation. Overall ..mu.. value of the building envelope will be 0.11. (MCW)

  13. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  14. Effects of ground cover from branches of arboreal species on weed growth and maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCultivating maize under systems of alley cropping results in improvements to the soil, a reduction in weeds and an increase in yield. Studies using ground cover from tree shoots produce similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on weed growth and maize yield of ground cover made up of 30 t ha-1 (fresh matter of branches from the tree species: neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium(Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.] and sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Two treatment groups (cultivars and weed control were evaluated. The cultivars AG 1041 and AL Bandeirantes were subjected to the following treatments: no hoeing, double hoeing, and ground a cover of branches of the above species when sowing the maize. A randomised block design was used with split lots (cultivars in the lots and ten replications. The cultivars did not differ for green ear or grain yield. Double hoeing was more effective than ground cover at reducing the growth of weeds. However, both weeding and ground cover resulted in similar yields for green ears and grain, which were greater than those obtained with the unweeded maize.

  15. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  16. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya using satellite data and ground measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Negi; A V Kulkarni; B S Semwal

    2009-10-01

    In the present paper,a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas basin,Indian Himalaya using AWiFS (IRS-P6)satellite data.The complexities in the mapping of snow cover in the study area are snow under vegetation,contaminated snow and patchy snow. To overcome these problems,field measurements using spectroradiometer were carried out and reflectance/snow indices trend were studied.By evaluation and validation of different topographic correction models,it was observed that,the normalized difference snow index (NDSI)values remain constant with the variations in slope and aspect and thus NDSI can take care of topography effects.Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to find the suitable mapping technique.The proposed methodology for snow cover mapping uses the NDSI (estimated using planetary re flectance),NIR band reflectance and forest/vegetation cover information.The satellite estimated snow or non-snow pixel information using proposed methodology was validated with the snow cover information collected at three observatory locations and it was found that the algorithm classify all the sample points correctly,once that pixel is cloud free.The snow cover distribution was estimated using one year (2004 –05)cloud free satellite data and good correlation was observed between increase/decrease areal extent of seasonal snow cover and ground observed fresh snowfall and standing snow data.

  17. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  18. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  19. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  20. Land cover for Ukraine: the harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, M.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; See, L. M.; Bun, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on the development of a land cover map of the Ukraine through harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data. At present there is no land cover map of the Ukraine available that is of sufficient accuracy for use in environmental modeling. The existing remote sensing data are not enough accurate. In this study we compare the territory of the Ukraine from three global remote sensing products (GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000) using a fuzzy logic methodology in order to capture the uncertainty in the classification of land cover. The results for the Ukraine show that GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000 have a fuzzy agreement of 65%. We developed a weighted algorithm for the creation of a land cover map based on an integration of a number of global land cover and remote sensing products including the GLC-2000, GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover, the Vegetation Continuous Fields product, digital map of administrative units and forest account data at the local level. This weighted algorithm is based on the results of comparing these products and an analysis of a dataset of validation points for different land cover types in the Ukraine. We applied this algorithm to generate a forest land cover type map. This raster map contains a forest expectation index that was calculated for each pixel. Forest land was then allocated based on forest statistics at the local level. Areas with a higher forest expectation index were allocated with forest first until the results matched the forest statistics. The result is the first digital map of forest (with a spatial resolution of 300m) for the Ukraine, which consistent with forest and land accounts, remote sensing datasets and GIS products. The forest land was well defined in forest rich areas (i.e. in the northern part of the Ukraine, the Carpathians and the Crimea); well less accurate areas were identified in the steppe due to heterogeneous land cover. Acknowledgements. This research was

  1. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  2. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  3. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  4. Impact of the variability of the seasonal snow cover on the ground surface regimes in Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    Seasonally snow cover has a great impact on the thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost. Ground temperatures over a year are strongly affected by the timing, duration, thickness, structure and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The purpose of this communication is to characterize the shallow ground thermal regimes, with special reference to the understanding of the influence snow cover in permafrost spatial distribution, in the ice-free areas of the north western part of Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". We have analyzed and ground temperatures as well as snow thickness data in four sites distributed along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2013: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). At each study site, data loggers were installed for the monitoring of air temperatures (at 1.5 m high), ground temperatures (5, 20 and 40 cm depth) and for snow depth (2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 cm) at 4-hour intervals. The winter data suggests the existence of three types of seasonal stages regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: (a) shallow snow cover with intense ground temperatures oscillations; (b) thick snow cover and low variations of soil temperatures; and (c) stability of ground temperatures. Ground thermal conditions are also conditioned by a strong variability. Winter data indicates that Nuevo Incinerador site experiences more often thicker snow cover with higher ground temperatures and absence of ground temperatures oscillations. Collado Ramos and Ohridski show frequent variations of snow cover thickness, alternating between shallow snow cover with high ground temperature fluctuation and thick snow cover and low ground temperature fluctuation. Reina Sofia in all the years has thick snow cover with little variations in soil

  5. Mechanizing Weakly Ground Termination Proving of Term Rewriting Systems by Structural and Cover-Set Inductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Feng

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents three formal proving methods for generalized weakly ground terminating property, i.e.,weakly terminating property in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system, one with structural induction, one with cover-set induction, and the third without induction, and describes their mechanization based on a meta-computation model for term rewriting systems-dynamic term rewriting calculus. The methods can be applied to non-terminating, nonconfluent and/or non-left-linear term rewriting systems. They can do "forward proving" by applying propositions in the proof, as well as "backward proving" by discovering lemmas during the proof.

  6. Evidence of wintertime CO2 emission from snow-covered grounds in high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方精云; 唐艳鸿KOIZUMI; Hiroshi(Division; of; Plant; Ecology; National; Institute; of; Agro-Environmental; Sciences; Tsukuba; 305; Japan)BEKKU; Yukiko(National; Polar; Institute; Tokyo; 192; Japan)

    1999-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 flux in wintertime arctic ecosystems, CO2 gas was sampled from various snow-covered grounds by using a closed chamber method during the First China Arctic Scientific Expedition from March to May in 1995. The CO2 gas samples were measured by using an infra-red analyzer (IRGA). The results showed that (ⅰ) CO2 emission was detected from all kinds of the snow-covered grounds, which provides direct evidence that the arctic tundra is functioning as a source of atmospheric CO2; (ⅱ) CO2 release was also detected from the permanent ice profile and icecap, and (ⅲ) CO2 evolution from terrestrial ecosystems in higher latitudes increased with an increase of surface temperature in accordance with the exponential function. This indicates a close coincidence with that under normal temperature conditions, and provides a useful method for predicting change in CO2 flux in the arctic ecosystems with the global climate change.

  7. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  9. Ground penetrating radar detection of subsnow liquid overflow on ice-covered lakes in interior Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gusmeroli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are abundant throughout the pan-Arctic region. For many of these lakes ice cover lasts for up to two thirds of the year. This frozen cover allows human access to these lakes, which are therefore used for many subsistence and recreational activities, including water harvesting, fishing, and skiing. Safe access to these lakes may be compromised, however, when, after significant snowfall, the weight of the snow acts on the ice and causes liquid water to spill through weak spots and overflow at the snow-ice interface. Since visual detection of subsnow liquid overflow (SLO is almost impossible our understanding on SLO processes is still very limited and geophysical methods that allow SLO detection are desirable. In this study we demonstrate that a commercially available, lightweight 1GHz, ground penetrating radar system can detect and map extent and intensity of SLO. Radar returns from wet snow-ice interfaces are at least twice as much in strength than returns from dry snow-ice interface. The presence of SLO also affects the quality of radar returns from the base of the lake ice. During dry conditions we were able to profile ice thickness of up to 1 m, conversely, we did not retrieve any ice-water returns in areas affected by SLO.

  10. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1 GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5–20 years following conversion of production systems, (2 there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3 GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4 GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5 GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  11. Crop Ground Cover Fraction and Canopy Chlorophyll Content Mapping using RapidEye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, E.; Schonert, M.; Lilienthal, H.; Siegmann, B.; Jarmer, T.; Rosso, P.; Weichelt, T.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is a suitable tool for estimating the spatial variability of crop canopy characteristics, such as canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and green ground cover (GGC%), which are often used for crop productivity analysis and site-specific crop management. Empirical relationships exist between different vegetation indices (VI) and CCC and GGC% that allow spatial estimation of canopy characteristics from remote sensing imagery. However, the use of VIs is not suitable for an operational production of CCC and GGC% maps due to the limited transferability of derived empirical relationships to other regions. Thus, the operational value of crop status maps derived from remotely sensed data would be much higher if there was no need for reparametrization of the approach for different situations. This paper reports on the suitability of high-resolution RapidEye data for estimating crop development status of winter wheat over the growing season, and demonstrates two different approaches for mapping CCC and GGC%, which do not rely on empirical relationships. The final CCC map represents relative differences in CCC, which can be quickly calibrated to field specific conditions using SPAD chlorophyll meter readings at a few points. The prediction model is capable of predicting SPAD readings with an average accuracy of 77%. The GGC% map provides absolute values at any point in the field. A high R2 value of 80% was obtained for the relationship between estimated and observed GGC%. The mean absolute error for each of the two acquisition dates was 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively.

  12. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  13. Estimating Cotton Nitrogen Nutrition Status Using Leaf Greenness and Ground Cover Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Melissa Muharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing nitrogen (N status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describes and tests a novel method of utilizing physical characteristics of N-fertilized cotton and combining field spectral measurements made at different spatial scales as an approach to estimate in-season chlorophyll or leaf N content of field-grown cotton. In this study, leaf greenness estimated from spectral measurements made at the individual leaf, canopy and scene levels was combined with percent ground cover to produce three different indices, named TCCLeaf, TCCCanopy, and TCCScene. These indices worked best for estimating leaf N at early flowering, but not for chlorophyll content. Of the three indices, TCCLeaf showed the best ability to estimate leaf N (R2 = 0.89. These results suggest that the use of green and red-edge wavelengths derived at the leaf scale is best for estimating leaf greenness. TCCCanopy had a slightly lower R2 value than TCCLeaf (0.76, suggesting that the utilization of yellow and red-edge wavelengths obtained at the canopy level could be used as an alternative to estimate leaf N in the absence of leaf spectral information. The relationship between TCCScene and leaf N was the lowest (R2 = 0.50, indicating that the estimation of canopy greenness from scene measurements needs improvement. Results from this study confirmed the potential of these indices as efficient methods for estimating in-season leaf N status of cotton.

  14. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  15. The role of snow cover in ground thermal conditions in three sites with contrasted topography in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marc; Salvador, Ferran; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Salvà, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    Snow cover has a high capacity to insulate the soil from the external thermal influences. In regions of high snowfall, such as the summit areas of the highest Iberian mountain ranges, the presence of a thick snow cover may condition the existence or inexistence of permafrost conditions. In order to analyze the impact of the thickness, duration and interannual variability of snow cover on the ground thermal regime in the massif of Sierra Nevada, we have analyzed soil temperatures at a depth of 2 cm for the period 2006-2012 in three sites of contrasting topography as well as air temperatures for the same period: (a) Corral del Veleta (3100 m) in a rock glacier located in the northern Veleta cirque, with high and persistent snow cover. (b) Collado de los Machos (3300 m), in a summit area with relict stone circles, with little snow accumulation due to wind effect. (c) Río Seco (3000 m), in a solifluction lobe located in this southern glacial cirque with moderate snowfall. Considering the air and 2 cm depth soil temperature records, the freezing degree-days were calculated for each year from November to May in order to characterize the role of snow as a thermal insulator of the ground during the cold season (Frauenfeld et al., 2007). In all cases, the highest values of freezing degree-days correspond to years with little snowfall (2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2011-2012), while in years with a thicker snow cover (2008-2009, 2009-2010, 2010-2011) the total freezing degree-days were significantly lower. The accumulation of freezing degree-days is maximum at the wind-exposed site of Collado de los Machos, where the wind redistributes snow and favours the penetration of cold into the ground. The opposite pattern occurs in the Veleta cirque, where most persistent snow cover conditions determine lower accumulated freezing degree-days than in Collado de los Machos and Rio Seco.

  16. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  17. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and distribution

  18. The In-Transit Vigilant Covering Tour Problem of Routing Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    15 Figure 2. A classic VRP ...17 Figure 3. Solution for a VRP ........................................................................................18 Figure 4. Solution...of NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ), and Covering Salesman Problem (CSP) etc. We will

  19. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Leys, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000-2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition.

  20. Permafrost, Seasonally Frozen Ground, Snow Cover and Vegetation in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Late Quaternary History and the Formation of Sedi- ments in the Marginal and Inland Seas (Pozdnechetvertichnaia Istorlia i Sedimentogenez...rasprostraneniia snezhnogo pokrova na poverkhnosti sushi zemnogo shara). In Geography of Snow Cover (Geo- grafiya Snezhnogo Prokrova). Moscow: Izdat...Papers, 18(3): 198-202. (36-1668) Vigdorchik, M.E. (1980) Arctic Pleistocene History and the Development of Submarine Permafrost. Boulder

  1. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  2. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  3. Spectral Discrimination and Reflectance Properties of Various Vine Varieties from Satellite, UAV and Proximate Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakizi, C.; Oikonomou, M.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of the spectral discrimination between different vine varieties was undertaken using non-destructive remote sensing observations at the veraison period. During concurrent satellite, aerial and field campaigns, in-situ reflectance data were collected from a spectroradiometer, hyperspectral data were acquired from a UAV and multispectral data from a high-resolution satellite imaging sensor. Data were collected during a three years period (i.e, 2012, 2013 and 2014) over five wine-growing regions, covering more than 1000ha, in Greece. Data for more than twenty different vine varieties were processed and analysed. In particular, reflectance hyperspectral data from a spectroradiometer (GER 1500, Spectra Vista Corporation, 350-1050nm, 512 spectral bands) were calculated from the raw radiance values and then were correlated with the corresponding reflectance observations from the UAV and satellite data. Reflectance satellite data (WorldView-2, 400nm-1040nm, 8 spectral bands, DigitalGlobe), after the radiometric and atmospheric correction of the raw datasets, were classified towards the detection and the discrimination of the different vine varieties. The concurrent observations from in-situ hyperspectral, aerial hyperspectral and satellite multispectral data over the same vines were highly correlated. High correlations were, also, established for the same vine varieties (e.g., Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc) cultivated in different regions. The analysis of in-situ reflectance indicated that certain vine varieties, like Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Ksinomavro and Agiorgitiko possess specific spectral properties and detectable behaviour. These observations were, in most cases, in accordance with the classification results from the high resolution satellite data. In particular, Merlot and also Sauvignon Blanc were detected and discriminated with high accuracy rates. Surprisingly different clones from the same variety could be separated (e.g., clones of Syrah), while they

  4. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  5. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  6. After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Isbell, Lynne A

    2009-03-01

    Here we describe changes in ranging behavior and other activities of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after a wildfire eliminated grass cover in a large area near the study group's home range. Soon after the fire, the vervets ranged farther away from tall trees that provide refuge from mammalian predators, and moved into the burned area where they had never been observed to go before the fire occurred. Visibility at vervet eye-level was 10 times farther in the burned area than in unburned areas. They traveled faster, and adult females spent more time feeding and less time scanning bipedally in the burned area than in the unburned area. The burned area's greater visibility may have lowered the animals' perceived risk of predation there, and may have provided them with an unusual opportunity to eat acacia ants.

  7. Growth models for tree stems and vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Palladino, Michele; Shen, Wen

    2017-08-01

    The paper introduces a PDE model for the growth of a tree stem or a vine. The equations describe the elongation due to cell growth, and the response to gravity and to external obstacles. An additional term accounts for the tendency of a vine to curl around branches of other plants. When obstacles are present, the model takes the form of a differential inclusion with state constraints. At each time t, a cone of admissible reactions is determined by the minimization of an elastic deformation energy. The main theorem shows that local solutions exist and can be prolonged globally in time, except when a specific ;breakdown configuration; is reached. Approximate solutions are constructed by an operator-splitting technique. Some numerical simulations are provided at the end of the paper.

  8. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  9. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  11. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  12. Study of seasonal snow cover influencing the ground thermal regime on western flank of Da Xing'anling Mountains, northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLi Chang; HuiJun Jin; YanLin Zhang; HaiBin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies relevant to snow cover and permafrost have focused on alpine, arctic, and subarctic areas, there is still a lack of understanding of the influences of seasonal snow cover on the thermal regime of the soils in permafrost regions in the mid-latitudes and boreal regions, such as that on the western flank of the Da Xing'anling (Hinggan) Mountains, northeastern China. This paper gives a detailed analysis on meteorological data series from 2001 to 2010 provided by the Gen'he Weather Station, which is located in a talik of discontinuous permafrost zone and with sparse meadow on the observation field. It is inferred that snow cover is important for the ground thermal regime in the middle Da Xing'anling Mountains. Snow cover of 10-cm in thickness and five to six months in duration (generally November to next March) can reduce the heat loss from the ground to the atmosphere by 28%, and by 71% if the snow depth increases to 36 cm. Moreover, the occurrence of snow cover resulted in mean annual ground surface temperatures 4.7–8.2°C higher than the mean annual air temperatures recorded at the Gen'he Weather Station. The beginning date for stable snow cover establishment (SE date) and the initial snow depth (SDi) also had a great influences on the ground freezing process. Heavy snowfall before ground surface freeze-up could postpone and retard the freezing process in Gen'he. As a result, the duration of ground freezing was shortened by at least 20 days and the maximum depth of frost penetration was as much as 90 cm shallower.

  13. Unmasking the soil cover's disruption by use of a dynamic model of measurement aerospace parameters of ground vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vysotskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The "Introduction" describes topicality and importance of revealing the soil cover's disruption for a wide range of fields. It was shown that spectral brightness and colorimetric parameters of ground vegetation can be used for this task. However, a traditional scheme of data processing for remote sensing requires a long-term observations and can not always be applied, if quick decision-making is necessary or there is lack of information. Such cases require the use of special methods, one of which is a dynamic model developed with authors' participation based on the following basic relationships: (+,- (-, - (+, 0, (-, 0 (0,0. The section "Brief description of a dynamic model" describes the basic principles of dynamic systems used to solve the problem. Using above-mentioned relationships, the dynamics of a system consisting of several components is constructed and its main properties are listed. The main feature of this model is that the identification of structure and parameters of the dynamic system does not required sequential order of observations (as for models based on time series. This feature of the model enables for identifying the system's parameters of dynamics of the natural system to use information from a single picture taken from the spacecraft rather than long-term observations. The section "Materials and Methods" describes specific colorimetric parameters used to analyze the vegetation cover. The section "Obtained results" contains an example of the model's application to a satellite image for detecting the differences in two sites of a field with vegetation. One site is a recultivated area near the liquidated gas-oil well, another site is non-recultivated area at a considerable distance from the well (500-1000 m. The simulation results are described by eight signed graphs (4 graphs for each sites, whose structure allows to identify the system differences between the two cases. The section "Conclusions" summarizes the results of

  14. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  15. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Lee H. MacDonald; Robert N. Coats; Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire salvage logging adds another set of environmental effects to recently burned areas, and previous studies have reported varying impacts on vegetation, soil disturbance, and sediment production with limited data on the underlying processes. Our objectives were to determine how: (1) ground-based post-fire logging affects surface cover, soil water repellency,...

  16. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Andrea Vining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vining

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Vining is a Financial Advisor at Morgan Stanley in Pasadena, California who was named to the Firm’s Pacesetter’s Club in 2015, a global recognition program for Financial Advisors who, within their first five years, demonstrate the highest professional standards and first class client service. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Literature from the University of California at Santa Cruz and her interest in the arts is personal and life-long. She studied Jewelry Design & Fabrication at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, CA and is also a certified bench jeweler. She and her colleagues are passionate about leveraging their network to help others achieve their financial, philanthropic, and life goals.

  17. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  18. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  19. The 7% Solution - Cleaning Up After Fred Vine's Outstanding Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fred Vine was the first & greatest of the wiggle pickers, founding the marine magnetic anomaly field with his 1963 Vine & Matthews paper. Two of his classic study areas were Juan de Fuca & the Reykjanes Ridge. In Juan de Fuca, he recognized the axial symmetry in the Raff & Mason data that had shown the existence of magnetic stripes on the seafloor, demonstrating the seafloor spreading there that Tuzo Wilson had predicted. Fred's iconic color figure of these anomalies perfectly correlated with the magnetic reversal time scale (after the discovery of the Jaramillo event) became the striking cover illustration of 'The History of the Earth's Crust', the symposium volume of the influential 1966 Goddard meeting that confirmed the reality of seafloor spreading & continental drift. Everything Fred did in Juan de Fuca was correct, but fortunately for me he didn't do everything. Some of the linear magnetic anomaly offsets there became a major puzzle in 1967 when Jason Morgan & Dan McKenzie discovered plate tectonics, because those offsets were oblique to the ridges & transforms & thus were incompatible with simple plate tectonics. Although the oblique anomaly offsets look like faults, they instead turned out to be propagating rift pseudofault wakes with no relative motion along them, an interpretation resulting from my analysis of Galapagos magnetic anomalies. Fred's other iconic color figure was his correlation of the Heirtzler et al. Reykjanes Ridge aeromagnetic data with the reversal timescale. This figure, showing the symmetry predicted by seafloor spreading & field reversals, was another key step in the scientific revolution. At the Goddard Symposium Fred was asked if he'd tested the symmetry statistically & he replied "I never touch statistics. I just deal with the facts'. Fred was trying to have a scientific revolution, & of course on that scale pretty symmetric seafloor spreading is a reality. However, fine-scale asymmetric spreading can be seen in his figure (the

  20. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province during a continuous three-year (2010-2012 investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  1. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  2. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This ...

  3. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  4. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TI-AL-NI SYSTEM COVERING, APPLIED ON THE STEEL GROUND USING ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Murashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the system Ti-Al-Ni covering, received by means of self-distributing high-temperature synthesis, initiated by electron-beam heating, on the basis of steel St3 is investigated.

  5. Trends of six month nighttime ground-based cloud cover values over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ground reflects thermal radiation during nighttime. Clouds reflect this radiation to the ground and cause increase in ambient temperature. In this study, trends of nighttime cloud cover are analyzed using a commercial camera (Canon Powershot A2300) that is operated continuously to capture images of clouds at 5 minute interval. The camera is situated inside a rain-proof box with a glass oculus and is placed on the rooftop of the Manila Observatory building. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted from its native JPEG format to grayscale format. The pixels are then screened for clouds by looking at the values of pixels with and without clouds. In grayscale format, pixels with clouds have greater pixel values than pixels without clouds. Based on the observations, a threshold pixel value of 17 is employed to discern pixels with clouds from pixels without clouds. When moon is present in the image, the grayscale image, which is in 8-bit unsigned integer format, is converted into double format. The moon signals are modelled using a two dimensional Gaussian function and is subtracted from the converted image (Gacal et al, 2016). This effectively removes the moon signals but preserves the cloud signals. This method is applied to the data collected from the months of January, February, March, October, November and December 2015. In Manila, dry months are from November to April. Wet months are from May to October. The trends of nighttime cloud cover values over Manila Observatory are shown in the figure below. Frequency distribution of cloud cover values of the first and last three months of the year show that dry and wet months have higher and lower frequency of low cloud cover values, respectively. The trend also exhibits a decrease of cloud cover from October to December but increases back from January until March. This is exhibited in the decrease in the frequency of cloud cover values in the 20%-100% range from October to December. This can be

  6. Photosynthesis and Yellow Vine Syndrome of American Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. M. Hou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. contains rich antioxidants and has significant health benefits in fighting a variety of human diseases. In the past ten years, cranberry growers have reported yellow vine syndrome, which is associated with reduced photosynthetic performance, in the cranberry bogs. It has been found that the yellow vine syndrome of cranberry is associated with nutritional imbalance; it might be an issue for cranberry quality and food security as well as the crop production. This review evaluates the present state of knowledge of yellow vine syndrome, together with recent advances that are resulting from an improved mechanistic understanding and a possible solution that will be of considerable value to cranberry growers. This review also includes results from the author’s own laboratory. Water stress, nutritional imbalance, and photoinhibition are the likely reasons for producing yellow vine of cranberry. Future endeavors should be placed on the combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical techniques at the molecular level and plant physiology at the field and greenhouse level. This may provide specific information in order to understand the molecular details of yellow vine of cranberry as well as a tool for guiding future breeding efforts and management practices.

  7. Effect of Polythene-covering on Above-ground tuberization and storage roots yield in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of polythene-covering on activation of dormant auxiliary buds on the stem for lateral tuber formation and the resultant effect on total storage roots yield. Three time intervals i.e. 1 day after planting, 30 days after planting and 60 days after planting used as treatment, and uncovered stem used as control. Treatments were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Regardless of the variety, stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting showed the highest effect with respect to storage roots production and yield components tested. However, the effect of stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting in terms of dry mass partitioning to storage roots was the lowest across all the treatments (25.50 to 27.37% of the biomass compared to that of stem covering at day 60 after planting (33.10 to 37.20%. This study opens new perspectives in cassava yield improvement which hitherto has not been exploited.

  8. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  9. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  10. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  11. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  12. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  13. INFLUENCE OF THE LENGTH OF FRUIT VINES ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MOLDOVA GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of different lengths of fruit vines with the same load wintering buds of bushes on the yield and quality of Moldova grapes. It was found that the biological indicators of fruiting Moldova grapes improved by lengthening fruit vines, taking into account weather conditions. Shortening the vines increases germination and fruitfulness degree base buds and reserve buds. Productivity is increased by lengthening fruit vines. It is determined by the degree of fruitfulness buds of the vine, the development of floscules of wintering buds, bunch and berries weight, number of berries in bunches. The optimum is pruning vines to 10-12 buds. Harmonious taste, weight of bunches and berries, transportability factor fixed high yield of grapes standard (85,6-86,4% with different length of fruit vines. The highest productivity of leaves makes pruning fruit vines to 10-12 buds. The strength of shoot growth and volume growth of bushes reduced at an elongation of the fruit vines. The more moderate growth of shoots observed at long (10-12 buds pruning vines. There is no significant difference to the degree of maturation of shoots with different length vines. In order to increase the yield of Moldova grapes in the central zone of the Krasnodar region expedient cut fruit vines to 10-12 buds

  14. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  15. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  16. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  17. Characterization of vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, and of their ethyleneglycol pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luis; Pérez, Antonio; de la Torre, María Jesús; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis

    2007-12-01

    We characterized vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus as pulping raw materials and found C. proliferus and cotton stalks to be the best for the intended purpose on the grounds of their increased contents in holocellulose (79.73% and 72.86%) and alpha-cellulose (45.37% and 58.48%), and their decreased contents in ethanol-benzene extractables (2.64% and 1.42%), hot water solubles (2.79% and 3.33%) and 1% soda solubles (16.67% and 20.34%). These properties resulted in increased pulp yields and hence in efficient use of these two types of raw material. The previous raw materials were pulped by using an ethyleneglycol concentration of 65% at 180 degrees C for 75min, followed by beating at 1500 revolutions in a PFI refiner. The paper sheets obtained were characterized and those from C. proliferus found to be the best overall as they exhibited an increased breaking length (4644m), stretch (2.87%), burst index (2.46kN/g) tear index (0.33mNm(2)/g) and brightness (49.92% ISO); in addition C. proliferus pulp was obtained with a high-yield (62.88%). On the other hand, vine shoots provided the poorest results among the studied raw materials.

  18. X-Vine: Secure and Pseudonymous Routing Using Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Distributed hash tables suffer from several security and privacy vulnerabilities, including the problem of Sybil attacks. Existing social network-based solutions to mitigate the Sybil attacks in DHT routing have a high state requirement and do not provide an adequate level of privacy. For instance, such techniques require a user to reveal their social network contacts. We design X-Vine, a protection mechanism for distributed hash tables that operates entirely by communicating over social network links. As with traditional peer-to-peer systems, X-Vine provides robustness, scalability, and a platform for innovation. The use of social network links for communication helps protect participant privacy and adds a new dimension of trust absent from previous designs. X-Vine is resilient to denial of service via Sybil attacks, and in fact is the first Sybil defense that requires only a logarithmic amount of state per node, making it suitable for large-scale and dynamic settings. X-Vine also helps protect the privacy o...

  19. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  20. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control.

  1. [Pediatric cases in preclinical emergency medicine: critical aspects in the range of missions covered by ground ambulance and air rescue services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechtriemen, T; Masson, R; Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K; Altemeyer, K H

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in structure and severity of pediatric emergencies treated by aeromedical (air rescue) or ground ambulances services. Conclusions for the training of emergency physicians are discussed. In a 3-year study period, a total of 9,274 pediatric emergencies covered by the ADAC air rescue service are compared to 4,344 pediatric patients of ground ambulance services in Saarland. In aeromedical services pediatric emergencies are more frequent (12.9% vs. 6.4%), trauma predominates (59.9% vs. 35.6%) and severe injuries or diseases occur more frequently (30.5% vs. 15.0%). In both groups pediatric emergency cases are concentrated into very few diagnostic groups: more than one third of the cases involving pre-school children is due to convulsions. Respiratory diseases and intoxication are the next most frequent causes and are more common in ground ambulance patients. Head trauma is the most common diagnosis in cases of pediatric trauma, followed by musculoskeletal and thoracoabdominal trauma. All types of severe trauma are more frequent in pediatric patients of the aeromedical services. Training of emergency physicians should include pediatric life support and specific information about frequent pediatric emergency situations. For emergency physicians in aeromedical services, an intensive training in pediatric trauma life support is also necessary.

  2. Vine vigor components and its variability - relationship to wine composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Magali; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    It was pointed out that a high spatial variability for canopy size and yield would exist within a vineyard but a high temporal stability over the years was observed. Furthermore, a greater variability in grape phenolics than in sugars and pH was detected within a vineyard. But the link between remote sensing indices and quality parameters of grapes is still unclear. Indeed, though in red grape varieties anthocyanins content was spatially negatively correlated to vigor parameters, it seemed that yield, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Plant Cell Density (PCD) indices were poorly correlated. Moreover, the link to quality parameters of wines remains uncertain. It was shown that more vigorous vines would lead to wines with less tannins while anthocyanins in wines would be highest when the vines were balanced but the question is if vine size or architecture, yield or nitrogen assimilation would play major contribution to those differences. The general scope of our project was to provide further knowledge on the relationship between vigor parameters and wine composition and relate these to the information gained by remote sensing. Variability in a 0.15 ha vineyard of Pinot noir planted in 2003 and grafted on SO4 rootstock at Geisenheim (Germany) was followed. Vine vigor was assessed manually for each of the 400 vines (cane number, pruning weight, trunk diameter) together with yield parameters (number of bunches per vine, crop yield). Leaf composition was assessed with a hand-held optical sensor (Multiplex3® [Mx3] (Force-A, Orsay, France) based on chlorophyll fluorescence screening providing information on leaf chlorophyll (SFR_G) and nitrogen (NBI_G) content. A micro-scale winemaking of single vines with a 3 factorial design on yield (L low, M middle, H high), SFRG (L, M, H) and canopy size (pruning weight, trunk diameter) (L, M, H) was performed for 2013 and 2014 to completely reflect variability. Wine tannin concentration represented the highest

  3. Effects of spatially variable snow cover on thermal regime and hydrology of an Arctic ice wedge polygon landscape identified using ground penetrating radar and LIDAR datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Peterson, J. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Ice wedge polygons are common in Arctic terrains underlain by permafrost. Permafrost degradation could transform low- into high centered polygons, causing profound changes in the hydrologic regime of Arctic lands, which in turn, could affect the energy balance and subsurface biodegradation of organic carbon responsible for greenhouse gas production. Understanding the linkages between microtopography, snow cover, thermal properties, and thaw depth is critical for developing a predictive understanding of terrestrial ecosystems and their feedbacks to climate. In this study, we use high frequency (500-1000 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) data acquired in spring 2012 within the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) study site in Barrow, AK to characterize the spatial variability of snow distribution. We compare it's distribution to microtopography, estimated using LIDAR data, and thaw depth, also estimated using ground penetrating radar collected at different times during the year and simulated over time using mechanistic thermal-hydrologic modeling. The high spatial resolution offered by LIDAR and ground penetrating radar permit detailed investigations of the control of microtopography on snow and thaw layer depth. Results suggest that microtopographical variations are responsible for substantial differences in snow accumulation. In low centered polygons, snow depth can be up to four times greater in the troughs than on the rims. Both modeling and observations suggest that the microtopography-governed snow thickness affects the thermal properties of the subsurface and thus the thaw layer thickness; regions with thicker snowpack generally correspond to regions of greater thaw depth. We conclude that a transition from low- to high centered polygons will not only impact watershed runoff but, since snow accumulation is sensitive to the microtopography, it will also impact snow distribution. In turn, snow distribution affects thaw depth thickness, and the

  4. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  5. Ground measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of Arctic snow covered tundra for the validation of satellite remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. P.; Marks, A. A.; Green, P.; Mac Arthur, A.; Fox, N.; King, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface albedo is the hemispherical and wavelength integrated reflectance over the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the solar spectrum. The albedo of Arctic snow can be in excess of 0.8 and it is a critical component in the global radiation budget because it determines the proportion of solar radiation absorbed, and reflected, over a large part of the Earth's surface. We present here our first results of the angularly resolved surface reflectance of Arctic snow at high solar zenith angles (~80°) suitable for the validation of satellite remote sensing products. The hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of Arctic snow covered tundra was measured using the GonioRAdiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS) during a three-week field campaign in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in March/April 2013. The measurements provide one of few existing HDRF datasets at high solar zenith angles for wind-blown Arctic snow covered tundra (conditions typical of the Arctic region), and the first ground-based measure of HDRF at Ny-Ålesund. The HDRF was recorded under clear sky conditions with 10° intervals in view zenith, and 30° intervals in view azimuth, for several typical sites over a wavelength range of 400-1500 nm at 1 nm resolution. Satellite sensors such as MODIS, AVHRR and VIIRS offer a method to monitor the surface albedo with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, snow reflectance is anisotropic and is dependent on view and illumination angle and the wavelength of the incident light. Spaceborne sensors subtend a discrete angle to the target surface and measure radiance over a limited number of narrow spectral bands. Therefore, the derivation of the surface albedo requires accurate knowledge of the surfaces bidirectional reflectance as a function of wavelength. The ultimate accuracy to which satellite sensors are able to measure snow surface properties such as albedo is dependant on the accuracy of the BRDF model, which can only be assessed

  6. Approximate Uncertainty Modeling in Risk Analysis with Vine Copulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Tim; Daneshkhah, Alireza; Wilson, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Many applications of risk analysis require us to jointly model multiple uncertain quantities. Bayesian networks and copulas are two common approaches to modeling joint uncertainties with probability distributions. This article focuses on new methodologies for copulas by developing work of Cooke, Bedford, Kurowica, and others on vines as a way of constructing higher dimensional distributions that do not suffer from some of the restrictions of alternatives such as the multivariate Gaussian copula. The article provides a fundamental approximation result, demonstrating that we can approximate any density as closely as we like using vines. It further operationalizes this result by showing how minimum information copulas can be used to provide parametric classes of copulas that have such good levels of approximation. We extend previous approaches using vines by considering nonconstant conditional dependencies, which are particularly relevant in financial risk modeling. We discuss how such models may be quantified, in terms of expert judgment or by fitting data, and illustrate the approach by modeling two financial data sets.

  7. Soil erosion on vineyards: impacts on vine performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Salvador-Banes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Goulet, Etienne; Le Duc, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Many agricultural practices increase soil degradation processes. The measurement of the effects of such practices helps for the management of constraints and ensures the stability of agricultural production. In viticulture, soil is one of the components that define the specificity and quality of wine. Chemical and physical soil properties indeed exert a strong influence on vine performances. However, the precise influences of soil properties, such as rock fragments, clay or lime contents, soil depth or mineral content are subjected to debate. Actually, vine performances derive also from climate and vintage, viticulture and winemaking techniques and plant genetic. Nerveless, soil erosion can significantly change the root growing zone properties and therefore the vine responses. In fact viticulture is the agricultural production that is the most prone to erosion, with an average rate of 12 t.ha -1.yr-1 in the European context (Cerdan et al., 2010). The soil's capacities to support crop growth, without resulting in soil degradation, need to be brought under control, to improve environmental sustainability and minimize in-site and off-site impacts. The aim of this study is to better quantify the effect of soil erosion in vineyards on soil parameters (such as available water content) that exert a key role in the specificity of viticultural terroirs. Two study areas are considered in Corsica and in the Loire Valley. Our approach is divided into three steps. Firstly, the identification and the mapping of soil properties that have an impact over vine performances, using digital soil mapping techniques and pedotransfer functions. The soil characteristics are identified by field survey at two spatial resolutions: the field and landscape. In the same study areas, the erosion dynamics is assessed. Various techniques are employed such as: 137Cs activities, spatial distribution of copper and stock unearthing. In order to comprehend erosion dynamics and evolutions, the third step

  8. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  9. Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation%桃园生草对桃树节肢动物群落多样性与稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杰贤; 万年峰; 季香云; 淡家贵

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1. 48, 1. 84 and 0. 64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon' s diversity, and Pielou' s evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cov-er vegetation were 83. 733±4. 932, 4. 966±0. 110, and 0. 795±0. 014, respectively, being signifi-cantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker' s dominance index was 0. 135±0. 012, being significantly lower than that (0. 184±0. 018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0. 883±0. 123. 1714±0. 683, and 0. 781 ±0. 040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson' s cor-relation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon' s diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the di-versity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp ,Sn/Sp, and S/N.%对种植白三叶草的桃园(生草桃园)和非生草桃园的桃树节肢动物群落进行分析比较.结果表明:生草桃园桃树天敌、中性类群和植食类群数量分别是非生草桃园的1.48、1.84和0.64倍,而节肢动物群落个体总数无显著差异;与非

  10. A multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Menzel, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    We present a multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using the high-dimensional vine copula. This hydrological indicator is based on the concept of the standardized index (SI) (the version of this algorithm for streamflow is called the standardized streamflow index, simply the SSI). Unlike the single SSI n-month scales (e.g., SSI 1-month or 6-month), this indicator is done without focusing on a certain time window. This means that all different time windows from 1- to 12-months (i.e., the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) are considered together when developing this hydrological drought indicator. Therefore, in this study, a 12-dimensional joint function is modeled to join the multivariate margins (the distribution functions of the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) for all time windows based on the copula algorithm. We then used the C-vine copulas to construct the joint dependence of the multivariate margins with window sizes from 1-month to 12-months. To construct the C-vine copula, five bivariate copulas (i.e., Gaussian, Clayton, Frank, Gumbel, and Joe copulas) were considered as the potential pair-copulas (building blocks). Based on well-fitted marginal distributions, a 12-d C-vine copula was used to join the margins, model the joint dependence structure and generate this 12-variate hydrological indicator (named joint streamflow drought indicator, simply JSDI). We tested the performance of this indicator using two hydrological stations in Germany. The results indicate that the JSDI generally combines the strengths of the short-term drought index in capturing the drought onset and medium-term drought index in reflecting the drought duration or persistence. Therefore, it provides a more comprehensive assessment of drought and could be more competitive than other traditional hydrological drought indices (e.g., the SSI). This attractive feature is attributed to the fact that the JSDI describes the overall drought conditions based on

  11. Monitoring of a debris-covered and avalanche-fed glacier in the Eastern Italian Alps using ground-based SfM-MVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Colucci, Renato R.; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Forte, Emanuele

    2015-04-01

    The Montasio Occidentale glacier is a 0.07 km2 wide, avalanche-fed glacier located at very low-altitude (1860-2050 m a.s.l.) in the Eastern Italian Alps. The glacier is still active and shows a detectable mass transfer from the accumulation area to the lower ablation area, which is covered by a thick debris mantle. Geometric changes and mass balance have been monitored starting in 2010, combining glaciological methods and high-resolution geodetic surveying with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The TLS technique has proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier, but presents several limitations as high costs, high level of specialized training and low portability. On the other hand, the recent improvements in close-range photogrammetric techniques like the Structure from Motion (SfM), combined with dense image matching algorithms as Multi View Stereo (MVS), make them competitive for high quality 3D models production. The purpose of this work was to apply ground-based photogrammetric surveys for the monitoring of the annual mass balance and surface processes of Montasio Occidentale glacier. A consumer-grade SLR camera and the SfM-MVS software PhotoScan were used to detect the changes in the surface topography of the glacier from 2012 to 2014. Different data acquisition settings were tested, in order to optimize the quality and the spatial coverage of the 3D glacier model. The accuracy of the image-based 3D models was estimated in stable areas outside the glacier, using the TLS 3D model as reference. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in 2014, simultaneously to the photogrammetric survey, that was used to compare the snow height estimations obtained by photogrammetry with those obtained by geophysics. The achieved results indicate that the resolution and accuracy of the 3D models generated by the SfM-MVS technique are comparable with those obtained from TLS surveys. Consequently, almost identical volumetric changes

  12. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  13. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  14. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  15. The Investigation of Species and Application of Ground Cover Plants in Jiaozuo%焦作市地被植物种类及应用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红军; 张桂芝; 马君丽; 孔德政

    2012-01-01

    根据对焦作市建成区地被植物进行实地调查,统计得出焦作市作为地被植物应用的灌木,藤本,一、二年生花卉,宿根、球根花卉、草类共有192种65科151属.灌木应用较多,宿根、球根花卉,一、二年生花卉应用较少;提出了应用频率最高的地被植物有:马棘、月季、剑麻、铺地柏、迎春等;焦作地被植物应用形式主要有以下几种;模纹花坛和绿篱,旷地造景,路缘造景等.最后提出优化灌草比例,引进新优品种的建议.%Based on the investigation of ground cover plants, which be divided into Bush, Fujimoto, one or two annual flower, Perennial and bulbs flowers and grasses, which we proposes 192 species in the Building area in the city of Jiaozuo belong to 65 families and 151 genera. Bush is widely used, on the contrary, one or two annual flowers and Perennial and bulbs flowers used very seldom. And we discover these plants as indigofera and rose and jasmine and sisal and winter juniper etc are used the most frequently. There are these kinds of application forms as follows: mode pattern flower and hedgerow, open areas landscaping, road edge landscaping. At the last, we proposed that Optimization the Proportion of bush and grass and introduction new and excellent variety.

  16. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  17. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  18. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Queraltó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  19. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  20. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN and GCRPS (GUN and GNN, solely chicken manure (GCM and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN. The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of −1.33 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80–11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05–9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS

  2. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-02-25

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  3. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josman P. Pérez-Expósito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  4. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain: Agronomy and quality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters, in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain. The reduction of vine distance has favored the vegetative growth, through the shoot weight, while the grape yield has been slightly higher in the intermediate vine distance, 1.40 m, through the cluster weight. Ravaz index showed some increase with the increasing of vine distance, derived from the decrease of pruning wood. In qualitative terms, the variation of the vine distance did not significantly modify the basic composition of the grape. Therefore, the choice of the vine distance involves the convenience to assess both potential effects in terms of production and economic objectives of the new plantations, in accordance with the characteristics of each growing situation.

  5. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  6. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P.; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine. PMID:28245619

  7. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    Thirteen species of woody shrubs and vines were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone for 8 hours at biweekly intervals throughout the 1975 growing season. A different set of plants was utilized in each biweekly exposure. The most susceptible species was staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), followed in descending order of susceptibility by Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Indian currant (coral berry) (Symphoricarpus orbiculatus), American elder (Sambucus canadensis), dwarf ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), autumn olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), white snowberry (Symphoricarpus albus), bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and Morrow honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi). The latter three species were very resistant. The most common symptom induced by ozone was a dark pigmented stipple on the upper leaf surface. The foliage of all species became increasingly resistant toward the end of the growing season.

  8. Coccidoxenoides perminutus parasitizing Planococcus citri on vine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Herlândia de Araújo Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From those of the mealybug family, the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citriRisso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is frequently held responsible for various diseases occurring in vineyards. This is a first time report in Brazil, on the occurrence of a parasitoid controlling P. citri. In our search for the natural enemies of P. citri, bunches of grapes with the vine were collected every week for one month, in those regions where table grapes were produced, like Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. In these samples, among the natural pest infestations Coccidoxenoides perminutusGirault, 1915 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was the only natural enemy species reported. In this research, we attempted to study the potential of parasitism as well as the strategies that this natural agent uses in pest control.

  9. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  10. The short term influence of aboveground biomass cover crops on C sequestration and β–glucosidase in a vineyard ground under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peregrina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions accelerate soil organic matter losses in Spanish vineyards. Previous studies showed that cover crops can increase soil organic carbon (SOC in Mediterranean vineyards. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of two different cover crops in the short term on soil C sequestration in a semiarid vineyard and to study the potential use of both β–glucosidase enzimatic activity (GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio in order to assess the SOC increase. The experiment was carried out in a cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L. vineyard on a Oxyaquic Xerorthent soil in Rioja winegrowing region (NE, Spain. The experimental design was established in 2009 with three treatments: conventional tillage; sown barley cover crop (Hordeum vulgare, L.; sown Persian clover cover crop (Trifolium resupinatum L.. Carbon in the aboveground biomass with each cover crop was monitored. Soil was sampled in June 2011 and June 2012, and SOC, GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio were determined. After 3 years both cover crops increased SOC at soil surface with C sequestration rates of 0.47 and 1.19 t C ha-1 yr-1 for BV and CV respectively. GLU and GLU/SOC ratio increased in both cover crops at 0-5 cm soil depth. The C sequestration rates and GLU were related to the cover crops aboveground biomass. In consequence, in semiarid vineyards under cover crops GLU could be an appropriate indicator to asses the increase of SOC and the soil quality improvement in the short-term (2-3 years.

  11. Numerical Simulation of the Full-Polarimetric Emissivity of Vines and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Vall-llossera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture is a key variable needed to understand and predict the climate. L-band microwave radiometry seems to be the best technique to remotely measure the soil moisture content, since the influence of other effects such as surface roughness and vegetation is comparatively small. This work describes a numerical model developed to efficiently compute the four elements of the Stokes emission vector (Th, Tv, TU and TV of vegetation-covered soils at low microwave frequencies, as well as the single-scattering albedo and the extinction coefficient of the vegetation layer over a wide range of incidence angles. A comparison with L-band (1.400–1.427 MHz experimental radiometric data gathered during the SMOS REFLEX 2003 field experiment over vines is presented and discussed. The measured and simulated emissivities at vertical polarization agree very well. However, at horizontal polarization there is some disagreement introduced by the soil emission model. Important radiometric parameters, such as the albedo, the attenuation and the transmissivity are computed and analyzed in terms of their values and trends, as well as their dependence on the observation and scene parameters. It is found that the vegetation attenuation is mainly driven by the presence of branches and leaves, while the albedo is mainly driven by the branches. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the values obtained by fitting the experimental data with the t-w model is very satisfactory.

  12. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    ) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing......A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i...

  13. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing...

  14. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  15. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo-Córdoba, E.; Bouzas-Cid, Y.; Orriols-Fernández, I.; Díaz-Losada, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014) to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L.) located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST). Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality. (Author)

  16. Tomato fruit quality as affected by ripening on- and off-vine

    OpenAIRE

    Koukounaras, A.; Makridou, C.; Siomos, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. In order to extend postharvest life and marketable period, tomato fruits are mainly harvested at the mature green stage and they ripen off vine. However, most of the consumers are convinced that on vine ripened tomatoes a...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experim...

  18. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Corrêa; BACKES, A. A.; Fagundes,J. L.; BARBOSA, L. T.; SOUSA, B. M. de L.; OLIVEIRA, V. de S.; Moreira, A L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal) and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units). The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of ...

  19. Efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.H.; Ali, M.A.; Ahmed, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis on gram seed in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period of February to May, 2009. The concentrations of dodder vine extract were 5, 2 and 1% respectively. Efficacies of these treatments were evaluated by considering oviposition, adult emergence, intensity of damage and seed weight...

  20. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea. PMID:28154492

  1. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2016-12-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.

  2. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  3. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  4. Effects of environmental chemicals on useful insects and pests. Studies on the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Nutz- und Schadinsekten in Abhaengigkeit von Umweltchemikalien. Aluminiumtoleranz von Waldbodenpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Bogenschuetz, H.; Buecking, W.; Hradetzky, J.; Koenig, E.; Kublin, E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present issue one of four contributions deals with the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Growth results are indicated for the forest ground cover species Poa nemoralis, Luzula luzuloides, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta, Milium effusum and Melica uniflora as potted cultures on sand receiving nitrogen in different ratios of form and in different concentrations, the aluminium concentration being variable in the culture broths with a pH-value of 4.0. Low aluminium concentrations (10.8 mg/l Al) in the culture broths enhanced the growth of all species, some species were adversely affected and showed impaired growth (Poa nemoralis, Milium effusum, Melica uniflora) from high aluminium-ion concentrations (108 mg/l Al), but others had their best growth results - varying according to the form of nitrogen offered - only if aluminium concentrations in the culture broth were high. The species examined accumulate aluminium in their above-ground biomass to varying extents. With 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Delord; Étienne Montaigne; Alfredo Coelho

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the existence of both greater profitability for large-scale farms and economies of scale in the French viticulture sector, thereby confirming or invalidating the argument put forward by the European Commission to justify the abolition of vine planting rights. According to this argument (1) economic efficiency increases with the extension of the vine area in vineyards, and (2) vine planting rights prevent the expansion of farms. This article discusses the issue of econom...

  6. Retracing recurring vine mortality patterns over a long duration: case study of a Mediterranean viticultural estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at performing both long term historical and spatial tracing, focusing on the vine mortality patterns and their temporal repetition, across a 6 ha-farm, "Domaine des Chauvets", mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley in France. In this estate of long-standing wine-growing history, were mortality patterns randomly distributed or were they related to soil or historical management? Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected in the field at a total of 112 sampling locations. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947-2010 period, of which 7 were retained for further rectification and processing. This dataset was used to retrace the landuse and planting history for each plot, and then extract the frequency of missing vines. Within-field terroir units were demarcated using support vector machine classification of a set of present-day very high resolution data, including soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 maps and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images of May 2014 and July 2015. Field and recent data revealed important soil erosion rates which are likely to ruin terroir sustainability and pointed out those units for which soil restoration practices are urgently needed, while the temporal dataset exhibited a repeated spatial pattern of missing vines, throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements. The frequency of missing vines was related to within-field terroir units and also to past landuse, particularly forest or orchard dating back the 1940s, and current soil organic carbon content. This brings renewed questions about the determinism of vine decline, suggesting contribution of soil degradation processes.

  7. Estimating spatial distribution of daily snow depth with kriging methods: combination of MODIS snow cover area data and ground-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the spatial distribution of the snow depth is difficult because stations are sparse, particularly in western China. In this study, we develop a novel scheme that produces a reasonable spatial distribution of the daily snow depth using kriging interpolation methods. These methods combine the effects of elevation with information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover area (SCA products. The scheme uses snow-free pixels in MODIS SCA images with clouds removed to identify virtual stations, or areas with zero snow depth, to compensate for the scarcity and uneven distribution of stations. Four types of kriging methods are tested: ordinary kriging (OK, universal kriging (UK, ordinary co-kriging (OCK, and universal co-kriging (UCK. These methods are applied to daily snow depth observations at 50 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the spatial distribution of snow depth can be accurately reconstructed using these kriging methods. The added virtual stations improve the distribution of the snow depth and reduce the smoothing effects of the kriging process. The best performance is achieved by the OK method in cases with shallow snow cover and by the UCK method when snow cover is widespread.

  8. A review of the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives -Effects of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Endo, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives, with a special focus on the effect of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth. Ionized acidic adhesive monomers chemically interact with tooth substrates and facilitate good bonding to ground dentin. Polymerization initiators in self-etching primers further promote effective bonding to ground dentin. To promote bonding to both dentin and enamel, phosphonic acid monomers such as 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) were developed. These novel adhesive monomers also have a water-soluble nature and are hence endowed with sufficient demineralization capability. A new single-bottle, self-etching, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-free adhesive comprising 6-MHPA and 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) was developed. This novel adhesive enabled strong adhesion to both ground enamel and dentin, but its formulation stability was influenced by pH value of the adhesive. To develop hydrolytically stable, single-bottle, self-etching adhesives, hydrolytically stable, radical-polymerizable acidic monomers with amide or ether linkages have been developed.

  9. Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute Christina; McDonald, Brian W.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Wallin, Bruce F.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten; Brenner, Anita; Field, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission is a decadal survey mission (2016 launch). The mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard, and changes in these variables, as well as to collect measurements over vegetation to facilitate canopy height determination. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: 1) collection of elevation data by a multibeam system and 2) application of micropulse lidar (photon-counting) technology. A photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, resulting from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of the returned points to reflectors of interest. The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2 data, based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar. The mathematical algorithm uses spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors, and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with high accuracy by ICESat-2 for all expected beam energies considered for instrument design (93.01%-99.57% correctly selected points for a beam with expected return of 0.93 mean signals per shot (msp), and 72.85%-98.68% for 0.48 msp). The algorithm derived here is generally applicable for elevation determination from photoncounting lidar altimeter data collected over forested areas, land ice, sea ice, and land surfaces, as well as for cloud detection.

  10. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  11. An Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation of the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.; McDonald, Brian W.; Wallins, Bruce F.; Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Thomas A.; Brenner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission has been selected by NASA as a Decadal Survey mission, to be launched in 2016. Mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard/ thickness and changes in these variables and to collect measurements over vegetation that will facilitate determination of canopy height, with an accuracy that will allow prediction of future environmental changes and estimation of sea-level rise. The importance of the ICESat-2 project in estimation of biomass and carbon levels has increased substantially, following the recent cancellation of all other planned NASA missions with vegetation-surveying lidars. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: (1) Collection of elevation data by a multi-beam system and (2) application of micropulse lidar (photon counting) technology. A micropulse photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, which result from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of returned points to reflectors of interest including canopy and ground in forested areas. The objective of this paper is to derive and validate an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2-type data. Data are based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar and vary with respect to signal strength, noise levels, photon sampling options and other properties. A mathematical algorithm is developed, using spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that the algorithm works very well and that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with a high accuracy during the ICESat

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  13. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  14. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2016-08-23

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P straw and sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China.

  15. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  17. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  18. Influence of harvest date on volatile and sensory profile of vine leaves infusions from two Portuguese red grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to investigate the volatile composition and sensorial profile of vine leaves infusions prepared from vine leaves collected 30 and 60 days after grape harvest from two Portuguese red grape varieties (Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz. Twelve volatile compounds were detected in vine leaves infusions (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 1-undecene, Z-citral, cedrenol, DL-limonene, 2,4-hexadien-2-ol, benzaldehyde, heptane-1,2,4,6-tetraene, cyclohexene 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl, 1,6-octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, 5,9-undecadien-2-one-6,10-dimethyl-(5E and α-cedrol. In addition, it was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves infusions were dependent on the harvest time, with significantly major volatile content in vine leaves collected after 30 days of harvesting. Thus, it was more important the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaves infusion than the vine leave grape cultivar. Similar tendency was also obtained for the sensory profile, with significant differences for astringency and aroma intensity attributes of vine leaves infusions according to the harvesting date.

  19. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain): Agronomy and quality effects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters) in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters), in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain). The ...

  20. A morphological and molecular characterization of vine mealybug populations (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret populations in Tunisian vineyards have been morphologically and genetically characterized. The morphological examination was based on the main distinctive characteristics of species of Planococcus, namely the number and distribution of the multilocular disc pores and tubular ducts on the adult female. This showed the existence of two different vine mealybug populations in Tunisia. Likewise, in the molecular analyses, two separate clades were revealed in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, supporting the morphological studies and suggesting that there are two distinct populations of P. ficus on grapevine in Tunisia.

  1. Study on the Possibility of Using Vine Stalk Waste ( Vitis Vinifera) for Producing Gypsum Particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangavar, H.; Khosro, S. Kh.; Payan, M. H.; Soltani, A.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was the production of gypsum particleboards with vine stalk waste and the investigation of some physical and mechanical properties of the boards. For this purpose, boards were made from gypsum, oven-dried mass of vine stalk waste, and the white portland cement in various ratios. The thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of immersion in water, the modulus of rupture, the modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of the boards were determined according to the European Norms standard. The results show that, by selecting proper ratios between the constituents, particleboards with good physicomechanical properties can be produced.

  2. 9种多年生地被植物在华北高寒区的抗寒性%Study on Cold -resistance of Several Ground Cover Plants in the Cold Plateau of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓磊; 马建平; 宋国亮; 李欣儒; 张立峰

    2012-01-01

    The study with introduced ground cover plants as meterials. Through observations on their natural growth conditions and growth morphology and demonstration tests of artificial low-temperature stress root cold physiological changes and physical growth of strain recovery validation studies, the results showed that 0 - -18℃ low temperature processing, the relative conductivity, soluble sugar and praline contents of nine perennial ground cover plants were all on the rise, while in the - 18- - 36℃ processing, soluble sugar and free proline content of Platycodon grandiforus. Hemerocallis stella remained rise after fall. The Hosta plantaginea, Aster novibelgii, Lilium brownii var. viridulum showed continuous downward trend. Combination of winter cold stress, sexual and physical strain to restore growth status showed that nine perennial ground cover plants could be successful overwintering in north China. Basis of resistance to the cold, the orders were Platycodon grandiforus 〉 HemerocaUis stella 〉 Hemerocallis middenclorffii 〉 Paeonia lactiflora 〉 P. lactiflora 〉 Sedum spectabile 〉 Hosta plantaginea 〉 Lilium brownii var. viridulum.%以引种的9种多年生地被植物为材料,通过对其在华北高寒区自然生长条件下的越冬性与生长形态观测,以及人工低温胁迫下根系抗寒生理指标变化与株体生长恢复的实证研究表明,0-18℃处理温段,9种地被植物的相对电导率、可溶性糖和游离脯氨酸含量均呈上升趋势;在-18--6℃处理温段,桔梗、金娃娃萱草可溶性搪和游离脯氨酸含量仍保持上升而后再下降,而玉椿、荷兰菊、百合则呈持续下降趋势。结合越冬性与低温胁迫下株体恢复生长状况认为,9种地被植物在华北高寒区常年环境下均可越冬,其抗寒能力依次为:桔梗〉金娃娃萱草〉大花萱草〉单瓣芍药〉重瓣芍药〉八宝景天〉玉簪〉荷兰菊〉百合。

  3. 氯盐融雪剂对4种地被植物种子萌发的影响%Effect of chloride deicing salts on seed germination of four ground covers species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬; 周广柱

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of four kinds of ground covers (Poa pratensts, Bromus inermis Layss,Coreopsis basalis,Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. ) were studied. The length of roots and shoots of ground covers were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the four kinds of ground covers was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 14.69 g/L, 10.04 g/L, 7.38 g/L and 7.31 g/L forCosmos bipinnatus Cav, Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis,respectively and the maximum value were 21.08 g/L, 16.51 g/L, 14.67 g/L and 13.50 g/L, respectively.%以草地早熟禾、无芒雀麦、金鸡菊、波斯菊4种地被植物种子为研究材料,探讨不同浓度氯盐类融雪剂对其发芽的影响。结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,4种地被植物种子萌发、幼芽、幼根生长受到的抑制作用增强。4种地被植物对融雪剂胁迫的耐受能力大小依次为波斯菊>无芒雀麦>金鸡菊>草地早熟禾,耐受临界值分别为14.69 g/L、10.04 g/L、7.38 g/L和7.31 g/L,极限值分别为21.08 g/L、16.51 g/L、14.67 g/L和13.50 g/L。

  4. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  5. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  6. Studies on Constituents of Medicinal Plants. XXIII. Constituents of the Vines of Menispermum dauricum DC. (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Takani, Masako; Takasu, Yasuko; Takahashi, Kotaro

    1983-01-01

    A new oxoisoaporphine-type compound, named dauriporphine, was isolated from the vines of Menispermum dauricum DC. (Menispermaceac) and the structure of this compound was elucidated as 4,5,6,9-tetramethoxy-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-one(I).

  7. Rooting of jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray cuttings treated with indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rezende Muniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray, is native plant from Philippines. It has long blue-green pseudoracemes inflorescence, which makes it unique and incomparable. It is considered one of the most admired and sought vines, although rare in gardens. This study evaluated the effect of indolbutiric acid (IBA on the stalks rooting of this ornamental specie. Stem cuttings without leaves and with a couple of leaves cut in half, were collected from branches of a well developed jade vine plant and were immerged into dipping solutions with a concentration range of IBA (0, 500, 1.000, 2.000 and 4.000 mg L-1 for 15 seconds. Subsequently, the bases of the cuttings was planted in polystyrene trays containing vermiculite (one cutting per cell and maintained in an intermittent water mist chamber for a 80 days period. Then the percentage of stem rooting was assessed as well as the number of roots and the length of the main root. Jade vine plants can be produced byr stem cutting treated in a dipping solution containing an IBA concentration of 2.000 mg L-1.

  8. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  9. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as an alternative auxin for rooting of vine rootstock cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important agricultural activity in semiarid northeastern Brazil, and the quality and ease of vine propagation are very important in this context. This study evaluated the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D as an alternative to indolebutyric acid (IBA in the rooting of vine rootstock cuttings. The trial was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe (São Cristóvão-SE between January and March 2010 with cuttings of the rootstocks of 'IAC-766', 'IAC-572', and 'Paulsen 1103' treated with 2,4-D or IBA applied at concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, or 3000 rng-L-1 for 5 s and planted in a field on washed sand. At 56 days after planting, the percentages of rooted, sprouted, callused, and dead cuttings were evaluated, and also the average number and length of the rooted cuttings. The results showed that 2,4-D was not superior to IBA in the characteristics wanted for the rooting process of the vine rootstock cuttings. The vine rootstocks showed potential for propagation by cutting without auxin application. It was observed that the high concentrations were the worst for the rooting of the cuttings.

  10. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  11. Etiology, development and reaction of muskmelon to vine decline under arid conditions of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Saif Al-MAWAALI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon vine decline is considered the most important factor limiting muskmelon production in Oman. This study was conducted to characterize incidence, development, causal agents and response of muskmelon cultivars to this disease. A survey showed that incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 15% (mean 5% in spring 2011, 1 to 80% (mean 18% in autumn 2011 and 0 to15% (mean 10% in spring 2012. Isolations from 168 affected plants yielded Pythium aphanidermatum (56% of diseased plants sampled, Fusarium spp. (46%, Monosporascus cannonballus (27%, Rhizoctonia solani (22% and Macrophomina phaseolina (1%. In pathogenicity tests, R. solani, M. cannonballus and P. aphanidermatum were found to be pathogenic to muskmelon. In another experiment over three seasons, M. cannonballus, P. aphanidermatum and R. solani were consistently isolated from muskmelon plants on a weekly basis from 14 days after sowing until the end of the season. However, symptom development only began with the onset of fruiting, which suggests that fruiting stress may be a factor in vine decline disease development. Field assessment of 11 muskmelon cultivars showed that ‘Shahd F1’ was one of the cultivars least susceptible to vine decline and was relatively high yielding. This is the first record of M. cannonballus as a causal agent of muskmelon vine decline in Oman.

  12. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  13. The Rate of Water Loss in Relation to Internodes Position and Wood Maturity in Vine Chords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin SALA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to assess the rate of water loss from the strings of vines in relation to internodes position on vine chords and degree of wood maturity. The biological material was represented by Burgund vine cultivar, to which were analyzed individually all internodes distributed on the chord length (internodes number IN2-19. The rate of water loss and associated parameters (maximum rate of water loss - RWLMax, total drying time - T, time to achieve RWLMax - tRWLMax were determined from the Burgund vine cultivar, in controlled condition. Parameters studied were associated with dry matter content (refractometric method, degree of maturity of the wood, and internodes positions on chord. RWL Max had higher values in the basal internodes (IN2; RWL Max = 0.252±0.005 g/min and lower in the apical internodes (IN17-19; RWLMax = 0.202±0.011 g/min. RWLMax distributions values, according to the position of internodes on chord was described by a third degree polynomial function, statistical safety (R2 = 0.949, p<0.01. Dry substance content in internodes (sugar was correlated with the total time of water loss (T; R2 = 0.945, the time to reach the maximum rate of water loss (tRWLMax; R2 = 0.855, and maximum rate of water loss (RWLMax; R2 = 0.984.

  14. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    ) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...

  15. Interspecific variability and phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis for the invasive swallow-wort vines (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  16. Influence of leaf number and nodes on the rooting of semiwoody cuttings of flame vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flame vine (Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl. Miers is a semihardwood vine, vigorous, native, native, occurring in all Brazilian biomes and ornamental potential. Technical information about the propagation of this species will contribute to the production of seedlings and with that, their greatest use in landscaping. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the number of leaves and nodes in rooting intermediate flame vine. The experiment was conducted under conditions of intermittent mist. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 2 x 3, being respectively cuttings with one or two nodes, and zero, one or two leaflets. We used four replicates with plots consisting of 12 cuttings placed in substrate of rice hulls in polystyrene trays with 72 cells. We evaluated at 84 days the porcentage of rooted cuttings, length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and, per cutting, average: number of roots - first order; maximum length of each root of the first order, volume and dry weight of roots. It was observed that cuttings with two leaflets enabled 66% of rooting, greater length and dry mass of shoots. The higher quality of the root system occurs with stakes with two leaflets and two nodes. The spread of flame vine is efficient with semi-hardwood cuttings with two nodes and two leaflets, kept in a greenhouse under intermittent mist.

  17. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units. The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, and total carbohydrates. There was an increase in DM content with inclusion of the additive and CP was reduced from 11.23% (no additive to 9.46% (30% additive in sweet potato vine silage. NDIP and ADIP content was lower in sweet potato vine silage containing 30% additive (1.15% and 0.70%, respectively. No significant differences in organic matter, ashes, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or total digestible nutrients were observed between the different levels of additive. Regarding fermentative parameters, a quadratic effect of sweet potato vine silage containing different additive levels was observed on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen [N-NH3 (%NT], and losses from gases and effluent. A lower pH was observed at a level of the additive of 15% (3.31 and higher values at levels of 20%, 25% and 30% (3.88, 3.89 and 3.88, respectively. The  N-NH3 values (%NT ranged from 2.84% (no additive to 3.59% (15% additive, and the lowest loss from gases and effluents was 2.38% DM and 199 kg/t in sweet potato vine silages containing 30% and 10% additive, respectively. Sweet potato vine is a good-quality roughage alternative that can be stored as silage, as along as a water-absorbing additive such as corn meal is used at a level no less than 20%.

  18. Effects of ground cover on the niches of main insect pests and their natural enemies in peach orchard%桃园生草对桃树上主要害虫及天敌生态位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万年峰; 季香云; 蒋杰贤; 淡家贵

    2011-01-01

    调查了种植白三叶草桃园(生草区)与不种草桃园(对照区)桃树上主要害虫及天敌数量,并对其生态位进行了测定.结果表明:生草区桃树害虫的水平生态位、垂直生态位和时间生态位宽度最大的分别是桃红颈天牛(0.999)、茶翅蝽(0.964)和茶翅蝽(0.795),而对照区其值分别是0.918、0.792和0.632;生草区桃树天敌的水平生态位、垂直生态位和时间生态位宽度最大的都是蜘蛛,分别为0.996、0.983和0.932,而在对照区其值分别是0.900、0.800和0.818;生草区桃树害虫的三维生态位宽度依次为茶翅蝽>叶蝉>蜡蝉>桃蚜>桃潜叶蛾>桃蛀螟>桃红颈天牛>梨小食心虫>桑白蚧,而对照区为桃蚜>叶蝉>茶翅蝽>桃红颈天牛>梨小食心虫>蜡蝉>桑白蚧>桃潜叶蛾>桃蛀螟;生草区桃树天敌的三维生态位宽度为蜘蛛>小花蝽>草蛉>寄生蜂>瓢虫>食蚜蝇,而对照区为蜘蛛>草蛉>瓢虫>寄生蜂>小花蝽>食蚜蝇;对照区小花蝽、瓢虫、食蚜蝇、寄生蜂均有推迟活动迹象;生草区小花蝽与害虫的三维生态位重叠值都比相应的对照区大,天敌与害虫在时间上的同步性和空间上的同域性总体优于对照区.%Taking the peach orchards with and without ground cover Trifolium repens as test ob jects, an investigation was made on the quantities of main insect pests and their natural enemies on peach trees, with the niches of the insect pests and natural enemies measured. Among the main msect pests, Aromia bungii in the peach orchard with ground cover T. repens had the widest horizontal niche breadth ( 0. 999) , Halyomorpha halys had the widest vertical niche breadth ( 0. 964 ) and widest time niche breadth (0. 795 ) , while the corresponding values in the orchard without T. repens were 0. 918, 0. 792, and 0. 632, respectively. Among the natural enemies, spiders in the peach orchard with ground cover T. repens had the widest

  19. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  20. Acoustic Characterization of Grass-cover Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    for noise and rever- beration control. Examples of porous media are cements, ceramics, rocks, building insulation , foams and soil. Characterizing the... air is consid- ered as lossless fluid and Eqs. 2.1 and 2.2 can be applied without approximations. However, when acoustic waves travel in narrow...3.1) In Eq. 3.1, P1 and P2 are the acoustic pressures measured at each respective microphone, Pi is the incident pressure, k0 is wave number in air , ω

  1. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014 to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L. located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST. Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality.

  2. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  3. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: Do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Delord

    2015-06-01

    In summary, the main argument put forward by the European Commission to justify canceling vine planting rights is not adapted to the case of France because it considers wine as a single product sold at a single price.

  4. Effects of Different Concentrations of Gibberellin on the Flowering of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum 'Zichonglou'%不同浓度赤霉素对地被菊‘紫重楼’开花特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 崔雁汇; 孔一昌; 张强; 吕晋慧

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of gibberellin on plant height, crown breadth, flowering characteristic (flowering season, flower number, petals number, flower diameter) and the pollen germination viability of ground-cover Chrysanthemum ' Zichonglou' were studied, which could provided substantial base for the hybrid breeding and regulating flower season of ground-cover Chrysanthemum. The results showed that 100-500 mg/L of gibberellin might cause the dewing color season 6-10 days ahead of time, the starting flower season 7-12 days ahead of time, and the abundant flowering season 2-7 days ahead of time. With the increase of gibberellin concentration ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L, internode and plant height were increased, but the flower number, petals number, crown breadth, and flower diameter were inhibited. The longest internode and plant height occurred with 500 mg/L gibberellin treatment. The pollen germination viability were improved by 100-300 mg/L of gibberellin, and impressed by 500 mg/L gibberellin.%笔者探讨不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对地被菊‘紫重楼’株高、冠幅、开花特性(花期、开花量、花朵重瓣性、花径)和花粉生活力的影响,旨在为地被菊杂交育种、花期调控提供参考依据.试验结果表明,喷施100~500 mg/L GA3后,‘紫重楼’露色期、始花期及盛花期分别提前6~10天、7~12天和2~7天;GA3有利于节间伸长和株高增加,但植株开花量和花瓣重瓣性降低,冠幅、花径减小.其中,500 mg/L GA3处理下的地被菊节间长度与株高显著高于其他水平;100~300 mg/L GA3处理可促进花粉生活力,500 mg/L对花粉生活力有抑制作用.

  5. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Omar Tomm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  6. Study on Water Adaptability of Seven Common Species of Ground Cover Plants in South China%华南地区7种常见园林地被植物水分适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瑭璜; 雷江丽; 庄雪影

    2012-01-01

    Water adaptability of seven common ground cover plants in South China were studied by pot experiment. The effect of biomass increment, root-crown ratio, florescence, diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate and diurnal variations of net transpiration rate were determined in different soil water content. The experimental results showed that 7 ground cover plants could grow strongly in the soil w ith the water holding rate above 70% to 75%. Schefflera arboricola, Rhoeo discolor (L'He'rit.) Hance and Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'White Butterfly' could grow well and possess good ornamental value in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 30% to 35%; lxora coccinea L., Excoecaria cochinchinensis, Hymenocallis littoralis and Nephrolepis auriculata could grow well in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 50% to 55%.%以华南地区7种常见园林地被植物为研究对象,通过盆栽控水试验研究,综合比较了不同水分条件下植株的生长量、根冠比、花期、花量、净光合速率日变化、净蒸腾速率日变化等生长及光合指标的变化趋势.结果表明:1)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的70%~75%时,7种参试植物均有较旺盛的生长势;2)在满足各参试植物园林观赏性的前提下,鹅掌藤(Schefflera arboricola)、蚌花[Rhoeo discolor (L’Hérit.)Hance]和[白蝶合果芋(Syngonium podophyllum Schott ‘White Butterfly’)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的30%~35%时可以正常生长;而红花龙船化(Ixora coceinea L.)、红背桂(Excoecaria cochinchinensis)、水鬼蕉(Hymenocallis littoralis)和肾蕨(Nephrolepis auriculata)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的50%~55%时可以正常生长.

  7. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime).

  8. MEASURING WORKING HOURS INPUT IN VINE GROWING AT WORK ORGANIZATION BASED ON PHENOLOGICAL PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J BRAZSIL

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was based on phenological phases of Italian Riesling, involving differences in labour and financial input for dry, optimal and wet weather. Worktime demand for certain operations in vine growing was determined with an analytic method, work day survey and We worked out alternatives for dry, optimum and wet weather on the basis of phenological phaseses. The worktime demand for the phenological phases with all their operations were analysed and planned in an itemized way based on our findings. We used them to work out the worktime demand for the given vine land for each operation. To analyse differences coming from diverse methods of cultivation and spacing, the material, operational and total costs of hand and mechanized labour were projected for 1 hectare and variance analysis was made.

  9. Wine and the vine in Upper Moesia archaeological and epigraphic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine-growing and winemaking in the area of the Roman province of Upper Moesia are looked at based on the information supplied by the ancient sources, and the archaeological and epigraphic evidence (inscriptions, artistic depictions, vinedressing and winemaking implements, drinking and transport vessels. Viniculture is associated with the Greco-Roman cultural orbit, while the native central-Balkan tribes typically consumed alcoholic beverages made from cereals. Therefore the goal of the research is to shed as much light as currently possible on the significance of vine-growing and wine in the life of the inhabitants of Upper Moesia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  10. Mechanized methods for preparation and processing of compost from pruning residues in fruit-vine production

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of research about the effects of mechanized process of fragmentation of pruning residues on the composting process. Compost, as a form of organic fertilizer, requires specific production treatment depending on the form of biomass. Pruning residues from fruit-vine production can be translated into quality organic fertilizer, but it is necessary to coordinate mechanized treatment of biomass and technology of composting process with microbiological processes for organic matter...

  11. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine l...

  12. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  13. O vine e o diálogo audiovisual na cultura participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Neves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No atual ambiente midiático, a audiência possui ferramentas não apenas para consumir mas para produzir e distribuir conteúdo. Em um mercado onde as fronteiras entre entretenimento e publicidade se tornam cada vez menos claras, o conteúdo audiovisual e as comunidades formadas ao seu redor se tornam temas de estudo relevantes. Dominado pelo YouTube na primeira década do milênio, o mercado do vídeo online vem se ampliando em função da tecnologia mobile, e aplicativos para rápida produção e consumo de vídeo, como o Vine, que se destaca pelo seu caráter social e colaborativo. A proposta deste trabalho é examinar o potencial do Vine na publicidade – não aquela tradicionalmente interruptiva e unilateral, mas sim uma publicidade que entretém, envolve e convida a participar. Para isto, o caso da campanha Hollywood and Vines, da Airbnb, será analisado.

  14. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Boggio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19 and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15 showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  15. Dormancy break with garlic extract and hydrogen peroxide in rootstock vine ‘SO4’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilla Juan Saavedra del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic product is used to help overcome dormancy of the buds of vines in tropical and sub-tropical climate, but the product currently available in Brazil has the highest level of toxicity to humans. The objective was to study some alternatives to break the dormancy of the buds of the rootstock vine ‘SO4’. The sprayed treatments were: T1 = water (control; T2 = hydrogen cyanamide (3%; T3 = garlic (33% and; T4 = Hydrogen Peroxide – H2O2 – (3%. The cuttings were immersed in a indole acetic acid (IAA of 5 ppm for 15 seconds and placed in plastic bags (19 cm× 5 cm× 8 cm with 50% sand + 50% commercial substrate (H. Decker® . After 04 months, were evaluated: percentage of live cuttings, aerial part height (cm, length of roots (cm and dry matter of aerial parts and root (g. Regarding the roots, root dry weight and dry matter of aerial parts, stood out the cuttings treated with H2O2 at a concentration of 3% (T4. In the present work conditions, preliminarily concluded that H2O2 at a concentration of 3% can assist in breaking dormancy of the buds of the roostock vine ‘SO4’.

  16. Study on Introduction and Cultivation Techniques of Four Color--leafed Plants of Ground Cover%四种地被类彩叶植物引种栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王太平

    2011-01-01

    对引进的4个地被类植物优良品种进行了引种试验,结果表明:红叶石楠和金森女贞在高度生长和冠幅增长方面优势明显,其次为红花檀木、洒金珊瑚;栽培试验表明:4个地被类植物经过几个生长期的栽培试验,形成了一套较完整的栽培技术措施,为4个优良品种的推广应用提供了技术保障。%In this paper, four species of ground cover were studied through introduction experiment and cul- tivation experiment. The results of introduction experiment show that Photinia serru alta and Ligustrum japonicum 'Howardii" have clear advantages on high-growth and crown-growth, followed by Lorpetalum Chinese Oliv. var. rubrum Yieh and Var. variegata D'ombr. The results of cultivation experiment show that after the experiment of several growth periods, a complete cultivation technique of these four species has been formed,which provides technical support for applying these four fine varieties.

  17. 叶菜型甘薯蔓尖产量构成分析%Yield Composition Analysis of Vine Tip of Leaf-vegetable Sweetpotato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅玉凡; 王卫强; 伍加勇; 黄世龙; 张晓春; 高静; 张志良; 喻淑芬

    2009-01-01

    Total yields of vine tip of seven varieties of Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato during 2006-2007 were investigated; proportions of the weights of leaf, leaf stalk and stem in total vine tip yield and their changes among varieties and during topping stages were studied. The results showed that vine tip yields of sweetpotato were significantly different among either varieties or topping stages; leaf yield accounted for about 51% of total vine yield, and changes in leaf yield among topping stages were higher than that among varieties; while yields of leaf stalk and stem each accounted for 25% of total vine tip yield, their changes among varieties were higher than those among topping stages. These results revealed the yield composition of vine tip of Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato, which provided scientific references for breeding and cultivating new Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato variety and its industrialization.

  18. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  19. Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Caspers, Jana; Buckingham, Lauren; Anderson-Shelton, Gail Denise; Ridgway, Carrie; Buffington, C A Tony; Schulz, Stefan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2017-03-16

    Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried

  20. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50∘C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  1. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  2. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  3. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  4. Performance and Carbon Emission Analysis on Glass-covering Greenhouse Heating with Ground Source Heat Pump Technology%玻璃温室地源热泵供暖性能与碳排放分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟

    2012-01-01

    The heating test was conducted in a glass-covering multi-span greenhouse ( 756 m ) with groundwater-style GSHP technology. The heat quantity estimating models based on air enthalpy difference method ( AEDM) were developed according to the heating characteristics of GSHP. The economical performance and carbon footprint ( greenhouse gas emission level) of the GSHP was analyzed and compared with currently widely used coal fired heating system ( CFHs) and natural gas fired heating system (GFHs) based on investigated various energy sources price during heating tests. According to the compared results, the GSHPs heating cost is higher than CFHs, but lower than GFHs. Meanwhile, GSHPs CO2 emission during heating is higher than GFHs, but lower than CFHs.In view of the strong coupling between temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse simulation system, an adaptive decoupling method based on dynamic matrix control was proposed. Taking the measure of feedforward compensation to eliminate interaction between channels of temperature and humidity, an adaptive decoupling algorithm by weighting was designed. The proposed method can adjust the decoupling parameters online under different operating modes, effectively overcome the effect of model severe mismatch to control accuracy. Compared with the traditional PID control, simulation and experimental results both indicated the proposed strategy greatly improved the control performance.%在北京地区一栋玻璃连栋温室(756 m2)中采用地下水式地源热泵(ground source heat pump,简称GSHP)技术进行了冬季供暖试验,并结合GSHP技术的供热特点构建了基于供热末端空气焓差法的供热量计算模型以及供热系统性能分析方法.根据供暖期北京地区能源价格水平,对比当前广泛使用的燃煤供暖系统和天然气供暖系统,系统地评价了GSHP技术的碳排放(温室气体排放水平)和供暖经济性.GSHP供暖成本低于同期燃气供暖,但

  5. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAND FIRST TESTS OF AN AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL VINE CUTTING TRANSPLANTERS BASED ON DGPS-RTK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Mazzetto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the proposal of an innovative system for commercial transplanter to allow the automatic point-laying location of each vine cutting, without any kind of field preliminary squaring. A DGPS-RTK system is able to calculate the vine cutting location according to the project values; the transplant operation, carried out by electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical components, is completely automated. The goal is to increase the work rate of the transplanting equipment and reduce the necessary skilled labour, without losing the accuracy of the vineyard planting.

  7. Regime Switching Vine Copula Models for Global Equity and Volatility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly every major stock market there exist equity and implied volatility indices. These play important roles within finance: be it as a benchmark, a measure of general uncertainty or a way of investing or hedging. It is well known in the academic literature that correlations and higher moments between different indices tend to vary in time. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one has yet considered a global setup including both equity and implied volatility indices of various continents, and allowing for a changing dependence structure. We aim to close this gap by applying Markov-switching R-vine models to investigate the existence of different, global dependence regimes. In particular, we identify times of “normal” and “abnormal” states within a data set consisting of North-American, European and Asian indices. Our results confirm the existence of joint points in a time at which global regime switching between two different R-vine structures takes place.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  9. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  10. Modeling increasing effect of soil temperature through plastic film mulch in ground cover rice production system using CERES-Rice%基于CERES-Rice模型的覆膜旱作稻田增温效应模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雯雯; 金欣欣; 石建初; 宁松瑞; 李森; 陶玥玥; 张亚男; 左强

    2015-01-01

    水稻覆膜旱作技术具有显著的节水、增温、防污和减排效应,是节水稻作技术体系的重要措施之一,将CERES-Rice模型用于覆膜旱作条件时,必须首先解决覆膜增温效应的准确模拟问题。该文拟应用热量传输理论及目前旱地作物生产系统中采用的覆膜增温效应模拟方法,来模拟水稻覆膜旱作生产体系中的增温效应,从而为完善 CERES-Rice 模型并使其能用于覆膜旱作水稻的生长模拟奠定基础。参数调校与模型检验验证通过2013、2014年在湖北房县开展的2 a水稻覆膜旱作田间试验来进行,共涉及淹水(对照)、覆膜湿润栽培和覆膜旱作共3个水分处理,分别对2个生长季、2个覆膜处理地表5 cm及地下10、20 cm处温度的变化过程进行了模拟,结果表明:经过参数调校后,所建立的覆膜增温模型可较好地模拟覆膜稻田地表和剖面上土壤温度的变化规律,地表5 cm处土壤温度模拟值与实测值的均方根差、相对均方根差分别低于1.8℃和10%,相关系数在0.89以上(P<0.01);尽管地下10、20 cm处的模拟误差稍大,也基本可满足要求,相应的均方根误差<3.2℃,相对均方根差<15%,相关系数>0.65(P<0.01)。%As one of the most promising water-saving rice production technologies, the ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) has been found to save water application, increase soil temperature, and reduce nitrogen pollution and methane emission. However, the feasibility of CERES-Rice, a software package widely and successfully applied in the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS), for simulating the rice growth in the GCRPS still remains unknown and needs further research. Undoubtedly, it should be based on accurately quantifying the effect of soil temperature enhancement caused by the ground cover material (chosen as the plastic film in this study). Therefore, the objective of

  11. Coproduction of lignin and glucose from vine shoots by eco-friendly strategies: Toward the development of an integrated biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Izaskun; Gullón, Patricia; Andrés, María A; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the suitability of the pretreated vine shoots as a source of lignin and to determine its structural features. The best conditions to achieve the aim of this work were 12% NaOH, 124°C and 105min, as they permitted a removal of 67.7% of the lignin present in the pretreated vine shoots and the obtaining of a solid with a 69.4% of glucan. This delignified solid was subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis achieving a conversion of glucan to glucose close to 100%. The characterization of lignins extracted from pretreated vine shoots was carried out for the first time and the following techniques were employed: a quantitative acid hydrolysis, HPSEC, TGA, FTIR and Pyrolysis-GC/MS. With this proposal, products from the main fractions of the vine shoots (hemicellulosic oligosaccharides, lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates) could be obtained separately, being potentially suitable for further applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  13. Potential carry-over of seeds from 11 common shrub and vine competitors of loblolly and shortleaf pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    2002-01-01

    Many of the competitors of the regeneration of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda, L. and Pinus echinata Mill., respectively) develop from seed disseminated on the site after reproduction cutting or from the seed bank. To evaluate the potential carry-over of the seeds from 11 shrub and vine competitors of these two...

  14. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  15. Forests and Forest Cover, Forest areas as captured by orthophotography. Contains some attribution of forest type depending on imagery and ground-truthing if available., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  16. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2000. It is described...

  17. ETHEPHON SPRAYS AS A DEFOLIANT IN ‘NIAGARA ROSADA’ VINE SUBJECTED TO TWO CROP PRODUCTION PER YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO VIEIRA DA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In climate region Cwa of the State of São Paulo the technique of double cropping the grapevine is possible, however, when it is time for the second pruning of the crop, most of the vine’s leaves are still in the plant, posing the problem that the use of ethephon as a defoliant could increase leaf senescence and improve the vine management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethephon spray as a defoliant in the development and production of the ‘Niagara Rosada’ vine when subjected to double cropping, and the influence this bioactivator may have on carbohydrate reserves in the branch. The experiments were conducted in a commercial, non-irrigated area in agricultural years of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The length, diameter and total carbohydrate reserves of the branches, as well as bud break, number of clusters, crop production, length, width and mass of cluster, berry diameter, soluble solids and titratable acidity were evaluated. Ethephon treatments were applied at a concentration of 1,440 mg L-1 and 2,160 mg L-1 at 20 and 15 days before pruning. As a control, the vines were defoliated by hand at the time of pruning. A randomized block experimental design was used. Data was subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% significance level. In conclusion, we propose that ethephon sprays promoted vine defoliation and improved the bud break, altered plant development and crop production. This was not due to increases in concentration of carbohydrate reserves in the branches, but due to a higher induction stimulus of bud break, which allowed the vines to express their higher yield capacity.

  18. 南昌市藤蔓植物多样性调查报告%Investigation Report on Diversity of Vine Plants in Nanchang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉华; 李建; 舒涛

    2011-01-01

    The author investigated the vine plant resources in Nanchang, and identified 158 cultivated and wild vine plant species belonging to 80 genera, 39 families, including 120 woody vine species and 38 herbaceous vine species.The vine plant resources in Nanchang were initially classified according to their climbing habit.This paper also put forward the selection of plant species and the configuration application of vine plants in the vertical virescence in Nanchang, and summed up the application modes of vine plants in Nanchang city.%对南昌市藤蔓植物资源进行了调查,查明了南昌市现有栽培和野生藤蔓植物158种,隶属于39科80属,其中有木本藤蔓植物120种和草本藤蔓38种;根据藤蔓植物的攀缘习性对南昌市藤蔓植物资源进行了初步分类,并提出了南昌市垂直绿化植物种类的选择及藤蔓植物的配置应用方式;总结了南昌城区藤蔓植物的应用形式.

  19. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  20. Application of biochar amendments to Mediterranean soils: effects on vine growth and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel Ubalde, Josep; Payan, Esmeralda; Sort, Xavier; Guillermo Rosas, José; Gómez, Natalia; Sánchez, Marta Elena; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Introduction: Biochar is intended to be applied to soil, as a mean to sequester carbon and improve soil properties. To present, studies on the use of biochar in Mediterranean soils are still scarce. In this study different biochar and compost amendments were applied to a vineyard in Tarragona (Spain) in order to determine their effects on vine growth and grape quality so that the suitability of biochar amendments as an alternative to conventional organic compost could be evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out from 2011 to 2013 in an experimental vineyard of 1050 m2, located in Poblet (Catalonia, Spain). The climate type is Mediterranean, with 500 mm of annual precipitation and 13.6 oC of annual mean temperature. The soil type is a Fluvic Cambisol, very deep (>120 cm), pH of 7, high coarse fragment content, low organic matter content (1.5 %) and without calcium carbonate. The studied plots were 20-year-old vines of Grenache, trained to an espalier-type canopy system, dry-land farmed and weeds controlled by ploughing. Repeated applications of soil amendments took place in spring 2012 and 2013, following a randomized block design with three replicates per treatment. The treatments considered were biochar, compost and mixture compost x biochar. A control treatment without any organic amendment was also included. The biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis (550 oC of average temperature) of grapevine trunks from a vineyard close to the experimental plot. The compost was commercial certified organic compost. The application doses were 5 tons C · ha-1 per treatment. The petiole analysis and leaf architecture sampling were undertaken during the veraison period (August). During grape ripening, berry composition was measured on a weekly basis (September). At the harvest date, yield parameters were also determined. It is worth noting that in 2013 these harvest data were highly perturbed by millerandage. Finally, in early winter, vegetative development

  1. Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Neotropical Vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to assess polymorphism and level of genetic diversity in four Mexican populations of the neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae. Methods and Results: Thirty-seven microsatellite markers representing bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotide microsatellite repeats were developed. In total, 166 alleles were identified across 54 individuals. The number of alleles varied from one to 11 with an average of 4.49 alleles per locus. All loci except one were highly polymorphic between populations, whereas considerably less variation was detected within populations for most loci. The average observed and expected heterozygosities across study populations ranged from 0 to 0.63 and 0 to 0.59, respectively, for individual loci, and a deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was observed for most loci. Conclusions: The developed markers may be useful for studying genetic structure, parentage analysis, mapping, phylogeography, and cross-amplification in other closely related species of Dalechampia.

  2. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  3. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutamas Saengsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and the separation box (Sepbox comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50 of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells.

  4. THE INTEGRATION OF PIGMEAT MARKETS IN THE EU. EVIDENCE FROM A REGULAR MIXED VINE COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis GRIGORIADIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the degree of integration of national pigmeat markets in the EU. This is pursued using monthly wholesale prices from seven major markets and the statistical tool of mixed R-vine copulas. The empirical results suggest that the markets considered do not constitute a great pool in which prices move, boom, and crash together. The markets of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands exhibit a higher degree of integration relative to the others, whereas the Italian market exhibits a lower degree of integration. Also, there is an indication that, in certain cases, the benefits of free trade may be unequally distributed between the trading partners.

  5. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  7. Emprêgo de desfolhantes na cultura da batatinha The use of potato vine killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das medidas que se impõem para a melhoria do estado de sanidade dos tubérculos de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto para o consumo como principalmente para o plantio, é a destruição da folhagem com alguma antecedência à colheita normal Além dessa melhoria, tal prática permite colocar o produto no mercado antes das épocas das maiores safras obtendo-se maiores lucros. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados obtidos com o emprêgo de desfolhantes físicos, químicos e mecânicos, para determinação dos mais eficientes nas condições locais. Tal prática, em relação ao estado de sanidade, principalmente quanto às moléstias de vírus e apodrecimentos devidos à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e pinta preta (Alternaria solani, será objeto de novos experimentos, utilizando-se como desfolhante aquêles que, neste trabalho, se mostraram mais eficientes e econômicos, como foi o casododinitro-orto-secundário-butil-fenol e do dínitro-cresol.This paper discusses the results of preliminary tests for determining the best way to kill the potato vine under the conditions of the State of São Paulo. Of the methods compared (cutting or flaming the vines, or spraying them with sodium chlorate, sodium arsenite, dinitro cresol or dinitro-o-sec-butyl phenol, spraying with the dinitro derivatives seemed to be the best. Further experiments are needed to observe the incidence of virus diseases and rots caused by Phytophthora infstans and Alternaria solani in the seed potatoes coming from fields treated with the latter products.

  8. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  10. Influence of hydropedology on viticulture and oenology of Sangiovese vine in the Chianti area (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture requires the knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of available soil water. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (central Italy on Sangiovese vine to test the prediction capacity of selected hydropedological models for two soil series cultivated with grape and for delineating hydrological functional units within two vineyards. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soils were mapped with a geophysical survey and six plots were selected in different morphological positions: summit, backslope and footslope. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, and yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes were determined. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of water stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the tested hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water differed considerably between the vineyards and increased significantly along the three positions on slope in both vineyards and in every year, even during the very dry 2006. However, both the response of Sangiovese to water stress and the quality of wine were influenced by the interaction between transpirable water and salinity. The installation of IRIS tubes allowed confirmation of the occurrence of redox processes, although discoloration was influenced more by soil temperature, rather than by moisture. The map produced by once only geophysical survey mirrored only

  11. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Bratislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results. It should be pointed out that bud load per vine had a much greater influence on the studied traits than the applied way of pruning. .

  12. 地被植物在郑州都市区园林绿化中的组成结构及管理对策研究%The investigation and analysis about common ground cover plants of metropolitan area parks in Zhengzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪进; 杨旭; 高闪闪; 何瑞珍

    2014-01-01

    The ground cover plants in the major urban parks and plazas of Zhengzhou City were investigated by using on‐the‐spot statistical investigation in this paper ,and the vegeta‐tion characteristics , selection criteria , and maintenance management , etc . w ere discussed and analysed .The results showed that the species of ground cover plants are simplex ,with smaller size plantation and often separatly planted with many bare grounds and extensive management at late stage . T herefore , some effective measurs are proposed by reasonable planting according to the viewing characteristis of different species in different growth seasonsand enhancing their management in time ,which can greatly improve their ornamental value ,and hence increase the level of ground cover plants landscaping .%采用实地调查统计的方法对郑州市各大公园及路边广场的地被植物及其特点、选择标准、养护管理等进行了研究分析。结果表明:当前地被植物品种单一,种植面积较小,且多单独种植,混合应用较少,较多地段没有地被植物覆盖,后期管理粗放。建议充分利用每种地被植物不同时期的观赏特点,种植时合理搭配,及时管理,以大大提高观赏价值,从而提高地被植物的造景水平。

  13. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  14. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  15. Comprehensive Utilization of Vines as Ornamental Plant%葡萄(vines)作为观赏植物的综合利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红芳; 张宏建

    2012-01-01

    The vines, as climbing shrubs, are one kind of common ii-uit trees, and are graclualty into city s rives as ornamental plant. What will the prospect of the vines be as ornamental plant? This article analyses the value of the vines from several aspects, i.e. ornamental value, greening function, extensive adaptability and integrated value. And the article also proposes three criteria for choosing the varieties. The conclusion shows that the application of vines as ornamental plant has promising prospect.%分析了葡萄作为观赏植物的价值所在,对于其品种的选择,提出了相应的标准,指出了葡萄作为观.赏植物,前景广阔。

  16. The Porcupine herd of barren ground caribou

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the porcupine herd of the barren ground caribou. The report covers the short history, the winter range, migration route, phenology, movements and...

  17. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Management practices designed to increase carbon sequestration via perennial tree crops, are potential tools to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Changes in orchard management could enable growers to meet eco-verification market demands for products with a low carbon footprint, and potentially exploit the emerging business opportunity in carbon storage, whilst enhancing the delivery of ecosystem services that depend on soil carbon stocks. However, there is no standard methodology to verify any potential claims of carbon storage by perennial vine crops. We developed a robust methodology to quantify carbon storage in kiwifruit orchards. Soil carbon stocks (SCS) were determined in six depth increments to 1 m depth in two adjacent kiwifruit blocks, which had been established 10 ('young') and 25 ('old') years earlier. We used a 'space-for-time' analysis. Our key results were: • The 'young' and 'old' kiwifruit block stored about 139 and 145 t C/ha to 1 m depth. Between 80-90% of the SCS were stored in the top 0.5 m, and 89-95% in the top 0.7 m. • There was no significant difference between the SCS in row and alley to a depth of 0.5 m. • A CV of 5-15% indicates that 4-10 cores are needed for 80% confidence in the estimated SCS. • We recommend separating each core into the depths 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5 and 0.5-1 m to allow the assessment of SCS dynamics. • We detected a weak spatial pattern of the SCS only for the 'old' kiwifruit block with a range of about 3 m. A sampling bay along a vine-row should have a maximum length of 3 m. We then assessed SCS in over 60 kiwifruit orchards throughout New Zealand. They stored on average 174.9 ± 3 t C ha-1 to 1 m depth. On average, 51% of the SCS down to 1 m depth were stored in the top 0.3 m, which is the standard depth according to the Kyoto protocol. About 72% of the SCS to 1 m depth were captured when increasing the sampling depth to 0.5 m. These results underscore the necessity to analyze SCS in an orchard

  18. A mixed C-vine copula model for hedging price and volumetric risk in wind power trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pircalabu, Anca; Jung, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    correlation with the much more liquid German market to construct a proxy hedge. We propose a three-dimensional mixed vine copula to model the evolution of the Danish and German spot electricity prices and the Danish wind power production. We construct a realistic hedging portfolio by identifying various...... of not only forwards, but also a basket of e.g. call and put options. Illiquidity and an almost non-existent market for options challenge however the optimal hedging of joint price and volumetric risk in many market places. Here, we consider the case of the Danish power market, and exploit its strong positive...... instruments available in the market, such as real options in the form of the right to transfer electricity across the border and the right to convert electricity to heat. Using the proposed vine copula to determine optimal hedging decisions, we show that significant benefits are to be drawn by extending...

  19. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  20. Natural Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Musts, Wines and Grape Vine Fruits from Grapes Harvested in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in Argentinean musts, wines and dried vine fruits was evaluated, alongside with the performance of OchraStarTM columns for OTA extraction. In all the three matrices analyzed, the OchraStarTM columns showed good performance. The analysis of natural occurrence of OTA in the red must and the red wine samples showed low incidence with low levels of mean OTA contamination (0.12 ng/mL and 0.37 ng/mL, respectively, while 60% of the dried vine fruit samples were contaminated with OTA, in levels ranging from 0.26 to 20.28 ng/g.

  1. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-06

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration.

  2. Selected mild strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV fail to protect pre-immunized vines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Quelmo Silva de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV is the most important virus affecting passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. crops in Brazil. The main purpose of this work was to select mild strains of PWV and to evaluate their protective effect against a severe strain of the virus. Three mild strains were selected from outstanding plants found in orchards severely affected by the virus (F-101, F-102 and F-103 and three others were obtained from blisters formed in passion fruit vine leaves showing mosaic (F-99, F-144 and F-145. The protective effect of the mild strains was evaluated for vines under greenhouse and field conditions. Plants pre-immunized with mild strains F-101, F-102 and F-144, in a greenhouse, had partial protection against the severe strain PWV-SP. In a first field experiment, all passion fruit vines pre-immunized with the six selected mild strains showed severe symptoms of the disease, approximately four months after the challenge inoculation with the PWV-SP strain. Results from a second field experiment, with vines pre-immunized with strains F-101 and F-144, followed by a quantitative evaluation of the mild strains in different leaves of the protected plants, indicated that breakdown in protection seems to be related to the low concentration and/or irregular distribution of the mild strains in leaves, which allows the existence of infection sites available for the establishment of the severe strain. Pre-immunization was not an appropriate alternative for the control of the passion fruit woodiness disease.

  3. Nursery substrates and provenances influence rooting performance of juvenile, single-node vine cuttings of Gnetum africanum Welw. (Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Biloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gnetum africanum Welw. (Gnetaceae is a forest vine that is highly valued for its leaves which are a source of food and income. Because wild populations are threatened by over-harvesting, there is an increasing need to cultivate the plant, which in turn entails a need for developing good quality planting material. This study investigates the effects of four provenances, four substrates and their interactions on rooting and shoot development of vine cuttings of G. africanum using the non-mist propagation system developed by ICRAF. Single-node, half-leafed vine cuttings were used and data on rooting and leaf production were collected monthly from the second to the fifth months. Rooting percentages were subjected to analysis of variance using logistic regression procedures in Genstat version 12. Provenance (P<0.001, substrate (P<0.001 and interaction between provenance and substrate (P<0.001 showed highly significant effects on rooting. Excel was used to determine rooting percentages, with the highest observed in fine sand on cuttings from Lekie-Assi (81% and Boumnyebel (79% which are high G. africanum exploitation areas in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Boumnyebel showed a significantly higher shoot development than the other provenances. Fine sand and sharp sand can be recommended for rapid, low-cost production of G. africanum planting material.

  4. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  5. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  6. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Markaki, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six samples of dried vine fruits from Athens and Thebes (Central Greece) market were simultaneously extracted and cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). A combination of ELISA and HPLC methods was applied for the determination of AFB1. Recovery was 97.6%, RSD 6.46%, while the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 μg kg(-1) and 0.09 μg kg(-1), respectively. OTA concentrations were only estimated by ELISA. Results revealed the presence of AFB1 in 23% of the samples (mean 1.4 μg AFB1 kg(-1)), but none exceeded the EU limit (2 μg AFB1 kg(-1)). However, OTA was detected in 100% of the samples (mean 47.2 μg OTA kg(-1)). Six samples were found to be contaminated at high levels (median 120.6 μg OTA kg(-1)) and 18 exceeded the EU limit (10 μg OTA kg(-1)).

  8. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  9. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  10. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  11. Meteorological estimates for the water balance of a sparse vine crop growing in semiarid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, K. J.

    1996-05-01

    Estimates are presented for the long-term water balance of a sparse vine crop growing under semiarid conditions. The annual water losses are estimated using a simple soil moisture accounting model combined with a two-component energy combination model representing the separate but coupled evaporation fluxes from plants and bare soil. The models we calibrated using data collected during the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-threatened Area (EFEDA) field experiment in the summer of 1991 in southern Spain. The hourly averaged meteorological conditions required as input to the model were derived both from field observations and using a stochastic model. For the year of the field experiment, the simulations suggested that the plant water consumption was close to the long-term average but that the groundwater recharge was substantially below normal. The sensitivity of this balance was examined using the stochastic model both for current conditions and for various hypothetical changes in the average rainfall, plant spacing and plant species.

  12. Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2014-11-15

    The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment.

  13. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  14. Cytogenetics of semi-fertile triploid and aneuploid intergeneric vine cacti hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Mizrahi, Y

    2005-01-01

    Crosses between the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus, as the female parent, and the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus, as the male parent, yielded triploid and aneuploid hybrids. The fruits of these hybrids combined the attractive appearance of Hylocereus fruits with the delicious taste of S. megalanthus fruits. The aim of this work was to assess the fertility and breeding potential of the triploid and aneuploid hybrids with a view to developing an improved vine cactus crop. Pollen mother cells at metaphase I revealed univalents, bivalents, trivalents, and occasionally quadrivalents. Chromosome distribution at anaphase I revealed different classes of chromosome segregation as well as lagging chromosomes. At metaphase II, parallel and tripolar spindles were observed. The occurrence of triads was frequent, whereas dyads were rarely observed. Pollen stainability varied among the clones studied ranging from 9.8% to 18.6%. The diameters of the stained pollen grains varied widely, probably as a result of the number of chromosomes. Despite the allotriploid origin of our hybrids, functional female and male gametes were produced in considerable proportions, most likely as a result of balanced chromosome segregation. The triploid and aneuploid clones studied yielded viable seeds whose number per fruit was strongly dependent on the pollen donor.

  15. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  16. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-10-20

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients.

  18. Nitrate and potassium concentration in fertigated soil cultivated with wine vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the semiarid region of Brazil the use of irrigation systems for applying fertilizers in horticulture is the primary means for incorporating nutrients in the soil. However, this technique still requires its use in wine vines to be assessed. In view of this, this study aimed to assess nitrate and potassium concentrations in soil fertigated with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers in 3 wine grape growing cycles. A field experiment was conducted with 'Syrah' wine grapes, in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil; it assessed five nitrogen doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and five K2O doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 applied by drip irrigation system with two emitters per plant, with a flow rate of 4 L h-1. The experimental design used was the factorial split-plot, making up 13 combinations arranged in 4 randomized blocks. Soil solution samples were collected weekly with the aid of porous cup extractors for all treatments and at depths of 0.4 and 0.6 m by determining nitrate and potassium concentrations and electrical conductivity. Increased levels of both nutrients in the irrigation water increased the availability of nitrate and potassium in the soil solution. The highest nitrate and potassium concentrations were found in the second growing cycle at both depths studied.

  19. Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opedal, Øystein H; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Albertsen, Elena; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Stenøien, Hans K; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates among populations. To assess bee-mediated pollen dispersal on a smaller scale, we conducted paternity analyses within a focal population, and quantified within-population spatial genetic structure in four populations. Gene flow was limited to certain nearby populations within continuous forest blocks, whereas drift appeared to dominate on larger scales. Limited long-distance gene flow was supported by within-population patterns; gene flow was biased towards nearby plants, and significant small-scale spatial genetic structure was detected within populations. These findings suggest that, although female euglossine bees might be effective at moving pollen within populations, and perhaps within forest blocks, their contribution to gene flow on the regional scale seems too limited to counteract genetic drift in patchily distributed tropical plants. Among-population gene flow might have been reduced following habitat fragmentation.

  20. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  1. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity.Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  2. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  3. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  4. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  5. Regenerating Longleaf Pine on Hydric Soils: Short- and Long-term Effects on Native Ground-Layer Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    grape vine/woody vitsp. MONOCOTS CYPERACEAE Carex striata var. brevis Walter’s sedge graminoid CASTB Cyperus croceus Baldwin’s...this area is longleaf pine savanna, consisting of longleaf pine overstories with herbaceous ground layers dominated by grasses and sedges , including...groups: large graminoids (grasses with leaves >15 cm long, forming dense bunches or looser clumps), small graminoids (smaller grasses, sedges , and

  6. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  7. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  8. Resveratrol in Parts of Vine and Wine Originating from Bohemian and Moravian Vineyard Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Melzoch

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemically, resveratrol is a substance of a polyphenolic character from the group of phytoalexins - 3,5,4´- trihydroxystilbene - and exists in cis and trans-isomer forms. In natural sources trans-isomer is more common. As a natural polyphenolic substance, it shows a whole range of biological activities, such as anti-oxidizing and anti-microbial features (namely anti-fungal activities, the ability to absorb free radicals, affects blood sedimentation rate etc. Recently, trans-resveratrol has also been attributed anti-mutagen and chemo-protective features against cancer proliferation. It is assumed that resveratrol could be one of the active substances contributing to the health benefits, namely it decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases through a reasonable consumption of red wine. Grapes of Vitis vinifera and especially red wine represent its main source in human diet. Grape peels contain about 0.5 to 2.0 mg of resveratrol/g of dry weight and the average concentration in red wines of world provenience fluctuates between 1.0 and 3.0 mg/l. Resveratrol was determined by HPLC method with electrochemical detection after direct injection of wine or plant extracts. As expected, red wines from vines originating in the Bohemian and Moravian vineyard regions appeared to contain relatively high levels of resveratrol (from 1.3 to 15.4 mg/l and trans/cis ratio ranged from 0.5 to 4.8, excess of cis-resveratrol to trans-isomer was typical for red wine growing in Most region (northern Bohemia where vineyards are exposed to higher environmental stress due to frequent air pollutions in this area. In addition, resveratrol determined in different parts of grapevine (leaves, rachis varied from 6 to 490 mg/kg of the dry matter. Cluster stems were found as the richest source of resveratrol.

  9. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  10. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  11. Dynamical evolution of massive black holes in galactic-scale N-body simulations - introducing the regularized tree code `rVINE'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Simon J.; Aarseth, Sverre J.; Naab, Thorsten; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    We present a hybrid code combining the OpenMP-parallel tree code VINE with an algorithmic chain regularization scheme. The new code, called `rVINE', aims to significantly improve the accuracy of close encounters of massive bodies with supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galaxy-scale numerical simulations. We demonstrate the capabilities of the code by studying two test problems, the sinking of a single massive black hole to the centre of a gas-free galaxy due to dynamical friction and the hardening of an SMBH binary due to close stellar encounters. We show that results obtained with rVINE compare well with NBODY7 for problems with particle numbers that can be simulated with NBODY7. In particular, in both NBODY7 and rVINE we find a clear N-dependence of the binary hardening rate, a low binary eccentricity and moderate eccentricity evolution, as well as the conversion of the galaxy's inner density profile from a cusp to a core via the ejection of stars at high velocity. The much larger number of particles that can be handled by rVINE will open up exciting opportunities to model stellar dynamics close to SMBHs much more accurately in a realistic galactic context. This will help to remedy the inherent limitations of commonly used tree solvers to follow the correct dynamical evolution of black holes in galaxy-scale simulations.

  12. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (pMadeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  13. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  14. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. STUDY OF SOIL TYPES AROUND THE VILLAGE OF SUSAM-HASKOVSKI MINERALNI BANI FOR THE PURPOSE OF VINE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POPOVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Five soil types in the region of the village of Susam-Haskovski mineralni bani were studied. The soil indexes pH, humus content, active carbonates, physical clay, and clay fraction were studied, and the soil texture coeffi cient was determined. The soil reserves with respect to the basic nutritive elements – N, P, K – were also determined. The soil types were defi ned as eluviated chromic luvisols and in combination with the climatic characteristics of the region they proved suitable for vine growing and red table wines production, in case of application of appropriate agrotechnical measures and fertilization norms.

  16. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  18. The Study of Correlation and Portfolio Selection among Multi-Markets Based on EVT-Vine-copula%基于 EVT-Vine-copula的多市场相关性及投资组合选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帮正; 魏宇; 余江; 李云红

    2014-01-01

    There is significance for avoiding investment risk through choosing market investment portfolio with studying the corre -lation among multi-markets.Taking the stock, fund, bond, future, money, exchange and spot markets in China into a frame-work, with the indices of HS300, Shanghai Stock Exchange Fund , Bond Index, Fuel Oil Future, Shibor overnight interest rate , central parity rate of Euro against Yuan and crude oil commodity between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2014 as samples, this study first modeled its marginal distribution with GJR-EVT method, and then analyzed the net correlation among different finan-cial markets with the R-Vine copula, D-Vine copula and C-Vine copula methods, last analyzed the all non-conditional correlation between any two markets and its conditional correlation on the other one conditional market .The main empirical results show that there is significant asymmetric and fat tail correlation characteristics between the different financial markets in China , and the three Vine copula models are not significant different in modeling the Chinese financial markets ;There exists high non-condition-al correlation between most two of the markets , but their conditional correlation is lower than the 20 percent of non-conditional correlation after taking every other market into account .Composing the triple-portfolio with the corresponding market can avoid the market prices falling at the same time when investment are in the binary-markets;In bear market period , avoiding only long or short investment in the markets with high unconditional or conditional correlation , it could hedge the risk of different market prices fall at the same time through selecting these markets with low non-conditional , or the markets with low or independent con-ditional correlation to build investment portfolio .%研究多元市场间的相关性对构建市场投资组合进而有效规避风险具有重要现实意义。将股票、基金、国债、期货、货

  19. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  20. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results...

  1. Grau de cobertura do solo e dinâmica da vegetação em olivais de sequeiro com a introdução de herbicidas Ground cover and dynamic of weeds after the introduction of herbicides as soil management system in a rainfed olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados do grau de cobertura do solo e da dinâmica da vegetação num olival de sequeiro, localizado em Mirandela, após a introdução de herbicidas como estratégia de manutenção do solo. As modalidades em estudo foram: mobilização tradicional; herbicida pós-emergência (glifosato; e herbicida com componentes de acção residual e pós-emergência (diurão+glifosato+terbut ilazina. O grau de cobertura e a composição da vegetação foram avaliados desde 2002 a 2007 pelo método do ponto quadrado. Ambas as soluções herbicidas combateram adequadamente a vegetação herbácea em aplicação única anual. O grau de cobertura no talhão mobilizado, antes da primeira mobilização, oscilou entre 50 a 80 % e 30 a 60 % debaixo e fora da copa, respectivamente. O tratamento com glifosato permitiu um grau de cobertura em Abril entre 60 a 90 % debaixo da copa e 40 a 50 % fora da copa. No tratamento com herbicida residual o grau de cobertura do solo foi sempre muito baixo ao longo do ano. A gestão da vegetação com glifosato permitiu a cobertura do solo durante todo o ano, com vegetação viva desde o Outono à Primavera e um mulching de vegetação morta durante o Verão. Nas restantes modalidades o solo permaneceu descoberto durante grande parte do ano. No talhão gerido com glifosato a vegetação manteve elevada dinâmica. Um ano após o início da aplicação de glifosato apareceu a dominar o coberto Ornithopus compressus. Com o tempo ganharam importância algumas espécies de Inverno de ciclo muito cur-to (como Mibora mínima e Logfia gallicae outras de elevada produção de sementes e fácil dispersão pelo vento (como Hypochaeris radicata e Conyza canadensis com origem provável em incultos e caminhos que circundam o olival ou em plantas individuais que escaparam à acção dos herbicidas.Results of the percentage of ground cover by weeds and the dynamic of the vegetation are presented after the introduction of

  2. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  3. Arsenic present in the soil-vine-wine chain in vineyards situated in an old mining area in Trentino, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Daniela; Villegas, Tomás Román; Larcher, Roberto; Santato, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The present study follows arsenic (As) transfer through the chain of soil-vine-leaves-grapes-wine to assess the possible risk of arsenic intake related to consuming grapes and wines produced in 10 vineyards located in a mining area rich in this element. The results are compared with date from 18 uncontaminated areas. In the soil, the content of As extracted with acqua regia and that extracted with ammonium acetate, were analyzed. Leaves and berries were analyzed after washing with acidified aqueous solution and acid mineralization in a closed vessel, whereas wines were simply diluted before analysis. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometer. The aqua regia extractable As concentration in soil ranged from 3.7 to 283 mg/kg, whereas available As varied from 18 to 639 µg/kg, and As total concentration ranged from 16.3 to 579 µg/kg dry weight in leaves and from Arsenic levels in wines were always below 1.62 µg/L, with higher concentration in red wines than in white wines. Significant and positive correlations between the As concentrations in soils, leaves, and berries are highlighted, with the samples collected near the mining area having significantly higher values. Nevertheless, As levels in wines were always well below the limit (200 µg/L) suggested by the International Organization of Vine and Wine.

  4. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  5. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  6. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  7. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.

    2017-06-01

    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  8. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  9. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  10. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  11. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In case of vine growing, agricultural practices of the past decades - as mechanical cultivation on steep vineyard slopes - can endanger the soil of vineyards. Moreover, climate change scenarios predict heavier rainstorms, which can also promote the degradation of the soil. These are some of the reasons why sustainable floor management plays an increasingly important role in viticulture recently. The use of cover crops in the inter-row has a special importance, especially on steep slopes and in case of organic farming to provide conditions for environmental friendly soil management. Species-rich cover crop seed mixtures may help to prevent erosion and create easier cultivation circumstances. Furthermore they have a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem functions. However, it is important to find suitable seed mixtures for specific production sites, consisting ideally of native species from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard. Requirements for suitable cover crop species are as follows: they should save the soil from erosion and also from compaction caused by the movement of workers and machines, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or influence produce quality. We started to develop and apply several species-rich cover crop seed mixtures in spring 2012. During the experiments, three cover crop seed mixtures (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, mixture of legumes, mixture of grasses and herbs) were compared in vineyards of the Tokaj and Szekszárd vine regions of Hungary. Each mixture was sown in three consecutive inter-rows at each experimental site (all together 10 sites). Besides botanical measurements, yield, must quality, and pruning weight was studied in every treatment. The botanical survey showed that the following species of the mixtures established successfully and prospered during the years 2012 and 2013: Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia

  12. 新型冬季葡萄越冬埋藤机的设计与试验%Design and test on a new grape vine over-winter burying machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 康璟; 孙伟; 赵武云; 王蒂; 张俊莲; 康天兰; 吴建民

    2013-01-01

      为解决现有多数葡萄埋藤机埋土量少和埋藤质量差等问题,研制了一种新型冬季葡萄越冬埋藤机。对该机的关键部件:掘土部件,输土机构和减速、换向装置进行了设计研究,并采用正交试验方法进行了田间试验,以掘土铲的长度、纵向输送带的线速度与横向输送带的线速度为因素,以覆土厚度、覆土宽度和抛土距离为指标。在利用试验结果的基础上做出了方差分析,得出影响葡萄埋藤机工作性能的因素主次,进一步优化了组合部件参数。试验结果表明掘土铲的长度为40 cm、纵向输送带的线速度为1.4 m・s-1、横向输送带的线速度为1.65 m・s-1时,葡萄埋藤机的埋藤效果良好,能够满足葡萄越冬埋藤的农艺要求。%In view of such problems as little soil covering and low burying quality faced by most of current ma-chines ,a new grape vine over-winter burying machine was developed .The key parts of the machine including digging components ,soil transmission device ,and decelerating and reversing device were designed ,and an orthogonal field test was conducted with length of soil digger ,linear velocity of vertical soil conveyer and linear velocity of horizontal soil con-veyer as factors ,and covering depth ,covering width and throwing distance as indicators .On the basis of variance analy-sis of test results ,the factors influencing working performance of the grape vine burying machine were analyzed ,and the parameters of components were further optimized .The test results showed that ,when the length of soil digger was 40 cm , the linear velocity of vertical soil conveyer was 1 .4 m・s-1 ,and the linear velocity of horizontal soil conveyer was 1 .65 m・s-1 ,the grape vine burying machine ran well and could meet the agronomic requirements .

  13. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  16. Manhole cover point locations across Guam's developed areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset with points across Guam's developed areas. The points represent manhole cover locations, ground elevation and manhole access depth.

  17. Land Cover Trends Geotagged Photography: 1999-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends field photography collection is a national-scale, ground-reference dataset which initially served as a...

  18. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred

  19. Dynamical evolution of massive black holes in galactic-scale N-body simulations - introducing the regularized tree code "rVINE"

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, S J; Naab, T; Haehnelt, M G; Spurzem, R

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid code combining the OpenMP-parallel tree code VINE with an algorithmic chain regularization scheme. The new code, called "rVINE", aims to significantly improve the accuracy of close encounters of massive bodies with supermassive black holes in galaxy-scale numerical simulations. We demonstrate the capabilities of the code by studying two test problems, the sinking of a single massive black hole to the centre of a gas-free galaxy due to dynamical friction and the hardening of a supermassive black hole binary due to close stellar encounters. We show that results obtained with rVINE compare well with NBODY7 for problems with particle numbers that can be simulated with NBODY7. In particular, in both NBODY7 and rVINE we find a clear N-dependence of the binary hardening rate, a low binary eccentricity and moderate eccentricity evolution, as well as the conversion of the galaxy's inner density profile from a cusp to a a core via the ejection of stars at high velocity. The much larger number of par...

  20. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p tannin-binding polyethylene glycol (PEG) increased (p tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats.

  1. Assessing Efficiency of D-Vine Copula ARMA-GARCH Method in Value at Risk Forecasting: Evidence from PSE Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Klepáč

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out the possibilities of using static D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model for estimation of 1 day ahead market Value at Risk. For the illustration we use data of the four companies listed on Prague Stock Exchange in range from 2010 to 2014. Vine copula approach allows us to construct high-dimensional copula from both elliptical and Archimedean bivariate copulas, i.e. multivariate probability distribution, created from process innovations. Due to a deeper shortage of existing domestic results or comparison studies with advanced volatility governed VaR forecasts we backtested D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model against the VaR rolling out of sample forecast from October 2012 to April 2014 of chosen benchmark models, e.g. multivariate VAR-GO-GARCH, VAR-DCC-GARCH and univariate ARMA-GARCH type models. Common backtesting via Kupiec and Christoffersen procedures offer generalization that technological superiority of model supports accuracy only in case of an univariate modeling – working with non-basic GARCH models and innovations with leptokurtic distributions. Multivariate VAR governed type models and static Copula Vines performed in stated backtesting comparison worse than selected univariate ARMA-GARCH, i.e. it have overestimated the level of actual market risk, probably due to hardly tractable time-varying dependence structure.

  2. Influence of lime, peat and cation exchanger on the heavy-metal-uptake of vine (Vitis vinifera L. ) from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, H.D.

    1980-10-01

    In pot experiments with heavy-metal-contaminated soils, the influence of different soil admixtures on growth and heavy-metal-uptake of vine cuttings was investigated. The following results were obtained: 1. The heavy metal uptake of vines from mixtures of soil and garbage-sewage-compost was strongly reduced by a cation exchanger. The heavy metal content of the roots decreased as follows: Cu68-77%; Zn36-74%; Cd29-81%; Mn20-45%; Pb13-52%; Cr7-58%. The Mn-, Zn- and Cu-content of wood, tendrils and leaves also decreased considerably. 2. Vine cuttings, which were cultivated on an acid, artificially Cd-contaminated soil, showed heavy damages and high Cd-contents. Admixtures of lime, cation exchanger or garbage-sewage-sludge-compost strongly reduced the injury of vines and their Cd-content. A combined addition of lime and cation exchanger was most effectful. On the contrary, the toxic effect of Cd was intensified by the acid reaction of peat.

  3. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SP

  4. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred p

  5. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    surface. The impedance measurements were limited to the -f -quency range 220 Hz to 1000 Hz due to the experimental saometry. In this region, however...frequency limit of 100 Hz. In this range, the surface wave predicted by the theory used to analyze the data was not calculated to be a significant fraction...RETURN rND FUNCION EAST611101,D31*1 DIME~ýIOW 11M(4 LEAST52 =IS MAE IS BXZST QUALITY FRLI=40 C D)UNA4I𔃻 AS TEVFITF 1,FD)AN4fN C(~r PHECTLO T( US AI

  6. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  7. Anatomy, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential in grapevine leaves under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the anatomy, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential of grapevine leaves grown under plastic cover. The experiment was carried out in vineyards of Moscato Giallo cultivar covered and uncovered with plastic. A block design with 10 selected plants was used for each area (covered and uncovered. Twelve leaves (six of them fully exposed to solar radiation and six grown under shaded conditions were collected from each area and were fixed and analyzed microscopically (thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and of the palisade and spongy parenchymas. Chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential were determined in the vineyard at veraison and after harvest. Plastic covering increased the thickness of the palisade parenchyma in exposed and shaded leaves due to solar radiation restriction. However, the leaves from the covered vineyard did not have the same response to the restriction of solar radiation, as observed in the uncovered vineyard. The thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and of the spongy parenchyma did not vary due to solar radiation restriction. Chlorophyll content increased in the leaves of covered plants. The photosynthetic potential of the vines is not affected by solar radiation restriction imposed by plastic cover due to anatomical modification in leaves.

  8. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  9. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis for burn wound healing process on albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis, or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Results: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05, while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05. The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. Conclusion: The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  10. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  11. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on corn cob and vine trimming shoots for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; García-Bernet, D; Domínguez, J M

    2016-12-01

    Due to their lignocellulosic nature, corn cob and vine trimming shoots (VTS) could be valorized by anaerobic digestion for biogas production. To enhance the digestibility of substrates, pretreatments of lignocellulosic materials are recommended. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasounds pretreatments (US) and the combination of both was assayed in lignocellulosic composition, methane, and biogas yields. The pretreatments leaded to a reduction in lignin and an increase in neutral detergent soluble compounds making corn cob and VTS more amendable for biogas conversion. The US were negative for biogas production from both substrates and in particular strongly detrimental for VTS. On the opposite side, the enzymatic hydrolysis was certainly beneficial increasing 59.8% and 14.6% the methane production from VTS and corn cob, respectively. The prior application of US did not potentiate (or not sufficiently) the improvement in the methane production reflected by the enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of VTS and corn cob.

  12. Autografted vines of cultivar ‘Refošk’ (Vitis vinifera L. reveal symptoms of the rugose wood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rugose wood disease complex is one of the most important graft-transmissible grapevine diseases and it is considered to be a viral disease. With the aim to obtain more information about appearance of rugose wood disease observed on cultivar ‘Refošk’, ‘Refošk’ vines from collection vineyard in Komen were used for green grafting on SO4 rootstock and autografts for control were made as well. Rugose wood symptoms were observed on grafts of two ‘Refošk’ biotypes, which confirmed graft transmissibility. Appearance of rugose wood symptoms on autografts excluded the impact of incompatibility in rugose wood disease, but at the same time it could be proposed that stress caused by grafting has an important role.

  13. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  14. Analysis of Causes of Karst Collapse and the Corresponding Countermeasures During the Running of Ground Source Heat Pump in the Covered Karst Areas%覆盖型岩溶区地下水地源热泵工程岩溶塌陷成因及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段启杉; 曹振东; 孟凡涛; 宋小庆

    2015-01-01

    地下水地源热泵工程是抽取地下水,以地下水为换热介质,提取能量之后全部回灌于含水层中。因此地下水地源热泵是改变地下水局部水位高程,整体上不影响地下水流场的变化。覆盖型岩溶区地质环境承载力较差,地下水的开发利用过程,可能加强诱发岩溶塌陷的因素,发生岩溶塌陷。在地下水地源热泵的建设和运行中,控制水位降深、尽量避免水位波动和瞬间水位变化过大等措施,达到预防岩溶塌陷的目的。而岩溶塌陷预防措施的研究给覆盖型岩溶区地下水地源热泵的建设和运行提供技术支撑。%Ground source heat pump engineering is pumping groundwater, groundwater as heat transfer medium, extract the energy after full recharge in the aquifer. So the groundwater source heat pump is to change the local groundwater level elevation, on the whole does not affect the change of the groundwater flow field. Covered karst area with poor bearing capacity of geological envi-ronment, the development and utilization of groundwater, karst collapse could strengthen induced factors, karst collapse occurred. In groundwater in the construction and operation of ground source heat pump, control the water level drawdown, avoid water level fluctuation and instantaneous water level change is too big, so as to achieve the purpose of prevention of karst collapse, and preven-tive measures of karst collapse research covered karst area groundwater source heat pump with pumping and technical support for the construction and operation.

  15. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  16. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  17. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops; Proteccion contra la erosion versus productividad en venidos. Ensayos de cubiertas vegetales en cultivos en pendiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-07-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  18. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  20. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  1. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  2. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  3. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  4. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  5. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  6. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  7. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  8. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  11. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  12. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  13. The Survey and Application Research on Native Vine Plants in Changsha City%长沙乡土藤本植物资源调查与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎育成

    2014-01-01

    通过实地调查和资料分析,确认长沙分布有乡土藤本植物30科、89种。依据其攀援方式,可将长沙乡土藤本植物划分为如下4类,即缠绕藤本32种,吸附性藤本10种,攀缘藤本43种,蔓生性藤本4种。阐述了它们在垂直绿化、边坡生态修复、石漠化治理上的应用,同时就在国家生态文明建设中,如何能有效地发挥长沙乡土藤本植物的支持作用进行了探讨。%Based on the field survey and the analysis of the literatures,the paper confirmed that there were 89 speices from 30 genera native vine plants in Changsha city. According to the climbing mechanics,the native vine plants in Changsha could be divided into 4 kinds:32 speices of twiining vine,10 species of adsorption vine,43 speices of climbers,4 speices of vining growth vine. This arcticle not only demonstraed the application of the vine plants on vertical greening,ecological recovery of slope and rocky desertification control,but also put forward suggestions on how to make the native vine plants in Changsha city to contribute for the spiritual civilization construction of China.

  14. Erosion control in orchards and vineyards by a new soil and cover crop management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wilfried; Guettler, Hans; Auer, Karl; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops are the basis for an erosion-free soil management in orchards and vineyards. The soil cover provided by the foliage and the intensive root formation counteract erosion. Cover crops provide the soil microfauna with fresh organic matter which improves soil structure and porosity. The water demand of cover crops, however, may pose problems for the water supply of the trees and vines in dry seasons. Therefore it is necessary to adjust the growth of the cover crops to the actual water conditions. In years with ample precipitation cover crops may be allowed lush vegetative growth till flowering and formation of seeds. In dry years, the growth of the cover crop must be restricted to stop the competition for water, sometimes even by cutting off the cover crop roots. The course of the weather is incalculable and rainfall may be very variable during the year, so it is sometimes necessary to adust the cover crop management several times a year. A new special equipment, which can perform all the tasks necessary for the flexible cover crop management has been developed together with the agricultural machinery manufacturers Bodenwerkstatt Ertl-Auer GmbH and Güttler GmbH. The GreenManager® device consists of three modules, namely a specific type of cultivator, a harrow and a prismatic roller with seeding equipment, which can be used separately or in combination. The GreenManager® can reduce cover crops by flattening the plants in the whole row middle, by bringing down the cover crops with the harrow, or by horizontally cutting the cover crop roots a few centimetres beneath the soil surface in the central part of the row middle or in the whole row middle. These measures reduce the water competition by cover crops without generating further losses of soil moisture through intensive soil cultivation. At the same time the risk of soil erosion is kept to a minimum, because the soil remains covered by dead plant biomass. In one passage the GreenManager® can direct

  15. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  16. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  17. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  18. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  19. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  20. 枸杞菜营养保健馒头的研制%Development of Nutritional Steamed Bread with Matrimony Vine Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立红; 肖月娟; 杨晓宽; 付金锋; 董立峰; 王凤宝

    2012-01-01

    为了增加主食馒头的营养保健功能,以小麦粉为主要原料,将功能性食品配料枸杞菜添加于馒头中制成营养保健馒头。通过测定比容、硬度,结合感观鉴评,确定枸杞菜馒头的最佳工艺参数。结果表明,混合粉中枸杞菜粉的最佳添加细度为0.180mm,最佳添加量的质量分数为0.020,每100g混合粉加水量为53g。枸杞菜的添加,既能增加馒头的感观品质,又能增加营养保健功能。%In order to increase the nutrition and health care function of steamed bread, using the wheat flour as the main raw material, this paper studied the utilizations of matrimony vine leaf in making steamed bread. The best technology parameters were confirmed by measuring specific votume of the steamed bread combining with sensory evaluation, The results showed that the right granularity of matrimony vine leaf powder was 0.18mm, optimum mass fraction of the matrimony vine leaf in mixed powder was 0.020, and 53 g water was added into 100 g mixed powder. The steamed bread added matrimony vine leaf could not only fortify the sensory quality and nutrition, but also satisfy the need of customers.

  1. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  2. 葡萄秧埋枝机运动参数的研究%Design on the Vine Wood Burying Machine Motion Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福燕; 邓春岩; 陈立东; 李国昉

    2014-01-01

    为了保证葡萄秧安全过冬,入冬前需把葡萄秧掩埋起来。通过分析酒葡萄规模化种植农艺模式,研究葡萄秧埋枝机的作业条件,计算了埋枝机的取土深度,提出了采用两个拨土轮做啮合式旋转的新方法,对土壤进行刮削式挖掘,保证防冻土的细碎、密实,对埋枝机拨土轮的运动参数进行了分析和设计。%In order to ensure the safety of the vine in winter , the vine should be buried before winter .Through analyzing the wine grape scale planting mode , studying the operating conditions of the vine wood burying machine , this paper gave the sampling depth of buried branch machine by calculating , and proposed a new type of the two earth drawing wheel meshing rotary,the soil scraping type mining to ensure the freezing soil fine ,dense.In this paper,the movement parameters of the wood burying machine scarification wheel is analyzed and designed .

  3. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  4. Analysis on Nutrition Value of Different Batatas Vine%不同品种甘薯秧营养价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 李魁英; 王学清; 王昆; 马书林; 张新同; 吴占军; 刘小虎

    2011-01-01

    对不同品种甘薯秧营养成分进行测定分析.结果表明,不同品种甘薯秧间营养成分含量有显著差异,粗蛋白含量最高是冀薯13-10,粗脂肪含量最高的是冀薯6-5,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维以冀薯4号最高,粗灰分最高冀薯13-10.%Studying on regularity about nutrient content of differencet batatas vine,The results show that there are significant difference between different batatas vine in crude protein,NDF,ADF,crude fat,AshJi Shu 13-10 has the hightest crude protein and crude AshJi Shu 6-5 has the highest crude fat,Ji Shu NO 4 has the highest NDF and ADF among other batatas vine.

  5. Identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine B2 in Weir vine (Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, R J; McKenzie, R A; O'Sullivan, B M; Elbein, A D

    1995-06-01

    The polyhydroxy alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine [1] and calystegine B2 [6] have been identified as constituents of the seeds of the Australian plant Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra] (Weir vine) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by their biological activity as inhibitors of specific glycosidases. This plant, which is known only from a small area of southern Queensland, has been reported to produce a neurological disorder when consumed by livestock. The extract of the seeds showed inhibition of alpha-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, consistent with the presence of 1 and alkaloids of the calystegine class. Histological examination of brain tissue from field cases of sheep and cattle poisoned by Weir vine showed lesions similar to those observed in animals poisoned by the swainsonine-containing poison peas (Swainsona spp.) of Australia and locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) of North America. These results indicate that Weir vine poisoning is an additional manifestation of the induced lysosomal storage disease, mannosidosis, possibly exacerbated by inhibition of the enzymes beta-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase by calystegine B2. This is the first reported example of a single plant species capable of producing structurally distinct glycosidase inhibitors, namely, alkaloids of the indolizidine and nortropane classes.

  6. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  7. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  8. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  9. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  10. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  11. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  12. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  13. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Drug and Health Food Products Containing Red Vine Leaf Extracts on the Japanese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yutaka; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Red vine leaf extracts (RVLEs) have traditionally been used for leg wellness and are now standardized to be used as OTC drugs in Europe. In Japan, one brand of RVLE products was recently approved as a direct OTC drug, and RVLEs are still used as ingredients in health food products. Since there is no mandated criterion for the quality of health food products in Japan, the consistent quality and composition of these products are not assured. Here we analyzed OTC drug and health food products containing RVLEs with different lot numbers by LC/MS. Subsequent multivariate analyses clearly indicated that the quality of the health food products was highly variable compared to that of the drug products. Surprisingly, the component contents in the health foods were different even within a same lot in a same brand. The quantitative analyses of flavonols and stilbene derivatives in the drugs and health foods indicated that the concentration of each substance was kept constant in the drugs but not in the health foods. These results strongly indicated that the quality of RVLEs as a whole was not properly controlled in the manufacturing process of health foods. Since RVLE is an active ingredient with pharmaceutical evidences and is used for drugs, the proper regulation for ensuring the consistent quality of RVLEs from product to product would be recommended even in the health foods.

  15. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  16. Optimization of NIR Spectral Data Management for Quality Control of Grape Bunches during On-Vine Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380–1,700 nm. The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC, reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r2 = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r2 ranging between 0.73 and 0.87 for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content.

  17. Study on Vine Diversity of Dehang Region in Hunan Province%湖南德夯风景区藤本植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建军; 徐亮; 张代贵; 肖艳; 陈功锡

    2011-01-01

    对德夯风景区藤本植物进行了调查,结果表明:本区有藤本植物249种(含变种),隶属于49科110属.科属的区系性质均以热带为主,分别占54.17%、60.91%.生活型以木质藤本为主,占68.67%.攀援类型分为4大类、9小类,其中缠绕类最多,占38.96%,卷曲类占27.31%,搭靠类占20.07%,吸固类最少,仅占13.66%.藤本植物按资源类型可分为药用植物、观赏植物、纤维植物、芳香植物、食用植物及其他,药用植物居多,而最具潜力的是观赏类植物.%Based on both field and herbarium observations in Dehang region, the results showed that the number of vine plants were 249 species, including varieties, which belonged to 110 genus and 49 families.The flora of genus and families displayed significant tropical feature, which accounting for 54.17% of total species number and 60.91% respectively.Ligneous vines were its predominant living form, accounting for 68.67%.Vine climbing mechanics were divided into 4 types and 9 subtypes, among which twining account for 38.96%, curling 27.31%, hooking 20.07%, adhering 13.66%.While according to economical properties, vine plants could be divided into medicinal plants, ornamental plants, fiber plants, food plants and others, and the species number of medicinal vine are the most, while the ornamental plants have the most promising prospect.

  18. Studies on deposition, adhesion and resuspension of radioactive substances on the ground surface and ground cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Susumu; Kurihara, Kazuo [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    After the Chernobyl` nuclear power plant accident, resuspension of radioactive nuclei into the atmosphere is recognized as the one of the important processes that must be considered in the estimation of inhalation doses to humans. In this study, resuspensions of particles from soil and grass have been studied. The resuspension of particles from bare soil was modelized by using Shao`s method. The resuspension of particles from grass was studied by a wind tunnel and a field experiment. Dependencies of the resuspension rate on time and on friction velocity were obtained clearly. And it was also found that the other meteorological parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and condensation, affected the resuspension rate in the field. (author)

  19. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  20. Nutrition Indicators of Tenebrio Fed with Purple Sweet Potato Vine%饲喂紫红薯藤对黄粉虫营养指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓蕾; 郑国勇; 李汉臣; 吉志新; 侯东军; 李明媛; 张锐; 孟品品

    2012-01-01

    [目的]寻求新的黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor L.)饲料资源及紫红薯藤的开发利用途径.[方法]在室内研究了不同比例的紫红薯藤对黄粉虫半干物质中粗蛋白、粗脂肪、钙、磷、粗灰分的含量及黄粉虫体重的影响.[结果]与对照全麦麸相比,采用紫红薯藤饲喂黄粉虫有利于黄粉虫半干物质中粗灰分、钙含量的增加,但不利于老熟幼虫体重及粗脂肪的积累,且随着紫红薯藤添加量的增加呈逐渐降低趋势.与对照相比,当紫红薯藤的添加量为40%时有利于粗蛋白的积累,且达到显著水平;当紫红薯藤的添加量超过20%时磷含量呈逐渐降低趋势.[结论]适量添加紫红薯藤能促进黄粉虫体内粗蛋白、粗灰分、钙、磷的积累,但不利于黄粉虫幼虫体重的增加,并直接影响粗脂肪的积累.%[ Objective ] To seek the new feed resources of Tenebrio molitor L. and the way of the development and utilization of purple sweet potato vine. [ Method] The crude protein, crude fat, Ca, P, crude ash, and weigh of Tenebrio molitor L. fed with different proportions of purple sweet potato vine were studied. [ Result] Compared with the control of whole wheat bran, feeding Tenebrio molito with purple sweet potato vine can increase the Ca and crude ash in the semi-dry matters of Tenebrio molitor, but goes against the accumulation of crude fat and weigh of Tenebrio molitor, and the content of crude ash and the weight of Tenebrio molitor were decreased gradually with the increasing addition of purple sweet potato vine. Compared with the control, 40% addition of purple sweet potato vine was beneficial to accumulation of crude protein. When the quantity of purple sweet potato vine was more than 20% , the phosphorus content was gradually decreased. [ Conclusion] The proper addition of purple sweet potato vine can increase the accumulation of crude protein, crude ash, Ca and P of Tenebrio molitor L. , but goes a-gainst the increase

  1. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECT OF VINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    quantitative measure influence of factors on the change of analyzable index, to ground backlogs of increase of efficiency. Most acceptable in the analysis of influence of factors there is a reception of chain substitution on the dynamics of indexes of efficiency of the use of production resources

  3. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  4. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Georadar Measurements for the Snow Cover Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Godio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Probing Radar (GPR devices is adopted for the analysis of thickness and the mechanical properties (density of the snow cover in some test site in Alps, in Northern Italy. The performances of standard radar systems for the snow cover characterisation are analysed, the main aim is to assess the reliability of the method to estimate the snow density, the snowpack thickness and the depth resolution in terms of capability to detect thin layers. The main relationships between the electrical permittivity and the density of the dry-snow are applied to estimate the density vertical profiles inferred by the GPR investigation. The data were calibrated and compared with the results coming from direct measurements of the density and thickness.

  7. Cooling experiments using dummies covered by leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L; Stückradt, S; Henssge, C; Bajanowski, T

    2007-03-01

    One main method to estimate the time of death is the measurement of the body temperature. The cooling of a corpse depends on a number of conditions including the surroundings. In cases where the cooling conditions differ from the defined standard, a corrective factor is used to characterise the influence of clothing, air movement, the properties of the supporting base and the humidity. Nothing is known about the significance of other circumstances, for example of a tegument by leaves or wet leaves. Therefore, the cooling of dummies which were placed on a 2-cm-thick layer of wet/dry leaves and covered by a 10-cm-thick layer of leaves was investigated. Corrective factors of 1.0 for wet leaves on the ground and of 1.3 and 1.5 for drier leaves were found. If the dummies were additionally covered, corrective factors ranged between 1.8 and 2.7.

  8. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant foods are naturally present some bioactive compounds, that are compounds having or not nutritional value and with biological activity that is expressed in reducing the risk of developing many chronic diseases, therefore leading a key protective effect on our health. Within this group of compounds the antioxidants are included. The importance of antioxidants contained in food is associated with their ability to exert in vivo, in the human body, beneficial effects against chronical- degenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress and age. It has been attributed a positive role to grape polyphenols in terms of increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses, thanks to regulation of genes coding for key enzymes of antioxidant system. For the polyphenols it has also been recognized a specific action of tumor growth inhibition, linked to the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis or to the inhibition of growth factors and cell proliferation activation. After carbohydrates and acids, the phenolic compounds represent the largest group among grape constituents. The synthesis of these secondary metabolites takes place in two distinct phases of vine growth cycle: fruit set and maturation. The polyphenolic composition contributes to grapes and wine sensory properties, such as color, flavor, astringency, and determines the antioxidant capacity of the extract. These metabolites are mainly related to the variety and their content is influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Among the polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxicinnamiltartaric acids, flavonols, flavans, stilbene and resveratrol are of particular interest. Despite numerous studies in the vine-wine industry on polyphenols quantification and qualification, we don't know much about the environmental conditions that affect their synthesis in grapes and how they are extracted from it in wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the study of antioxidant property and

  9. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  11. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  12. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  13. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Duguay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.

  14. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  15. Design of Single Ridge Sweet Potato Vine Shredder%单垄红薯薯藤切碎机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申屠留芳; 巩尊国; 宗林新; 孙星钊; 孙成龙

    2014-01-01

    红薯味道甜美,富含碳水化合物、膳食纤维、胡萝卜素、维生素以及钾、镁、铜、硒、钙等10余种元素,其营养价值和养生保健作用很大。因此,红薯在世界各地是很多人喜欢的食物,近年来得到广泛的种植,因此红薯收割机器有着广阔的市场前景。藤蔓的处理是红薯收割的主要组成部分,人工切除耗时耗力,并且不能达到切碎的效果。红薯薯藤切碎机的设计能很好地将藤蔓切割、切碎且回归田地,使红薯藤的处理方便快捷,可增加土壤有机质,达到农业生产节本增效的目的。%Sweet potato taste sweet , rich in carbohydrates , dietary fiber , carotene , vitamins and potassium , magnesium , copper, selenium, calcium and so on more than 10 kinds of elements, the sweet potato is small, its nutritional value and health care function is great .Therefore , the sweet potato is a lot of people like the food in the world , in recent years more and more widely planted , so can harvest sweet potatoes machine has broad market prospects. The vine treatment is the main part of the sweet potato harvest , artificial excision and time-consuming , and cannot achieve the shredding effect .Design of sweet potato vine shredder can be chopped vines cut and return to field , the processing of sweet potato vine is convenient , at the same time , increase soil organic matter , to realize the agricultural production cost saving pur-pose .

  16. Mechanical properties of sweet potato vine and stalk during harvest%甘薯收获期藤蔓茎秆的机械特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良龙; 王公仆; 凌小燕; 王冰; 王伯凯; 游兆延

    2015-01-01

    为探明甘薯收获期藤蔓茎秆机械特性,以便提高甘薯藤蔓机械粉碎还田作业质量,该文农机农艺结合,以江苏南京地区鲜食紫甘薯宁紫1号、宁紫2号为试验对象,应用电子万能试验机、甘薯藤蔓粉碎还田试验机等仪器设备,研究了收获期甘薯藤蔓茎秆含水率和剪切强度的变化,揭示了茎秆含水率、剪切强度和机械碎蔓作业质量的内在关系,获得了含水率在86.92%~70.08%时,2个紫甘薯品种藤蔓茎秆剪切力与含水率之间变化的二次函数回归方程;明确了经验收获期开始时藤蔓茎秆含水率分别为81.5%和78.1%、剪切力分别为90.1和94.8 N;从提高机械作业质量角度出发,提出了收获期内最宜机械碎蔓作业时间约为6~8 d。研究结果为新型甘薯藤蔓粉碎还田机转速、切刀线速度等参数设计提供了直接依据,并为适宜的甘薯收获期选择和适宜机械作业的栽培农艺研究提供了参考。%Sweet potato is a crop which is drought-resistant, tolerant of poor soil, and owns increasingly enormous potential. It is an important foodstuff, a raw material for starch industry, a kind of health food to prevent cancer and a new raw material for energy as well. The sweet potato planting area in China per year on average is usually 3 667 000 hectares, accounting for 45% of the world's planting area. As sweet potato vines are very long and broomy, the vines must be cleaned up before sweet potatoes are harvested, otherwise are unable to be harvested. Vine crushing and returning machine is usually the dominant form adopted to clean sweet potato vines internationally, but the problems existed in this type of machine were obvious such as low smashing proportion and more stubble residue on the top ridge. New problems have been brought by long stubble such as blocking, larger load and worse smooth working property. Aiming at these problems, the machinery and agronomy should

  17. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  18. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... covering must be provided to preclude hazardous damage to rotors or critical control components in the...

  19. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree biomass dynamics in the ..... closed woodland, open woodland, bushed grassland, Marshaland, ... structure. Three VIs were tested i.e. Atmospherically Resistance. Vegetation Index .... (2008) and Vihemäki (2009) have argued that a complex.

  20. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  1. The results of the vine varieties reconversion measures in the North-Eastern Romania / Résultats de la mesure de reconversion des cépages dans le Nord-Est de la Roumanie

    OpenAIRE

    Enia Florin-Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The vine varieties reconversion measure is one of the many benefits that the Romania's integration to the European Union brings to the wine sector. This study aims to analyze the results of this measure during 2007–2015 in the Romania's North-East Region. From the Vineyard Plantation Register, the plots noble vine parcels of each department were divided into two groups: those who existed in the field in before and those converted during the period. The surface of each group was classified fir...

  2. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  3. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, D.A. [SEACOR Environmental Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tratch, D.J. [Watermark Consulting Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  5. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile.

  6. A Synoptic Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Grapevine Leafroll Disease in a Historic Napa Vineyard and Experimental Vine Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, K; Golino, D A; McRoberts, N

    2017-04-01

    Five Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) epidemics were analyzed utilizing a standardized approach to robustly characterize the temporal and spatial parameters. Published data included in the analysis are from Spain, New Zealand, and Napa Valley, CA together with new data from a historic vineyard in Napa Valley, CA. Linear regression analyses of logit-transformed incidence data indicated a maximum average increase of 11% per year in disease incidence, with considerable variation among locations. Spatial analyses, including distribution fitting, examination of the effective sample size, and evaluation of the parameters of the binary power law fitted to variance data for disease incidence, indicated a high degree of consistency among the data sets. In all cases, except at very low disease incidence, a high degree of spatial aggregation was noted, with evidence that the degree of aggregation varied as a function of mean disease incidence. The polyetic dynamics of disease follow a logistic-like pattern over multiple seasons, consistent with limitation by inoculum availability (infected vines) at low incidence and limitation by disease-free vines at high incidence.

  7. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  8. 葛根膳食纤维饼干的研制%Development of Biscuit Made by Kudzu Vine Root Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐凌锋

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu vine Root dietary fiber was used to made functional biscuits. Results showed that the best recipes were: flour 100 g, Kudzu Vine Root dietary fiber 30%, oil 10%, bulking agent 1% [ratio of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate 1:0.5 (m/m)] and sugar 30%. The biscuits were crispy and had attractive colors and unique flavors.%本文以葛根膳食纤维为辅料,研究制备具有保健作用的葛根膳食纤维饼干.试验结果表明,该饼干的最佳配方为:面粉100g,葛根膳食纤维粉30%,植物油10%,疏松剂1%[碳酸氢钠与碳酸氢铵1∶0.5(m/m)],白砂糖30%.制得的饼干色泽诱人,口感酥脆,风味独特.

  9. Landscape Application of the Vine in Ordos%藤本植物在鄂尔多斯地区的园林应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娇; 李欣; 杨絮茹; 李瑞娟; 吴建华

    2015-01-01

    Using climbing plants for vertical greening is an important path to expand the green space,in-crease the amount of garden city and improve the ecological environment. As area available for garden af-forestation is becoming smaller and smaller,making full use of climbing plants for creating garden land-scape has become the current focus. in this paper,we aim to discuss the vine rescourse in Ordos,land-scape application form and development and utilization value vine rescourse,so as to provide the theoreti-cal basis for their introduction to landscaping.%藤本植物进行垂直绿化是拓展城市绿化空间、提高绿化覆盖率、改善生态环境的重要途径。随着城市园林绿化面积愈来愈小,利用藤本植物营造园林绿化景观已成为当下热点。本文主要对鄂尔多斯地区藤本植物资源、园林绿化应用方式及具开发价值的藤本植物资源进行了初步探讨,旨在对藤本植物园林应用提供理论参考依据。

  10. At-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography for bioassay-guided separation of antioxidants from vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruyi; Zhou, Rongrong; Tong, Runna; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), a widely used healthy tea, beverage and herbal medicine, exhibited strong antioxidant activity. However, systematic purification of antioxidants, especially for those with similar structures or polarities, is a challenging work. Here, we present a novel at-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (HSCCC-Sephadex LH-20 CC) for rapid and efficient separation of antioxidants from vine tea target-guided by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) experiment. A makeup pump, a six-port switching valve and a trapping column were served as interface. The configuration had no operational time and mobile phase limitations between two dimensional chromatography and showed great flexibility without tedious sample-handling procedure. Seven targeted antioxidants were firstly separated by stepwise HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:9:4:9, v/v/v/v) and (4:9:5:8, v/v/v/v) as solvent systems, and then co-eluted antioxidants were on-line trapped, concentrated and desorbed to Sephadex LH-20 column for further off-line purification by methanol. It is noted that six elucidated antioxidants with purity over 95% exhibited stronger activity than ascorbic acid (VC). More importantly, this at-line hyphenated strategy could sever as a rapid and efficient pathway for systematic purification of bioactive components from complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  12. Set Covering Problems with General Objective Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a parameterized version of set cover that generalizes several previously studied problems. Given a ground set V and a collection of subsets S_i of V, a feasible solution is a partition of V such that each subset of the partition is included in one of the S_i. The problem involves maximizing the mean subset size of the partition, where the mean is the generalized mean of parameter p, taken over the elements. For p=-1, the problem is equivalent to the classical minimum set cover problem. For p=0, it is equivalent to the minimum entropy set cover problem, introduced by Halperin and Karp. For p=1, the problem includes the maximum-edge clique partition problem as a special case. We prove that the greedy algorithm simultaneously approximates the problem within a factor of (p+1)^1/p for any p in R^+, and that this is the best possible unless P=NP. These results both generalize and simplify previous results for special cases. We also consider the corresponding graph coloring problem, and prove several tr...

  13. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  14. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Tempranillo vine & wine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La variedad Tempranillo es originaria de la zona limítrofe entre La Rioja y Burgos, se ha extendido siguiendo la ruta de los monasterios Cirtescienses por toda España, llegando así a Madrid, Valdepeñas, Cataluña, Extremadura y toda la ribera del río Duero, donde se ha extendido desde su nacimiento hasta Portugal. •La variedad Tempranillo es la variedad por excelencia dedicada en España a la producción de vinos de crianza y reserva. Actualmente es importante además de en España en Portugal ...

  16. Thunder God Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... us ... 66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/NON-DISPLAY (Supplements page) ... us ... 66954 ... https:// ...

  17. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  18. High plains cover crop research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  19. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  20. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  1. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  2. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.

  3. The effect of nitrogen rate on vine kill, tuber skinning injury, tuber yield and size distribution, and tuber nutrients and phytonutrients in two potato cultivars grown for early potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early potatoes are typically produced using less nitrogen than a full season potato crop as high rates of nitrogen may delay tuber set and lead to excessive vine growth that is difficult to terminate prior to harvest. Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars were grown with preplant soil nitrogen levels...

  4. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  5. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  6. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  7. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  8. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  9. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  10. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  11. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Sun

    2004-07-09

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).

  12. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  13. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  14. Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office

    2017-01-01

    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  15. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  16. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  17. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  18. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  19. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

  20. Differential absorption of metals from soil to diverse vine varieties from the Valley of Tulum (Argentina): consequences to evaluate wine provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabani, María P; Toro, María E; Vázquez, Fabio; Díaz, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-08-26

    We report the effect of vine variety on the absorption of metals from soil and follow the variety from wine through juice, verifying which metals could be used to assess wine provenance. Eleven metals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 32 soils, 16 grapes juices, and 18 wines sampled from a single vineyard having four red grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Bonarda, Malbec, and Syrah). The K nearest neighbor method allows us to distinguish among different soils, juices, and wines. Linear discriminant analysis affords descriptors to point out differences, mainly Mg, Mn, Ca, K, and Na. Data analysis evidenced that some elements have equivalent concentrations in soil, juice, and wine, while others did not. Canonical analysis shows good correlation between grape juice and wine with their provenance soil. We suggest using Mg as a marker of wine provenance, while Mn could be used to evaluate differences between wine varieties associated with plant physiology.

  1. The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide generation and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Bölck, Birgit; Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Stabenow, Christina Julia Annika; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-01

    The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 improves cutaneous oxygen supply and the microcirculation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Regulation of blood flow was associated to nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO (nitric oxide) production, and endothelial and red blood cells (RBC) have been shown to possess respective NOS isoforms. It was hypothesized that AS195 positively affects NOS activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RBC. Because patients with microvascular disorders show increased oxidative stress which limits NO bioavailability, it was further hypothesized that AS195 increases NO bioavailability by decreasing the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant capacity. Cultured HUVECs and RBCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with AS195 (100 μmol/L), tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP, 1 mmol/L) to induce oxidative stress and with both AS195 and TBHP. Endothelial and red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation significantly increased after AS195 incubation. Nitrite concentration, a marker for NO production, increased in HUVEC but decreased in RBC after AS195 application possibly due to nitrite scavenging potential of flavonoids. S-nitrosylation of RBC cytoskeletal spectrins and RBC deformability were increased after AS195 incubation. TBHP-induced ROS were decreased by AS195, and antioxidative capacity was significantly increased in AS195-treated cells. TBHP also reduced RBC deformability, but reduction was attenuated by parallel incubation with AS195. Adhesion of HUVEC was also reduced after AS195 treatment. Red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases NOS activation and decreases oxidative stress. Both mechanisms increase NO bioavailability, improve cell function, and may thus account for enhanced microcirculation in both health and disease.

  2. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  3. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  4. Reduced melt on debris-covered glaciers: investigations from Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Christian; Wagnon, Patrick; Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Shrestha, Dibas; Soruco, Alvaro; Arnaud, Yves; Brun, Fanny; Berthier, E.; Sherpa, Sonam Futi

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25 % of the glacierized area in the Everest region is covered by debris, yet the surface mass balance of debris-covered portions of these glaciers has not been measured directly. In this study, ground-based measurements of surface elevation and ice depth are combined with terrestrial

  5. Managed Clearings: an Unaccounted Land-cover in Urbanizing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Madden, M.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Managed clearings (MC), such as lawns, public parks and grassy transportation medians, are a common and ecologically important land cover type in urbanizing regions, especially those characterized by sprawl. We hypothesize that MC is underrepresented in land cover classification schemes and data products such as NLCD (National Land Cover Database) data, which may impact environmental assessments and models of urban ecosystems. We visually interpreted and mapped fine scale land cover with special attention to MC using 2012 NAIP (National Agriculture Imagery Program) images and compared the output with NLCD data. Areas sampled were 50 randomly distributed 1*1km blocks of land in three cities of the Char-lanta mega-region (Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh). We estimated the abundance of MC relative to other land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in NLCD data that are similar to MC. We also assessed if the designations of recreation, transportation, and utility in MC inform the problem differently than simply tallying MC as a whole. 610 ground points, collected using the Google Earth, were used to evaluate accuracy of NLCD data and visual interpretation for consistency. Overall accuracy of visual interpretation and NLCD data was 78% and 58%, respectively. NLCD data underestimated forest and MC by 14.4km2 and 6.4km2, respectively, while overestimated impervious surfaces by 10.2km2 compared to visual interpretation. MC was the second most dominant land cover after forest (40.5%) as it covered about 28% of the total area and about 13% higher than impervious surfaces. Results also suggested that recreation in MC constitutes up to 90% of area followed by transportation and utility. Due to the prevalence of MC in urbanizing regions, the addition of MC to the synthesis of land-cover data can help delineate realistic cover types and area proportions that could inform ecologic/hydrologic models, and allow for accurate prediction of ecological phenomena.

  6. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Integrating cover crops into a nut orchard can have some unique benefits and problems not found when used cover crops during the fallow period between cash crops. Studies show ground covers can reduce hardwood tree growth anywhere from a few percent to more than 70 percent in the case of tall fescue. This means if it takes 3 years to put on one inch of diameter growth...

  7. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  8. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  9. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  10. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  11. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  12. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  13. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  14. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  15. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  16. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  17. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1

  18. Transmittance spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging to map covered paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmitted spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging in the 400-900 nm range have been applied for the mapping and tentative identification of paints covered by a white preparation as in the case of a ground laid for reusing a canvas for another painting. These methods can be applied to polychrome works of art, as long as their support and new preparation are sufficiently translucent. This work presents the transmittance spectra acquired from a test board consisting of a prepared canvas with swatches of 54 pigments covered with titanium white and the multispectral images realized with transmitted light to map covered paints on a mock-up painting. It was observed that 18 out of 54 historical pigments provide characteristic transmittance spectra even underneath a titanium white preparation layer and that transmitted light multispectral imaging can map hidden paint layers.

  19. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  20. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  1. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  2. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  4. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  5. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  6. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  7. Effect of the different cover crops on the soil moisture in a Hungarian vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Ádám; Miglécz, Tamás; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Török, Péter; Tóthmérész, Béla; Drexler, Dóra

    2017-04-01

    Since many years it is well known that the one-sided mechanical soil cultivation of vineyard inter-rows has many disadvantages. Growers can choose from alternative tillage technologies, such as the usage of green manure, or covering the inter-rows with straw mulch. Another possible technology is tto cover the inter-rows with species-rich seed mixtures. However, selection of the most suitable species is crucial; we have to take into consideration the age of the vines, and the specific characteristics of the vineyards involved. Species rich cover crop technology has many advantages: 1) it helps to prevent erosion and creates easier cultivation circumstances, 2) it has a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem services, 3) we can create native mixtures from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard which enhances the nature conservation value of our site. But, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or negatively influence produce quality. In the year of 2012 we created, and started to study three different cover-crop mixtures in Hungarian wine regions under on-farm conditions: Biocont-Ecovin mixture, Mixture of Legumes, Mixture of Grass and Herbs. The results of the botanical surveys, yield and pruning weight were published in many papers and presentations before (e.g. Miglécz et al. 2015, Donkó et al. 2016). Besides the above measures, one key point of the effectiveness and sustainability of the living mulch vegetation is the level of soil moisture. That is why we started to investigate the soil moisture (vol %) of different treatments (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, Mixture of Legumes, Mixture of Grass and Herbs, coverage with Lolium perenne, and Control (spontaneous weed flora)) in at the Feind Winery in Balatonfőkajár (Hungary). The investigated variety is Welschriesling on loamy soil (Tihany Formation), planted in 2010. The seed mixtures were sown in the spring of 2013. We measured soil moisture

  8. Design and Experiment on the Reciprocating Cutter for Vines%往复式葡萄藤切割器优化设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙魁; 刘进宝; 张静; 杨宛章; 郭辉

    2014-01-01

    The structural principle of the reciprocating cutter for vines was studied .Meanwhile , the resistance , the en-ergy consumption and power were analyzed .An optimization mathematical model was established for the pursuit of mini-mal energy consumption .The optimization results including the cutter crank speed n=320 r/min , the crank radius of the Cutter r=50mm , the cutter trip s=100mm , the speed of the machine vm=0.9m/s and the length of machine cutting B=1.1m.Finally ,the experiment showd the results are validated and the datas are reliabled .Which can replace the ex-perimental data as the reference , provides areference for the development of low power design of vine pruning machine .%研究了往复式葡萄藤修剪机械切割器的结构原理,分析计算了往复式葡萄藤切割器工作行程的阻耗和功耗。以往复式葡萄藤切割器工作行程的阻耗和功耗最小为目标函数,建立优化设计的数学模型,优化计算结果为:割刀曲柄转速 n=320r/min,割刀曲柄半径r=50mm,切割器行程s=100mm,机器前进速度vm=0.9m/s,机器割幅B=1.1m。试验表明,优化设计结果合理,优化数据可靠,能替代试验数据作为参考依据,为低功耗葡萄藤修剪机的研发提供了一种设计参考。

  9. Comparision of Uptake Models for Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba) in Vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Castilla-La Mancha (spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Bravo, Sandra; Higueras, Pablo; Moreno, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Castilla-La Mancha is the biggest vine-growing region in the world (about 500,000 ha) and one of the most important in terms of production of wine. The soils diversity should induce differences in the uptake of mineral elements by the vineyard. Of over the regional vine extension, 101 plots were selected and analyzed soil samples from each of them, following the description by FAO procedures. Samples of leaves were also taken from each soil plot. We analyzed the contents of mineral elements in both soil and leaf, using the FRX technique. This paper is focused on the elements strontium and barium because they are the trace elements having a higher concentration in the soils of the region, with values in soil range from 22.3 mg•kg-1-3602.7 mg•kg-1 in strontium and from 65.4 mg•kg-1 to 469.3 mg•kg-1 in barium. The contents of both elements in leaves have ranged from 23.3 mg•kg-1 y 1084.5 mg•kg-1 for strontium, and between 3.86 mg•kg-1 and 235.0 mg•kg-1 for barium. The aim of this work is state the behaviour in the soil-plant system for both elements. For this study, different statistical adjustment models have been tested (linear, multiplicative, exponential and logarithmic). The results show that the values of "R" for strontium are higher than barium in all models. Samples have also been studied by soil order (classified according to the FAO criteria). In this case, significant correlation from strontium have been found in all soil orders, except in calcisols. Significant correlations for barium appear only in entisols and luvisols. In conclusion it can be seen how these two elements differ in their behaviour in the soil-plant system. In general, the concentration of strontium in the soil is better correlated with leaf content than barium in the same soil. We can suggest a greater facility for the absorption of strontium by the grapevine. In calcisols, bearing in mind the interference of calcium, this uptake does not present such a high correlation

  10. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS.

  11. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  12. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  14. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  15. Morpho-physiological characterization of grapevine attacked by ground-pearl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ground pearl Eurhizoccoccus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is an important pest of Brazilian viticulture, related to symptoms of decline and death of plants. Despite this evidence, there is no technical information on insect-plant interactions and how the symptoms are established. Therefore, this study aimed to expose the physiological mechanisms related to the symptoms of the ground pearl attack. Seedlings of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and adult plants of a commercial vineyard of ‘Isabel’, were evaluated in vegetative development of commercial area, nutrition and metabolism of leaves by the contrast of healthy and infested plants by the insect. In attacked plants it was possible to verify a significant reduction of vegetative growth. However, foliar symptoms were not expressed in two years old seedlings. In adult plants attacked, leaves, tissues of branches, roots and fruits were evaluated. The largest effects were observed in necrotic leaves, which showed a reduction of potassium (-26%, boron (-21%, total chlorophyll (-43% and photosynthetic rate (-45%, in comparison to healthy plants. However, these same necrotic leaves showed a significant accumulation of starch (+316%. Therefore, these results suggest that ground pearl promotes the symptoms on the vine in a systemic way by blocking the transport of assimilates from leaves to other plant tissues.

  16. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  17. 观赏藤本植物在城市园林中的应用与发展研究%Application and Development of Ornamental Vines in Urban Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐登明; 李双全

    2012-01-01

    介绍了常见观赏藤本植物的栽培树种及其性状表现,探讨了棚架式、附壁式、垂挂式、凉廊式、篱坦式园林造景方式与景观效果,分析了观赏藤本植物的栽培现状和存在问题,明确其在园林绿化中的发展方向,强调应重视观赏藤木植物的造型艺术,研究其生态适应性,加强良种选育,注重养护管理,以期对推进垂直绿化和增加城市绿量具有较好的指导意义.%Cultivated species and characters of the mostly-applied ornamental vines were introduced, such garden landscaping methods as pergola type, affiliated-to-wall type and hanging type as well as their respective landscape effects explored, current cultivation and problems analyzed. Development trend of ornamental vines in garden landscaping was defined, modeling arts of ornamental vines were stressed, ecological adaptability of these species studied, selection and cultivation of improved varieties enhanced, maintenance and management valued to promote vertical greening and increase urban green quantity.

  18. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  19. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bruez

    Full Text Available Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD, is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP, and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period.

  20. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed.

  1. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  2. Land cover detection with SAR images of Delta del Llobregat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, R.; Borges, P. A. V.; Calado, H.; Broquetas, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a study of a multitemporal set of C-band images collected by ERS-2, aiming to understand the differentiations of the backscatter intensity and the phase coherence of different land covers to find possible synergies that could improve land cover detection. The land cover analysis allowed to observe the perfect differentiation of urban areas from intensity images. The observation of multitemporal RGB compositions combining key dates of the different points of crops growth make possible to differentiate this land cover and also to observe fluctuations inside the class itself. This fluctuations present a pattern that correspond to the crop field structure, which suggests that more information can be obtained. The shrubs are difficult to detect from the intensity images, but once the observation is combined with coherence images the detection is possible. However, the coherence image must be generated from pairs of images with a temporal interval lower than three months, independently from the year of registration of each image due to the general decrease of coherence when larger intervals are used. The analysis allowed to observe the potential of this data to perfect distinguish urban, crops and shrubs. The study of the seasonal fluctuations of intensity for the crops land cover with precise ground truth for crops type and points of growth is proposed as a future line of research.

  3. EXACT ALGORITHM FOR BIN COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  4. Green's conjecture for general covers

    CERN Document Server

    Aprodu, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  5. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  6. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun

    2006-01-01

    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  7. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  8. The use of cover crops to increase soil organic carbon in Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Andrés; Bienes Allas, Ramón; Sastre Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-04-01

    In Central Spain the vineyards are commonly managed with conventional tillage (CT) to remove water and nutrient competition between the spontaneous vegetation and the vine plants. The continuous tillage promotes high mineralization rates resulting in soils with low organic matter content and prone to erosion. Consequently the increase of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Mediterranean soils has been a main concern in the last years. It is necessary to carry out different soil managements to enhance soil fertility and reduce erosion through the increase of SOC. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of cover crops (CC) to increase SOC in vineyards in Mediterranean climate. The experiment consisted in four vineyards in four different locations (different type of soil and microclimate), in the same region, to analyze the influence of CC on different conditions. A seeded CC (Brachypodium distachyon L. P. Beauv) and spontaneous vegetation were performed to compare to CT. The Brachypodium distachyon cover was seeded in December, 2012. We analyzed the organic carbon content and bulk density after three agronomy seasons. The samples were taken in the summer of 2015 at the depth of 0-5 cm. The bulk density of Brachypodium distachyon was 1.42 t•m-3, which was statistically significant comparing to both CT (1.33 t•m-3) and spontaneous vegetation (1.34 t•m-3). The SOC percentage of CT, Brachypodium distachyon and spontaneous vegetation was 0.82, 0.96 and 1.10 respectively. Only spontaneous vegetation showed statistically significant differences compared to CT. The results were highly variable depending on the vineyard. The spontaneous vegetation was the most effective CC increasing SOC with an average of 2 t•ha-1 more than CT in three agronomy seasons. These results point out the different efficiency of CC and the high influence of local conditions on SOC increase.

  9. Commutator coverings of Siegel threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the existence and non-existence of modular forms of low weight with a character with respect to the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and discuss the resulting geometric consequences. Using an advanced version of Maa\\ss\\ lifting one can construct many examples of such modular forms and in particular examples of weight 3 cusp forms. Consequently we find many abelian coverings of low degree of the moduli space ${\\Cal A}_t$ of (1,t)-polarized abelian surfaces which are not unirational. We also determine the commutator subgroups of the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and its degree 2 extension $\\Gamma^+_t$. This has applications for the Picard group of the moduli stack ${\\underline{\\Cal A}}_t$. Finally we prove non-existence theorems for low weight modular forms. As one of our main results we obtain the theorem that the maximal abelian cover ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ of ${\\Cal A}_t$ has geometric genus 0 if and only if t=1, 2, 4 or 5. We also prove that ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ has geometric genus 1 for t=3 and 7.

  10. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  11. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  12. Spatial Patterns of Snow Cover in North Carolina: Surface and Satellite Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Christopher M.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Perry, L. Baker; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Snow mapping is a common practice in regions that receive large amounts of snowfall annually, have seasonally-continuous snow cover, and where snowmelt contributes significantly to the hydrologic cycle. Although higher elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains average upwards of 100 inches of snow annually, much of the remainder of the Southeast U.S. receives comparatively little snowfall (snow cover and the physical processes that act to limit or improve its detection across the Southeast. In the present work, both in situ and remote sensing data are utilized to assess the spatial distribution of snow cover for a sample of recent snowfall events in North Carolina. Specifically, this work seeks to determine how well ground measurements characterize the fine-grained patterns of snow cover in relation to Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover products (in this case, the MODIS Fractional Snow Cover product).

  13. A global dataset of crowdsourced land cover and land use reference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Perger, Christoph; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Duerauer, Martina; Karner, Mathias; Dresel, Christopher; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Lesiv, Myroslava; Moorthy, Inian; Salk, Carl F; Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Albrecht, Franziska; You, Liangzhi; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Global land cover is an essential climate variable and a key biophysical driver for earth system models. While remote sensing technology, particularly satellites, have played a key role in providing land cover datasets, large discrepancies have been noted among the available products. Global land use is typically more difficult to map and in many cases cannot be remotely sensed. In-situ or ground-based data and high resolution imagery are thus an important requirement for producing accurate land cover and land use datasets and this is precisely what is lacking. Here we describe the global land cover and land use reference data derived from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing platform via four campaigns. These global datasets provide information on human impact, land cover disagreement, wilderness and land cover and land use. Hence, they are relevant for the scientific community that requires reference data for global satellite-derived products, as well as those interested in monitoring global terrestrial ecosystems in general.

  14. The contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Smith, A.; Campanella, A.; Rango, A.

    2008-12-01

    The heterogeneity of vegetation and soils in arid and semi-arid environments complicates the analysis of medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. A single pixel may contain several different types of vegetation, as well as a sizeable proportion of bare soil. We have used linear mixture modeling to explore the contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance. In October, 2006, aerial imagery (0.25 m spatial resolution) was acquired for our study sites in the Jornada Experimental Range, southern New Mexico. Imagery was also acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for June and November, 2006. These data corresponded with pre- and post monsoon conditions. Object-based feature extraction was used to classify the aerial imagery to shrub, grass and bare ground cover classes. Percent cover was then calculated for each cover class. Visible-near-infrared and shortwave infrared ASTER reflectance data from both dates were combined into a single 18-band dataset (30 m spatial resolution). A vector overlay from the classification results of the aerial imagery was used to define pure endmember pixels in the ASTER imagery. Estimates of the proportions of shrub, grass and bare ground cover from the linear mixture modeling approach were compared with cover calculated using feature extraction from the aerial imagery. The results indicate that reflectance in ASTER pixels is likely to be a linear combination of the cover proportions of the three main cover types (shrubs, grass, bare ground). However, noticeable outliers in the relationship between cover calculated from each method, indicate there may be other variables that affect the accuracy with which we can estimate cover using linear mixture modeling.

  15. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  16. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  17. Impacts of Myanmar's Democratic Transition on its Land Cover Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recently Myanmar transitioned from a closed economy, military government to market based economy and democracy. The impacts of the political and economic transition on its land cover can be described by characterizing the land cover dynamics during the transition period. Preliminary stratified sampling of forest conversions revealed that most changes from forest to non-forest are due to establishment of rubber plantations. Agricultural concessions are granted by the government to develop the agriculture sector and rubber is the most common plantation crop in Southern Myanmar. This study establishes a method to map and quantify the extent and age of rubber plantations in Thaton district of Myanmar using satellite remote sensing, GIS and ground data. The resultant rubber maps can be used to inform policy on land use planning, agriculture, forest and sustainable development.

  18. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  19. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  20. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Durigan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  1. Measurement of Crown Cover and Leaf Area Index Using Digital Cover Photography and Its Application to Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Macfarlane

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital cover photography (DCP is a high resolution, vertical field-of-view method for ground-based estimation of forest metrics, and has advantages over fisheye sensors owing to its ease of application and high accuracy. We conducted the first thorough technical appraisal of DCP using both single-lens-reflex (DSLR and point-and-shoot cameras and concluded that differences result primarily from the better quality optics available for the DSLR camera. File compression, image size and ISO equivalence had little or no effect on estimates of forest metrics. We discuss the application of DCP for ground truthing of remotely sensed canopy metrics, and highlight its strengths over fisheye photography for testing and calibration of vertical field-of-view remote sensing.

  2. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  3. Spatial distribution of pheromone in vineyards treated for mating disruption of the grape vine mothLobesia botrana measured with electroantennograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, G; Sauer, A E

    1995-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the pheromone of the grape vine moth.Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was measured in vineyards treated for mating disruption by using an electroantennogram technique (EAG). Five hundred dispensers per hectare, each containing 0.1 g of the main component of the sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (E7,Z9-12: Ac) were evenly distributed in the experimental vineyards. The EAG amplitudes measured in the experimental plots were transformed into relative pheromone concentrations by means of a calibration curve. Mean relative pheromone concentrations in the center of a treated plot reached 2.31 × 10(-4) relative units. No significant differences in the mean relative pheromone concentrations were found between replicate plots (P > 0.01). The mean relative pheromone concentrations measured within one plot along a transect at 5-m intervals also showed no significant differences between the sites. These results indicate that inside the borders of treated areas the pheromone was evenly distributed. No sites with significantly lower pheromone concentrations, frequently assumed to be the cause for higher trap catches in some areas, were found. However, the mean relative pheromone concentration rapidly declined more than 100-fold outside the border of the treated plot. At 10 m from the treated area, the EAGs showed no significant difference compared to the EAGs recorded in an untreated area. A rapid drop in the mean relative pheromone concentration was also found on a vertical transect through the canopy of the vineyard. Measurements in an untreated control block gave a mean antennal response approximately 1000-fold lower than in a nearby pheromone treated plot. The significance of the variation in the pheromone distribution for the success of the mating-disruption method is discussed.

  4. Influence of ph in the Uptake and Accumulation of Mineral Elements on Vine Leaf (Vitis vinifera L.) from Castilla-La Mancha (SPAIN.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Sandra; Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Higueras, Pablo; Sanchez-Ormeño, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Each soil-plant system has specific parameters on the uptake of different minerals in the soil, depending on several factors. One of these factors, perhaps the most important, is the pH. 101 Vineyard plots have been selected in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and have been analysed (pH among other parameters) by the methods described by FAO. Leaf samples have also been taken in each plot. We analysed the content of 25 mineral elements in both soil and leaf through FRX technique. In addition, we calculated the BAC (bioaccumulation coefficient, calculated as the ratio between the concentration of element in the plant and soil) to stablish if the soil pH influences the accumulation of mineral elements for the plant. As a result we have observed a different behavior of groups of elements for acids or alkaline soils. Thus, the alkaline elements (Na, K, Rb) have a higher BAC value in alkaline soils except cesium (Cs) that has a similar value; while the alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Mg, Sr) present lower BAC in alkaline soils except for barium (Ba) that shows similar value in both cases. Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Th and Nd) have very similar values in bioaccumulation for acidic and alkaline soils, while metals (Fe, Al, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Rb and Pb) show a higher bioaccumulation in alkaline soils. Instead Mn, Zn and Ga are preferently bioaccumulated in acid soils. The values obtained for the sulfur (S) are superior in acid soils. We conclude that certain mineral elements accumulate in the leaves of vines depending on the soil pH. The pH will influence the ionic form in which the element is present in the soil and plants preferentially uptake mineral elements in certain ionic forms.

  5. Hummingbird Ecstasy footprint and cultural guide for vine and wine. The case of "Marqués of Villa de Leyva"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article reflecting on viticulture in Boyacá, is analyzed from the project and its product Ain Karim wine Marqués de Villa de Leyva, located in the Valley of Zaquencipá, a structured system of meanings that this type of agriculture does unite in place where it is installed. Historically, viticultural practices have managed to involve substantial elements of cultural dynamics: belief systems, identity, health and disease, and ways to socialize economy ingesting fermented beverages. The wine "Marquis of Villa de Leyva" emerges in a context of climate, soil and subsoil, with potential for development characteristics, which however must be certified with specialized studies of tropical modern winemaking. In this Zaquencipá Valley, as it was called ancestrally, the religious geosmbólica was irradiated by Iguaquemountains, sacred space Muiscas. The conquest and colonization transformed it by the Christian geosimbólica, economic (production of wheat and military. Currently the town of Villa de Leyva and his environment is attractive to tourists, middle-class residents and significant capital, in this context arises the Vineyard founded in the early eighties by Mr. Pablo Toro, originally imported strains Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. This replicates the culture of the vine and wine, which is also supported by a constant of aesthetics, hygiene and ethno-specific technical. its process leaves substantial perceive elements of cultural globalization, internationalization and localities need to analyze the ethno-regional production techniques.

  6. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  7. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  8. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  9. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  12. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  13. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  14. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  15. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  16. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  17. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  18. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  19. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  20. Thermodestruction of components of anticorrosion polymer cover

    OpenAIRE

    Тихомирова, Татьяна Сергеевна

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the processes of thermodestruction of multilayer polymer cover, which is widely used to protect the external surface of steel pipelines. The main purpose of the work is to prove the possibility of combination of various polymer components in one cover preserving the thermostability of the cover. The behavior of the separate modified components of the cover at high temperatures was analyzed using the differential-thermal analysis and the derivative thermogravimetry...

  1. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  2. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  3. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  4. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  5. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  6. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  7. Estimating mean plant cover from different types of cover data: a coherent statistical framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, C

    2014-01-01

    Plant cover is measured by different methods and it is important to be able to estimate mean cover and to compare estimates of plant cover across different sampling methods in a coherent statistical framework...

  8. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  9. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  10. National land-cover pattern data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  12. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    , soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted...

  13. Installation and Assembly, Electrical Ground Support Equipment (GSE), Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This specification covers the general workmanship requirements and procedures for the complete installation and assembly of electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) such as terminal distributors, junction boxes, conduit and fittings, cable trays and accessories, interconnecting cables (including routing requirements), motor-control equipment, and necessary hardware as specified by the applicable contract and drawings.

  14. Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    organizations use price indices to distinguish sector-specific real price growth from general inflation  OMB uses price indices to estimate the relative...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles (Presentation) David M. Tate Stanley...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimating Hedonic Price

  15. Resources and Utilization of Wild Vines Economic Plant in Southeast Guizhou Province%贵州省黔东南野生藤本经济植物资源及利用1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨加文; 袁茂琴

    2012-01-01

      对贵州省黔东南州16个县(市)野生藤本植物资源进行了全面调查,调查统计结果表明:黔东南具有经济价值的野生藤本植物共计38科84属299种(含种下分类群,不含蕨类植物),生活型以木质藤本为主,占77.93%.按资源类型可分为药用、野果、纤维、芳香、油脂、淀粉、观赏及其他,许多种类在国民经济中有着重要的作用.并对该区藤本经济植物资源的保护和可持续利用提出了几点建议.%  The wild vines economic plant resources in Southeast Guizhou is studied .The results showed that there are 299 species (including varieties ,subspecies and forms ) belonging to 84 genera and 38 families .Ligneous vines were its predominant living form ,accounting for 77 .93% . They could be divided into medicinal plants ,wild fruit plants ,fiber plants ,aromatic plants ,oil plants ,starch plants ,ornamental plants and others ,which plays a important role in national econo-my .Some advice on protection and sustainable utilization of the vines resource were offered .

  16. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    OpenAIRE

    David Lubertazzi; Walter Tschinkel

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is impor...

  17. Language grounding in robots

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Covers all aspects of language interaction with robots, from embodiment, action and perception to conceptualization and grammar in a single volume Discusses several significant innovations, such as robotic embodiment, evolutionary derivation of neural controllers, embodied cognitive semantics and fluid construction grammar Presents the new humanoid robot platform, Myon, used by an increasing number of research laboratories

  18. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  19. Changes of snow cover in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines variability of characteristics of snow cover (snow cover depth, number of days with snow cover and dates of beginning and end of snow cover) in Poland. The study makes use of a set of 43 long time series of observation records from the stations in Poland, from 1952 to 2013. To describe temporal changes in snow cover characteristics, the intervals of 1952-1990 and of 1991-2013 are compared and trends in analysed data are sought (e.g., using the Mann-Kendall test). Observed behaviour of time series of snow-related variables is complex and not easy to interpret, for instance because of the location of the research area in the zone of transitional moderate climate, where strong variability of climate events is one of the main attributes. A statistical link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the snow cover depth, as well as the number of snow cover days is found.

  20. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...