WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground control experiment

  1. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  2. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  3. Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) by denitrification as ground improvement method - Process control in sand column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vinh; van Paassen, Leon; Nakano, Akiko; Kanayama, Motohei; Heimovaara, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Calcite precipitation induced by microbes has been proven to be efficient in stabilizing granular soils, especially with urea hydrolysis, as it has been successfully demonstrated in a pilot application 2010. However, as a byproduct highly concentrated ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) solution is produced, which has to be removed and disposed and forms a significant disadvantage of the technique that makes an alternative process like denitrification preferred. The proof of principle of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) by denitrification has been demonstrated by Van Paassen et al (2010) who suggested that instead of producing waste as a byproduct, different pre-treated waste streams could be used as substrates for in situ growth of denitrifying bacteria and simultaneous cementation without producing waste to be removed. In this study sand column experiments are performed in which calcium carbonate was successfully precipitated by indigenous denitrifying micro-organisms, which were supplied weekly with a pulse of a substrate solution containing calcium acetate and calcium nitrate. Besides the production of calcite and the growth of bacteria in biofilms, the reduction of nitrate resulted in the production of (nitrogen) gas. It was observed that this gas partly fills up the pore space and consequently contributed to a reduction of the permeability of the treated sand. The presence of gas in the pore space affected the flow of the injected substrates and influenced to the distribution of calcium carbonate. The effect of the mean particle size (D50) on the flow and transport of solutes and gas in the porous media has been evaluated by treating several columns with varying grain size distribution and comparing the change in permeability after each incubation period and analyzing the distribution of the gas throughout the columns using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. The present results show that there is a considerable decrease of permeability - a

  4. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. All the radargrams were processed by applying basic GPR processing steps, which included a time zero correction, a dewow filter and the application of an automatic gain control (AGC) function. No migration was applied so as to preserve.... Suitable automatic detection algorithm could potentially be employed if target responses with specific characteristics are being sought. The results from this experiment are likely to be frequency independent. If so, a low frequency GPR system – say...

  5. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  6. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  7. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  8. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2000-01-01

    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k 0 =0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the

  9. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  10. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkes, Tim; Morriën, Elly; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeffrey A; McIntyre, Lauren M; Tamis, Wil L M; van der Putten, Wim H

    2008-12-18

    Many species are currently moving to higher latitudes and altitudes. However, little is known about the factors that influence the future performance of range-expanding species in their new habitats. Here we show that range-expanding plant species from a riverine area were better defended against shoot and root enemies than were related native plant species growing in the same area. We grew fifteen plant species with and without non-coevolved polyphagous locusts and cosmopolitan, polyphagous aphids. Contrary to our expectations, the locusts performed more poorly on the range-expanding plant species than on the congeneric native plant species, whereas the aphids showed no difference. The shoot herbivores reduced the biomass of the native plants more than they did that of the congeneric range expanders. Also, the range-expanding plants developed fewer pathogenic effects in their root-zone soil than did the related native species. Current predictions forecast biodiversity loss due to limitations in the ability of species to adjust to climate warming conditions in their range. Our results strongly suggest that the plants that shift ranges towards higher latitudes and altitudes may include potential invaders, as the successful range expanders may experience less control by above-ground or below-ground enemies than the natives.

  11. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie

    2017-01-01

    current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...... suppression without capacitive current detection. Its time-based feature also brings the benefit of fast response on ground-fault arc suppression. The principle of full current compensation is analyzed, together with the controller design method of the proposed device. Experiment on a prototype was carried...

  12. Tango for experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Claustre, L.; Petitdemange, S.; Svensson, O.; Götz, A.; Coutinho, T.; Klora, J.; Picca, F.; Ounsy, M.; Buteau, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tango control system framework allows you to control an accelerator complex as well as single equipment. The framework contains the communication bus with the standard communication modes (synchronous, asynchronous, event driven) as well as the basic hardware access modules, GUI tools and development kits, bindings to commercial products (LabView, Matlab, IgorPro) and services (administration, archiving, access control) to set up a control system. Tango was mainly developed by several synchrotron light sources that have to support not only the accelerator complex but also a lot of experimental end stations. For synchrotron experiments we have to control the whole process from basic hardware access over data taking to data analysis. This paper describes in the first part the special features of Tango allowing flexible experiment control. The dynamic configuration, the rapid hardware interface development and the sequencing and scanning framework are some examples. The second part gives an overview of some packages developed in the Tango community for experiment control: A HKL library for diffraction computation and diffractometer control, a library to control 2D detectors and a data analysis workbench with workflow engine for on-line and off-line data analysis. These packages are not part of Tango and can be used with other control systems. (author)

  13. Midwifery students learning experiences in labor wards: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2014-12-01

    The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  15. Advanced gamma ray balloon experiment ground checkout and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, M.

    1976-01-01

    A software programming package to be used in the ground checkout and handling of data from the advanced gamma ray balloon experiment is described. The Operator's Manual permits someone unfamiliar with the inner workings of the software system (called LEO) to operate on the experimental data as it comes from the Pulse Code Modulation interface, converting it to a form for later analysis, and monitoring the program of an experiment. A Programmer's Manual is included.

  16. Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. Alan; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment, the objective of which is to determine the solar constant value and its variability, is scheduled for launch as part of the Space Shuttle/Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS) spacelab mission. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software was developed to monitor and analyze the SOLCON telemetry data during flight and to test the instrument on the ground. The design and development of the GSE software are discussed. The SOLCON instrument was tested during Davos International Solar Intercomparison, 1989 and the SOLCON data collected during the tests are analyzed to study the behavior of the instrument.

  17. Study on parameter identification and control of ground temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Keiichi; Suzuki, Seiichi; Kawahara, Mutsuto.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical thermal management system for ground structure is presented. The system consists of two parts, i.e. the identification analysis of the thermal conductivity and the thermal control analysis for the ground. The former is carried out by using the nonlinear least squares method and the latter is based on the optimal control theory. The formulations of these methods are presented and they are applied to an laboratory test. A reasonable thermal conductivity of the ground is identified by parameter estimation method and the ground temperature is actually controled as illustrated by numerical and experimental study. (author)

  18. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  19. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  20. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  1. A method for optical ground station reduce alignment error in satellite-ground quantum experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Song, Zhi-Jun; Zhong, Dai-Jun; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Huang, Yong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    A satellite dedicated for quantum science experiments, has been developed and successfully launched from Jiuquan, China, on August 16, 2016. Two new optical ground stations (OGSs) were built to cooperate with the satellite to complete satellite-ground quantum experiments. OGS corrected its pointing direction by satellite trajectory error to coarse tracking system and uplink beacon sight, therefore fine tracking CCD and uplink beacon optical axis alignment accuracy was to ensure that beacon could cover the quantum satellite in all time when it passed the OGSs. Unfortunately, when we tested specifications of the OGSs, due to the coarse tracking optical system was commercial telescopes, the change of position of the target in the coarse CCD was up to 600μrad along with the change of elevation angle. In this paper, a method of reduce alignment error between beacon beam and fine tracking CCD is proposed. Firstly, OGS fitted the curve of target positions in coarse CCD along with the change of elevation angle. Secondly, OGS fitted the curve of hexapod secondary mirror positions along with the change of elevation angle. Thirdly, when tracking satellite, the fine tracking error unloaded on the real-time zero point position of coarse CCD which computed by the firstly calibration data. Simultaneously the positions of the hexapod secondary mirror were adjusted by the secondly calibration data. Finally the experiment result is proposed. Results show that the alignment error is less than 50μrad.

  2. Recovery as a Lived Experience Discipline: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.

  3. Geometric Correction of PHI Hyperspectral Image without Ground Control Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Kuifeng; Tong, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiangfeng; Ma, Yanhua; Shu, Rong; Xu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Geometric correction without ground control points (GCPs) is a very important topic. Conventional airborne photogrammetry is difficult to implement in areas where the installation of GCPs is not available. The technical of integrated GPS/INS systems providing the positioning and attitude of airborne systems is a potential solution in such areas. This paper first states the principle of geometric correction based on a combination of GPS and INS then the error of the geometric correction of Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) without GCP was analysed, then a flight test was carried out in an area of Damxung, Tibet. The experiment result showed that the error at straight track was small, generally less than 1 pixel, while the maximum error at cross track direction, was close to 2 pixels. The results show that geometric correction of PHI without GCP enables a variety of mapping products to be generated from airborne navigation and imagery data

  4. Ground test accelerator control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burczyk, L.; Dalesio, R.; Dingler, R.; Hill, J.; Howell, J.A.; Kerstiens, D.; King, R.; Kozubal, A.; Little, C.; Martz, V.; Rothrock, R.; Sutton, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the GTA control system that provides an environment in which the automation of a state-of-the-art accelerator can be developed. It makes use of commercially available computers, workstations, computer networks, industrial 110 equipment, and software. This system has built-in supervisory control (like most accelerator control systems), tools to support continuous control (like the process control industry), and sequential control for automatic start-up and fault recovery (like few other accelerator control systems). Several software tools support these levels of control: a real-time operating system (VxWorks) with a real-time kernel (VRTX), a configuration database, a sequencer, and a graphics editor. VxWorks supports multitasking, fast context-switching, and preemptive scheduling. VxWorks/VRTX is a network-based development environment specifically designed to work in partnership with the UNIX operating system. A data base provides the interface to the accelerator components. It consists of a run time library and a database configuration and editing tool. A sequencer initiates and controls the operation of all sequence programs (expressed as state programs). A graphics editor gives the user the ability to create color graphic displays showing the state of the machine in either text or graphics form

  5. A grounded theory of bisexual individuals' experiences of help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret; Pinder, Sarah; Ross, Lori E

    2017-01-01

    Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an overarching model that illustrates 4 interrelated stages: (a) the consideration of services, (b) the process of finding services, (c) barriers and facilitators to accessing services, and (d) experience of service utilization. This model is nonlinear, in that participants do not necessarily move through stages in sequence. Although many stages are experienced at the individual level, they are simultaneously informed by multiple factors at interpersonal and system levels. Our findings suggest a need for interventions at the policy, service and provider levels to improve accessibility of culturally competent services for this population. Understanding the mental health experiences of bisexual people will allow mental health professionals to build competencies working with this population and thereby contribute to a reduction in mental health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  7. Patients' experiences with home parenteral nutrition: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina; Lucas, Beverley; Wood, Diana

    2018-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides nourishment and hydration as an intravenous infusion to patients with intestinal failure (IF). The aim of the study is to generate theory that explains the experiences of adult patients living with home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and complex medication regimens. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the experiences of twelve patients receiving HPN. A semi-structured interview was conducted and recorded in each participant's home setting. Each interview was transcribed verbatim. The simultaneous process of data collection and analysis was followed reflecting the principles of the constant comparative approach. A total of 15 patients gave written consent, with 12 of them agreeing to be interviewed. All the participants had previously undergone surgery as a result of chronic ill health or sudden illness. Analysis revealed two core categories: stoma and HPN, and these were supported by the subcategories: maintaining stoma output, access to toilets, managing dietary changes, maintaining the HPN infusion routine, access to technical help to set up an HPN infusion, mobility with HPN equipment and general health changes. The strategy of living with loss was demonstrated by all the participants, and this was supported by the action strategies of maintaining daily activities and social interactions. This study generates new understanding and insight into the views and experiences of patients receiving HPN in the UK. The findings from these participants have been shown to resonate with the Kubler-Ross Model [1] of the five stages of grief. The theory of living with loss was generated by the use of a grounded theory methodology. This small scale exploratory study reveals opportunities for improvements in practice to be considered by the nutrition support team (NST) and other healthcare professionals involved in the patient's hospital stay prior to discharge on HPN. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  8. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  9. 24 CFR 3285.204 - Ground moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground moisture control. 3285.204 Section 3285.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... moisture control. (a) Vapor retarder. If the space under the home is to be enclosed with skirting or other...

  10. Experience in landslide control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz' min, L S

    1983-06-01

    The problems of slope stability in the Krasnoyarskugol' surface mines are discussed. Methods used for slide prevention and slide control from 1977 to 1982 are analyzed. Landslides were caused by weathering of the argillite layer in the coal seam roof. Sliding plane was parallel to the coal seam roof. At a later stage of landslide prevention sliding planes were in the coal seam floor (which consisted of weak rock layers). Range of landslides was evaluated. Losses caused by landslides were discussed: working time losses, losses of coal, damaged equipment. Landslide hazards were controlled by reducing slope angle and by changing cut geometry. Cross section of the cut with a spoil bank prone to landslides is shown in a scheme. Reducing angle of slope inclination, using strong rock layers as the spoil bank base and changing cut geometry eliminated landslides in 1982. Recommendations on landslide control in coal surface mines with layers of weak rocks influenced by weathering are made.

  11. Control rod experiments in Racine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Humbert, G.

    1981-09-01

    A survey of the control-rod experiments planned within the joint CEA/CNEN-DeBeNe critical experiment RACINE is given. The applicability to both heterogeneous and homogeneous large power LMFBR-cores is discussed. Finally, the most significant results of the provisional design calculations performed on behalf of the RACINE control-rod programme are presented

  12. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  13. The Youth and Experience of Traffic Accidents (Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed-Muhammad-Hossein Javadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are among major causes of death all over the world. In Iran, it has become a social problem, with lots of people involved in; and the youth include the most victims of traffic accidents. Objectives: The main objective of this research is to review the experience of the youth (18–24 years old in Tehran, Iran with traffic accidents, and to develop a model to specify the factors. Methods: This study is based on Grounded Theory, in which a sample group of 50 young people, 18–24 years old, in Tehran, Iran, were selected and interviewed, using stratified purposive and snowball sampling method. Data is mainly collected by interviewing the youth in 7 key topics. To analyze the data, Grounded Theory is used through production of themes, components and concepts. Results: There are 11 general components for traffic accidents according to the ideas of the youth which will come in 3 categories including: individual factors (emotions, sensory-motor skills, and physical-mental health; environmental factors (road and traffic problems, a companion, using cellphone, or front individual, including carless drivers or passersby; and underlying factors (gender, legal and cultural infrastructures. And finally, the core category of carelessness, which is the leading cause in traffic accidents.    Conclusion: The findings indicate that a chain of various factors may cause traffic accidents with lots of devastating consequences. It is therefore necessary to modify driving culture, to internalize the attitude of caution, to use polyhedral strategies, and to apply them all correctly.

  14. Electronic ground support equipment for the Cluster Electric Field and Wave Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1992-10-01

    In a collaboration between ESA and NASA, ionosphere plasma structures will be studied by four indentical space probes to be launched in 1995 from French Guiana. The Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment will be designed to measure electric field and density fluctations by means of four sensors, each deployed on a 50 meter wire boom. In order to perform comprehensive tests and calibrations of the EFW experiment, computer controlled electronic ground support equipment has been developed. This report describes the hardware of the equipment, produced and assembled at the University of Oslo. 15 figs

  15. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  16. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  17. Study on load temperature control system of ground laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xunhua; Zhang, Hongtao; Liu, Wangsheng; Zhang, Chijun; Zhou, Xun

    2007-12-01

    The ground laser communication terminal as the termination of a communication system, works at the temperature which varies from -40°C to 50°C. We design a temperature control system to keep optical and electronic components working properly in the load. The load is divided into two sections to control temperature respectively. Because the space is limited, we use heater film and thermoelectric cooler to clearify and refrigerate the load. We design a hardware and a software for the temperature control system, establish mathematic model, and emulate it with Matlab.

  18. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  19. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  1. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  2. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  3. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  4. Simulation and experiment on the thermal performance of U-vertical ground coupled heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinguo; Chen, Zhihao; Zhao, Jun [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presented both the numerical simulations and experiments on the thermal performance of U-vertical ground coupled heat exchanger (UGCHE). The variation of the ground temperature and heat balance of the system were analyzed and compared in different operation modes in the numerical simulation. Experiments on the operation performance of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with the UGCHE were carried out. It shows that the ground source can be used as the heat source/sink for GCHP systems to have higher efficiency in saving energy. To preserve the ground resource for the sustainable utilization as heat source/sink, the heat emitted to ground and heat extracted from ground should be balanced. (author)

  5. A novel grounded to floating admittance converter with electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dinesh; Ahmad, Javed; Srivastava, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests a new grounded to floating admittance convertor employing only two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs). The proposed circuit can convert any arbitrary grounded admittance into floating admittance with electronically controllable scaling factor. The presented converter enjoys the following beneficial: (1) no requirement of any additional passive element (2) scaling factor can be tuned electronically through bias currents of VDTAs (3) no matching constraint required (4) low values of active/passive sensitivity indexes and (5) excellent non ideal behavior that indicates no deviation in circuit behavior even under non ideal environment. Application of the proposed configuration in realization of floating resistor and floating capacitor has been presented and the workability of these floating elements has been confirmed by active filter design examples. SPICE simulations have been performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed circuits.

  6. Laser communication experiments between Sota and Meo optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaud, G.,; Issler, J.-L.; Védrenne, N.; Robert, C.; Petit, C.; Samain, E.; Phung, D.-H.; Maurice, N.; Toyoshima, M.; Kolev, D.

    2017-09-01

    Optical transmissions between earth and space have been identified as key technologies for future high data rate transmissions between satellites and ground. CNES is investigating the use of optics both for High data rate direct to Earth transfer from observation satellites in LEO, and for future telecommunications applications using optics for the high capacity Gateway link.

  7. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Shao-long; Wang, Hong-jie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3) and control (no fertilizer), and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minutes before rainfall, and no fertilizer was applied for the 8th through 12th experiments. Initially, the time-series nitrate concentration in the surface flow quickly increased, and then it rapidly decreased and gradually stabilized at a low level during the fertilizer experiments. The nitrogen loss in the surface flow primarily occurred during the first 18.6 minutes of rainfall. For the continuous fertilizer experiments, the mean nitrate concentrations in the groundwater flow remained at less than 10 mg/L before the 5th experiment, and after the 7th experiment, these nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 mg/L throughout the process. The time-series process of the changing concentration in the groundwater flow exhibited the same parabolic trend for each fertilizer experiment. However, the time at which the nitrate concentration began to change lagged behind the start time of groundwater flow by approximately 0.94 hours on average. The experiments were also performed with no fertilizer. In these experiments, the mean nitrate concentration of groundwater initially increased continuously, and then, the process exhibited the same parabolic trend as the results of the fertilization experiments. The nitrate concentration decreased in the subsequent experiments. Eight days after the 12 rainfall experiments, 50.53% of the total nitrate applied remained in the experimental soil. Nitrate residues mainly existed at the surface and in the bottom soil layers, which represents a

  8. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  9. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Sam

    1988-01-01

    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.

  10. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  11. Monitoring Hydraulic Fracturing Using Ground-Based Controlled Source Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.; Trevino, S., III; Everett, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing allows hydrocarbon production in low permeability formations. Imaging the distribution of fluid used to create a hydraulic fracture can aid in the characterization of fracture properties such as extent of plume penetration as well as fracture azimuth and symmetry. This could contribute to improving the efficiency of an operation, for example, in helping to determine ideal well spacing or the need to refracture a zone. A ground-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) technique is ideal for imaging the fluid due to the change in field caused by the difference in the conductive properties of the fluid when compared to the background. With advances in high signal to noise recording equipment, coupled with a high-power, broadband transmitter we can show hydraulic fracture extent and azimuth with minimal processing. A 3D finite element code is used to model the complete well casing along with the layered subsurface. This forward model is used to optimize the survey design and isolate the band of frequencies with the best response. In the field, the results of the modeling are also used to create a custom pseudorandom numeric (PRN) code to control the frequencies transmitted through a grounded dipole source. The receivers record the surface voltage across two grounded dipoles, one parallel and one perpendicular to the transmitter. The data are presented as the displays of amplitude ratios across several frequencies with the associated spatial information. In this presentation, we show multiple field results in multiple basins in the United States along with the CSEM theory used to create the survey designs.

  12. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers' toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ''Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System'' (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects

  13. The ground support computer and in-orbit survey data analysis program for the SEEP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, H.D.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Roselle, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ground support computer equipment (GSE) and production survey plot and analysis software are described for the Stimulated Emissions of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiment on the S81-1 satellite. A general purpose satellite data acquisition circuit was developed based on a Z-80 portable microcomputer. By simply changing instrument control software and electrical connectors, automatic testing and control of the various SEEP instruments was accomplished. A new feature incorporated into the SEEP data analysis phase was the development of a correlative data base for all of the SEEP instruments. A CPU efficient survey plot program (with ephemeris) was developed to display the approximate 3100 hours of data, with a time resolution of 0.5 sec, from the ten instrument sensors. The details of the general purpose multigraph algorithms and plot formats are presented. For the first time new associations are being investigated of simultaneous particle, X-ray, optical and plasma density satellite measurements

  14. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  15. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  16. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  17. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Preparation of JEREMI Experiment: Development of the Ground Based Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnou, V.; Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of preparing the space experiment JEREMI (Japanese and European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities). The use of forced coaxial gas flow is proposed as a way to stabilize the Marangoni convection in liquid bridges, which might have important technological applications in the floating zone technique. A new set-up is under development and all sub-systems have passed severe tests. Here we present the design of this set-up and preliminary results of experiments for shear-driven two-phase flows in a confined volume of liquid under conditions of normal gravity. The geometry corresponds to a cylindrical liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel with external solid walls. Gas enters into the annular duct, flows between solid walls and upon reaching the liquid zone entrains initially quiescent liquid. The test liquids are ethanol, n-decane and 5 cSt silicone oil, which have different degrees of viscosity and of volatility. The gas flow along the interface strongly enhances the evaporation and, correspondingly, affects the interface shape. Silhouette measurements are used for optical determination of the interface shape. From the digital images the variation of the liquid volume as a function of flow rate is calculated.

  19. Ground water pollution by roof runoff infiltration evidenced with multi-tracer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Adrian A; Hoehn, Eduard; Koch, Sabine

    2003-03-01

    The infiltration of urban roof runoff into well permeable subsurface material may have adverse effects on the ground water quality and endanger drinking water resources. Precipitation water from three different roofs of an industrial complex was channelled to a pit and infiltrated into a perialpine glaciofluvial gravel-and-sand aquifer. A shaft was constructed at the bottom of the pit and equipped with an array of TDR probes, lysimeters and suction cups that allowed measuring and sampling soil water at different depths. A fast infiltration flow was observed during natural rainfall events and during artificial infiltration experiments. For a better understanding of the behaviour of contaminants, experiments were conducted with cocktails of compounds of different reactivity (ammonium, strontium, atratone) and of non-reactive tracers (uranine, bromide, naphthionate), which represent different classes of pollutants. The experiment identified cation exchange reactions influencing the composition of the infiltrating water. These processes occurred under preferential flow conditions in macropores of the material. Measuring concentration changes under the controlled inflow of tracer experiments, the pollution potential was found to be high. Non-reactive tracers exhibited fast breakthrough and little sorption.

  20. An Experience of an Individual With a Chronic Wound in an Open Abdomen: A Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alejandra

    2017-06-01

    The open abdomen (OA) surgical technique has become an option for treating complex abdominal injuries; however, complications leading to late closure conditions might arise. In these cases the wound must be left open, which greatly impacts the patient's life. The author aims to describe the experiences of individuals with a chronic OA wound. Qualitative design using grounded theory was utilized. This study was carried out with a group of 28 adults who were treated with OA technique and whose wound had remained open for more than a month in duration and only received outpatient wound care. Data were collected through open interviews and examined under continuous comparison. The average age of the respondents was 45 years, and their wound, treated with OA due to severe abdominal infection, remained open between 2 months and 8 years. An emergent theory was developed to describe how people facing this experience undergo a process of 4 stages: 1) finding an OA wound upon waking, 2) feeling desperate about the healing process and the limitations involved, 3) regaining control of their life, and 4) taking advantage of their second chance at life with an OA wound. This study provides insight for nurses and other health care professionals into the experiences of patients with a chronic OA wound and proposes an emerging theory based on the conceptualization of these experiences.

  1. Remembering and knowing personality traits: figure/ground asymmetries in person-related retrieval experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, the effect of category salience on retrieval experience was investigated. In Experiment 1, participants rated typicality or concreteness of personality traits that differed in stereotype reference (i.e., consistent, inconsistent, and neutral in relation to the age stereotype). More remember judgments were given for consistent and inconsistent traits in contrast to neutral traits, thereby indicating a figure/ground asymmetry. In Experiment 2, neutral traits were excluded and a classical figure/ground phenomenon was demonstrated for the retrieval experience of traits (i.e., reversibility of an ambiguous figure after typicality and untypicality ratings). Altogether, the results suggest that metacognitive trait representations depend on principles of figure/ground asymmetries rather than on functional principles of social information processing.

  2. Learning Mobility: Adaptive Control Algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Mobility is a serious limiting factor in the usefulness of unmanned ground vehicles, This paper contains a description of our approach to develop control algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV...

  3. Obstacle negotiation control for a mobile robot suspended on overhead ground wires by optoelectronic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Yi, Ruan

    2009-11-01

    Power line inspection and maintenance already benefit from developments in mobile robotics. This paper presents mobile robots capable of crossing obstacles on overhead ground wires. A teleoperated robot realizes inspection and maintenance tasks on power transmission line equipment. The inspection robot is driven by 11 motor with two arms, two wheels and two claws. The inspection robot is designed to realize the function of observation, grasp, walk, rolling, turn, rise, and decline. This paper is oriented toward 100% reliable obstacle detection and identification, and sensor fusion to increase the autonomy level. An embedded computer based on PC/104 bus is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light camera and thermal infrared Camera are both installed in a programmable pan-and-tilt camera (PPTC) unit. High-quality visual feedback rapidly becomes crucial for human-in-the-loop control and effective teleoperation. The communication system between the robot and the ground station is based on Mesh wireless networks by 700 MHz bands. An expert system programmed with Visual C++ is developed to implement the automatic control. Optoelectronic laser sensors and laser range scanner were installed in robot for obstacle-navigation control to grasp the overhead ground wires. A novel prototype with careful considerations on mobility was designed to inspect the 500KV power transmission lines. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  4. SCOS 2: A distributed architecture for ground system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Karl P.

    The current generation of spacecraft ground control systems in use at the European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC) is based on the SCOS 1. Such systems have become difficult to manage in both functional and financial terms. The next generation of spacecraft is demanding more flexibility in the use, configuration and distribution of control facilities as well as functional requirements capable of matching those being planned for future missions. SCOS 2 is more than a successor to SCOS 1. Many of the shortcomings of the existing system have been carefully analyzed by user and technical communities and a complete redesign was made. Different technologies were used in many areas including hardware platform, network architecture, user interfaces and implementation techniques, methodologies and language. As far as possible a flexible design approach has been made using popular industry standards to provide vendor independence in both hardware and software areas. This paper describes many of the new approaches made in the architectural design of the SCOS 2.

  5. Twenty years' experience with shallow ground repositories in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Mohan, A.L.; Narayan, P.K.; Godse, V.B.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    With the setting up of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay, the first nuclear research centre in India, more than two decades ago, the need arose for disposal of the country's low-level radioactive solid wastes. Since then, nuclear power stations and other nuclear installations have been set up in different locations and the major mode of disposal for low-level solid wastes has been in engineered facilities in shallow land. The paper presents an overview of the Indian experience, with shallow land repositories for low-active solid wastes, from the point of view of design, operation and surveillance, at a number of sites. The influence of site characteristics on the design of the repository and the underground disposal modules is discussed. Details of the pre-operational investigations performed at different sites and the scheme for monitoring and surveillance of operating repositories are also included. The paper also presents briefly the type of safety analysis being carried out to evaluate possible environmental impact due to the operation of the shallow land repositories. (author)

  6. A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based CMB Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. L.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Errard, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dvorkin, C. [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kuo, C. L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Lee, A. T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zahn, O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), CA (United States)

    2014-02-18

    In this follow-up work to the High Energy Physics Community Summer Study 2013 (HEP CSS 2013, a.k.a. Snowmass), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage-IV Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment (CMB-S4) under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties in cosmological parameters in vΛCDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark-energy equation of state, dark-matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal as measured by DESI to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1-σ constraints: σ(Mv ) = 15 meV, σ(Neff ) = 0.0156, Dark energy Figure of Merit = 303, σ(pann) = 0.00588 x 3 x 10-26 cm3/s/GeV, σ( ΩK) = 0.00074, σ(ns) = 0.00110, σ( αs) = 0.00145, and σ(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependences of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  7. A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based CMB Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W. L.K.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Slosar, A.; Zahn, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this follow-up work to the High Energy Physics Community Summer Study 2013 (HEP CSS 2013, a.k.a. Snowmass), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage-IV Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment (CMB-S4) under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties in cosmological parameters in vΛCDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark-energy equation of state, dark-matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal as measured by DESI to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1-δ constraints: δ(M_v ) = 15 meV, δ(N_e_f_f ) = 0.0156, Dark energy Figure of Merit = 303, δ(p_a_n_n) = 0.00588 x 3 x 10"-"2"6 cm"3/s/GeV, δ(Ω_K) = 0.00074, δ(n_s) = 0.00110, δ(α_s) = 0.00145, and δ(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependences of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  8. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  9. The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)

  10. Gamma irradiation in the control of pathogenic bacteria in refrigerated ground chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoto Marta Helena Filet

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on reducting the population of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in ground chicken breast stored under refrigeration. The experiment included a control and 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy along with 5 periods of storage under refrigeration (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Samples of ground chicken breast were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 14458, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11105 and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626, irradiated at temperatures between 4 and 8°C and stored under refrigeration (5°C for 28 days. The increased radiation dose and period of storage under refrigeration caused a reduction of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium populations in the ground chicken breast. Mean radiation D values determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 0.41 and 0.72 kGy, respectively. Gamma irradiation was an effective treatment for chicken meat conservation because the radiation dose of 6.0 kGy kept the ground chicken breast within the microbiological limits established by the Brazilian legislation, for up to 28 days under refrigeration.

  11. Gamma irradiation in the control of pathogenic bacteria in refrigerated ground chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Gurgel, Maria Silvia do Amaral; Blumer, Lucimara; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Gallo, Claudio Rosa

    2000-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on reducing the population of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli nd Salmonella typhimurium in ground chicken breast stored under refrigeration. The experiment included a control and 4 doses of gamma radiation ( 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy) along with 5 periods of storage under refrigeration ( 1, 7 14, 21 and 28 days). Samples of ground chicken breast were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 14458), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11105) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626), irradiated at temperatures between 4 and 8 deg C and stored under refrigeration (5 deg C) for 28 days. The increased radiation dose and period of storage under refrigeration caused a reduction of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium populations in the ground chicken breast. Mean radiation D values determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 0.41 and 0.72 kGy, respectively. Gamma irradiation was an effective treatment for chicken meat conservation because the radiation dose of 6.0 kGy kept the ground chicken breast within the microbiological limits established by the Brazilian legislation for up to 28 days under refrigeration. (author)

  12. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  13. COMPUTER CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIEGEL, LOUIS

    THE LINC COMPUTER PROVIDES A PARTICULAR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS BY EXECUTING A SEQUENCE OF COMPUTER OPERATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPECIALLY DESIGNED INTERFACE. THE INTERFACE IS THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL CHAMBER AND THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM AND INTERFACE OF AN EXPERIMENT INVOLVING A PIGEON…

  14. Saudi Deaf Students Post-Secondary Transitioning Experience: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almotiri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…

  15. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  16. Earth at Rest. Aesthetic Experience and Students' Grounding in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2017-07-01

    Focus of this article is the current situation characterized by students' de-rootedness and possible measures to improve the situation within the frame of education for sustainable development. My main line of argument is that science teachers can practice teaching in such a way that students are brought in deeper contact to the environment. I discuss efforts to promote aesthetic experience in science class and in science teacher education. Within a wide range of definitions, my main understanding of aesthetic experience is that of pre-conceptual experience, relational to the environment and incorporated in students' embodied knowledge. I ground the idea of Earth at rest in Husserl's phenomenological philosophy and Heidegger's notion of science' deprivation of the world. A critique of the ontological reversal leads to an ontological re-reversal that implies giving lifeworld experience back its value and rooting scientific concepts in students' everyday lives. Six aspects of facilitating grounding in sustainability-oriented science teaching and teacher education are highlighted and discussed: students' everyday knowledge and experience, aesthetic experience and grounding, fostering aesthetic sensibility, cross-curricular integration with art, ontological and epistemological aspects, and belongingness and (re-)connection to Earth. I conclude that both science students and student-teachers need to practice their sense of caring and belonging, as well as refining their sensibility towards the world. With an intension of educating for a sustainable development, there is an urgent need for a critical discussion in science education when it comes to engaging learners for a sustainable future.

  17. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  18. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  19. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  20. Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin; Ray, Hami E; Lai, San-Huei; Alwood, Joshua S; Globus, Ruth K

    2016-01-01

    Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved. The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C. Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH). Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7

  1. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.

  2. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  3. Improvement in operating incident experience at the Savannah River Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory are stored at the Savannah River burial ground. These wastes have accumulated from >20 years of reprocessing nuclear fuels and materials for defense programs at the Savannah River Plant. Burial in earthen trenches and aboveground storage for transuranic materials are the principal modes of storage. The infrequent operating incidents that have occurred during the 20-year period have been analyzed. The incidents can be categorized as those causing airborne contamination, waterborne contamination, or vegetation contamination through penetration of plant roots into contaminated soil. Contamination was generally confined to the immediate area of the burial ground. Several incidents occurred because of unintentional burial or exhumation of material. The frequency of operating incidents decreased with operating experience of the burial ground, averaging only about two incidents per year during the last six years of operation

  4. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  5. Engineering-scale dust control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Jacobs, N.C.; Thompson, D.N.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of engineering scale dust-control experiments relating to contamination control during handling of transuranic waste. These experiments focused on controlling dust during retrieval operations of buried waste where waste and soil are intimately mixed. Sources of dust generation during retrieval operations include digging, dumping, and vehicle traffic. Because contaminants are expected to attach to soil particles and move with the generated dust, control of the dust spread may be the key to contamination control. Dust control techniques examined in these experiments include the use of misting systems, soil fixatives, and dust suppression agents. The Dryfog Ultrasonic Misting Head, manufactured by Sonics, Incorporated, and ENTAC, an organic resin derived from tree sap manufactured by ENTAC Corporation, were tested. The results of the experiments include product performance and recommended application methods. 19 figs., 7 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Using school grounds for nature studies: An exploratory study of elementary teachers' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Tamra Lee

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of the experiences of elementary teachers who used school grounds to do nature studies. Following an inductive, naturalistic approach, the goal was to explore the phenomenon using words of teachers as guides to understanding. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sampling of ten quality public school teachers in grades K--5 who were well-known for their schoolyard nature programs. Interview questions were focused by a theoretical framework of environmental cognition. Data were gathered about how teachers came to use the outdoors to teach and how they experienced teaching nature studies on the school grounds. A conceptual model of Quality Teachers of Schoolyard Nature Studies was delineated. The model consisted of three components: teacher past and present experiences with nature, teacher beliefs relevant to using the school grounds for nature studies, and teacher action efficacy pertaining to schoolyard nature programs. The model suggested a relationship between teachers' personal experiences' with nature and their beliefs about sharing nature with children. In addition, the model connected teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature to their action efficacy, i.e. action behavior reflected through motivation and commitment. The participants shared many common experiences and beliefs. Most had extensive childhood experiences in nature and memories of adults who shared nature with them. They did not consider themselves nature experts, but felt they knew the basics of natural science from their own experiences outdoors and from working with children. The teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature studies developed from several dimensions of their lives: experiences with nature, experiences teaching, and experiences with students. They were motivated to share nature with students on the school grounds by their beliefs that students would come to appreciate and understand nature, just as they had during their own

  7. Control of neutron spectrometry experiments using minicomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberschlag, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    Some neutron spectrometers at EL3 were equipped with self-contained minicomputer control devices; the H11 experiment has been on operation since june 1976, the H5A and H9V experiments are presently in course of ultimate testing. The diagram shows the general organization of all the experiments. The special characteristics of each experiment are briefly outlined together with some technical aspects of the software (equipment interfaces, means for the physicist to intervene) [fr

  8. Microcontroller-based Feedback Control Laboratory Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available this paper is a result of the implementation of the recommendations on enhancing hands-on experience of control engineering education using single chip, small scale computers such as microcontrollers. A set of microcontroller-based feedback control experiments was developed for the Electrical Engineering curriculum at the University of North Florida. These experiments provided hands-on techniques that students can utilize in the development of complete solutions for a number of servo control problems. Significant effort was devoted to software development of feedback controllers and the associated signal conditioning circuits interfacing between the microcontroller and the physical plant. These experiments have stimulated the interest of our students in control engineering.

  9. Tests of the gravitational redshift effect in space-born and ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of experiments as concerns with the tests of the gravitational redshift (GRS) effect in ground-based and space-born experiments. In particular, we consider the GRS effects in the gravitational field of the Earth, the major planets of the Solar system, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) where this effect is confirmed with a higher accuracy. We discuss availabilities to confirm the GRS effect for galaxies and galaxy clusters in visible and X-ray ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. Review of experiments and calculation procedures for ship collision and grounding damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhu, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents a review of experiments and calculation procedures for the resistances of ship structural components subjected to impact loadings. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of large-scale collision and grounding experiments and to discuss the technical...... and material characteristics. In recent literature, analytical and numerical calculations provide relatively accurate prediction of the purely plastic responses of ship structures under impact loads, but universal approaches have not been found for fracture predictions. The existing formulae for failure...

  11. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.; Zander, M.; Brown, S.; Sandoval, D.; Gilpatrick, D.; Gibson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) is discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. (Author) (3 figs., 4 refs.)

  12. Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository non-emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for non-emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). This calculation will provide input for the development of LA documents. The scope of this calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts including access mains, ramps, exhaust mains, turnouts, intersections between access mains and turnouts, and intersections between exhaust mains and emplacement drifts, portals, TBM launch chambers, observation drift and test alcove in the performance confirmation (PC) facilities, etc. The calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts subjected to a combined loading of in-situ stress, seismic stress, and/or thermal stress. Other effects such as hydrological and chemical effects are not considered in this analysis

  13. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  14. A controlled monitoring study of simulated clandestine graves using 3D ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Schoor, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A controlled three-dimensional ground penetrating radar monitoring study over simulated clandestine graves was conducted near Pretoria, South Africa, in which the detectability of graves as a function of post-burial interval was assessed...

  15. Hierarchical Control of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso-Poy, Alex; Llobet-Valero, E

    2007-01-01

    Control systems at High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are becoming increasingly complex mainly due to the size, complexity and data volume associated to the front-end instrumentation. In particular, this becomes visible for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN. ATLAS will be the largest particle detector ever built, result of an international collaboration of more than 150 institutes. The experiment is composed of 9 different specialized sub-detectors that perform different tasks and have different requirements for operation. The system in charge of the safe and coherent operation of the whole experiment is called Detector Control System (DCS). This thesis presents the integration of the ATLAS DCS into a global control tree following the natural segmentation of the experiment into sub-detectors and smaller sub-systems. The integration of the many different systems composing the DCS includes issues such as: back-end organization, process model identification, fault detection, synchronization ...

  16. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  17. The SPQR experiment: detecting damage to orbiting spacecraft with ground-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, Antonio; Porfilio, Manfredi; Currie, Douglas G.; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the Specular Point-like Quick Reference (SPQR) experiment was to evaluate the possibility of improving the resolution of ground-based telescopic imaging of manned spacecraft in orbit. The concept was to reduce image distortions due to atmospheric turbulence by evaluating the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a point-like light reference and processing the spacecraft image accordingly. The target spacecraft was the International Space Station (ISS) and the point-like reference was provided by a laser beam emitted by the ground station and reflected back to the telescope by a Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) mounted on an ISS window. The ultimate objective of the experiment was to demonstrate that it is possible to image spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a resolution of 20 cm, which would have probably been sufficient to detect the damage which caused the Columbia disaster. The experiment was successfully performed from March to May 2005. The paper provides an overview of the SPQR experiment.

  18. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  19. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF MONITORING AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM FOR GNSS GROUND STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  20. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, David J. [The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly, and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments. The paper concludes by underlying that it is now clearly that demands for reproducible experiments in the early years of LENR experiments were premature. In fact, one can argue that irreproducibility should be expected for early experiments in a complex new field. As emphasized in the paper and as often happened in the history of science, experimental and theoretical progress can take even decades. It is likely to be many years before investments in LENR experiments will yield significant returns, even for successful research programs. However, it is clearly that a fundamental understanding of the anomalous effects observed in numerous experiments will significantly increase reproducibility, improve controllability, enable optimization of processes, and accelerate the economic viability of LENR.

  1. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly, and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments. The paper concludes by underlying that it is now clearly that demands for reproducible experiments in the early years of LENR experiments were premature. In fact, one can argue that irreproducibility should be expected for early experiments in a complex new field. As emphasized in the paper and as often happened in the history of science, experimental and theoretical progress can take even decades. It is likely to be many years before investments in LENR experiments will yield significant returns, even for successful research programs. However, it is clearly that a fundamental understanding of the anomalous effects observed in numerous experiments will significantly increase reproducibility, improve controllability, enable optimization of processes, and accelerate the economic viability of LENR

  2. Interactivity in automatic control: foundations and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dormido Bencomo, Sebastián; Guzmán Sánchez, José Luis; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Berenguel, M

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the concepts of interactivity and visualization and its essential role in learning the fundamentals and techniques of automatic control. More than 10 years experience of the authors in the development and design of interactive tools dedicated to the study of automatic control concepts are also exposed. The second part of the paper summarizes the main features of the “Automatic Control with Interactive Tools” text that has been recently published by Pea...

  3. 10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

  4. Symbol Grounding Without Direct Experience: Do Words Inherit Sensorimotor Activation From Purely Linguistic Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field. While this indicates that direct experience with a word's referent is sufficient to evoke said congruency effects, the present study investigates whether this direct experience is also a necessary condition. To this end, we conducted five experiments in which participants learned novel words from purely linguistic input: Novel words were presented in pairs with real up- or down-words (Experiment 1); they were presented in natural sentences where they replaced these real words (Experiment 2); they were presented as new labels for these real words (Experiment 3); and they were presented as labels for novel combined concepts based on these real words (Experiment 4 and 5). In all five experiments, we did not find any congruency effects elicited by the novel words; however, participants were always able to make correct explicit judgements about the vertical dimension associated to the novel words. These results suggest that direct experience is necessary for reactivating experiential traces, but this reactivation is not a necessary condition for understanding (in the sense of storing and accessing) the corresponding aspects of word meaning. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  6. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated

  7. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  8. Experiences of antidepressant medication and cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Paul; Holttum, Sue

    2015-09-01

    To develop a preliminary model of the experiences of people undergoing combined treatment with antidepressant medication and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression. The study used a qualitative methodology informed by grounded theory. Participants were 12 adults who had received treatment with antidepressant medication and CBT for depression. Participants engaged in a semistructured interview about their experiences. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using components of grounded theory methodology. Medication was often seen as an initial aid to surviving a crisis. Staying on medication longer term resulted in some participants feeling caught in a 'drug loop'. Feeling that medication was unhelpful or actively harmful could contribute to participants seeking CBT. Medics also offered information on CBT and acted as gatekeepers, meaning that negotiation was sometimes necessary. CBT was described as a process of being guided towards skilled self-management. Occasionally, participants felt that medication had facilitated CBT at one or more stages. Conversely, developing skilled self-management through CBT could reduce feelings of dependency on medication and affect several of the other elements maintaining the 'drug loop'. Antidepressant medication and CBT are perceived and experienced differently, with CBT often being seen as an alternative to medication, or even as a means to discontinue medication. Service users' experiences and beliefs about medication may thus affect their engagement and goals in CBT, and it may be important for therapists to consider this. Practitioners who prescribe medication should ensure that they also provide information on the availability and appropriateness of CBT, and engage in an open dialogue about treatment options. CBT practitioners should explore aspects of clients' experiences and beliefs about medication. This would particularly include clients' experiences of the effects of medication, their beliefs about

  9. Pushing the Limits of Cubesat Attitude Control: A Ground Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Devon S.; Heater, Daniel L.; Peeples, Steven R.; Sules. James K.; Huang, Po-Hao Adam

    2013-01-01

    A cubesat attitude control system (ACS) was designed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide sub-degree pointing capabilities using low cost, COTS attitude sensors, COTS miniature reaction wheels, and a developmental micro-propulsion system. The ACS sensors and actuators were integrated onto a 3D-printed plastic 3U cubesat breadboard (10 cm x 10 cm x 30 cm) with a custom designed instrument board and typical cubesat COTS hardware for the electrical, power, and data handling and processing systems. In addition to the cubesat development, a low-cost air bearing was designed and 3D printed in order to float the cubesat in the test environment. Systems integration and verification were performed at the MSFC Small Projects Rapid Integration & Test Environment laboratory. Using a combination of both the miniature reaction wheels and the micro-propulsion system, the open and closed loop control capabilities of the ACS were tested in the Flight Robotics Laboratory. The testing demonstrated the desired sub-degree pointing capability of the ACS and also revealed the challenges of creating a relevant environment for development testin

  10. The Detector Control of the PANDA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbauer, F

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the antiproton storage ring HESR, a part of the new accelerator facility FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA aims amongst other topics for high precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy and search for exotic matter. To guarantee the high resolution of the different components a detector control system (DCS) monitoring temperatures, humidity, pressure, and controlling chillers and power supplies is needed. The DCS of PANDA is built using the open-source software package EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) with a PANDA specific version of Control-System Studio. In this document the general concepts of the PANDA DCS will be discussed

  11. DABASCO Experiment Data Acquisition and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Artigao Arteaga, A.; Barcala Rieveira, J. M.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    DABASCO experiment wants to study the thermohydraulic phenomena produced into the containment area for a severe accident in a nuclear power facility. This document describes the characteristics of the data acquisition and control system used in the experiment. The main elements of the system were a data acquisition board, PCI-MIO-16E-4, and an application written with LaB View. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although the ingestion of vanadium (V) in drinking water may have possible adverse health effects, there have been relatively few studies of V in groundwater. Given the importance of groundwater as a source of drinking water in many areas of the world, this study examines the potential sources and geochemical processes that control the distribution of V in groundwater on a regional scale. Potential sources of V to groundwater include dissolution of V rich rocks, and waste streams from industrial processes. Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V concentrations are expected to be highest in samples collected from oxic and alkaline groundwater. However, the extent to which thermodynamic data and laboratory results apply to the actual distribution of V in groundwater is not well understood. More than 8400 groundwater samples collected in California were used in this study. Of these samples, high (> or = 50 μg/L) and moderate (25 to 49 μg/L) V concentrations were most frequently detected in regions where both source rock and favorable geochemical conditions occurred. The distribution of V concentrations in groundwater samples suggests that significant sources of V are mafic and andesitic rock. Anthropogenic activities do not appear to be a significant contributor of V to groundwater in this study. High V concentrations in groundwater samples analyzed in this study were almost always associated with oxic and alkaline groundwater conditions, which is consistent with predictions based on thermodynamic data.

  13. Status Update on the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The overarching objective of integrated hydrologic ground validation activities supporting the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is to provide better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. To this end, the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program is conducting the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS will be conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives and related goals for the IFloodS experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Quantify the physical characteristics and space/time variability of rain (rates, DSD, process/"regime") and map to satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainty. 2. Assess satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainties at instantaneous to daily time scales and evaluate propagation/impact of uncertainty in flood-prediction. 3. Assess hydrologic predictive skill as a function of space/time scales, basin morphology, and land use/cover. 4. Discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis. 5. Refine approaches to "integrated hydrologic GV" concept based on IFloodS experiences and apply to future GPM Integrated GV field efforts. These objectives will be achieved via the deployment of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a large network of both 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers, and USDA-ARS gauge and soil-moisture measurements (in collaboration with the NASA SMAP mission). The aforementioned measurements will be used to complement existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar measurements

  14. The Experiences of Young Adults With Hodgkin Lymphoma Transitioning to Survivorship: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Collins, Graham; Mitchell-Floyd, Tracy; Watson, Eila

    2016-09-01

    To explore the experiences of young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma during the first year following the end of initial treatment. 
. A qualitative grounded theory study.
. Interviews with patients recruited from three cancer centers in England.
. 10 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (four men and six women aged 21-39 years) recruited as part of a larger study of 28 young adult cancer survivors.
. Semistructured interviews were conducted about two months after treatment completion, and follow-up interviews were conducted seven months later. The authors' grounded theory of positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer provided the conceptual framework.
. Positive reframing, informal peer support, acceptance, and normalization helped young adults dismantle the threats of Hodgkin lymphoma during the course of treatment. However, they described losing a sense of security following treatment completion. Greater age-specific information to enable better preparation for the future was desired regarding body image, fertility, sexual relationships, work, and socializing.
. Informal support mechanisms, like peer support and patient navigator interventions, may be useful ways to further support young adults after treatment completion.
. Positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer survivorship in young adults is facilitated by having informal peer support; being able to positively reframe, accept, and normalize their experience; and being prepared for the future.

  15. The Global Control of the Virgo experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Arnault, Christian; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Chiche, Ronic; Davier, Michel; Eder, Claude; Hello, Patrice; Heusse, Philippe; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Mansoux, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect gravitational waves, the kilometric interferometer Virgo needs an active control of the positions of the suspended optical components, keeping the detector at its working point. The constraints are about 10 -10 m RMS for the longitudinal control ('Locking') and 10 -9 rad RMS for the angular degrees of freedom ('Alignment'). A dedicated hardware and software named Global Control is in charge of the Locking and the Alignment loops for the Virgo experiment. This system has been designed to match the synchronization constraint and provide a flexible tool in order to easily integrate the various algorithms needed for the control of Virgo. This paper presents the technical requirements to be fulfilled by the Global Control. Then, the dedicated hardware is described and the overall architecture of the Global Control is shown

  16. The Global Control of the Virgo experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, Nicolas [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Arnault, Christian [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Barsuglia, Matteo [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Bizouard, Marie-Anne [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Brisson, Violette [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Cavalier, Fabien [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)]. E-mail: cavalier@lal.in2p3.fr; Chiche, Ronic [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Davier, Michel [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Eder, Claude [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Hello, Patrice [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Heusse, Philippe; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Mansoux, Bruno [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Ba-hat timent 200, Campus d' Orsay, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2005-09-11

    In order to detect gravitational waves, the kilometric interferometer Virgo needs an active control of the positions of the suspended optical components, keeping the detector at its working point. The constraints are about 10{sup -10}m RMS for the longitudinal control ('Locking') and 10{sup -9}rad RMS for the angular degrees of freedom ('Alignment'). A dedicated hardware and software named Global Control is in charge of the Locking and the Alignment loops for the Virgo experiment. This system has been designed to match the synchronization constraint and provide a flexible tool in order to easily integrate the various algorithms needed for the control of Virgo. This paper presents the technical requirements to be fulfilled by the Global Control. Then, the dedicated hardware is described and the overall architecture of the Global Control is shown.

  17. Distributed control network for optogenetic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Juszczyk, B.; Mankiewicz, L.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays optogenetic experiments are constructed to examine social behavioural relations in groups of animals. A novel concept of implantable device with distributed control network and advanced positioning capabilities is proposed. It is based on wireless energy transfer technology, micro-power radio interface and advanced signal processing.

  18. Remote Experiments in Control Engineering Education Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica B Naumović

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Automatic Control Engineering Laboratory (ACEL - WebLab, an under-developed, internet-based remote laboratory for control engineering education at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering in Niš. Up to now, the remote laboratory integrates two physical systems (velocity servo system and magnetic levitation system and enables some levels of measurement and control. To perform experiments in ACEL-WebLab, the "LabVIEW Run Time Engine"and a standard web browser are needed.

  19. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  20. Using Grounded Theory Method to Capture and Analyze Health Care Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Grounded theory (GT) is an established qualitative research method, but few papers have encapsulated the benefits, limits, and basic tenets of doing GT research on user and provider experiences of health care services. GT can be used to guide the entire study method, or it can be applied at the data analysis stage only. Methods We summarize key components of GT and common GT procedures used by qualitative researchers in health care research. We draw on our experience of conducting a GT study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients’ experiences of health care services. Findings We discuss why some approaches in GT research may work better than others, particularly when the focus of study is hard-to-reach population groups. We highlight the flexibility of procedures in GT to build theory about how people engage with health care services. Conclusion GT enables researchers to capture and understand health care experiences. GT methods are particularly valuable when the topic of interest has not previously been studied. GT can be applied to bring structure and rigor to the analysis of qualitative data. PMID:25523315

  1. [Threats to Identity: A Grounded Theory Approach on Student Nurses' Experience of Incivility during Clinical Placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ran

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment. The experience of incivility was identified as "being mistreated as a marginal person," and nursing students responded to this phenomenon in the following three steps: reality shock, passive action, and submissive acceptance. This process caused students to lose self-esteem and undergo role conflict. Furthermore, nursing students' experience of incivility could eventually lead to workplace bullying in nurses. The results of this study suggest that nursing students' experience of incivility can be a process that threatens their identity. It is necessary to develop educational programs and provide appropriate counseling services so that nursing students can actively cope with the incivility. In addition, institutional plans are needed to ensure safe and supportive clinical learning environments. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  2. The LHC experiments' joint controls project (JCOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne Salter

    2001-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the control systems of the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments will require a non-negligible amount of resources and effort. In order to minimise the overall effort required the Joint Controls Project (JCOP) was set-up as a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for the control of the LHC experiments. It is one of the few examples of such a wide collaboration and therefore the existence of the JCOP project is extremely significant. The author will give a brief overview of the project, its structure and its history. It will go on to summarise the various sub-projects that have been initiated under the auspices of JCOP together will their current status. It will highlight that the JCOP general principle is to promote the use of industrial solutions wherever possible. However, this does not rule out the provision of custom solutions when non-standard devices or very large numbers of devices have to be controlled. The author will also discuss the architecture foreseen by JCOP and where in this architecture the various types of solutions are expected to be used. Finally, although the selection of common industrial and custom solutions is a necessary condition for JCOP to succeed, the use of these solutions in themselves would not necessarily lead to the production of homogeneous control systems. Therefore, the author will finish with a description of the JCOP Framework, which is being developed to promote the use of these common solutions, to reduce the development effort required by the various experiment development teams and to help to build and integrate control systems which can be more easily maintained

  3. Maneuver Planning for Conjunction Risk Mitigation with Ground-track Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, David

    2008-01-01

    The planning of conjunction Risk Mitigation Maneuvers (RMM) in the presence of ground-track control requirements is analyzed. Past RMM planning efforts on the Aqua, Aura, and Terra spacecraft have demonstrated that only small maneuvers are available when ground-track control requirements are maintained. Assuming small maneuvers, analytical expressions for the effect of a given maneuver on conjunction geometry are derived. The analytical expressions are used to generate a large trade space for initial RMM design. This trade space represents a significant improvement in initial maneuver planning over existing methods that employ high fidelity maneuver models and propagation.

  4. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Rapoport

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs, which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100–420 m s−1. Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical–numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1 of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 − f1 in the altitude ranges 0–0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2 of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1–20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz and VLF (kHz ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere–ionosphere system

  5. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-12-01

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  6. Excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator from the ground: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Milikh, G.; Vartanyan, A.; Snyder, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    We report results from numerical and experimental studies of the excitation of ULF shear Alfvén waves inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) by heating the ionosphere with powerful HF waves launched from the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Numerical simulations of the two-fluid MHD model describing IAR in a dipole magnetic field geometry with plasma parameters taken from the observations at HAARP during the October-November 2010 experimental campaign reveal that the IAR quality is higher during nighttime conditions, when the ionospheric conductivity is very low. Simulations also reveal that the resonance wave cannot be identified from the magnetic measurements on the ground or at an altitude above 600 km because the magnetic field in this wave has nodes on both ends of the resonator, and the best way to detect IAR modes is by measuring the electric field on low Earth orbit satellites. These theoretical predictions are in good, quantitative agreement with results from observations: In particular, (1) observations from the ground-based magnetometer at the HAARP site demonstrate no significant difference in the amplitudes of the magnetic field generated by HAARP in the frequency range from 0 to 5 Hz, and (2) the DEMETER satellite detected the electric field of the IAR first harmonic at an altitude of 670 km above HAARP during the heating experiment.

  7. Modern control room design experience and speculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Can operators trained to use conventional control panels readily adapt to CRT based control rooms? Does automation make the design of good man-machine interfaces more or less difficult? In a conventional, hard-wired control room is the operator's peripheral vision always an asset and how can one do better in a CRT based control room? Are Expert System assisted man-machine interfaces a boon or a bust? This paper explores these questions in the light of actual experience with advanced power plant control environments. This paper discusses how automation has in fact simplified the problem of ensuring that the operator has at all times a clear understanding of the plant state. The author contends that conventional hard-wired control rooms are very poor at providing the operator with a good overview of the plant status particularly under startup, or upset conditions and that CRT-based control rooms offer an opportunity for improvement. Experience with some early attempts at this are discussed together with some interesting proposals from other authors. Finally the paper discusses the experience to date with expert system assisted man-machine interfaces. Although promising for the future progress has been slow. The amount of knowledge research required is often formidable and consequently costly. Often when an adequate knowledge base is finally acquired it turns out to be better to use it to increase the level of automation and thus simplify the operator's task. The risks are not any greater and automation offers more consistent operation. It is important also to carefully distinguish between expert system assisted display selection and expert system operator guidance. The first is intended to help the operator in his quest for information. The second attempts to guide the operator actions. The good and the bad points of each of these approaches is discussed

  8. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  9. The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics—ground-breaking experiments on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Y

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their ground-breaking experiments on graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, and more generally, for their pioneering work in uncovering a new class of materials, namely two-dimensional atomic crystals. This paper gives an accessible account and review of the story of graphene; from its first description in the literature, to the realization and confirmation of its remarkable properties, through to its impressive potential for broad-reaching applications. The story of graphene is written within the context of the enormous impact that Geim and Novoselovs' work has had on this field of research, and recounts their personal pathways of discovery, which ultimately led to their award of the 2010 Nobel Prize. (topical review)

  10. Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.

  11. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  12. Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N

    2010-04-01

    Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.

  13. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  14. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  15. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiona Martin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations. Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths. Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.

  16. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  17. Computer controls for the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Friedag, P; De Leebeeck, V; Beck, D; Brand, H; Weinheimer, C; Breitenfeldt, M; Traykov, E; Mader, J; Roccia, S; Severijns, N; Herlert, A; Wauters, F; Zakoucky, D; Kozlov, V; Soti, G

    2011-01-01

    The WITCH experiment is a medium-scale experimental set-up located at ISOLDE/CERN. It combines a double Penning trap system with,a retardation spectrometer for energy measurements of recoil ions from beta decay. For a correct operation of such a set-up a whole range of different devices is required. Along with the installation and optimization of the set-up a computer control system was developed to control these devices. The CS-Framework that is developed and maintained at GSI, was chosen as a basis for this control system as it is perfectly suited to handle the distributed nature of a control system.We report here on the required hardware for WITCH, along with the basis of this CS-Framework and the add-ons that were implemented for WITCH. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Australian perioperative nurses' experiences of assisting in multi-organ procurement surgery: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management

  19. Gaussian mixed model in support of semiglobal matching leveraged by ground control points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Zheng, Shunyi; Li, Chang; Li, Yingsong; Gui, Li

    2017-04-01

    Semiglobal matching (SGM) has been widely applied in large aerial images because of its good tradeoff between complexity and robustness. The concept of ground control points (GCPs) is adopted to make SGM more robust. We model the effect of GCPs as two data terms for stereo matching between high-resolution aerial epipolar images in an iterative scheme. One term based on GCPs is formulated by Gaussian mixture model, which strengths the relation between GCPs and the pixels to be estimated and encodes some degree of consistency between them with respect to disparity values. Another term depends on pixel-wise confidence, and we further design a confidence updating equation based on three rules. With this confidence-based term, the assignment of disparity can be heuristically selected among disparity search ranges during the iteration process. Several iterations are sufficient to bring out satisfactory results according to our experiments. Experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms surface reconstruction, which is a representative variant of SGM and behaves excellently on aerial images.

  20. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  1. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudnik, B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) The much anticipated launch of NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late Novermber. [The LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140-day mission.] We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and members of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  2. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-Based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudnik, Brian; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2014-05-01

    The much anticipated launch of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late November. [the LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140 day mission] .We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteoroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and member of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  4. New generation detector for monitoring using remote-controlled ground-based and airborne systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespirova, Irena; Gryc, Lubomir; Helebrant, Jan; Sladek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    A new generation detector for monitoring with the use of remote-controlled ground (UAG, robotic rovers) or aircraft (UAV, drones) means was developed and tested within a security project. The main characteristics of the detector and the results of field tests with the detector placed on unmanned aerial means (drones) are described. (orig.)

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  6. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for... inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be made each year for the purposes of, among other...

  7. First conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y. P.; Van Besien, A. [eds.

    1980-06-01

    The first conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin was held at the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, August 22-24, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  8. Experiment on thermohydraulics of simulated control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Ouchi, Mitsuo; Akino, Norio; Fujimura, Kaoru; Shiina, Yasuaki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1984-10-01

    A thermohydraulic study of a control rod channel is required for the core design of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). A non-heating experiment with air flow was performed prior to heating experiment with helium flow. Experimental results on stability of flow, flow rate distribution and pressure drop of the control rod channel are reported. In a test section of the experimental apparatus, five simulated control subrods were suspended vertically in a circular duct. Their dimension was in coincide with those of the Detailed Disign (I) of the VHTR. Air of atomospheric pressure was used as a coolant gas, which flowed in inner and outer paths of the subrods. Total flow rate ranged from 0.0011 to 0.0062 kg/s. Flow rate distribution and pressure drop were obtained for various flow rates. Velocity fluctuation in the channel was also observed using a hot wire anemometer. From these experiments, it was found that the flow rate distribution was nearly the same as a disigned value and that turbulent and laminar flows were simultaneously realized in outer and inner paths respectively. These observations supported a feasibility of the present design. (author)

  9. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C no. and Visual Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Scripting languages have become a common method for implementing command and control solutions in space ground operations. The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL), the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Scripting Language Processor (SLP), and the Spacecraft Control Language (SCL) offer script-commands that wrap tedious operations tasks into single calls. Since script-commands are interpreted, they also offer a certain amount of hands-on control that is highly valued in space ground operations. Although compiled programs seem to be unsuited for interactive user control and are more complex to develop, Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) has developed a product called the Enhanced and Redesign Scripting (ERS) that makes use of the graphical and logical richness of a programming language while offering the hands-on and ease of control of a scripting language. ERS is currently used by the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Cadre team members. ERS integrates spacecraft command mnemonics, telemetry measurements, and command and telemetry control procedures into a standard programming language, while making use of Microsoft's Visual Studio for developing Visual Basic (VB) or C# ground operations procedures. ERS also allows for script-style user control during procedure execution using a robust graphical user input and output feature. The availability of VB and C# programmers, and the richness of the languages and their development environment, has allowed ERS to lower our "script" development time and maintenance costs at the Marshall POIC.

  10. French LMFBR's control rods experience and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, G.; Guigon, A.; Verset, L.

    1983-06-01

    Since the last ten years, the French program has been, first of all, directed to the setting up, and then the development of, at once, the Phenix control rods, and next, the Super-Phenix ones. The vented pin design, with porous plug and sodium bonding, which allows the choices of large diameters, has been taken, since the Rapsodie experience was decisive. The absorber material is sintered, 10 B enriched, boron carbide. The can is made of 316 type stainless steel, stabilised, or not, with titanium. The experience gained in Phenix up to now is important, and deals with about six loads of control rods. Results confirm the validity of the design of the absorber pins. Some difficulties has been encountered for the guiding devices, due to the swelling of the steel. They have required design and material improvements. Such difficulties are discarded by a new design of the bearing, for the Super-Phenix control rods. The other parts of these rods, from the Primary Shut-Down System, are strictly derived from Phenix. The design of the rods from the Secondary Shut-Down System is rather different, but it's not the case for the design of the absorber pins: in many a way, they are derived from Phenix pins and from Rapsodie control rods. Both types of rods irradiation tests are in progress in Phenix [fr

  11. IKONET: distributed accelerator and experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldewijn, P.

    1986-01-01

    IKONET is a network consisting of some 35 computers used to control the 500 MeV Medium Energy Amsterdam electron accelerator (MEA) and its various experiments. The control system is distributed over a whole variety of machines, which are combined in a transparent central-oriented network. The local hardware is switched and tuned via Camac by a series of mini-computers with a real-time multitask operating system. Larger systems provide central intelligence for the higher-level control layers. An image of the complete accelerator settings is maintained by central database administrators. Different operator facilities handle touchpanels, multi-purpose knobs and graphical displays. The network provides remote login facilities and file servers. On basis of the present layout, an overview is given of future developments for subsystems of the network. (Auth.)

  12. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Counsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Kamiya, K.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Loennroth, J.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focussing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. Present experiment and theory pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area and conductive energy losses in Type I ELMs. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type II, Grassy, QH, Type III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ ) and their relevance for ITER are reviewed. Recent studies of active control of ELMs using stochastic boundaries, small pellets and edge current generation are presented

  13. Modeling Aspect Controlled Formation of Seasonally Frozen Ground on Montane Hillslopes: a Case Study from Gordon Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) warns that high-elevation ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change due to short growing seasons, thin soils, sparse vegetation, melting glaciers, and thawing permafrost. Many permafrost-free regions experience seasonally frozen ground. The spatial distribution of frozen soil exerts a strong control on subsurface flow and transport processes by reducing soil permeability and impeding infiltration. Accordingly, evolution of the extent and duration of frozen ground may alter streamflow seasonality, groundwater flow paths, and subsurface storage, presenting a need for coupled thermal-hydrologic models to project hydrologic responses to climate warming in high-elevation regions. To be useful as predictive tools, such models should incorporate the heterogeneity of solar insolation, vegetation, and snowpack dynamics. We present a coupled thermal-hydrologic modeling study against the backdrop of field observations from Gordon Gulch, a seasonally snow-covered montane catchment in the Colorado Front Range in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. The field site features two instrumented hillslopes with opposing aspects: the snowpack on the north-facing slope persists throughout much of the winter season, while the snowpack on the south-facing slope is highly ephemeral. We implemented a surface energy balance and snowpack accumulation and ablation model that is coupled to the subsurface flow and transport code PFLOTRAN-ICE to predict the hydrologic consequences of aspect-controlled frozen soil formation during water years 2013-2016. Preliminary model results demonstrate the occurrence of seasonally-frozen ground on the north-facing slope that directs snowmelt to the stream by way of shallow subsurface flow paths. The absence of persistently frozen ground on the south-facing slope allows deeper infiltration of snowmelt recharge. The differences in subsurface flow paths also suggest strong aspect-controlled

  14. Competence in providing mental health care: a grounded theory analysis of nurses' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Julie; Happell, Brenda

    In view of the evidence that general nurses have difficulty in caring for patients experiencing mental health problems, the aim of this study was to explore and describe the subjective experience of nurses in providing care for this client group. A grounded theory approach was used. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study was conducted with nurses from general health care settings that provide medical and surgical care and treatment. Four nurses who were completing their second year post graduation participated in the study. The experiences of providing care for people experiencing a mental illness as described by participants. The findings indicated the nurses were striving for competence in the provision of mental health care. They acknowledged the mental health needs of patients and their right to quality care. This study supports the notion that general nurses lack confidence when caring for patients with mental health problems in medical and surgical settings. It also highlights a discrepancy between the holistic framework encouraged at undergraduate level and what is experienced in practice.

  15. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A

    2017-05-01

    Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients' perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences of "sympathy," "empathy," and "compassion" in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual's suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients' perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research.

  16. "Like a trip to McDonalds": a grounded theory study of patient experiences of day surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Anne

    2011-02-01

    The amount and complexity of (ambulatory) day surgery is rapidly expanding internationally. Nurses have a responsibility to provide quality care for day surgery patients. To do this they must understand all aspects of the patient experience. There is dearth of research into day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. The study investigated patients' experiences of day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was used. The study was based in two day surgery units in two urban public hospitals in the United Kingdom. 145 patients aged 18-70 years and 100 carers were purposely selected from the orthopaedic, ear nose and throat and general surgical lists. They were all English speaking and were of varied socio-economic background. The data was collected from 2004 to 2006. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three occasions: before surgery, 48 h following surgery and one month following discharge. Permission was received from the Local Research Ethics Committee. Analysis of the data involved line-by-line analysis, compilation of key words and phrases (codes) and constant comparison of the codes until categories emerged. Patients liked day surgery and placed it within the wider societal context of efficiency and speed. Time was a major issue for them. They wished surgery, like all other aspects of their life to be a speedy process. They likened it to a McDonald's experience with its emphasis on speed, predictability and control. This study throws new light on patient experiences and offers an understanding of day surgery against a western culture which emphasises the importance of speed and efficiency. It is a popular choice for patients but at times it can be seen to be a mechanistic way of providing care. The implications for nurses to provide education and information to add to the quality of the patient experience are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Unusually high As and U concentrations (> 100 ??g/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 ??g/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge. Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination. Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and

  18. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lico, M.S.; Welch, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    100 μg/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 μg/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge.Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination.Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert.Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and southern San Joaquin Valley of California

  19. Mitigation of ground motion effects in linear accelerators via feed-forward control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pfingstner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion is a severe problem for many particle accelerators, since it excites beam oscillations, which decrease the beam quality and create beam-beam offset (at colliders. Orbit feedback systems can only compensate ground motion effects at frequencies significantly smaller than the beam repetition rate. In linear colliders, where the repetition rate is low, additional counter measures have to be put in place. For this reason, a ground motion mitigation method based on feed-forward control is presented in this paper. It has several advantages compared to other techniques (stabilization systems and intratrain feedback systems such as cost reduction and potential performance improvement. An analytical model is presented that allows the derivation of hardware specification and performance estimates for a specific accelerator and ground motion model. At the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF2, ground motion sensors have been installed to verify the feasibility of important parts of the mitigation strategy. In experimental studies, it has been shown that beam excitations due to ground motion can be predicted from ground motion measurements on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Correlations of up to 80% between the estimated and measured orbit jitter have been observed. Additionally, an orbit jitter source was identified and has been removed, which halved the orbit jitter power at ATF2 and shows that the feed-forward scheme is also very useful for the detection of installation issues. We believe that the presented mitigation method has the potential to reduce costs and improve the performance of linear colliders and potentially other linear accelerators.

  20. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed

  1. Gamma irradiation in the control of pathogenic bacteria in refrigerated ground chicken meat; Irradiacao gama no controle de bacterias patogenicas em carne de frango refrigerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Gurgel, Maria Silvia do Amaral; Blumer, Lucimara; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aalcarde@cena.usp.br; Gallo, Claudio Rosa [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    2000-09-01

    This work evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on reducing the population of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli nd Salmonella typhimurium in ground chicken breast stored under refrigeration. The experiment included a control and 4 doses of gamma radiation ( 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy) along with 5 periods of storage under refrigeration ( 1, 7 14, 21 and 28 days). Samples of ground chicken breast were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 14458), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11105) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626), irradiated at temperatures between 4 and 8 deg C and stored under refrigeration (5 deg C) for 28 days. The increased radiation dose and period of storage under refrigeration caused a reduction of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium populations in the ground chicken breast. Mean radiation D values determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 0.41 and 0.72 kGy, respectively. Gamma irradiation was an effective treatment for chicken meat conservation because the radiation dose of 6.0 kGy kept the ground chicken breast within the microbiological limits established by the Brazilian legislation for up to 28 days under refrigeration. (author)

  2. Report of Earthquake Drills with Experiences of Ground Motion in Childcare for Young Children, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.

    2013-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, this disaster has become one of the opportunities to raise awareness of earthquake and tsunami disaster prevention, and the improvement of disaster prevention education is to be emphasized. The influences of these bring the extension to the spatial axis in Japan, and also, it is important to make a development of the education with continuous to the expansion of time axes. Although fire or earthquake drills as the disaster prevention education are often found in Japan, the children and teachers only go from school building to outside. Besides, only the shortness of the time to spend for the drill often attracts attention. The complementary practice education by the cooperation with experts such as the firefighting is practiced, but the verification of the effects is not enough, and it is the present conditions that do not advance to the study either. Although it is expected that improvement and development of the disaster prevention educations are accomplished in future, there are a lot of the problems. Our target is construction and utilization of material contributing to the education about "During the strong motion" in case of the earthquake which may experience even if wherever of Japan. One of the our productions is the handicraft shaking table to utilize as teaching tools of the education to protect the body which is not hurt at the time of strong motion. This made much of simplicity than high reproduction of the earthquake ground motions. We aimed to helping the disaster prevention education including not only the education for young children but also for the school staff and their parents. In this report, the focusing on a way of the non-injured during the time of the earthquake ground motion, and adopting activity of the play, we are going to show the example of the framework of earthquake disaster prevention childcare through the virtual experience. This presentation has a discussion as a practice study with

  3. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  4. Experiments with a magnetically controlled pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically controlled pendulum is used for observing free and forced oscillations, including nonlinear oscillations and chaotic motion. A data-acquisition system stores the data and displays time series of the oscillations and related phase plane plots, Poincare maps, Fourier spectra and histograms. The decay constant of the pendulum can be modified by positive or negative feedback. The apparatus, except for the data-acquisition system, is extremely simple and low cost, and can be assembled in a short time. The wide possibilities of varying the parameters of the pendulum make the experiments suitable for student projects

  5. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G

    2004-07-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q{sub 95} and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q{sub 95} (>4.5) with {delta}W{sub ELM}/W{sub ped}<5% was demonstrated in high triangularity ({delta} {approx} 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high {delta} and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and

  6. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q 95 (>4.5) with ΔW ELM /W ped <5% was demonstrated in high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge

  7. Computation and experiment results of the grounding model of Three Gorges Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Xishan; Zhang Yuanfang; Yu Jianhui; Chen Cixuan [Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electrical Engineering (China); Qin Liming; Xu Jun; Shu Lianfu [Yangtze River Water Resources Commission, Wuhan (China)

    1999-07-01

    A model for the computation of the grounding parameters of the grids of Three Gorges Power Plant (TGPP) on the Yangtze River is presented in this paper. Using this model computation and analysis of grounding grids is carried out. The results show that reinforcing the grid of the dam is the main body of current dissipation. It must be reliably welded to form a good grounding grid. The experimental results show that the method and program of the computations are correct. (UK)

  8. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  9. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  10. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna A. Gaffney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  11. Radiometric modeling and calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  12. Learning from nuclear waste repository design: the ground-control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.

    1988-01-01

    At present, under a U.S. Department of Energy program, three repositories for commercial spent fuel-in salt, tuff and basalt-are in the phase of site characterization and conceptual design, and one pilot project for defense waste in salt is under development. Because of strict quality assurance requirements throughout design and construction, and the need to predict and ascertain in advance the satisfactory performance of the underground openings, underground openings in the unusual circumstances of the repository environment have been analysed. This will lead to an improved understanding of rock behavior and improved methods of underground analysis and design. A formalized ground control plan was developed, the principles of which may be applied to other types of projects. This paper summarizes the status of underground design and construction for nuclear waste repositories and presents some details of the ground control plan and its individual elements. (author)

  13. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  14. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  15. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllander, Ch; Hollman, S; Widemo, U

    1969-04-15

    Within the framework of the IRIS-project (Iodine Research in Safety Project) an experiment to study diffusion at near-ground level was carried out on 19 December 1967 using {sup 85}Kr as the tracer element. The object of the experiment was a) to test the method using |3-sensitive thermoluminescence dosimeters under actual field conditions. b) to study the initial dilution from a ground level point source. The test area chosen was the Tranvik valley just south of Trobbofjaerden, an inland bay of the Baltic. Dose distributions have been studied at two sections, 50 and 200 m respectively, from the release point. At each level various dispersion parameters have been experimentally determined and their conformity to normal distribution have been calculated. Dilution factors valid for the centre of the plume are related to the values reported in the literature. The experiment was made under ideal weather conditions above snow-free ground. Results of the next experiment, a point release at ground level from a building at Studsvik, are expected to yield valuable information concerning the effect of buildings on the diffusion pattern.

  16. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyllander, Ch.; Hollman, S.; Widemo, U.

    1969-04-01

    Within the framework of the IRIS-project (Iodine Research in Safety Project) an experiment to study diffusion at near-ground level was carried out on 19 December 1967 using 85 Kr as the tracer element. The object of the experiment was a) to test the method using |3-sensitive thermoluminescence dosimeters under actual field conditions. b) to study the initial dilution from a ground level point source. The test area chosen was the Tranvik valley just south of Trobbofjaerden, an inland bay of the Baltic. Dose distributions have been studied at two sections, 50 and 200 m respectively, from the release point. At each level various dispersion parameters have been experimentally determined and their conformity to normal distribution have been calculated. Dilution factors valid for the centre of the plume are related to the values reported in the literature. The experiment was made under ideal weather conditions above snow-free ground. Results of the next experiment, a point release at ground level from a building at Studsvik, are expected to yield valuable information concerning the effect of buildings on the diffusion pattern

  17. Learning Experiences and Practices of Elementary Teacher Candidates on the Use of Emerging Technology: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, EunJin; Lee, Mimi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the phenomenon of the "professional journey" of elementary teacher candidates (ETC) both as learners and as teachers by exploring their learning experiences and practices regarding the virtual reality (VR) platform called Second Life (SL). Using the grounded theory approach, we designed an…

  18. A Grounded Theory of Preservice Music Educators' Lesson Planning Processes within Field Experience Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Bond, Vanessa L.; Powell, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the process of field experience lesson planning for preservice music educators enrolled in choral, general, and instrumental music education courses within three university contexts. Data sources included multiple interviews, written responses, and field texts from 42 participants. Four…

  19. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  20. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  1. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  2. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  3. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  4. Detector control system for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mato, P

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.1

  5. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests millions of dollars in spacecraft and ground system development, and in mission operations in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of the universe. In recent years, NASA sent a probe to Mars to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, obtained high resolution images of Pluto, and it is currently preparing to find new exoplanets, rendezvous with an asteroid, and bring a sample of the asteroid back to Earth for analysis. The success of these missions is enabled by mission assurance. In turn, mission assurance is backed by information assurance. The information systems supporting NASA missions must be reliable as well as secure. NASA - like every other U.S. Federal Government agency - is required to manage the security of its information systems according to federal mandates, the most prominent being the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and the legislative updates that followed it. Like the management of enterprise information technology (IT), federal information security management takes a "one-size fits all" approach for protecting IT systems. While this approach works for most organizations, it does not effectively translate into security of highly specialized systems such as those supporting NASA missions. These systems include command and control (C&C) systems, spacecraft and instrument simulators, and other elements comprising the ground segment. They must be carefully configured, monitored and maintained, sometimes for several years past the missions' initially planned life expectancy, to ensure the ground system is protected and remains operational without any compromise of its confidentiality, integrity and availability. Enterprise policies, processes, procedures and products, if not effectively tailored to meet mission requirements, may not offer the needed security for protecting the information system, and they may even become disruptive to mission operations

  6. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  7. Auditory skills of figure-ground and closure in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Anna Carolina Nascimento Waack Braga; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2017-12-04

    To investigate the auditory skills of closure and figure-ground and factors associated with health, communication, and attention in air traffic controllers, and compare these variables with those of other civil and military servants. Study participants were sixty adults with normal audiometric thresholds divided into two groups matched for age and gender: study group (SG), comprising 30 air traffic controllers and control group (CG), composed of 30 other military and civil servants. All participants were asked a number of questions regarding their health, communication, and attention, and underwent the Speech-in-Noise Test (SIN) to assess their closure skills and the Synthetic Sentence Identification Test - Ipsilateral Competitive Message (SSI-ICM) in monotic listening to evaluate their figure-ground abilities. Data were compared using nonparametric statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. More individuals in the SG reported fatigue and/or burnout and work-related stress and showed better performance than that of individuals in the CG for the figure-ground ability. Both groups performed similarly and satisfactorily in the other hearing tests. The odds ratio for participants belonging in the SG was 5.59 and 1.24 times regarding work-related stress and SSI-ICM (right ear), respectively. Results for the variables auditory closure, self-reported health, attention, and communication were similar in both groups. The SG presented significantly better performance in auditory figure-ground compared with that of the CG. Self-reported stress and right-ear SSI-ICM were significant predictors of individuals belonging to the SG.

  8. Experiments Using a Ground-Based Electrostatic Levitator and Numerical Modeling of Melt Convection for the Iron-Cobalt System in Support of Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyun; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Materials research is being conducted using an electromagnetic levitator installed in the International Space Station. Various metallic alloys were tested to elucidate unknown links among the structures, processes, and properties. To accomplish the mission of these space experiments, several ground-based activities have been carried out. This article presents some of our ground-based supporting experiments and numerical modeling efforts. Mass evaporation of Fe50Co50, one of flight compositions, was predicted numerically and validated by the tests using an electrostatic levitator (ESL). The density of various compositions within the Fe-Co system was measured with ESL. These results are being served as reference data for the space experiments. The convection inside a electromagnetically-levitated droplet was also modeled to predict the flow status, shear rate, and convection velocity under various process parameters, which is essential information for designing and analyzing the space experiments of some flight compositions influenced by convection.

  9. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C Sharp and Visual Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of scripting languages in Ground Operations Command and Control. It describes the use of scripting languages in a historical context, the advantages and disadvantages of scripts. It describes the Enhanced and Redesigned Scripting (ERS) language, that was designed to combine the features of a scripting language and the graphical and IDE richness of a programming language with the utility of scripting languages. ERS uses the Microsoft Visual Studio programming environment and offers custom controls that enable an ERS developer to extend the Visual Basic and C sharp language interface with the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) telemetry and command system.

  10. Solar House Obdach: experiences with a solar ground-coupled storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, M; Blum, P; Held, E; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    Within the framework of the Solar House Obdach-project, a system consisting of a ground heat exchanger, a low-temperature collector, a water-glycol/water heat pump and a low-temperature heating system was examined with regard to its suitability as only heat source of a house. With the design chosen (1 m/sup 2/ ground collector area and 0.3 m/sup 2/ low-temperature collector area per 80 W load), a seasonal performance factor of 2.83 could be obtained. About 40% of the low-temperature heat supplied to the heat pump were delivered directly or indirectly (by means of short-term storage in the ground) by the low-temperature collector, whereas about 60% came from the natural sources of energy of the ground (air heat, radiation, precipitation, ground water and slope water). The results obtained are used to verify and improve a computer model design program for ground collectors and ground-coupled storage systems which should help to optimize the design of solar plants, particularly under difficult conditions.

  11. Ground-based telescope pointing and tracking optimization using a neural controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, D; Brescia, M; Schipani, P

    2003-01-01

    Neural network models (NN) have emerged as important components for applications of adaptive control theories. Their basic generalization capability, based on acquired knowledge, together with execution rapidity and correlation ability between input stimula, are basic attributes to consider NN as an extremely powerful tool for on-line control of complex systems. By a control system point of view, not only accuracy and speed, but also, in some cases, a high level of adaptation capability is required in order to match all working phases of the whole system during its lifetime. This is particularly remarkable for a new generation ground-based telescope control system. Infact, strong changes in terms of system speed and instantaneous position error tolerance are necessary, especially in case of trajectory disturb induced by wind shake. The classical control scheme adopted in such a system is based on the proportional integral (PI) filter, already applied and implemented on a large amount of new generation telescopes, considered as a standard in this technological environment. In this paper we introduce the concept of a new approach, the neural variable structure proportional integral, (NVSPI), related to the implementation of a standard multi layer perceptron network in new generation ground-based Alt-Az telescope control systems. Its main purpose is to improve adaptive capability of the Variable structure proportional integral model, an already innovative control scheme recently introduced by authors [Proc SPIE (1997)], based on a modified version of classical PI control model, in terms of flexibility and accuracy of the dynamic response range also in presence of wind noise effects. The realization of a powerful well tested and validated telescope model simulation system allowed the possibility to directly compare performances of the two control schemes on simulated tracking trajectories, revealing extremely encouraging results in terms of NVSPI control robustness and

  12. Free-field ground motions for the nonproliferation experiment: Preliminary comparisons with nearby nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.H.; Peratt, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1987, we have installed fixed arrays of tri-axial accelerometers in the fire-field near the shot horizons for low-yield (≤ 20 kt) nuclear events in the N-tunnel complex beneath Rainier Mesa. For the Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) we augmented the array to achieve 23 free-field stations. Goals are: (a) to examine robustness and stability of various free-field source function estimates -- e.g., reduced displacement potentials (RDP) and spectra; (b) to compare close-in with regional estimates to test whether detailed close-in free-field and/or surface ground motion data can improve predictability of regional-teleseismic source functions; (c) to provide experimental data for checking two-dimensional numerical simulations. We report preliminary comparisons between experimental free-field data for NPE (1993) and three nearby nuclear events (MISTY ECHO, 1988; MINERAL QUARRY, 1990; HUNTERS TROPHY, 1992). All four working points are within 1 km of each other in the same wet tuff bed, thus reducing concerns about possible large differences in material properties between widely separated shots. Initial comparison of acceleration and velocity seismograms for the four events reveals: (1) There is a large departure from the spherical symmetry commonly assumed in analytic treatments of source theory; both vertical and tangential components are surprisingly large. (2) All shots show similar first-peak particle-velocity amplitude decay rates suggesting significant attenuation even in the supposedly purely elastic region. (3) Sharp (>20 Hz) arrivals are not observed at tunnel level from near-surface pP reflections or spall-closure sources -- but broadened peaks are seen that suggest more diffuse reflected energy from the surface and from the Paleozoic limestone basement below tunnel level

  13. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  14. Clastic patterned ground in Lomonosov crater, Mars: examining fracture controlled formation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alexander M.; Balme, Matthew R.; Patel, Manish R.; Hagermann, Axel

    2017-10-01

    The area surrounding Lomonosov crater on Mars has a high density of seemingly organised boulder patterns. These form seemingly sorted polygons and stripes within kilometre scale blockfields, patches of boulder strewn ground which are common across the Martian high latitudes. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the formation of clastic patterned ground on Mars. It has been proposed that these structures could have formed through freeze-thaw sorting, or conversely by the interaction of boulders with underlying fracture polygons. In this investigation a series of sites were examined to evaluate whether boulder patterns appear to be controlled by the distribution of underlying fractures and test the fracture control hypotheses for their formation. It was decided to focus on this suite of mechanisms as they are characterised by a clear morphological relationship, namely the presence of an underlying fracture network which can easily be evaluated over a large area. It was found that in the majority of examples at these sites did not exhibit fracture control. Although fractures were present at many sites there were very few sites where the fracture network appeared to be controlling the boulder distribution. In general these were not the sites with the best examples of organization, suggesting that the fracture control mechanisms are not the dominant geomorphic process organising the boulders in this area.

  15. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  16. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  17. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  18. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  19. Robust H∞ output-feedback control for path following of autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuan; Jing, Hui; Wang, Rongrong; Yan, Fengjun; Chadli, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a robust H∞ output-feedback control strategy for the path following of autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). Considering the vehicle lateral velocity is usually hard to measure with low cost sensor, a robust H∞ static output-feedback controller based on the mixed genetic algorithms (GA)/linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is proposed to realize the path following without the information of the lateral velocity. The proposed controller is robust to the parametric uncertainties and external disturbances, with the parameters including the tire cornering stiffness, vehicle longitudinal velocity, yaw rate and road curvature. Simulation results based on CarSim-Simulink joint platform using a high-fidelity and full-car model have verified the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  20. A grounded theory como abordagem metodológica: relatos de uma experiência de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que já é possível encontrar no Brasil alguns artigos que contemplam questões atinentes ao histórico, tipologias e principais características da grounded theory, este trabalho tem por finalidade contribuir para uma maior discussão dessa abordagem metodológica enquanto estilo de fazer pesquisa. De maneira específi ca, o trabalho tenta descrever uma experiência de campo e, principalmente, contar a saga de um pesquisador envolvido com o desafio de colocar a grounded theory em prática. Para isso, buscou-se dividir o trabalho em três partes distintas. Na primeira parte, apresentamos a grounded theory de uma maneira ampla, introduzindo alguns dos seus princípios fundamentais. Na segunda parte, descreve-se o trabalho de campo que foi realizado - nos moldes da grounded theory - com o objetivo de investigar a forma como os consumidores brasileiros oriundos das classes mais populares vivenciam suas experiências de consumo de produtos eletrônicos. Na terceira e última parte, são apresentadas algumas reflexões sobre as exigências práticas para a “operacionalização” de pesquisas comprometidas com o “espírito” da grounded theory, bem como as dúvidas, os dilemas, as difi culdades e as angústias vivenciadas ao longo de todo o processo de pesquisa contadas por quem passou por elas. ----- The Grounded Theory as Methodological Approach: reports of a field experience ----- ABSTRACT ----- As there are few articles that address issues relating to the history, types and main characteristics of grounded theory in Brazil, this paper aims to further the discussion of this methodological approach as a way of doing research. More specifically, the paper describes a field experience, and in particular the history of a researcher involved with the challenge of putting grounded theory into practice. The work is divided into three distinct parts. First we present grounded theory broadly, introducing some of its fundamental

  1. Ground reaction force comparison of controlled resistance methods to isoinertial loading of the squat exercise - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C; Reynolds, Michael C; Schilling, Brian K

    2010-01-01

    The ground reaction force during the concentric (raising) portion of the squat exercise was compared to that of isoinertial loading (free weights) for three pneumatically controlled resistance methods: constant resistance, cam force profile, and proportional force control based on velocity. Constant force control showed lower ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading throughout the range of motion (ROM). The cam force profile exhibited slightly greater ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading at 10 and 40% ROM with fifty-percent greater loading at 70% ROM. The proportional force control consistently elicited greater ground reaction force than isoinertial loading, which progressively ranged from twenty to forty percent increase over isoinertial loading except for being approximately equal at 85% ROM. Based on these preliminary results, the proportional control shows the most promise for providing loading that is comparable in magnitude to isoinertial loading. This technology could optimize resistance exercise for sport-specific training or as a countermeasure to atrophy during spaceflight.

  2. Experiments in robotic sensorimotor control during grasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments is presented, using a robot manipulator, which attempt to reproduce human sensorimotor control during grasping. The work utilizes a multifingered, dexterous robot hand equipped with a fingertip force sensor to explore dynamic grasp force adjustment during manipulation. The work is primarily concerned with the relationship between the weight of an object and the grasp force required to lift it. Too weak a grasp is unstable and the object will slip from the hand. Too strong a grasp may damage the object and/or the manipulator. An algorithm is presented which reproduces observed human behavior during grasp-and-lift tasks. The algorithm uses tactile information from the sensor to dynamically adjust the grasp force during lift. It is assumed that there is no a priori knowledge about the object to be manipulated. The effects of different arm/hand postures and object surfaces is explored. Finally, the use of sensory data to detect unexpected object motion and to signal transitions between manipulation phases--with the coincident triggering of new motor programs--is investigated

  3. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible while rejecting the effects of wind gusts. We compared the controller based on both simple and complex bicycle models without and with the roll vehicle dynamics for different types of model predictive control manoeuvres. The simulation result showed that the model predictive control gave a better performance in terms of robustness for both forward speeds and road surface variation in autonomous path-following control. It also demonstrated that model predictive control is useful to maintain vehicle stability along the desired path and has an ability to eliminate the crosswind effect.

  4. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  5. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992

  6. [Effect of space flight factors simulated in ground-based experiments on the behavior, discriminant learning, and exchange of monoamines in different brain structures of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtemberg, A S; Lebedeva-Georgievskaia, K V; Matveeva, M I; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Bazian, A S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental treatment (long-term fractionated γ-irradiation, antiorthostatic hypodynamia, and the combination of these factors) simulating the effect of space flight in ground-based experiments rapidly restored the motor and orienting-investigative activity of animals (rats) in "open-field" tests. The study of the dynamics of discriminant learning of rats of experimental groups did not show significant differences from the control animals. It was found that the minor effect of these factors on the cognitive performance of animals correlated with slight changes in the concentration ofmonoamines in the brain structures responsible for the cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions.

  7. Suppression of Adverse Effects of GIC Using Controlled Variable Grounding Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhussein, A.; Ali, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) has a harmful impact on power systems, with a large footprint. Mitigation strategies for the GIC are required to protect the integrity of the power system. To date, the adverse effects of GIC are being mitigated by either operational procedures or grounding fixed capacitors (GFCs). The operational procedures are uncertain, reduce systems' reliability, and increase energy losses. On the other hand, GFCs, incur voltage spikes, increase the transformer cost substantially, and require protection circuitry. This study investigates new possible approaches to cope with GIC, by using a controlled variable grounding resistor (CVGR), without interfering with the system's normal operation. In addition, the new techniques help suppress unsymmetrical faults in the power network. The controllability of the grounding resistor is applied using three different techniques: (1) a Parallel switch that is controlled by PI regulated duty cycle, (2) a Parallel switch that is triggered by a preset values in a look-up-table (LUT), and (3) a Mechanical resistor varied by a Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The experimental results were obtained and validated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. A hypothetical power system that consists of a generator, a 765kv, 500 km long transmission lines connecting between a step-up, Δ-Yn, transformer, and a step-down, Yn-Δ, transformer, is considered. The performance of the CVGR is compared with that of the GFC under the cases of GIC event and unsymmetrical faults. From the simulation results, the following points are concluded: The CVGR effectively suppresses the GIC flowing in the system. Consequently, it protects the transformers from saturation and the rest of the system from collapsing. The CVGR also reduces the voltage and power swings associated with unsymmetrical faults and blocks the zero sequence current flowing through the neutral of the transformer. The performance of the CVGR surpasses that of the GFC in

  8. Mechanization of and experience with a triplex fly-by-wire backup control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, W. P.; Petersen, W. R.; Whitman, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    A redundant three axis analog control system was designed and developed to back up a digital fly by wire control system for an F-8C airplane. The mechanization and operational experience with the backup control system, the problems involved in synchronizing it with the primary system, and the reliability of the system are discussed. The backup control system was dissimilar to the primary system, and it provided satisfactory handling through the flight envelope evaluated. Limited flight tests of a variety of control tasks showed that control was also satisfactory when the backup control system was controlled by a minimum displacement (force) side stick. The operational reliability of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system was satisfactory, with no unintentional downmodes to the backup control system in flight. The ground and flight reliability of the system's components is discussed.

  9. HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room: design - design rationale - experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerdestroemmen, N. T.; Meyer, B. D.; Saarni, R.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation of HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room, and the accumulated experiences gathered in the areas of design and design rationale as well as user experiences. It is concluded that HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room is a realistic, compact and efficient control room well suited as an Advanced NPP Control Room (ml)

  10. Ground-freezing experience on the east side access Northern Boulevard crossing, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Schmall, Paul; Dawson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A brief review is given of ground freezing technology as a means of providing groundwater cut-off and temporary structural support in weak ground for transportation tunnelling and shaft-sinking operations. Then detailed coverage of a particular case history is reported in variable soils in Queens, New York. As part of the upgrading of rail access from Long Island into Manhattan, a tunnel was required that necessitated a frozen arch structure under a ‘live’ roadway and rail lines. The installa...

  11. Barriers to regaining control within a constructivist grounded theory of family resilience in ICU: Living with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pauline; Liamputtong, Pranee; Koch, Susan; Rawson, Helen

    2017-12-01

    To discuss families' experiences of their interactions when a relative is admitted unexpectedly to an Australian intensive care unit. The overwhelming emotions associated with the unexpected admission of a relative to an intensive care unit are often due to the uncertainty surrounding the condition of their critically ill relative. There is limited in-depth understanding of the nature of uncertainty experienced by families in intensive care, and interventions perceived by families to minimise their uncertainty are not well documented. Furthermore, the interrelationships between factors, such as staff-family interactions and the intensive care unit environment, and its influence on families' uncertainty particularly in the context of the Australian healthcare system, are not well delineated. A grounded theory methodology was adopted for the study. Data were collected between 2009-2013, using in-depth interviews with 25 family members of 21 critically ill patients admitted to a metropolitan, tertiary-level intensive care unit in Australia. This paper describes the families experiences of heightened emotional vulnerability and uncertainty when a relative is admitted unexpectedly to the intensive care unit. Families uncertainty is directly influenced by their emotional state, the foreign environment and perceptions of being 'kept in the dark', as well as the interrelationships between these factors. Staff are offered an improved understanding of the barriers to families' ability to regain control, guided by a grounded theory of family resilience in the intensive care unit. The findings reveal in-depth understanding of families' uncertainty in intensive care. It suggests that intensive care unit staff need to focus clinical interventions on reducing factors that heighten their uncertainty, while optimising strategies that help alleviate it. Families are facilitated to move beyond feelings of helplessness and loss of control, and cope better with their situation.

  12. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for 24 different algae strains. Twelve different C. reinhardtii strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space, among them, some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls. We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry as well as some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance. The ground control experiments were performed following the same protocol for the sample preparation and the temperature recorded during the pre-flight, flight and post-flight phases. The space flight results in comparison to the ground simulations are discussed.

  13. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  14. Dynamic Design of Ground Transport With the Help of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravets Victor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of ground transport (motor transport vehicle have been considered. Mathematical model of nonlinear dynamics in spatial motion of asymmetric carriage in the form of Euler-Lagrange equations represented as symmetrical block structure in quaternion matrices has been developed. Kinematic equations and partition matrices of external action in which Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters have been applied describe quaternionic matrices.

  15. Suitability assessment of OPC UA as the backbone of ground-based observatory control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.; Deconinck, G.; Saey, P.

    2012-01-01

    A common requirement of modern observatory control systems is to allow interaction between various heterogeneous subsystems in a transparent way. However, the integration of off-the-shelf (OTS) industrial products - such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) software - has long been hampered by the lack of an adequate interfacing method. With the advent of the Unified Architecture (UA) version of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control), the limitations of the original industry accepted interface are now lifted, and also much more functionality has been defined. In this paper the most important features of OPC UA are matched against the requirements of ground-based observatory control systems in general and in particular of the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope. We investigate the opportunities of the 'information modelling' idea behind OPC UA, which could allow an extensive standardization in the field of astronomical instrumentation, similar to the efforts emerging in several industry domains. Because OPC UA is designed for both horizontal and vertical integration of heterogeneous subsystems, we explore its capabilities to serve as the backbone of a dependable and scalable observatory control system, treating industrial components like PLCs no differently than custom software components. Performance measurements and tests with a sample of OTS OPC UA products are presented. (authors)

  16. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  17. Physics experiments with Nintendo Wii controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion, a pair of controllers mounted on colliding gliders on a linear air track, and a person jumping from a balance board.

  18. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  19. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  20. General distributed control system for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, P.L.; Levings, S.J.; Wilkins, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A general control system using distributed LSI-11 microprocessors is being developed. Common software residues in each LSI-11 and is tailored to an application by control specifications downloaded from a host computer. The microprocessors, their control interfaces, and the micro-to-host communications are CAMAC based. The host computer also supports an operator interface, coordination of multiple microprocessors, and utilities to create and maintain the control specifications. Typical applications include monitoring safety interlocks as well as controlling vacuum systems, high voltage charging systems, and diagnostics

  1. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Waxegård

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods: Using classic grounded theory (Glaser, we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results: The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions: The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.

  2. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  3. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  4. The Development of an UAV Borne Direct Georeferenced Photogrammetric Platform for Ground Control Point Free Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. In this study, a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-based spatial information acquisition platform that can operate in Ground Control Point (GCP free environments is developed and evaluated. The proposed UAV based photogrammetric platform has a Direct Georeferencing (DG module that includes a low cost Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS Inertial Navigation System (INS/ Global Positioning System (GPS integrated system. The DG module is able to provide GPS single frequency carrier phase measurements for differential processing to obtain sufficient positioning accuracy. All necessary calibration procedures are implemented. Ultimately, a flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using GCPs. The preliminary results of positioning accuracy in DG mode illustrate that horizontal positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m at 300 m flight height above the ground. The positioning accuracy of the z axis is below 10 m. Therefore, the proposed platform is relatively safe and inexpensive for collecting critical spatial information for urgent response such as disaster relief and assessment applications where GCPs are not available.

  5. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  6. Operational experience with the CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Chowdhary, M.; Karn, J.; Tiefenback, M.; Zeijts, J. van; Watson, W.

    1996-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) successfully began its experimental nuclear physics program in November of 1995 and has since surpassed predicted machine availability. Part of this success can be attributed to using the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) control system toolkit. The CEBAF control system is one of the largest accelerator control system now operating. It controls approximately 338 SRF cavities, 2,300 magnets, 500 beam position monitors and other accelerator devices, such as gun hardware and other beam monitoring devices. All told, the system must be able to access over 125,000 database records. The system has been well received by both operators and the hardware designers. The EPICS utilities have made the task of troubleshooting systems easier. The graphical and test-based creation tools have allowed operators to custom build control screens. In addition, the ability to integrate EPICS with other software packages, such as Tcl/Tk, has allowed physicists to quickly prototype high-level application programs, and to provide GUI front ends for command line driven tools. Specific examples of the control system applications are presented in the areas of energy and orbit control, cavity tuning and accelerator tune up diagnostics

  7. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  8. Controlled environment experiments in pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitzschel, B

    1978-12-01

    In the last decade society has become aware of the increasing negative effects of human waste products introduced to the oceans. There is proof evidence, at least for some areas of the world ocean, that the marine environment is seriously in danger. The scientific community is very concerned, arguing that there is an urgent need for basic research in this field because too little is known on the harzardous effects of man-made pollutants on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. There are two wanys to perform experiments under conrolled environment conditions: (1) in the laboratory; (2) in in-situ experiments with enclosures. Most laboratory experiments are designed to study the influence and the tolerance spectrum of specific pollutants, e.g. copper or DDT, on any specific organism, e.g. a mussel or a fish. In these experiments it is fairly difficult to simulate natural conditions. The concentrations of the pollutants are generally fairly high, often several orders of magnitude higher than in the ocean. It is questionable if the results from these experiments can be extrapolated to nature. In the second approach (enclosures of various sizes in-situ or in landbased facilities), fibre-glass containers and plastic bags have been used successfully in the last years, e.g. in the UK, USA, Canada, France, and W. Germany. The main goal of these experiments is to study the long-term effect of low-level perturbations on natural populations of the pelagic or benthic ecosystem. Examples of recent results are discussed in detail. 33 references.

  9. Use of COTS in the Multimission Advanced Ground Intelligent Control (MAGIC) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, N.L.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial will discuss the experiences of the Space System Technologies Division of the USAF Phillips Laboratory (PL/VTS) in developing a COTS-based satellite control system. The system`s primary use is a testbed for new technologies that are intended for future integration into the operational satellite control system. As such, the control system architecture must be extremely open and flexible so we can integrate new components and functions easily and also provide our system to contractors for their component work. The system is based on commercial hardware, is based on Windows NT, and makes the maximum use of COTS components and industry standards.

  10. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of η≅10 -13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus

  11. Cooperative adaptive cruise control, design and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Vugts, R.P.A.; Ploeg, J.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    The design of a CACC system and corresponding experiments are presented. The design targets string stable system behavior, which is assessed using a frequency-domain-based approach. Following this approach, it is shown that the available wireless information enables small inter-vehicle distances,

  12. Automatic Detection and Positioning of Ground Control Points Using TerraSAR-X Multiaspect Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Sina; Gisinger, Christoph; Eineder, Michael; Zhu, Xiao xiang

    2018-05-01

    Geodetic stereo Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is capable of absolute three-dimensional localization of natural Persistent Scatterer (PS)s which allows for Ground Control Point (GCP) generation using only SAR data. The prerequisite for the method to achieve high precision results is the correct detection of common scatterers in SAR images acquired from different viewing geometries. In this contribution, we describe three strategies for automatic detection of identical targets in SAR images of urban areas taken from different orbit tracks. Moreover, a complete work-flow for automatic generation of large number of GCPs using SAR data is presented and its applicability is shown by exploiting TerraSAR-X (TS-X) high resolution spotlight images over the city of Oulu, Finland and a test site in Berlin, Germany.

  13. A Look into International Graduate Students' Experience in the United States: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Shuko

    2013-01-01

    The number of international students in the United States has been increasing each year, but little is known about their experience. There are recent studies on international students, however, only a few research has focused on international students studying at graduate level. To best study international graduate students' experience, a…

  14. Controlled Nucleosynthesis Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, Stanislav; Merwe, Alwyn

    2007-01-01

    This book ushers in a new era of experimental and theoretical investigations into collective processes, structure formation, and self-organization of nuclear matter. It reports the results of experiments wherein for the first time the nuclei constituting our world (those displayed in Mendeleev's table as well as the super-heavy ones) have been artificially created. Pioneering breakthroughs are described, achieved at the "Proton-21" Laboratory, Kiev, Ukraine, in a variety of new physical and technological directions. A detailed description of the main experiments, their analyses, and the interpretation of copious experimental data are given, along with the methodology governing key measurements and the processing algorithms of the data that empirically confirm the occurrence of macroscopic self-organizing processes leading to the nuclear transformations of various materials. The basic concepts underlying the initiation of self-sustaining collective processes that result in the formation of nuclear structures a...

  15. Ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic performance under closed-loop predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Jared R.; Guyon, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the exoplanet Proxima b highlights the potential for the coming generation of giant segmented mirror telescopes (GSMTs) to characterize terrestrial-potentially habitable-planets orbiting nearby stars with direct imaging. This will require continued development and implementation of optimized adaptive optics systems feeding coronagraphs on the GSMTs. Such development should proceed with an understanding of the fundamental limits imposed by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we seek to address this question with a semianalytic framework for calculating the postcoronagraph contrast in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. We do this starting with the temporal power spectra of the Fourier basis calculated assuming frozen flow turbulence, and then apply closed-loop transfer functions. We include the benefits of a simple predictive controller, which we show could provide over a factor of 1400 gain in raw point spread function contrast at 1 λ/D on bright stars, and more than a factor of 30 gain on an I=7.5 mag star such as Proxima. More sophisticated predictive control can be expected to improve this even further. Assuming a photon-noise limited observing technique such as high-dispersion coronagraphy, these gains in raw contrast will decrease integration times by the same large factors. Predictive control of atmospheric turbulence should therefore be seen as one of the key technologies that will enable ground-based telescopes to characterize terrestrial planets.

  16. Marriage as a training ground: Examining change in self-control and forgiveness over the first four years of marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, T.M.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Iliás, M.; Finkenauer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Do partners’ levels of self-control and forgiveness change over the course of marriage? Based on the idea that marriage may function as a training ground for these vital relationship abilities, we hypothesized that people increase their levels of self-control and forgiveness over time and that these

  17. Computer controls for the WITCH experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tandecki, M.; Beck, M.; Beck, D.; Brand, H.; Breitenfeldt, M.; De Leebeeck, V.; Friedag, P.; Herlert, A.; Kozlov, V.; Mader, J.; Roccia, S.; Soti, G.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Wauters, F.; Weinheimer, C.; Zákoucký, Dalibor; Severijns, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 629, č. 1 (2011), s. 369-405 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : LabVIEW * Control system * Distributed programming Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  18. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  19. Finessing incivility: The professional socialisation experiences of student nurses' first clinical placement, a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour

  20. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  1. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  2. Experience with dynamic material control subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe, W.R.; Hagen, J.; Siebelist, R.; Wagner, R.P.; Olson, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a Dynamic Material Control (DYMAC) prototype system has yielded some useful information for installing the final system. We discovered a bias between two methods for measuring filtrates. Evaluation of a unit process dynamic balance brought to light an operating procedure that weakens the accountability goals of the DYMAC system. We were able to correct both situations for the final system and learned that we must regularly monitor the system once it is operational for similar discrepancies

  3. Effect of spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of ground control mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ted; Lloyd, Shane; Dunlap, Alex; Ferguson, Virginia; Simske, Steven; Stodieck, Louis; Livingston, Eric

    Introduction: Spaceflight experiments using mouse or rat models require habitats that are specifically designed for the microgravity environment. During spaceflight, rodents are housed in a specially designed stainless steel meshed cage with gravity-independent food and water delivery systems and constant airflow to push floating urine and feces towards a waste filter. Differences in the housing environment alone, not even considering the spaceflight environment itself, may lead to physiological changes in the animals contained within. It is important to characterize these cage differences so that results from spaceflight experiments can be more reliably compared to studies from other laboratories. Methods: For this study, we examined the effect of NASA's Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of 8-week-old female C57BL/6J mice. This 13-day experiment, conducted on the ground, modeled the flight experiment profile of the CBTM-01 payload on STS-108, with standard vivarium-housed mice being compared to AEM-housed mice (n = 12/group). Functional differences were compared via mechanical testing, micro-hardness indentation, microcomputed tomography, and mineral/matrix composition. Cellular changes were examined by serum chemistry, histology, quantitative histomorphometry, and RT-PCR. A Student's t-test was utilized, with the level of Type I error set at 95 Results: There was no change in elastic, maximum, or fracture force mechanical properties at the femur mid-diaphysis, however, structural stiffness was -17.5 Conclusions: Housing mice in the AEM spaceflight hardware had minimal effects on femur cortical bone properties. However, trabecular bone at the proximal tibia in AEM mice experi-enced large increases in microarchitecture and mineral composition. Increases in bone density were accompanied by reductions in bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts, representing a general decline in bone turnover at this site

  4. Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1975-11-01

    A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented

  5. Adaptive Augmenting Control and Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control Flight Experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at NASA Armstrong are working to further the development of an adaptive augmenting control algorithm (AAC). The AAC was developed to improve the...

  6. Towards a common framework of grounded action cognition: Relating motor control, perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Antje; Weber, Arne; Synofzik, Matthis; Vosgerau, Gottfried; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The relation between motor control and action cognition - including action-related thoughts and action-related perception - has been subject to controversial discussions in the last three decades. During these decades, cognitive neuroscience has been increasingly confronted with a huge variety of different accounts trying to understand and explain the relation between these systems, their interdependencies and the mediating mechanisms by establishing notions such as "internal models", "simulation" or "shared representation". These accounts, however, include a large array of partly overlapping, partly contradictory theories using similar terms for different mechanisms and different terms for similar mechanisms. In the absence of a systematic work-up and comparison, this array of accounts and theories leads to confusion in the field, duplication of experimental work, and unconnected parallelism of theory formation within and between different disciplines. Here we provide a systematic comparison of current models and prospective theories that deal with the relation between cognition, perception and motor control mechanisms. In a second step, we propose "grounded action cognition" as a comprehensive metatheoretical framework which defines different hypothetical possibilities of the relations between these domains, offers systematic insights into current models and theories and last but not least may help to increase comparability of empirical research in the domain of action and action cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  8. Study on Zero-Doppler Centroid Control for GEO SAR Ground Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In geosynchronous Earth orbit SAR (GEO SAR, Doppler centroid compensation is a key step for imaging process, which could be performed by the attitude steering of a satellite platform. However, this zero-Doppler centroid control method does not work well when the look angle of radar is out of an expected range. This paper primarily analyzes the Doppler properties of GEO SAR in the Earth rectangular coordinate. Then, according to the actual conditions of the GEO SAR ground observation, the effective range is presented by the minimum and maximum possible look angles which are directly related to the orbital parameters. Based on the vector analysis, a new approach for zero-Doppler centroid control in GEO SAR, performing the attitude steering by a combination of pitch and roll rotation, is put forward. This approach, considering the Earth’s rotation and elliptical orbit effects, can accurately reduce the residual Doppler centroid. All the simulation results verify the correctness of the range of look angle and the proposed steering method.

  9. Keeping hope possible: a grounded theory study of the hope experience of parental caregivers who have children in treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Jill M G; Duggleby, Wendy; Holtslander, Lorraine; Mpofu, Christopher; Spurr, Shelley; Thomas, Roanne; Wright, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Hope has been found to support parents as they care for their child with a life-limiting or life-threatening illness. However, very little research focuses on the nursing care of parents of pediatric oncology patients, and therefore, nurses may have difficulty in understanding and supporting parental well-being. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the experience of hope for parents who care for their child in treatment for cancer. Using purposive theoretical sampling, 16 parents participated in this study. Thirty-three open-ended, face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 14 parent journals were collected. Analysis of the data was conducted using Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory approach. A developing, substantive grounded theory was constructed. Parental hope was described as an essential, powerful, deliberate, life-sustaining, dynamic, cyclical process that was anchored in time; was calming and strengthening; and provided inner guidance through the challenging experience of preparing for the worst and hoping for the best. Parents' main concern was "fearing the loss of hope," which was ameliorated by the basic social process of "keeping hope possible" through accepting reality, establishing control, restructuring hope, and purposive positive thinking. Parents journeyed through numerous transitions related to the treatment of cancer that caused feelings of uncertainty, anxiety, stress, and loss of control. Hope was identified as vital to parents. To minimize these adverse experiences, nurses can support parents' ability to keep hope possible and thus to optimize their well-being by understanding, assessing, and supporting parental hope.

  10. [Our experience with outside laboratory quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochev, D; Arakasheva, V; Nashkov, A; Tsachev, K

    1979-01-01

    The results from the national outside laboratory qualitative control of the clinical diagnostic laboratory investigations for the period September 1975 -- May 1977 were described. The following interlaboratory discrepancy was found on base of a systematic analysis of the data from the last two ring-like check-ups, November 1976 and May 1977, exressed by the variation coefficient (V.C. %); total protein, sodium, potassium and chlorides -- under 10%; cholesterol, urea and total fats -- between 10 and 20%; calcium, phosphorus, iron and creatinine -- over 20%. The highest per cent of admissible results are found with total protein -- to 85%; cholesterol -- to 70.38%; glucosa -- to 73.17%, urea -- to 69.23%, potassium -- to 59.46%, chlorides -- to 57.9%. With sodium, phosphorus, calcium, iron creatinine and uric acid the "admissibility" fluctuates about or under 50 per cent. The values of the qualitative-control indices discussed are comparable with the values obtained from them in the interlaboratory comparisons of other countries.

  11. Application of programmable logic controller in nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponikvar, D.

    1991-09-01

    The applicability of programmable logic controller (PLC) in nuclear experiments was studied on an example that simulated the monitoring and control of an ion beam in an accelerator. Using infrared and laser light, a comparison was made between the complexity and suitability of PLC compared to a setup using a personal computer. The experiments are described in detail. The routines for registration of signals from appropriate sensors and for control of the stepper monitor were written in quick BASIC. (author). 5 figs

  12. Enduring love: a grounded formal theory of women's experience of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, M H

    2001-08-01

    Using a grounded formal theory approach, 13 qualitative research reports were analyzed with the goal of synthesizing a middle-range theory of women's responses to violent relationships. The combined sample numbered 282 ethnically and geographically diverse women ages 16-67. Within cultural contexts that normalized relationship violence while promoting idealized romance, these women dealt with the incongruity of violence in their relationships as a basic process of enduring love. In response to shifting definitions of their relationship situations, many women moved through four phases, which began with discounting early violence for the sake of their romantic commitment ("This is what I wanted"), progressed to immobilization and demoralization in the face of increasingly unpredictable violence that was endured by the careful monitoring of partner behavior and the stifling of self ("The more I do, the worse I am"), shifted to a perspective that redefined the situation as unacceptable ("I had enough"), and finally moved out of the relationship and toward a new life ("I was finding me"). Variations in the manifestation and duration of these phases were found to be linked to personal, sociopolitical, and cultural contexts. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms at ground level in four separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (brief description of the TETRA-I observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary results of the first events observed by TETRA-II will be presented including frequency and time history of events, spectral information, and correlation with local radar and radio data.

  14. Context, Experience, Expectation, and Action—Towards an Empirically Grounded, General Model for Analyzing Biographical Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Reiter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a general, empirically grounded model for analyzing biographical uncertainty. The model is based on findings from a qualitative-explorative study of transforming meanings of unemployment among young people in post-Soviet Lithuania. In a first step, the particular features of the uncertainty puzzle in post-communist youth transitions are briefly discussed. A historical event like the collapse of state socialism in Europe, similar to the recent financial and economic crisis, is a generator of uncertainty par excellence: it undermines the foundations of societies and the taken-for-grantedness of related expectations. Against this background, the case of a young woman and how she responds to the novel threat of unemployment in the transition to the world of work is introduced. Her uncertainty management in the specific time perspective of certainty production is then conceptually rephrased by distinguishing three types or levels of biographical uncertainty: knowledge, outcome, and recognition uncertainty. Biographical uncertainty, it is argued, is empirically observable through the analysis of acting and projecting at the biographical level. The final part synthesizes the empirical findings and the conceptual discussion into a stratification model of biographical uncertainty as a general tool for the biographical analysis of uncertainty phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100120

  15. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  16. 'We have to flap our wings or fall to the ground': The experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In 2011, Stellenbosch University introduced a district hospital-based longitudinal integrated model for final-year students as part of its rural clinical school. The present study is an analysis of students' experiences during the first 3 years of the programme. Methods: All 13 students who started the programme ...

  17. Technologies for low-bandwidth high-latency unmanned ground vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Teresa; Cogan, Ken; Hunt, Lee; Restine, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Automation technology has evolved at a rapid pace in recent years; however, many real-world problems require contextual understanding, problem solving, and other forms of higher-order thinking that extends beyond the capabilities of robots for the foreseeable future. This limits the complexity of automation which can be supplied to modern unmanned ground robots (UGV) and necessitates human-in-the-loop monitoring and control for some portions of missions. In order for the human operator to make decisions and provide tasking during key portions of the mission, existing solutions first derive significant information from a potentially dense reconstruction of the scene utilizing LIDAR, video, and other onboard sensors. A dense reconstruction contains too much data for real-time transmission over a modern wireless data link, so the robot electronics must first condense the scene representation prior to transmission. The control station receives this condensed scene representations and provides visual information to the human operator; the human operator then provides tele-operation commands in real-time to the robot. This paper discusses approaches to dense scene reduction of the data required to transmit to a human-in-the loop as well as the challenges associated with them. In addition, the complex and unstructured nature of real-world environments increases the need for tele-operation. Furthermore, many environments reduce the bandwidth and increase the latency of the link. Ultimately, worsening conditions will cause the tele-operation control process to break down, rendering the robot ineffective. In a worst-case scenario, extreme conditions causing a complete loss-of-communications could result in mission failure and loss of the vehicle.

  18. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  19. Experience with ActiveX control for simple channel access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timossi, C.; Nishimura, H.; McDonald, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator control system applications at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source (ALS) are typically deployed on operator consoles running Microsoft Windows 2000 and utilize EPICS[2]channel access for data access. In an effort to accommodate the wide variety of Windows based development tools and developers with little experience in network programming, ActiveX controls have been deployed on the operator stations. Use of ActiveX controls for use in the accelerator control environment has been presented previously[1]. Here we report on some of our experiences with the use and development of these controls

  20. Role of HZE particles in space flight - Results from spaceflight and ground-based experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, H.; Facius, R.

    1981-09-01

    Selected results from experiments investigating the potentially specific radiobiological importance of the cosmic HZE (equals high Z, energetic) particles are discussed. Results from the Biostack space flight experiments, which were designed to meet the experimental requirements imposed by the microdosimetric nature of this radiation field, clearly indicate the existence of radiation mechanisms which become effective only at higher values of LET (linear energy transfer). Accelerator irradiation studies are reviewed which conform with this conjecture. The recently discovered production of 'micro-lesions' in mammalian tissues by single HZE particles is possibly the most direct evidence. Open questions concerning the establishment of radiation standards for manned spaceflight, such as late effects, interaction with flight dynamic parameters, and weightlessness, are indicated.

  1. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  2. Ground-facilities at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine for preparation of flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Hauslage, Jens; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Baerwalde, Sven; Schuber, Marianne

    In order to investigate the influence of altered gravity on biological systems and to identify gravisensitive processes, various experimental platforms have been developed, which are useful to simulate weightlessness or are able to produce hypergravity. At the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR Cologne, a broad spectrum of applications is offered to scientists: clinostats with one rotation axis and variable rotation speeds for cultivation of small objects (including aquatic organisms) in simulated weightlessness conditions, for online microscopic observations and for online kinetic measurements. Own research concentrates on comparative studies with other kinds of methods to simulate weightlessness, also available at the institute: Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) for aquatic studies, Random Positioning Machine (RPM; manufactured by Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands). Correspondingly, various centrifuge devices are available to study different test objects under hypergravity conditions -such as NIZEMI, a slow rotating centrifuge microscope, and MUSIC, a multi-sample centrifuge. Mainly for experiments with human test subjects (artificial gravity), but also for biological systems or for testing various kinds of (flight-) hardware, the SAHC, a short arm human centrifuge -loaned by ESA -was installed in Cologne and completes our experimental scenario. Furthermore, due to our specific tasks such as providing laboratories during the German Parabolic Flight Experiments starting from Cologne and being the Facility Responsible Center for BIOLAB, a science rack in the Columbus module aboard the ISS, scientists have the possibility for an optimal preparation of their flight experiments.

  3. Divertor experiment for impurity control in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki

    1979-04-01

    Divertor actions of controlling the impurities and the transport of impurity ions in the plasma have been investigated in the DIVA device. Following are the results: (1) The radial transport of impurity ions is not described only by neoclassical theory, but it is strongly influenced by anomalous process. Radial diffusion of impurity ions across the whole minor radius is well described by a neoclassical diffusion superposed by the anomalous diffusion for protons. Due to this anomalous process, which spreads the radial density profile of impurity ions, 80 to 90% of the impurity flux in the plasma outer edge is shielded even in a nondiverted discharge. (2) The divertor reduces the impurity flux entering the main plasma by a factor of 2 to 4. The impurity ions shielded by the scrape-off plasma are rapidly guided into the burial chamber with a poloidal excursion time roughly equal to that of the scrape-off plasma. (3) The divertor reduces the impurity ion flux onto the main vacuum chamber by guiding the impurity ions diffusing from the main plasma into the burial chamber, thereby reducing the plasma-wall interaction caused by diffusing impurity ions at the main vacuum chamber. The impurity ions produced in the burial chamber may flow back to the main plasma through the scrape-off layer. However, roughly only 0.3% of the impurity flux into the scrape-off plasma in the burial chamber penetrates into the main plasma due to the impurity backflow. (4) A slight cooling of the scrape-off plasma with light-impurity injection effectively reduces the metal impurity production at the first wall by reducing the potential difference between the plasma and the wall, thereby reducing the accumulation of the metal impurity in the discharge. Radiation cooling by low-Z impurities in the plasma outer edge, which may become an important feature in future large tokamaks both with and without divertor, is numerically evaluated for carbon, oxygen and neon. (author)

  4. Environmental isotopes as early warning tools to control the abstraction of deep ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, K.P.; Maloszewski, P.; Weise, S.M.; Loosli, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    Early warning system for the exploitation of ground water from the passive zone can not be based on the measurement of pollutant concentrations itself. The environmental tracer data are suggested to be used as indicators for changes in conservative mass transport processes from shallow to deep or very deep to deep ground waters

  5. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  6. Kennedy Space Center Timing and Countdown Interface to Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are developing a time-tagging process to enable reconstruction of the events during a launch countdown. Such a process can be useful in the case of anomalies or other situations where it is necessary to know the exact time an event occurred. It is thus critical for the timing information to be accurate. KGCS will synchronize all items with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) obtained from the Timing and Countdown (T&CD) organization. Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the protocol currently in place for synchronizing UTC. However, NTP has a peak error that is too high for today's standards. Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a newer protocol with a much smaller peak error. The focus of this project has been to implement a PTP solution on the network to increase timing accuracy while introducing and configuring the implementation of a firewall between T&CD and the KGCS network.

  7. Flow Characteristics of Ground Vehicle Wake and Its Response to Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappan, Prabu; McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution, fuel shortages, and cost savings are some of the many incentives for improving the aerodynamics of vehicles. Reducing wake-induced aerodynamic drag, which is dependent on flow topology, on modern passenger vehicles is important for improving fuel consumption rates which directly affect the environment. In this research, an active flow control technique is applied on a generic ground vehicle, a 25°Ahmed model, to investigate its effect on the flow topology in the near-wake. The flow field of this canonical bluff body is extremely rich, with complex and unsteady flow features such as trailing wake vortices and c-pillar vortices. The spatio-temporal response of these flow features to the application of steady microjet actuators is investigated. The responses are characterized independently through time-resolved and volumetric velocity field measurements. The accuracy and cost of volumetric measurements in this complex flow field through Stereoscopic- and Tomographic- Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) will also be commented upon. National Science Foundation PIRE Program.

  8. Design of a Nanosatellite Ground Monitoring and Control Software – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alexander Díaz González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing countries that have carried out the development of CubeSat missions for academic purposes do not offer aerospace engineering programs at their universities. This causes difficulties for traditional engineers upon the formal use of different standards and frameworks for aerospace development, such as the European Cooperation for Space Standardization and Space Mission Analysis and Design . One way in which traditional software engineers can easily understand the structure of an aerospace framework, in order to apply it on the development of CubeSat mission software parts, is comparing its most important elements in relation to the elements suggested by a more familiar method. In this paper, we present a hybrid framework between the ECSS-E-ST-40C standard and the Rational Unified Process, which can be used by traditional software engineers as a guide model for the development of software elements in academic nanosatellite missions. The model integrates the processes and documentation suggested by the ECSS-E-ST-40C with the disciplines, workflows and artifacts suggested in Rational Unified Process. This simplifies the structure of ECSS-E-ST-40C and allows traditional software engineers to easily understand its work elements. The paper describes as study case the implementation of the hybrid model in the analysis and design of ground monitoring and control software for the Libertad-2 satellite mission, which is currently being developed by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda in Colombia.

  9. Frequency Reconfigurable Circular Patch Antenna with an Arc-Shaped Slot Ground Controlled by PIN Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact frequency reconfigurable circular patch antenna with an arc-shaped slot loaded in the ground layer is proposed for multiband wireless communication applications. By controlling the ON/OFF states of the five PIN diodes mounted on the arc-shaped slot, the effective length of the arc-shaped slot and the effective length of antennas current are changed, and accordingly six-frequency band reconfiguration can be achieved. The simulated and measured results show that the antenna can operate from 1.82 GHz to 2.46 GHz, which is located in DCS1800 (1.71–1.88 GHz, UMTS (2.11–2.20 GHz, WiBro (2.3–2.4 GHz, and Bluetooth (2.4–2.48 GHz frequency bands and so forth. Compared to the common rectangular slot circular patch antenna, the proposed arc-shaped slot circular patch antenna not only has a better rotational symmetry with the circular patch and substrate but also has more compact size. For the given operating frequency at 1.82 GHz, over 55% area reduction is achieved in this design with respect to the common design with rectangular slot. Since the promising frequency reconfiguration, this antenna may have potential applications in modern multiband and multifunctional mobile communication systems.

  10. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  11. Ideas on a generic control systems based on the experience on the 4 LEP experiments control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillere, R.; Le Goff, J.M.; Milcent, H.; Stampfli, R.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the large slow control systems in the LEP collider experiments are distributed heterogeneous and multi-standard. But in spite of the appearances, they have a lot in common. From our direct experience on the L-3 slow control system and from the informations we obtained on the 3 other LEP experiments control systems we have come to the conclusion that it should be possible to build a Generic Control Package from which any control system could be derived. This software package is entirely based on relational databases and is intended to provide all the necessary tools to build a modular, coherent, easy to update and to maintain control system. Among other things this package should include user friendly interfaces, expert systems, and powerful graphic monitoring and control tools. This paper will present our general ideas about the realization of such a package. (author)

  12. Factors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnoch, M.; Wach, P.; Chmura, L.; Gorczyca, Z.; Rozanski, K.; Godlowska, J.; Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.; Jeričević, A.

    2014-09-01

    Concentration of radon (222Rn) in the near-ground atmosphere has been measured quasi-continuously from January 2005 to December 2009 at two continental sites in Europe: Heidelberg (south-west Germany) and Krakow (southern Poland). The atmosphere was sampled at ca. 30 and 20 m above the local ground. Both stations were equipped with identical instruments. Regular observations of 222Rn were supplemented by measurements of surface fluxes of this gas in the Krakow urban area, using two different approaches. The measured concentrations of 222Rn varied at both sites in a wide range, from less than 2.0 Bq m-3 to approximately 40 Bq m-3 in Krakow and 35 Bq m-3 in Heidelberg. The mean 222Rn content in Krakow, when averaged over the entire observation period, was 30% higher than in Heidelberg (5.86 ± 0.09 and 4.50 ± 0.07 Bq m-3, respectively). Distinct seasonality of 222Rn signal is visible in the obtained time series of 222Rn concentration, with higher values recorded generally during late summer and autumn. The surface 222Rn fluxes measured in Krakow also revealed a distinct seasonality, with broad maximum observed during summer and early autumn and minimum during the winter. When averaged over a 5-year observation period, the night-time surface 222Rn flux was equal to 46.8 ± 2.4 Bq m-2 h-1. Although the atmospheric 222Rn levels at Heidelberg and Krakow appeared to be controlled primarily by local factors, it was possible to evaluate the "continental effect" in atmospheric 222Rn content between both sites, related to gradual build-up of 222Rn concentration in the air masses travelling between Heidelberg and Krakow. The mean value of this build-up was equal to 0.78 ± 0.12 Bq m-3. The measured minimum 222Rn concentrations at both sites and the difference between them was interpreted in the framework of a simple box model coupled with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) analysis of air mass trajectories. The best fit of experimental data was

  13. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  14. THE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SKIDDING TECHNIQUE ON RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND GROUND EXPOSURE IN SWAMP FOREST LOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2004-11-01

    • The  average of ground  exposure  caused by controlled  skidding  technique  and conventionalskidding technique was respectively   16.06% and 18.4%.  The difference of 2.34%  was significant at 95%.

  15. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  16. A control system for a free electron laser experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giove, D.

    1992-01-01

    The general layout of a control and data acquisition system for a Free Electron Laser experiment will be discussed. Some general considerations about the requirements and the architecture of the whole system will be developed. (author)

  17. Alkylation of Chlorobenzene. An Experiment Illustrating Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates the kinetic versus thermodynamic control of chemical reactions for organic chemistry students. Considers the laboratory procedures including the isolation of both the kinetic and thermodynamic products. (CW)

  18. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Lei; Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Dai, Shun; Li, Jun-Duo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Gao, Yun-Ze; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm.

  19. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bo; Zheng Lei; Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Dai Shun; Li Jun-Duo; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm

  20. District nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerin, Annica; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2017-12-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory method to investigate district nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines at seven primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Group interviews were conducted with 30 nurses. The results describe how district nurses strive to stay on track in order to follow clinical guidelines and remain motivated despite prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness. Three main obstacles to following the guidelines were found. District nurses used compensating strategies so the obstacles would not lead to negative consequences. If the compensating strategies were insufficient, perceived prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness could result. District nurses then used motivating strategies to overcome these feelings of hopelessness. Sometimes, despite the motivating strategies, treatment in accordance with guidelines could not be achieved. With some patients, district nurses had to compromise and follow the guidelines as far as possible.

  1. Experience of Control and Student Satisfaction with Higher Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungki; Anantharaman, Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Although the delivery of satisfactory services is an important strategic goal in many colleges, students are known to face challenges and experience a significant amount of stress during their school life. This study proposes and tests students' experience of control over their college life as a promising factor that would enhance their…

  2. Older persons’ and their families’ experience with live-in foreign home care workers. A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Heidi; Naef, Rahel; Rüesch, Peter; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Dreizler, Jutta

    2016-11-01

    Background: Live-in arrangements with migrant care workers have considerably increased over the last years since they allow older frail persons to age-in-place despite functional limitations. However, little is known about the ramifications live-in care arrangements for families. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate families’ experience with live-in migrant care workers and indicators of quality from their perspective. Method: Constructivist grounded theory study with 22 families who were recruited via care agencies in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and participated in 29 individual or dyadic interviews. Results: Live-in care by migrant care workers has potentially positive ramifications for older persons and their families, but only so if families, first, reach a consensus about the need for the employment of migrant care workers; second, experience them as competent; and third, mutually forge relationships and negotiate daily life. A successful care arrangement occurs when there is a relational fit among those involved, which leaves families feeling cared for, safe and relieved. They experience a renewed stability in their family system, enriching relationships, and assuredness about the quality present in the care situation. Conclusions: A successful care arrangement is the result of relationships that have been actively created and a negotiated shared existence in a family-like network. It has a positive effect on the well-being of those receiving care and their family members. The family-like network needs competent support.

  3. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring the Change in Water Table with Gravity Methods - a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Christiansen, Lars; Andersen, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity changes linearly with the change in soil water content. With the GRACE satellite mission the interest for ground-based gravity methods in hydrology has gained new attention. Time-lapse gravity data have the potential to constrain hydrological model parameters in a calibration scheme....... The greatest potential is seen for specific yield. The gravity signal from hydrology is small (10^-8 m/s^2 level) and the application of ground-based methods is mainly limited by the sensitivity of available instruments. In order to demonstrate the ability of the Scintrex CG-5 gravity meter to detect a change...... in water content, a controlled experiment was set up in 30 m by 20 m basin. The water table was lowered 0.69 m within 1½ hours and the corresponding gravity signal measured using two different approaches: a time series measurements at one location and a gravity network measurement including four points...

  5. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  6. A remote control system for the LELA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, M.; Cavallo, N.; Cevenini, F.; Patteri, P.

    1983-01-01

    A modular system for closed loop computer control of stepping motors has been realized and used for optical component movement of LELA experiment in radiation risk area. A CAMAC module, controlling up to 15 stepping motors, a NIM dual motor driver and a special purpose circuit for computer interfacing are described

  7. Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem design and flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.

  8. Auto-control experiments on DIDO using discontinuous feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.J.

    1959-12-01

    Experiments on auto-controlling the reactor DIDO are described and the equipment design discussed in some detail. The experiments are carried out to show the suitability of an on/off type of control for the maintenance of: (a) a constant flux level in the presence of noise. (b) constant period during power change. The controlling signals stem from measurement of neutron flux computed to give deviation from demanded power, and period respectively. These signals are fed to a D.C. amplifier with variable deadbang whose output is used to control relays, these in turn control the coarse control arms by means of three-phase motors. The system is designed on the basis of locus diagrams, a conventional non-linear technique being used to handle the relay performance. Calculation of the reactor transfer function at high and low power respectively shows that the stability margin is not appreciably affected by the inherent thermodynamic feedback in the reactor core. (author)

  9. Evaporation from bare ground with different water-table depths based on an in-situ experiment in Ordos Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiyong; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhoufeng; Chen, Li; Gong, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic processes of ground evaporation are complex and are related to a multitude of factors such as meteorological influences, water-table depth, and materials in the unsaturated zone. To investigate ground evaporation from a homogeneous unsaturated zone, an in-situ experiment was conducted in Ordos Plateau of China. Two water-table depths were chosen to explore the water movement in the unsaturated zone and ground evaporation. Based on the experimental and calculated results, it was revealed that (1) bare ground evaporation is an atmospheric-limited stage for the case of water-table depth being close to the capillary height; (2) the bare ground evaporation is a water-storage-limited stage for the case of water-table depth being beyond the capillary height; (3) groundwater has little effect on ground-surface evaporation when the water depth is larger than the capillary height; and (4) ground evaporation is greater at nighttime than that during the daytime; and (5) a liquid-vapor interaction zone at nearly 20 cm depth is found, in which there exists a downward vapor flux on sunny days, leading to an increasing trend of soil moisture between 09:00 to 17:00; the maximum value is reached at midday. The results of this investigation are useful to further understand the dynamic processes of ground evaporation in arid areas.

  10. Concluding from operating experience to instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleger, H.; Heinsohn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Where conclusions are drawn from operating experience to instrumentation and control systems, two general statements should be made. First: There have been braekdowns, there have also been deficiencies, but in principle operating experience with the instrumentation and control systems of German nuclear power plants has been good. With respect to the debates about the use of modern digital instrumentation and control systems it is safe to say, secondly, that the instrumentation and control systems currently in use are working reliably. Hence, there is no need at present to replace existing systems for reasons of technical safety. However, that time will come. It is a good thing, therefore, that the use of modern digital instrumentation and control systems is to begin in the field of limiting devices. The operating experience which will thus be accumulated will benefit digital instrumentation and control systems in their qualification process for more demanding applications. This makes proper logging of operating experience an important function, even if it cannot be transferred in every respect. All parties involved therefore should see to it that this operating experience is collected in accordance with criteria agreed upon so as to prevent unwanted surprises later on. (orig.) [de

  11. Grounding action words in the sensorimotor interaction with the world: experiments with a simulated iCub humanoid robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Marocco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cognitive robotics model for the study of the embodied representation of action words. The present research will present how a iCub humanoid robot can learn the meaning of action words (i.e. words that represent dynamical events that happen in time by physically acting on the environment and linking the effects of its own actions with the behaviour observed on the objects before and after the action. The control system of the robot is an artificial neural network trained to manipulate an object through a Back-Propagation Through Time algorithm. We will show that in the presented model the grounding of action words relies directly to the way in which an agent interacts with the environment and manipulates it.

  12. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H. Jr.; Hunt, A.L.; Clower, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  13. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution chirp sonar subbottom profiles from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean, acquired from the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 1996, revealed large-scale erosion of the ridge crest down to depths of 1000 m below present sea level [Jakobsson, 1999]. Subsequent acoustic mapping during the SCICEX nuclear submarine expedition in 1999 showed glacial fluting at the deepest eroded areas and subparallel ice scours from 950 m water depth to the shallowest parts of the ridge crest [Polyak et al., 2001]. The directions of the mapped glaciogenic bed-forms and the redeposition of eroded material on the Amerasian side of the ridge indicate ice flow from the Barents-Kara Sea area. Core studies revealed that sediment drape the eroded areas from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5 and, thus, it was proposed that the major erosional event took place during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 [Jakobsson et al., 2001]. Glacial geological evidence suggests strongly that the Late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin reached the shelf break of the Barents-Kara Sea [Svendsen et al. in press] and this gives us two possible ways to explain the ice erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge. One is the grounding of a floating ice shelf and the other is the scouring from large deep tabular iceberg. Here we apply numerical ice sheet modeling to test the hypothesis that an ice shelf emanating from the Barents/Kara seas grounded across part of the Lomonsov Ridge and caused the extensive erosion down to a depth of around 1000 m below present sea level. A series of model experiments was undertaken in which the ice shelf mass balance (surface accumulation and basal melting) and ice shelf strain rates were adjusted. Grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge was not achieved when the ice shelf strain rate was 0.005 yr-1 (i.e. a free flowing ice shelf). However this model produced two interesting findings. First, with basal melt rates of up to 50 cm yr-1 an ice shelf grew from the St. Anna Trough ice stream

  14. Ultimate turbulence experiment: simultaneous measurements of Cn2 near the ground using six devices and eight methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatcheva, Lydia; Barros, Rui; Segel, Max; Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik; Eisele, Christian; Gladysz, Szymon

    2015-10-01

    We have performed a series of experiments in order to simultaneously validate several devices and methods for measurement of the path-averaged refractive index structure constant ( 𝐶𝑛 2). The experiments were carried out along a horizontal urban path near the ground. Measuring turbulence in this layer is particularly important because of the prospect of using adaptive optics for free-space optical communications in an urban environment. On one hand, several commercial sensors were used: SLS20, a laser scintillometer from Scintec AG, BLS900, a largeaperture scintillometer, also from Scintec, and a 3D sonic anemometer from Thies GmbH. On the other hand, we measured turbulence strength with new approaches and devices developed in-house. Firstly, an LED array combined with a high-speed camera allowed for measurement of 𝐶𝑛 2 from raw- and differential image motion, and secondly a two-part system comprising a laser source, a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a PSF camera recoded turbulent modulation transfer functions, Zernike variances and angle-of-arrival structure functions, yielding three independent estimates of 𝐶𝑛 2. We compare the measured values yielded simultaneously by commercial and in-house developed devices and show very good agreement between 𝐶𝑛 2 values for all the methods. Limitations of each experimental method are also discussed.

  15. Hardware controls for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichhold, D.; Bieser, F.; Bordua, M.; Cherney, M.; Chrin, J.; Dunlop, J.C.; Ferguson, M.I.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gross, J.; Harper, G.; Howe, M.; Jacobson, S.; Klein, S.R.; Kravtsov, P.; Lewis, S.; Lin, J.; Lionberger, C.; LoCurto, G.; McParland, C.; McShane, T.; Meier, J.; Sakrejda, I.; Sandler, Z.; Schambach, J.; Shi, Y.; Willson, R.; Yamamoto, E.; Zhang, W.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR detector sits in a high radiation area when operating normally; therefore it was necessary to develop a robust system to remotely control all hardware. The STAR hardware controls system monitors and controls approximately 14,000 parameters in the STAR detector. Voltages, currents, temperatures, and other parameters are monitored. Effort has been minimized by the adoption of experiment-wide standards and the use of pre-packaged software tools. The system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) . VME processors communicate with subsystem-based sensors over a variety of field busses, with High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) being the most prevalent. Other features of the system include interfaces to accelerator and magnet control systems, a web-based archiver, and C++-based communication between STAR online, run control and hardware controls and their associated databases. The system has been designed for easy expansion as new detector elements are installed in STAR

  16. The 'wayfinding' experience of family carers who learn to manage technical health procedures at home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2017-12-01

    With more care taking place in the home, family carers play an important role in supporting patients. Some family carers undertake technical health procedures generally managed by health professionals in hospital settings (e.g. managing a tracheostomy or enteral feeding). To explore how family carers learn to manage technical health procedures in order to help health professionals better understand and support this process. A grounded theory study using data from interviews with 26 New Zealand family carers who managed technical health procedures including nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, stoma care, urinary catheterisation, tracheostomy management, intravenous therapy, diabetes management and complex wound dressings. Most (20 participants) were caring for their child and the remaining six for their spouse, parent or grandparent. Following grounded theory methods, each interview was coded soon after completion. Additional data were compared with existing material, and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was developed. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The core concept of 'wayfinding' indicates that the learning process for family carers is active, individualised and multi-influenced, developing over time as a response to lived experience. Health professional support was concentrated on the initial phase of carers' training, reducing and becoming more reactive as carers took responsibility for day-to-day management. Wayfinding involves self-navigation by carers, in contrast to patient navigator models which provide continuing professional assistance to patients receiving cancer or chronic care services. Wayfinding by carers raises questions about how carers should be best supported in their initial and ongoing learning as the management of these procedures changes over time. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. User experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields following the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyze data from a survey of online news consumers focusing on experiences and attitudes towards...... editorial control set against a spectrum between “interventionist” and “noninterventionist” positions. Results indicate that interventionist respondents rate the quality of online comments as poor, whereas noninterventionist respondents have most often experienced being the target of editorial control...... measures and feel that editorial control has intensified after the terror attacks. We conclude that newspapers should pay attention to the different needs of participants when devising strategies for editorial control. Media professionals should also consider changes to increase the transparency...

  18. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  19. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  20. The detector control system of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poy, A Barriuso; Burckhart, H J; Cook, J; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hallgren, B; Schlenker, S; Varela, F; Boterenbrood, H; Filimonov, V; Khomutnikov, V

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. The individual detector components as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision using operator commands, reads, processes and archives the operational parameters of the detector, allows for error recognition and handling, manages the communication with external control systems, and provides a synchronization mechanism with the physics data acquisition system. Given the enormous size and complexity of ATLAS, special emphasis was put on the use of standardized hardware and software components enabling efficient development and long-term maintainability of the DCS over the lifetime of the experiment. Currently, the DCS is being used successfully during the experiment commissioning phase

  1. Live controls for radioisotope tracer food chain experiments using meiofauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Formalin poisoned samples are inadequate for measuring the amount of label to be subtracted as control values for certain food chain studies that employ radioactive tracers. In some studies, tracer is added just before incubation to label ''food'' during the feeding study. Commonly, parallel, poisoned incubations are used to distinguish between biotic and abiotic label incorporation. But, a poisoned control does not account for label that could enter a consumer via active transport, epicuticular microfloral uptake, or grazing on labeled, non-food particles. Experiments were performed to test if label uptake is greater in live non-grazing than dead organisms. Marine benthic meiofauna incoporate from 3 to 133 times more tracer when they are alive and not grazing than when they are formalin killed. These results suggest that control experiments with live animals be performed to measure all processes by which label can enter consumers in food chain experiments. (orig.)

  2. Experience of digital control systems in Scandinavian BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydahl, I.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1984 digital control systems have been in operation in various Scandinavian BWRs. Examples of such digital control systems are: dual microprocessor based system for complete control of radwaste plant, three channel recirculation control system, and three channel feedwater control system. This paper describes Swedish development from one channel through three channel analog control systems to digital systems. The author describes experience of digital control systems during design, testing, commissioning and operation. The main benefits of digital compared with analog technology are discussed. Especially the outstanding facility of using a built-in process simulator for commissioning and tuning. The use of digital technology in nuclear safety system and future plans are dealt with

  3. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, B I

    1969-06-15

    In this report the theoretical conditions necessary for the study of the behaviour of released activity by the use of CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters are considered. A method is derived for calculating exposure distributions from drifting volume activity. The correlation between exposure distributions and concentration distributions is discussed. One of thirty experiments where Br 82 was released into water through a nozzle some metres above the bottom is described. The resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at distances of 10, 50 and 200 metres by CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. The measured exposures are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are compared with other methods. The method using exposure measurements for the study of active release in water has given satisfactory results in practice. The measurements have been made at concentration levels which are considerably below that permissible for drinking water according to the recommendations by ICRPA special advantage with this method is that the measurements can be made simultaneously at a large number of places and that integration is possible over sufficiently long periods of time. An experiment is described where Ar 41 was released in free air at a height of one metre above ground and the resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at 100 and 250 metres distance by CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. Shielding problems in connection with the experiments have been small since the method permits the measurement of very small doses. An account is given of the possibility of using the beta emitting isotope Kr 85 instead of the gamma emitting Ar 41 for diffusion experiments in air. The results obtained from some experiments are presented and discussed. The thermoluminescent signal from the dosimeters are, at the same concentration and exposure time, 2.5 times greater for Kr 85 than for

  4. Spent coffee grounds as air-propelled abrasive grit for weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) represent a significant food waste residue. Value-added uses for this material would be beneficial. Gritty agricultural residues, such as corncob grit, can be employed as abrasive air-propelled agents for organically-compatible postemergence shredding of weed seedlings sel...

  5. Rapid Software Development for Experiment Control at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, P.V.; Lam, Tony; Franceschini, Ferdi; Hauser, Nick; Rayner, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Full text: ANSTO is undertaking the parallel development of instrument control and graphical experiment interface software for seven neutron beam instruments at OPAL. Each instrument poses several challenges for a common system solution, including custom detector interfaces, a range of motion and beamline optics schema, and a spectrum of online data reduction requirements. To provide a superior system with the least development effort, the computing team have adopted proven, configurable, server-based control software (SICS)1., a highly Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment (GumTree)2. and industry-standard database management systems. The resulting graphical interfaces allow operation in a familiar experiment domain, with monitoring of data and parameters independent of control system specifics. GumTree presents the experimenter with a consistent interface for experiment management, instrument control and data reduction tasks. The facility instrument scientists can easily reconfigure instruments and add ancillaries. The user community can expect a reduced learning curve for performing each experiment. GumTree can be installed anywhere for pre-experiment familiarisation, postprocessing of acquired data sets, and integration with third party analysis tools. Instrument scientists are seeing faster software development iterations and have a solid basis to prepare for the next suite of instruments. 1. SICS from PSI (lns00.psi.ch). 2. GumTree (gumtree.sourceforge.net), new site: http://gumtree.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

  6. Thermal control surfaces on the MSFC LDEF experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, D.R.; Whitaker, A.F.; Zwiener, J.M.; Linton, R.C.; Shular, D.; Peters, P.N.; Gregory, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    There were five Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) experiments on the LDEF. Each of those experiments carried thermal control surfaces either as test samples or as operational surfaces. These materials experienced varying degrees of mechanical and optical damage. Some materials were virtually unchanged by the extended exposure while others suffered extensive degradation. The synergistic effects due to the constituents of the space environment are evident in the diversity of these material changes. The sample complement for the MSFC experiments is described along with results of the continuing analyses efforts

  7. Scalability of Robotic Controllers: An Evaluation of Controller Options-Experiment II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL- HRM -DW Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-5776 9...conditions can be specified in advance. However, if an input device is designed so that it is only practical in one environment, it may be completely...tablet that was carried in the Soldiers’ backpacks and connected to a Microsoft Xbox* 360 game controller (see figure 2) and a handheld Android phone with

  8. A Study on the Fracture Control of Rock Bolts in High Ground Pressure Roadways of Deep Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the frequent fractures of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines, this paper analyzes the mechanism of fractures and concludes that high ground pressure and material de-fects are main reasons for the fracture of rock bolts. The basic idea of fracture control of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines is to increase the yield load and the limit load of rock bolt materials and reduce the actual load of rock bolts. There are four ways of controlling rock bolt fracture: increasing the rock bolt diameter, strengthening bolt materials, weakening support rigidity and the implementation of double supporting. With the roadway support of the 2302 working face of a coal mine as the project background, this paper carries out a study on the effect of two schemes, increasing the rock bolt diameter and the double supporting technique through methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and so on. It determines the most reasonable diam-eter of rock bolts and the best delay distance of secondary support. Practices indicate that rock bolt fracture can be effectively controlled through the double supporting technique, which strengthens the roof and two sides through the first supporting technique and strengthens side angles through the secondary supporting technique.

  9. International Symposium on Spacecraft Ground Control and Flight Dynamics, SCD1, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, Feb. 7-11, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel; Kuga, Helio Koiti; Orlando, Valcir

    An international symposium on spacecraft flight dynamics and ground control systems produced 85 papers in the areas of attitude determination and control, orbit control, satellite constellation strategies, stationkeeping, spacecraft maneuvering, orbit determination, astrodynamics, ground command and control systems, and mission operations. Several papers included discussions on the application of artificial intelligence, neural networks, expert systems, and ion propulsion. For individual titles, see A95-89098 through A95-89182.

  10. Slow control systems of the Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Jang, H.I.; Choi, W.Q.; Choi, Y.; Jang, J.S.; Jeon, E.J.; Joo, K.K.; Kim, B.R.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.D.; Ko, Y.J.; Lee, J.K.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Park, I.G.; Park, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The RENO experiment has been in operation since August 2011 to measure reactor antineutrino disappearance using identical near and far detectors. For accurate measurements of neutrino mixing parameters and efficient data taking, it is crucial to monitor and control the detector in real time. Environmental conditions also need to be monitored for stable operation of detectors as well as for safety reasons. In this paper, we report the design, hardware, operation, and performance of the slow control system.

  11. Scenario design : adaptive architecture for command and control experiment eight

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Frankie J.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control (A2C2) project is an ongoing research effort sponsored by the Office of Naval Research to explore adaptation in joint command and control. The objective of the project's eighth experiment is to study the adjustments that organizations make when they are confronted with a scenario for which their organizational is ill-suited. To accomplish this, teams will each be in one of two fundame...

  12. Neutral beam control systems for the Tandem Mirror Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) is presently developing the technology and approaches which will be used in larger fusion systems. This paper describes some of the designs which were used in creating the control system for the TMX neutral beams. To create a system of controls that would work near these large, rapid switching current sources required a mixture of different technologies: fiberoptic data transmission, printed circuit and wirewrap techniques, etc

  13. Multilink manipulator computer control: experience in development and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.E.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes development which has been carried out on the multilink manipulator computer control system. The system allows the manipulator to be driven using only two joysticks. The leading link is controlled and the other links follow its path into the reactor, thus avoiding any potential obstacles. The system has been fully commissioned and used with the Sizewell ''A'' reactor 2 Multilink T.V. manipulator. Experience of the use of the system is presented, together with recommendations for future improvements. (author)

  14. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-09-20

    This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15-18. Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  15. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano Sharyl E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  16. Experience with remediating radiostrontium-contaminated ground water and surface water with versions of AECL's CHEMIC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous approaches have been developed for the remediation of radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) contaminated ground water and surface water. Several strontium-removal technologies have been assessed and applied at AECL's (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) Chalk River Laboratories. These include simple ion exchange (based on non-selective natural zeolites or selective synthetic inorganic media), and precipitation and filtration with or without ion exchange as a final polishing step. AECL's CHEMIC process is based on precipitation-microfiltration and ion-exchange steps. This paper presents data related to radiostrontium removal performance and other operational experiences including troubleshooting with two round-the-clock, pilot-scale water remediation plants based on AECL's CHEMIC process at the Chalk River Laboratories site. These plants began operation in the early 1990s. Through optimization of process chemistry and operation, high values for system capability and system availability factors, and low concentrations of 90 Sr in the discharge water approaching drinking water standard can be achieved. (author)

  17. Monsoon Convective During the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment: Observations from Ground-Based Radar and the TRMM Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Rob; Rickenbach, Tom; Halverson, Jeff; Keenan, Tom; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed following the onset of the active monsoon in the northern South China Sea region. The vertical structure of the convection during periods of strong westerly flow and relatively moist environmental conditions in the lower to mid-troposphere contrasted sharply with convection observed during periods of low level easterlies, weak shear, and relatively dry conditions in the mid to upper troposphere. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from the ground (ship)-based and spaceborne radar data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will also be discussed.

  18. The control architecture of the D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Fredrick Bartlett et al.

    2002-01-01

    From a controls viewpoint, contemporary high energy physics collider detectors are comparable in complexity to small to medium size accelerators: however, their controls requirements often differ significantly. D0, one of two collider experiments at Fermilab, has recently started a second, extended running period that will continue for the next five years. EPICS [1], an integrated set of software building blocks for implementing a distributed control system, has been adapted to satisfy the slow controls needs of the D0 detector by (1) extending the support for new device types and an additional field bus, (2) by the addition of a global event reporting system that augments the existing EPICS alarm support, and (3) by the addition of a centralized database with supporting tools for defining the configuration of the control system. This paper discusses the control architecture of the current D0 experiment, how the EPICS system was extended to meet the control requirements of a large, high-energy physics detector, and how a formal control system contributes to the management of detector operations

  19. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  20. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  1. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwisoo Eom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  2. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-06-12

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  3. Microtopographic control on the ground thermal regime in ice wedge polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolt, Charles J.; Young, Michael H.; Atchley, Adam L.; Harp, Dylan R.

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this research is to constrain the influence of ice wedge polygon microtopography on near-surface ground temperatures. Ice wedge polygon microtopography is prone to rapid deformation in a changing climate, and cracking in the ice wedge depends on thermal conditions at the top of the permafrost; therefore, feedbacks between microtopography and ground temperature can shed light on the potential for future ice wedge cracking in the Arctic. We first report on a year of sub-daily ground temperature observations at 5 depths and 9 locations throughout a cluster of low-centered polygons near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and demonstrate that the rims become the coldest zone of the polygon during winter, due to thinner snowpack. We then calibrate a polygon-scale numerical model of coupled thermal and hydrologic processes against this dataset, achieving an RMSE of less than 1.1 °C between observed and simulated ground temperature. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of the model by systematically manipulating the height of the rims and the depth of the troughs and tracking the effects on ice wedge temperature. The results indicate that winter temperatures in the ice wedge are sensitive to both rim height and trough depth, but more sensitive to rim height. Rims act as preferential outlets of subsurface heat; increasing rim size decreases winter temperatures in the ice wedge. Deeper troughs lead to increased snow entrapment, promoting insulation of the ice wedge. The potential for ice wedge cracking is therefore reduced if rims are destroyed or if troughs subside, due to warmer conditions in the ice wedge. These findings can help explain the origins of secondary ice wedges in modern and ancient polygons. The findings also imply that the potential for re-establishing rims in modern thermokarst-affected terrain will be limited by reduced cracking activity in the ice wedges, even if regional air temperatures stabilize.

  4. Y2K experiences in the nuclear material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Though the Y2K problem was treated by each organization, it became systematic in Japan when Advanced Information and Telecommunication Society Promotion Head-quarters was established recognizing the importance and urgency of the issue. The summary of the action and some experiences concerning Y2K issues in the nuclear materials control area are presented

  5. Control and interpretation of criticality experiments on metallic assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of criticality experiment control with approach machines; to follow the reactivity evolution, one uses the classical method of the inverses of counting rates, then one shows how it is possible to extrapolate the approach curves that have been obtained [fr

  6. The VEPP-2000 Collider Control System: Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Senchenko, A I; Lysenko, A P; Rogovsky, Yu A; Shatunov, P Yu

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 collider was commissioned and operated successfully in 2010-2013. During the operation the facility underwent continuous updates and experience in maintenance was acquired. Strong cooperation between the staff of the accelerator complex and the developers of the control system proved effective for implementing the necessary changes in a short time.

  7. Engineered barrier experiment. Power control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Gamero, E.; Martin, P.L.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.J.; Yuste, C.

    1997-01-01

    The engineered barrier concept for the storage of radioactive wastes is being tested at almost full scale at CIEMAT facilities. A data acquisition and control is an element of this experiment. This system would be operating for next three years. (Author)

  8. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R.A.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-study of burn control in Tokamak reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-04-01

    Findings from a general study of issues associated with control of burning fusion plasmas are reported, and applications to ITER are given. A number of control variables are discussed. A zerodimensional system has been developed and stability against coupled temperature and density variations are studied. Also space dependent energy balance and transition to thermonuclear burn are analysed as well as maximum obtainable Q-values under subignited operation conditions. Control designs with different input-output strategies are analysed and numerically simulated, and a numerical experiment of system identification is made. Requirements on diagnostics are discussed and areas for further studies are identified. (au) (64 refs.)

  10. Motion Control of Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles considering Tire Force Saturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle stability control approach for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA electric vehicles is presented. The proposed control method consists of a higher-level controller and a lower-level controller. An adaptive control-based higher-level controller is designed to yield the vehicle virtual control efforts to track the desired vehicle motions due to the possible modeling inaccuracies and parametric uncertainties. The lower-level controller considering tire force saturation is given to allocate the required control efforts to the four in-wheel motors for providing the desired tire forces. An analytic method is given to distribute the high-level control efforts, without using the numerical-optimization-based control allocation algorithms. Simulations based on a high-fidelity, CarSim, and full-vehicle model show the effectiveness of the control approach.

  11. Experience feedback of computerized controlled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, F.

    2004-01-01

    The N4 step of French PWR-type nuclear power plants is characterized by an instrumentation and control system entirely computerized (operation procedures including normal and accidental operation). Four power plants of this type (Chooz and Civaux sites) of 1450 MWe each were connected to the power grid between August 1996 and December 1999. The achievement of this program make it possible and necessary to carry out an experience feedback about the development, successes and difficulties encountered in order to draw out some lessons for future realizations. This is the aim of this article: 1 - usefulness and difficulties of such an experience feedback: evolution of instrumentation and control systems, necessary cautions; 2 - a successful computerized control: checking of systems operation, advantages, expectations; 3 - efficiency of computerized systems: demonstration of operation safety, profitability; 4 - conclusions and interrogations: system approach instead of 'micro-software' approach, commercial or 'made to measure' products, contract agreement with a supplier, when and how upgrading. (J.S.)

  12. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Assuring robustness to noise in optimal quantum control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, A.F.; Roth, M.; Mehendale, M.; Rabitz, H.

    2005-01-01

    Closed-loop optimal quantum control experiments operate in the inherent presence of laser noise. In many applications, attaining high quality results [i.e., a high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio for the optimized objective] is as important as producing a high control yield. Enhancement of the S/N ratio will typically be in competition with the mean signal, however, the latter competition can be balanced by biasing the optimization experiments towards higher mean yields while retaining a good S/N ratio. Other strategies can also direct the optimization to reduce the standard deviation of the statistical signal distribution. The ability to enhance the S/N ratio through an optimized choice of the control is demonstrated for two condensed phase model systems: second harmonic generation in a nonlinear optical crystal and stimulated emission pumping in a dye solution

  14. Automated Testing Experience of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    System controllers must be fail-safe, low cost, flexible to software changes, able to output health and status words, and permit rapid retest qualification. The system controller designed and tested for the aerospike engine program was an attempt to meet these requirements. This paper describes (1) the aerospike controller design, (2) the automated simulation testing techniques, and (3) the real time monitoring data visualization structure. Controller cost was minimized by design of a single-string system that used an off-the-shelf 486 central processing unit (CPU). A linked-list architecture, with states (nodes) defined in a user-friendly state table, accomplished software changes to the controller. Proven to be fail-safe, this system reported the abort cause and automatically reverted to a safe condition for any first failure. A real time simulation and test system automated the software checkout and retest requirements. A program requirement to decode all abort causes in real time during all ground and flight tests assured the safety of flight decisions and the proper execution of mission rules. The design also included health and status words, and provided a real time analysis interpretation for all health and status data.

  15. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  16. The magnet power control system for the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the desktop computer/CAMAC based system that controls the power source for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet power system. Presently it contains 42 dc rectifier power supplies connected to 24 magnet coils arranged in 17 circuits. During each shot, the system delivers 22.6 MW dc to the magnets for about 3 s. The system is presently being changed to add six power supplies, two solenoidal throttle coils, and two reverse C-coils. When complete, the delivered power will increase to 36.9 MW. The closed-loop control system usually provides current (and thus, magnetic field) that is within 1% of the requested current. Achieving this accuracy required using grounding, shielding, and isolation methods to reduce noise and related problems

  17. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans

  18. Shallow soil moisture – ground thaw interactions and controls – Part 2: Influences of water and energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper (Guan et al., 2010 demonstrated variable interactions and correlations between shallow soil moisture and ground thaw in soil filled areas along a wetness spectrum in a subarctic Canadian Precambrian Shield landscape. From wetter to drier, these included a wetland, peatland and soil filled valley. Herein, water and energy fluxes were examined for these same subarctic study sites to discern the key controlling processes on the found patterns. Results showed the presence of surface water was the key control in variable soil moisture and frost table interactions among sites. At the peatland and wetland sites, accumulated water in depressions and flow paths maintained soil moisture for a longer duration than at the hummock tops. These wet areas were often locations of deepest thaw depth due to the transfer of latent heat accompanying lateral surface runoff. Although the peatland and wetland sites had large inundation extent, modified Péclet numbers indicated the relative influence of external and internal hydrological and energy processes at each site were different. Continuous inflow from an upstream lake into the wetland site caused advective and conductive thermal energies to be of equal importance to ground thaw. The absence of continuous surface flow at the peatland and valley sites led to dominance of conductive thermal energy over advective energy for ground thaw. The results suggest that the modified Péclet number could be a very useful parameter to differentiate landscape components in modeling frost table heterogeneity. The calculated water and energy fluxes, and the modified Péclet number provide quantitative explanations for the shallow soil moisture-ground thaw patterns by linking them with hydrological processes and hillslope storage capacity.

  19. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  1. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  2. Magnetic sensorless control experiment without drift problem on HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Luo, J.R.; Wang, H.Z.; Ji, Z.S.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.; Qi, N.; Sato, K.N.; Hanada, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Iyomasa, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic sensorless control experiments of the plasma horizontal position have been carried out in the superconducting tokamak HT-7. Previously the horizontal position was calculated from the vertical field coil current and voltage without using signals of magnetic sensors like magnetic coils and flux loops placed near the plasma. The calculations are made focusing on the ripple frequency component of the power supply with thyristor and directly from them without time integration. There is no drift problem of integrator of magnetic sensors. Two kinds of experiments were carried out, to keep the position constant and swing the position in a triangular waveform

  3. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martha; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Nabsen Marwaa, Mille; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how people 6-12 months after stroke were using and integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives. To capture the participants' experiences, one focus group and 14 individual interviews were carried out in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41-79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Five categories were identified from the analysis of the interviews with the participants: 1) Using the mobile phone to feel safe, 2) Staying connected with others, 3) Recreating everyday life, 4) A tool for managing everyday life, and 5) Overcoming obstacles for using ICT. From these categories one core category emerged: The drive to integrate ICT in everyday life after stroke. People with stroke had a strong drive to integrate ICT in order to manage and bring meaning to their everyday lives, although sometimes they needed support and adaptations. It is not only possible but also necessary to start using ICT in rehabilitation in order to support people's recovery and promote participation in everyday life after stroke. Implications for rehabilitation People with stroke have a strong drive for using information and communication technology in their everyday lives, although support and adaptations are needed. The recovery process of people with stroke could benefit from the use of ICT in the rehabilitation and ICT could possibly contribute to independence and promote participation in everyday life. Knowledge from this study can be used in the development of an ICT-based stroke rehabilitation model.

  4. Skipping on uneven ground: trailing leg adjustments simplify control and enhance robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Andrada, Emanuel

    2018-01-01

    It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed. We found that leg adjustments in humans occur mostly in the trailing leg (low to moderate leg retraction during swing phase, reduced trailing leg stiffness, and flatter trailing leg angle at lowered touchdown). When transferring these leg adjustments to the BSLIP model, the capacity of the model to cope with sudden-drop perturbations increased.

  5. Experiments on vibration control of a piezoelectric laminated paraboloidal shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Honghao; Lu, Yifan; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-01-01

    A paraboloidal shell plays a key role in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to large optical reflector, communications antenna, rocket fairing, missile radome, etc. Due to the complexity of analytical procedures, an experimental study of active vibration control of a piezoelectric laminated paraboloidal shell by positive position feedback is carried out. Sixteen PVDF patches are laminated inside and outside of the shell, in which eight of them are used as sensors and eight as actuators to control the vibration of the first two natural modes. Lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the paraboloidal shell are obtained via the frequency response function analysis by Modal VIEW software. A mathematical model of the control system is formulated by means of parameter identification. The first shell mode is controlled as well as coupled the first and second modes based on the positive position feedback (PPF) algorithm. To minimize the control energy consumption in orbit, an adaptive modal control method is developed in this study by using the PPF in laboratory experiments. The control system collects vibration signals from the piezoelectric sensors to identify location(s) of the largest vibration amplitudes and then select the best two from eight PVDF actuators to apply control forces so that the modal vibration suppression could be accomplished adaptively and effectively.

  6. Experience with control valve cavitation problems and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozol, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pressure reduction in control valves can induce cavitation, which has three effects on the control valve. Firstly, it modifies or changes the hydraulic performance of the control valve. Since control valves are designed for noncavitating conditions, the result is usually reduced stability of the control valve or, in extreme cavitating conditions known as supercavitation, the valve may limit the flow rate and thus be undersized. Secondly, cavitation can cause material damage to valve parts, trim, or valve body, or erodes downstream piping; consequently, the valve or piping leaks. Thirdly, cavitation causes noise and vibration, which may cause major damage or destruction to equipment such as valve positioners, actuators, pipe supports and sometimes to other downstream valves. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) It describes the I.S.A. valve sizing equations and how they relate to cavitation. (2) It describes experiences with these three problems, and discusses corrective actions and practical approaches to their solution. This paper discusses thirteen cavitation experiences

  7. Initial experience of tritium exposure control at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Campling, D.C.; Schofield, P.A.; Macheta, P.; Sandland, K.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the safety procedures and controls in place for work with tritium are described, and initial operational experience of handling tritium is discussed. A description is given of work to rectify a water leak in a JET neutral beam heating component, which involved man-access to a confined volume to perform repairs, at tritium levels about 100 DAC (80 MBq/m 3 . HTO). Control measures involving use of purge and extract ventilation, and of personal protection using air-fed pressurized suits are described. Results are given of the internal doses to project staff and of atmospheric discharges of tritium during the repair outage. (P.A.)

  8. Real-time control environment for the RFX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Cavinato, M.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive set of control schemes can be presently implemented on RFX due to the enhanced load assembly and renewed power supply system. The schemes include: plasma equilibrium control and resistive wall mode stabilization, aiming at controlling actively the discharge when the passive action of the shell vanishes; the rotation of the localised helical deformation to minimize the enhanced plasma-wall interaction; the MHD mode control and the 'intelligent shell', aiming at achieving a better comprehension of the underlying physics. To the purpose, an integrated, distributed, digital system has been developed consisting of a set of computing nodes. Each node can act either as pre-processing or control station, the former acquiring raw data and computing intermediate control parameters, the latter executing control algorithms and driving the power amplifiers. An overview of the system architecture is presented in the paper with reference to the software real-time environment providing both basic functions, such as data read-out and real-time communication, and useful tools to program control algorithms, to perform simulations and to commission the system. To simulate the control schemes, the real-time environment is extended to include a so called 'simulation mode', in which the real-time nodes exchange their input/output signals with one station running a suitable model of the experiment, for instance the two dimensional FEM code MAXFEA in the case of the equilibrium control. In this way the control system can be tested offline and the time needed for the commissioning of algorithms reduced

  9. Quality control in diagnostic radiology: experience and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Mohd Ramli Arshad; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Husaini Salleh; Abdullah Tahir Aliyasak; Zainal Jamaluddin; Hasrul Hisham Hussain

    2005-01-01

    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research through its Medical Physics Group has been providing Quality Control (QC) services for medical x-ray apparatus used in diagnostic radiology to private clinics and hospitals since the year 1997. The quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology is considered as part of quality assurance program which provide accurate diagnostic information at the lowest cost and the least exposure of the patients to radiation. Many experience and obstacles were faced by Medical Physics Group. This paper will discuss on some of the experiences and challenges that could be shared together with MINT staff especially in the safety aspect related to electrical and mechanical, radiation protection, performance and standard. The challenging in administrative aspect also will discuss. (Author)

  10. Controlled damping of a physical pendulum: experiments near critical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I; Bol, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for the study of damped oscillatory motion along with three associated experiments. Special emphasis is given on both didactic aspects and the interactivity of the experimental set-up, in order to assist students in understanding fundamental aspects of damped oscillatory motion and allow them to directly compare their experimental results with the well-known theory they can find in textbooks. With this in mind, a physical pendulum was selected with an eddy-current damping system that allows the damping conditions to be controlled with great precision. The three experiments examine accurate control of damping, frequency shift near critical damping and the transition from underdamped to overdamped conditions

  11. Rotor experiments in controlled conditions continued: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    To validate and reduce the large uncertainty associated with rotor aerodynamic and acoustic models, there is a need for detailed force, noise and surrounding flow velocity measurements on wind turbines under controlled conditions. However, high quality wind tunnel campaigns on horizontal axis wind turbine models are scarce due to the large wind tunnel size needed and consequently high associated costs. To serve this purpose an experiment using the Mexico turbine was set-up in the large low speed facility of the DNW wind tunnel. An overview of the experiments is given including a selection of results. A comparison of calculations to measurements for design conditions shows a satisfactory agreement. In summary, after years of preparation, ECN and partners have performed very successful aerodynamic experiments in the largest wind tunnel in Europe. The comprehensive high quality database that has been obtained will be used in the international Mexnext consortium to further develop wind energy aerodynamic and acoustic modeling.

  12. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV : A controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T.C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M.R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S.H.; Kong, M.G.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J.M.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A.A.; Vu, N.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety

  13. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV: a controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, B.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M. R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kong, M.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A.; Vu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety

  14. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejdani, H R; Hurst, J W; Blum, Y; Daley, M A

    2013-01-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration. (paper)

  15. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  16. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs

  17. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    itself. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. An apparent deficiency in the current understanding is a lack of knowledge about flow directions and rates away from major areas of testing. Efforts are necessary to delineate areas of downgradient flow and to identify factors that constrain and control flow within these areas. These efforts also should identify the areas most critical to gaining detailed understanding and to establishing long-term monitoring sites necessary for effective remediation.

  18. Electronically Tunable Current Controlled Current Conveyor Transconductance Amplifier-Based Mixed-Mode Biquadratic Filter with Resistorless and Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Pin Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new electronically tunable mixed-mode biquadratic filter with three current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs and two grounded capacitors is proposed. With current input, the filter can realise lowpass (LP, bandpass (BP, highpass (HP, bandstop (BS and allpass (AP responses in current mode and LP, BP and HP responses in transimpedance mode. With voltage input, the filter can realise LP, BP, HP, BS and AP responses in voltage and transadmittance modes. Other attractive features of the mixed-mode biquadratic filter are (1 the use of two grounded capacitors, which is ideal for integrated circuit implementation; (2 orthogonal control of the quality factor (Q and resonance angular frequency (ωo for easy electronic tenability; (3 low input impedance and high output impedance for current signals; (4 high input impedance for voltage signal; (5 avoidance of need for component-matching conditions; (6 resistorless and electronically tunable structure; (7 low active and passive sensitivities; and (8 independent control of the voltage transfer gains without affecting the parameters ωo and Q.

  19. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS. The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  20. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, John; Brambila, Rigoberto; Cengher, Mirela; Gorelov, Yuri; Grosnickle, William; Moeller, Charles; Ponce, Dan; Torrezan, Antonio; Ives, Lawrence; Reed, Michael; Blank, Monica; Felch, Kevin; Parisuaña, Claudia; LeViness, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS). The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  1. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  2. Train-to-Ground communications of a Train Control and Monitoring Systems: A simulation platform modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    wireless technologies, e.g. Wi-Fi and LTE. Different T2G scenarios are defined in order to evaluate the performances of the Mobile Communication Gateway (managing train communications) and Quality of Services (QoS) offered to TCMS applications in the context of various environments (regular train lines......Under the SAFE4RAIL project, we are developing a simulation platform based on a discrete-events network simulator. This platform models the Train-to-Ground (T2G) link in the framework of a system-level simulation of Train Control Management System (TCMS). The modelled T2G link is based on existing...

  3. Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Mueller, D.; Gates, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma β ( = 2 micro 0 /B 2 a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable β is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented

  4. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    coordinate, and control joint and multinational aircraft during CAS situations in combat and training. The current system which the CAS mission falls...current system , experiences from Vietnam, Operation Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq help to identify future challenges to the operating environment ...multinational partners. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Ground Integration, Theater Air Ground System , Theater Air Control System , Army Air Ground System , Joint

  5. Controller tuning of district heating networks using experiment design techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Laszlo; Abonyi, Janos

    2011-01-01

    There are various governmental policies aimed at reducing the dependence on fossil fuels for space heating and the reduction in its associated emission of greenhouse gases. DHNs (District heating networks) could provide an efficient method for house and space heating by utilizing residual industrial waste heat. In such systems, heat is produced and/or thermally upgraded in a central plant and then distributed to the end users through a pipeline network. The control strategies of these networks are rather difficult thanks to the non-linearity of the system and the strong interconnection between the controlled variables. That is why a NMPC (non-linear model predictive controller) could be applied to be able to fulfill the heat demand of the consumers. The main objective of this paper is to propose a tuning method for the applied NMPC to fulfill the control goal as soon as possible. The performance of the controller is characterized by an economic cost function based on pre-defined operation ranges. A methodology from the field of experiment design is applied to tune the model predictive controller to reach the best performance. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is proven throughout a case study of a simulated NMPC controlled DHN. -- Highlights: → To improve the energetic and economic efficiency of a DHN an appropriate control system is necessary. → The time consumption of transitions can be shortened with the proper control system. → A NLMPC is proposed as control system. → The NLMPC is tuned by utilization of simplex methodology, using an economic oriented cost function. → The proposed NLMPC needs a detailed model of the DHN based on the physical description.

  6. Single-channel ground airborne radio system (SINCGARS) based remote control for the M1 Abrahms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Joseph R.

    1995-04-01

    Remote control of the Ml Abrahms Main Battle Tank through a minefield breach operation will remove the vehicle crew from the inherent hazard. A successful remote control system will provide automotive control yet not impair normal operation. This requires a minimum of physical parts, and an unobtrusive installation. Most importantly, a system failure must not impair the regular operation as a manned system. The system itself need not be complex. A minefield breach only requires simple control of automotive function and a mine plow interface. Control hardware for the Ml-Al can be reduced to two linear actuators, an electrical interface for the engine control unit, an interface for the mine plow, and the associated cables. Communication between vehicle control and operator control takes place over the vehicles organic radio (typically SINCGARS). This helps reduce the number of special purpose components for the remote control device. The device is currently awaiting an automotive safety test to prepare for its safety release. Because of the specific nature of the MDL-STD 1553-B data bus the device will not control an M1-A2 Main Battle Tank. The architecture will allow control of the M1-A2 through the 1553-B data bus however the physical hardware has not been constructed. The control scheme will not change. The communication interface will provide greater flexibility when interfacing to the vehicle tactical radio. Operational utility will be determined by U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command personnel. The obvious benefit is that if a remote tank is lost during a minefield breach the crew is saved.

  7. Active MHD control experiments in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortolani, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The RFX reversed field pinch experiment has been modified (RFX-mod) to address specific issues of active control of MHD instabilities. A thin shell (τ Bv ∼50 ms) has replaced the old thick one (τ Bv ∼500 ms) and 192 (4 poloidal x 48 toroidal) independently powered saddle coils surround the thin shell forming a cage completely covering the torus. This paper reports the results obtained during the first year of operation. The system has been used with various control scenarios including experiments on local radial field cancellation over the entire torus surface to mimic an ideal wall ('virtual shell') and on single and multiple mode feedback control. Successful virtual shell operation has been achieved leading to: a 3-fold increase in pulse length and well controlled 300 ms pulses(∼6 shell times) up to ∼1 MA plasma current; one order of magnitude reduction of the dominant radial field perturbations at the plasma edge and correspondingly 100% increase in global energy confinement time. Robust feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes has been demonstrated in conditions where rotation does not play a role and multiple unstable modes are present

  8. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valsan, M L; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Scannicchio, D A; Schlenker, S; Filimonov, V; Khomoutnikov, V; Dumitru, I; Zaytsev, A S; Korol, A A; Bogdantchikov, A; Caramarcu, C; Ballestrero, S; Darlea, G L; Twomey, M; Bujor, F; Avolio, G

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The paper continues with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system: local Linux and Windows nodes in the ATLAS Control Network (ATCN), the Linux application gateways offering remote access inside ATCN, the Windows Terminal Serv...

  9. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsan, M L; Dumitru, I; Darlea, G L; Bujor, F; Dobson, M; Miotto, G Lehmann; Schlenker, S; Avolio, G; Scannicchio, D A; Filimonov, V; Khomoutnikov, V; Zaytsev, A S; Korol, A A; Bogdantchikov, A; Caramarcu, C; Ballestrero, S; Twomey, M

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The RBAC implementation uses a directory service based on Lightweight Directory Access Protocol to store the users (∼3000), roles (∼320), groups (∼80) and access policies. The information is kept in sync with various other databases and directory services: human resources, central CERN IT, CERN Active Directory and the Access Control Database used by DCS. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system.

  10. Role Based Access Control System in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valsan, M L; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Scannicchio, D A; Schlenker, S; Filimonov, V; Khomoutnikov, V; Dumitru, I; Zaytsev, A S; Korol, A A; Bogdantchikov, A; Avolio, G; Caramarcu, C; Ballestrero, S; Darlea, G L; Twomey, M; Bujor, F

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The paper continues with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system: local Linux and Windows nodes in the ATLAS Control Network (ATCN), the Linux application gateways offering remote access inside ATCN, the Windows Terminal Serv...

  11. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested. (U.S.)

  12. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested

  13. Digital control and data acquisition system for the QUIET experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Mircea; Kapner, Dan; Samtleben, Dorothea; Vanderlinde, Keith

    2007-01-01

    We present the Digital Control and Data Acquisition System (DCDAQ) for Phase I of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), arrays of 91 W-band and 19 Q-band receivers, placed on 1.4 m telescopes, in Chajnantor, Chile to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. QUIET uses custom-built electronics boards that control and monitor its polarimeters. Each of these boards is digitally addressable, so that the DCDAQ can set and monitor any of the 1600 biases needed to operate the 91 receivers. The DCDAQ consists of a controller and up to 13 custom-made 32-channel ADC cards. Local FPGAs allow real-time data processing for each channel. This immediate data reduction is necessary, as it is planned to scale this technology beyond Phase I. The DCDAQ system is implemented with this future in mind and can easily be scaled to operate 1000 receivers

  14. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  15. Fiber-optic control of the ZT-P experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, L.D.; Chandler, G.I.; Hall, C.R.; Trujillo, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The computer control system for the ZT-P experiment has been implemented using a fiber-optic link in all 161 control signal paths. Four classes of control signals are used in this design. These are (a) digital-out, an on--off signal from computer to machine actuator, (b) digital-in, an on--off signal from machine sensor to computer, (c) analog-out, a 0--10-V analog signal from computer to machine actuator, (d) analog-in, a 0--1-mA analog signal from machine sensor to computer. The digital-in and the digital-out class of signals require no control power at the machine. The analog-out and the analog-in class of signals use available machine power for control. This unique power arrangement and the use of fiber-optic links totally isolate the electrically noisy machine areas from the sensitive electronics in the computer control. Advantages of this system including low cost, small size, personnel safety, and ease of maintenance and modification are discussed

  16. Fiber-optic control of the ZT-P experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, L.D.; Chandler, G.I.; Hall, C.R.; Trujillo, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The computer control system for the ZT-P experiment has been implemented using a fiber-optic link in all 161 control signal paths. Four classes of control signals are used in this design. These are: (a) digital-out, an on-off signal from computer to machine actuator, (b) digital-in, an on-off signal from machine sensor to computer, (c) analog-out, a 0 to 10 volt analog signal from computer to machine actuator, (d) analog-in, a 0 to +1 milliampere analog signal from machine sensor to computer. The digital-in and the digital-out class of signals require no control power at the machine. The analog-out and the analog-in class of signals use available machine power for control. This unique power arrangement and the use of fiber-optic links totally isolate the electrically noisy machine areas from the sensitive electronics in the computer control. Advantages of this system including low cost, small size, personnel safety, and ease of maintenance and modification are discussed

  17. Fiber-optic control of the ZT-P experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, L.D.; Chandler, G.I.; Hall, C.R.; Trujillo, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The computer control system for the ZT-P experiment has been implemented using a fiber-optic link in all 161 control signal paths. Four classes of control signals are used in this design. These are: digital-out; an on-off signal from computer to machine actuator, digital-in, and on-off signal from machine sensor to computer, analog-out, a 0 - 10 volt analog signal from computer to machine actuator, analog-in, 0 to +1 milliampere analog signal from machine sensor to computer. The digital-in and the digital-out class of signals require no control power at the machine end. The analog-out and the analog-in class of signals use available machine power for control. This unique power arrangement and the use of fiber-optic links serve to totally isolate electrically noisy machine areas from the sensitive electronics in the computer control. Advantages, including low cost, small size, personnel safety, and ease of maintenance and modification are discussed

  18. Experiments study on attitude coupling control method for flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu

    2018-06-01

    High pointing accuracy and stabilization are significant for spacecrafts to carry out Earth observing, laser communication and space exploration missions. However, when a spacecraft undergoes large angle maneuver, the excited elastic oscillation of flexible appendages, for instance, solar wing and onboard antenna, would downgrade the performance of the spacecraft platform. This paper proposes a coupling control method, which synthesizes the adaptive sliding mode controller and the positive position feedback (PPF) controller, to control the attitude and suppress the elastic vibration simultaneously. Because of its prominent performance for attitude tracking and stabilization, the proposed method is capable of slewing the flexible spacecraft with a large angle. Also, the method is robust to parametric uncertainties of the spacecraft model. Numerical simulations are carried out with a hub-plate system which undergoes a single-axis attitude maneuver. An attitude control testbed for the flexible spacecraft is established and experiments are conducted to validate the coupling control method. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the method discussed above can effectively decrease the stabilization time and improve the attitude accuracy of the flexible spacecraft.

  19. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  20. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  1. Experiences of Interpersonal Violence and Criminal Legal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci Schlesinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Incarcerated women are substantially more likely to have experienced interpersonal violence than are women in the general population. Some scholars argue that increased likelihoods of committing crime among survivors of violence explain this association. However, previous research fails to control for measures of social vulnerability. Thus, the relationship between experiencing interpersonal violence and experiencing imprisonment may not be a causal one. To examine the links between social vulnerability, experiences of interpersonal violence, and experiences of incarceration, the authors analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. The authors’ findings suggest that social vulnerability—especially being Black, having a parent who has been incarcerated, and being unemployed at the time of the arrest—does mediate the relationship between experiencing violence, using drugs, and believing that interpersonal violence contributed to one’s imprisonment. However, even when controlling for social vulnerability, real effects of experiences of violence on both women’s drug use and their understandings of the causes of their imprisonment remain.

  2. Design of Fuzzy Enhanced Hierarchical Motion Stabilizing Controller of Unmanned Ground Vehicle in Three DimensionalSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, stabilizing control of tracked unmanned ground vehicle in 3-D space was presented. Firstly, models of major modules of tracked UGV were established. Next, to reveal the mechanism of disturbances applied on the UGV, two kinds of representative disturbances (slope and general disturbances in yaw motion were discussed in depth. Consequently, an attempting PID method was employed to compensate the impacts of disturbances andsimulation results proved the validity for disturbance incited by slope force, but revealed the lack for general disturbance on yaw motion. Finally, a hierarchical fuzzy controller combined with PID controller was proposed. In lower level, there were two PID controllers to compensate the disturbance of slope force, and on top level, the fuzzy logic controller was employed to correct the yaw motion error based on the differences between the model and the real UGV, which was able to guide the UGV maintain on the stable state. Simulation results demonstrated the excellent effectiveness of the newly designed controller.

  3. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-05-05

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at -700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m.

  4. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  5. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  6. Airport Surface Traffic Control Visual Ground Aids Engineering and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The plan described in this document supports the overall program at the Transportation Systems Center to define, design, develop, and evaluate systems that meet the requirements of airport surface traffic control. This plan is part of documentation s...

  7. Advanced Suspension and Control Algorithm for U.S. Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    magnetorheological fluid damper . This report provides a record of the research findings from this research project on advanced suspension and control...nonlinear control algorithm that can effectively work with semi-active dampers , such as the magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper . This research...rheological fluid effects). This is because the viscous damping force for high shaft speed becomes excessive and will transmit the terrain-induced

  8. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byres, E. J. [Wurldtech Research Inc., 7178 Lancrest Tr., Lantzville, BC V0R 2H0 (Canada); Huffman, D. [Wurldtech Analytics Inc., 208-1040 Hamilton St., Vancouver, BC V6B 2R9 (Canada); Kube, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Computer Science, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  9. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byres, E. J.; Huffman, D.; Kube, N.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  10. Configuration control during plant outages. A review of operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador Veira, Miguel; El Kanbi, Semir [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Stephan, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Martens, Johannes [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    After the occurrence of several significant events in nuclear power plants during shut-down modes of operation in the eighties, and from the results of probabilistic safety assessments completed in the nineties, it was clear that risk from low power and shutdown operational modes could not be neglected and had to be addressed by appropriate safety programs. A comprehensive review of operating experience from the last ten years has been conducted by the Joint Research Centre with the objective of deriving lessons learned and recommendations useful for nuclear regulatory bodies and utilities alike. This paper is focused on one particular challenge that any nuclear plant faces whenever it plans its next outage period: how to manage the configuration of all systems under a complex environment involving numerous concurrent activities, and how to make sure that systems are returned to their valid configuration before the plant resumes power operation. This study highlights the importance of conveying accurate but synthesized information on the status of the plant to the operators in the main control room. Many of the lessons learned are related to the alarm display in the control room and to the use of check lists to control the status of systems. Members of the industry and safety authorities may now use these recommendations and lessons learned to feed their own operating experience feedback programs, and check their applicability for specific sites.

  11. Online control package for COSY-TOF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodina, Ekaterina [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany); Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Roderburg, Eduard; Ritman, James [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The new Straw Tube Tracker and Quirl Microstrip detectors have been installed at the TOF (Time Of Flight) experiment at the COSY accelerator in IKP FZ-Juelich. These new detectors increase the number of channels of the COSY-TOF detector by about a factor of 3. Therefore, a new control package to adjust electronic parameters and for control the proper functionality of all channels is being developed. The online controlling based on visualization of key parameters of detectors plays an important role. The concept and the techniques of the online software package are developed for the COSY-TOF experiment. It consists of conversion software, which transforms a binary data stream from the DAQ to detector oriented event format, methods of IPC (Inter-Process Communications), and GUI (graphical user interface). To achieve data transfer through the network and real time data performance the IPC tools - sockets and shared memory are used. A special GUI, TOF-ONLINE has been developed, based on ROOT. The GUI allows the detectors, plotting spectra, resetting data, etc., to be selected in an intuitive way. Examples of the visualization and the results of the first beam time will be introduced.

  12. A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    Recent new and improved plasma control regimes have evolved from enhancements to the systems responsible for managing the plasma configuration on the DIII-D tokamak. The collection of hardware and software components designed for this purpose is known at DIII-D as the Plasma Control System or PCS. Several new user requirements have contributed to the rapid growth of the PCS. Experiments involving digital control of the plasma vertical position have resulted in the addition of new high performance processors to operate in real-time. Recent studies in plasma disruptions involving the use of neural network based software have resulted in an increase in the number of input diagnostic signals sampled. Better methods for estimating the plasma shape and position have brought about numerous software changes and the addition of several new code modules. Furthermore, requests for performing multivariable control and feedback on the current profile are continuing to add to the demands being placed on the PCS. To support all of these demands has required a structured yet flexible hardware and software architecture for maintaining existing capabilities and easily adding new ones. This architecture along with a general overview of the DIII-D Plasma Control System is described. In addition, the latest improvements to the PCS are presented

  13. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment (SCoPEx): overview, status, and results from related laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D.; Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment (SCoPEx), is a scientific experiment to advance understanding of stratospheric aerosols. It aims to make quantitative measurements of aerosol microphysics and atmospheric chemistry to improve large-scale models used to assess the risks and benefits of solar geoengineering. A perturbative experiment requires: (a) means to create a well-mixed, small perturbed volume, and (b) observation of time evolution of chemistry and aerosols in the volume. SCoPEx will used a propelled balloon gondola containing all instruments and drive system. The propeller wake forms a well-mixed volume (roughly 1 km long and 100 meters in diameter) that serves as an experimental `beaker' into which aerosols (e.g., budget, etc; (d) results from CFD simulation of propeller wake and simulation of chemistry and aerosol microphysics; and finally (e) proposed concept of operations and schedule. We will also provide an overview of the plans for governance including management of health safety and environmental risks, transparency, public engagement, and larger questions about governance of solar geoengineering experiments. Finally, we will briefly present results of laboratory experiments of the interaction of chemical such as ClONO2 and HCl on particle surfaces relevant for stratospheric solar geoengineering.

  14. Identification and control of harmonic distortions report on Furnas experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano Filho, Salvatore; Medeiros, Jose Roberto de; Bezerra, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Denise Borges de; Praca, Antonio Augusto Souza; Paiva Fontes, Marco Antonio de; Marques, Luiz Carlos Borges C. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes FURNAS experience on identification and control of harmonic distortions obtained from conservation of system operation and research for solutions. Special attention is paid to the harmonic overload observed at Ibiuna substation, the receiving end of the FURNAS HVDC transmission of the Itaipu 50 Hz energy, and the solutions that have been adopted. Methods of measurement and digital simulation have been developed and successfully tested so far. The present stage of those methods will be described. Not less important is the need for a specific legislation on harmonic distortion as explained in this paper. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Separation flow control on a generic ground vehicle using steady microjet arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, Sandrine; Kourta, Azeddine [Universite d' Orleans, Laboratoire PRISME, Orleans cedex (France); McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh [Florida State University, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A model of a generic vehicle shape, the Ahmed body with a 25 slant, is equipped with an array of blowing steady microjets 6 mm downstream of the separation line between the roof and the slanted rear window. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this actuation method in reducing the aerodynamic drag, by reducing or suppressing the 3D closed separation bubble located on the slanted surface. The efficiency of this control approach is quantified with the help of aerodynamic load measurements. The changes in the flow field when control is applied are examined using PIV and wall pressure measurements and skin friction visualisations. By activating the steady microjet array, the drag coefficient was reduced by 9-14% and the lift coefficient up to 42%, depending on the Reynolds number. The strong modification of the flow topology under progressive flow control is particularly studied. (orig.)

  16. Numerical study of flow control strategies for a simplified square back ground vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulalie, Yoann; Gilotte, Philippe [Plastic Omnium, Avenue du bois des vergnes, F-01150 Sainte-Julie (France); Mortazavi, Iraj, E-mail: iraj.mortazavi@cnam.fr [Team M2N, CNAM Paris, 292 Rue St. Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2017-06-15

    Current automotive trends lead to vertical shapes in the region of the rear tailgates, which induce high aerodynamical losses at the rear wall of vehicles. It is therefore important to work on turbulent wake in order to find drag reduction solutions for the current vehicle design. This paper focuses on flow control strategies, which are designed to interact with shear layers backward from the detachment region, in order to increase pressure values in the wake of a square back bluff body. This study involves large eddy simulation results validated by experimental data. After the first section, which represents experimental validation of LES computations with and without active flow control on an Ahmed bluff body, we will present a wide range of numerical results describing several active and passive flow control solutions leading to drag reductions of up to 10%. The last part of this paper will focus on some fluid mechanisms, which could explain these aerodynamical performances. (paper)

  17. Numerical study of flow control strategies for a simplified square back ground vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulalie, Yoann; Gilotte, Philippe; Mortazavi, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Current automotive trends lead to vertical shapes in the region of the rear tailgates, which induce high aerodynamical losses at the rear wall of vehicles. It is therefore important to work on turbulent wake in order to find drag reduction solutions for the current vehicle design. This paper focuses on flow control strategies, which are designed to interact with shear layers backward from the detachment region, in order to increase pressure values in the wake of a square back bluff body. This study involves large eddy simulation results validated by experimental data. After the first section, which represents experimental validation of LES computations with and without active flow control on an Ahmed bluff body, we will present a wide range of numerical results describing several active and passive flow control solutions leading to drag reductions of up to 10%. The last part of this paper will focus on some fluid mechanisms, which could explain these aerodynamical performances. (paper)

  18. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  19. Operating experience with the new TRIUMF RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.; Laverty, M.; Fang, S.

    1995-06-01

    The 23 MHz rf control of the TRIUMF cyclotron has been replaced by a new VXI control system based on digital signal processing. It provides amplitude and phase regulation of the cyclotron dee voltage, as well as other functions such as power-up sequencing, spark and high VSWR protection. Modularity of the hardware is achieved by the VXI architecture, and in the software by Object Oriented Programming. It is expected that this will result in a considerably longer MTBF, and shorter fault diagnosis and repair times, than the equipment it replaces. The new system has now been in operation for over two months. The results of commissioning, testing, and early operating experience are presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. Power system control experiments using 1 MJ SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shigeyuki

    1993-01-01

    Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., developed a 1 MJ Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system composed of a pulsive superconducting magnet (1000 A, 2 H) and experimental researches connecting this system to a simulated power system composed of four generators, fluctuating load and some transmission lines were carried out in the laboratory of Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., since 1989. The purpose of this experimental researches are to investigate the effects of SMES adapting in power system control use. This paper describes the results and confirmed effects of four kinds of experiments as the following, cut-off peak demand, load leveling effect for fluctuating load, improvement of dynamic stability and frequency control effect in isolated power system. (orig.)

  1. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Engineering simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Program experience from early 1962 to July 1969 with respect to the engineering-simulation support and the problems encountered is summarized in this report. Engineering simulation in support of the Apollo guidance and control system is discussed in terms of design analysis and verification, certification of hardware in closed-loop operation, verification of hardware/software compatibility, and verification of both software and procedures for each mission. The magnitude, time, and cost of the engineering simulations are described with respect to hardware availability, NASA and contractor facilities (for verification of the command module, the lunar module, and the primary guidance, navigation, and control system), and scheduling and planning considerations. Recommendations are made regarding implementation of similar, large-scale simulations for future programs.

  2. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  3. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  4. Review: Ina-Maria Greverus, Sharon MacDonald, Regina Romhild, Gisela Welz & Helena Wullf (Eds. (2002. Stability Upon Shifting Ground: Review Note of Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Boylorn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is written in response to "Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethno­graphy," a volume of the Anthropological Journal on European Cultures. This review cites the history and implications of ethnography as a methodology within various academic disciplines while praising the authors within this text for their contributions to various ways of "doing ethnography." By investi­gating and considering the body as an ethno­graphic site where life and stories are performed and em­bodied, this article considers the varying ways the authors respond to experimental and performative ethnography while applying it to relevant and current issues within anthropology. By engaging both the anthropological and historical turn of ethnography, this book thematically discusses the mobility of fieldwork, time, space, multi-locality, tour­ism, and tradition/culture. Shifting Grounds does not only offer experiments in doing ethnography, it also offers alternatives for doing ethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503175

  5. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  6. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  7. Securing a control system: experiences from ISO 27001 implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuppala, V.; Vincent, J.; Kusler, J.; Davidson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent incidents of breaches, in control systems in specific and information systems in general, have emphasized the importance of security and operational continuity in achieving the quality objectives of an organization, and the safety of its personnel and infrastructure. However, security and disaster recovery are either completely ignored or given a low priority during the design and development of an accelerator control system, the underlying technologies, and the overlaid applications. This leads to an operational facility that is easy to breach, and difficult to recover. Retrofitting security into a control system becomes much more difficult during operations. In this paper we describe our experiences with implementing ISO/IEC 27001 Standard for information security at the Electronics Department of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located on the campus of Michigan State University. We describe our risk assessment methodology, the identified risks, the selected controls, their implementation, and our documentation structure. We also report the current status of the project. We conclude with the challenges faced and the lessons learnt. (authors)

  8. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  9. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  10. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  11. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  12. Quality Control in Diagnostic Radiology: Experiences and Achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Salleh; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa

    2015-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency through its Medical Physics Group has been providing Quality Control (QC) services for medical X-ray apparatus used in diagnostic radiology to private clinics and hospitals since the year 1997. The Medical Physics Groups services is endorsed by the Malaysian Ministry Of Health (MOH) and is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 838 and the Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984. Until today, the scopes of testing services also include all types of medical x-ray apparatus. The quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology is considered as part of quality assurance program which provide accurate diagnostic information at the lowest cost and the least exposure of the patients to radiation. Many experience and obstacles were faced by Medical Physics Group. This paper will discuss the experiences and achievements of providing QC service from early stage until now so that it can be shared by the citizens of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The results of quality assurance inspection of all types of X-ray apparatus for medical conducted by Agency Nuclear Malaysia will be presented in brief. (author)

  13. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  14. Experience in control of avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, L D

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia for over ten years, providing considerable experience on which to base appropriate long-term strategies for their control. Experience in Hong Kong SAR demonstrates that existing production and marketing practices should be changed and a range of parallel measures used. It also shows the extent of surveillance required to ensure continuing freedom from infection. Certain high-risk practices should be changed or otherwise overcome in order to control and prevent disease, including intensive rearing of large numbers of poultry in premises without biosecurity commensurate with the level of risk for exposure; complex market chains involving many smallholders selling poultry through large numbers of transporters and middlemen in poorly regulated live poultry markets; and rearing of large numbers of ducks outdoors. These high-risk practices are compounded by weak veterinary services and poor reporting systems. In many parts of Asia, these methods of rearing and marketing are an integral way of life, support the poorest members of the community or cannot be changed quickly without severe socioeconomic consequences. The gains made so far will be ephemeral unless there is a shift from an emergency focus to one of consolidation in which these high-risk practices are identified and sustainable measures implemented to minimize the risks they pose, taking account of the socioeconomic effects of interventions. Vaccination will play a key role, as it currently does in China and Viet Nam.

  15. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  16. The control system of the 12-m medium-size telescope prototype: a test-ground for the CTA array control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, E. A.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Lindemann, R.; Melkumyan, D.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high energy -ray observatory. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different sizes and types and in addition numerous auxiliary devices. In order to provide a test-ground for the CTA array control, the steering software of the 12-m medium size telescope (MST) prototype deployed in Berlin has been implemented using the tools and design concepts under consideration to be used for the control of the CTA array. The prototype control system is implemented based on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) control middleware, with components implemented in Java, C++ and Python. The interfacing to the hardware is standardized via the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture (OPC UA). In order to access the OPC UA servers from the ACS framework in a common way, a library has been developed that allows to tie the OPC UA server nodes, methods and events to the equivalents in ACS components. The front-end of the archive system is able to identify the deployed components and to perform the sampling of the monitoring points of each component following time and value change triggers according to the selected configurations. The back-end of the archive system of the prototype is composed by two different databases: MySQL and MongoDB. MySQL has been selected as storage of the system configurations, while MongoDB is used to have an efficient storage of device monitoring data, CCD images, logging and alarm information. In this contribution, the details and conclusions on the implementation of the control software of the MST prototype are presented.

  17. Reexamining Ground SOF Command and Control: Does One Size Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission.”19 Essentially, command gives, among other things, legal authority to an individual...of capturing Aidid. E. OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF SOF TF Ranger executed six missions and aborted 35–40 missions during its deployment in support...of Operation RESTORE HOPE. The aborted missions were due to a lack of intelligence reporting. Of the six missions executed three were night-time

  18. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control Systems Development Ground Support Development Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APT's) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated and secured state in a launch control system environment. FISMA is a law that is mandated by the government to follow when government agencies secure networks and devices. My role on this project is to ensure network devices and systems are in compliance with NIST, as outlined in FISMA. I will achieve this by providing assistance with security plan documentation and collection, system hardware and software inventory, malicious code and malware scanning, and configuration of network devices i.e. routers and IDS's/IPS's. In addition, I will be completing security assessments on software and hardware, vulnerability assessments and reporting, and conducting patch management and risk assessments. A guideline that will help with compliance with NIST is the SANS Top 20 Critical Controls. SANS Top 20 Critical Controls as well as numerous security tools, security software and the conduction of research will be used to successfully complete the tasks given to me. This will ensure compliance with FISMA and NIST, secure systems and a secured network. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out the tasks stated above as well as gain an immense knowledge about compliance, security tools, networks and network devices, as well as policies and procedures.

  19. An MPC Algorithm with Combined Speed and Steering Control for Obstacle Avoidance in Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    from this line to the upper left side is caused by aerodynamic drag. The data for estimating the lateral load transfer coefficients is generated by...2013. [13] J. H. Jeon, R. V. Cowlagi, S. C. Peters, S. Karaman, E. Frazzoli, P. Tsiotras, and K. Iagnemma, “Optimal motion planning with the half- car ...Elsevier, 2005. [21] A. Rucco, G. Notarstefano, and J. Hauser, “Optimal control based dynamics exploration of a rigid car with longitudinal load

  20. Systems Engineering Approach to Develop Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Global Positioning System HNA hybrid navigation algorithm HRI human-robot interface IED Improvised Explosive Device IMU inertial measurement unit...Potential Field Method R&D research and development RDT&E Research, development, test and evaluation RF radiofrequency RGB red, green and blue ROE...were radiofrequency (RF) controlled and pneumatically actuated upon receiving the wireless commands from the radio operator. The pairing of such an

  1. Safety assessment for the above ground storage of Cadmium Safety and Control Rods at the Solid Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Site is changing from radioisotope production to waste management and environmental restoration. As such, Reactor Engineering has recently developed a plan to transfer the safety and control rods from the C, K, L, and P reactor disassembly basin areas to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads for long-term, retrievable storage. The TRU pads are located within the Solid Waste Management Facilities at the Savannah River Site. An Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Safety Evaluation has been performed for the proposed disassembly basin operations phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project. The USQ screening identified a required change to the authorization basis; however, the Proposed Activity does not involve a positive USQ Safety Evaluation. A Hazard Assessment for the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project determined that the above-ground storage of the cadmium rods results in no change in hazard level at the TRU pads. A Safety Assessment that specifically addresses the storage (at the TRU pads) phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project has been performed. Results of the Safety Assessment support the conclusion that a positive USQ is not involved as a result of the Proposed Activity

  2. Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723

  3. Ergonomic problems regarding the interactive touch input via screens in onboard and ground-based flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, K. P.; Gaertner, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    A significant problem concerning the integration of display and switching functions is related to the fact that numerous informative data which have to be processed by man must be read from only a few display devices. A satisfactory ergonomic design of integrated display devices and keyboards is in many cases difficult, because not all functions which can be displayed and selected are simultaneously available. A technical solution which provides an integration of display and functional elements on the basis of the highest flexibility is obtained by using a cathode ray tube with a touch-sensitive screen. The employment of an integrated data input/output system is demonstrated for the cases of onboard and ground-based flight control. Ergonomic studies conducted to investigate the suitability of an employment of touch-sensitive screens are also discussed.

  4. Recent changes in particulate air pollution over China observed from space and the ground: effectiveness of emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Nielsen, Chris P; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Yu; Liu, Yang; McElroy, Michael B

    2010-10-15

    The Chinese government has moved aggressively since 2005 to reduce emissions of a number of pollutants including primary particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), efforts inadvertently aided since late 2008 by economic recession. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and column nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) provide independent indicators of emission trends, clearly reflecting the sharp onset of the recession in the fall of 2008 and rebound of the economy in the latter half of 2009. Comparison of AOD with ground-based observations of PM over a longer period indicate that emission-control policies have not been successful in reducing concentrations of aerosol pollutants at smaller size range over industrialized regions of China. The lack of success is attributed to the increasing importance of anthropogenic secondary aerosols formed from precursor species including nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH(3)).

  5. Shear optimization experiments with current profile control on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A record performance on JET has been obtained with shear optimization scenarios. A neutron yield of 5.6x10 16 s -1 in deuterium discharges, and a global energy confinement improvement above the ITER-89 L-mode scaling with H ≤ 2.5 in L-mode and H ≤ 3 in H-mode have been achieved. The tailoring of plasma current, density and heating power waveforms and current profile control with lower hybrid current drive and ICRF phasing have been essential. Internal energy, particle and momentum transport barriers develop spontaneously upon heating above a threshold power of about 15 MW with neutral beams and ICRH into a low-density target plasma, with a wide central region of slightly negative or flat magnetic shear with q > 1 everywhere. An additional H-mode transition can also raise the pressure in the region between internal and edge transport barriers. The ion heat conductivity falls to the neoclassical level in the improved core confinement region. Pressure profile control through power deposition feedback control makes it possible to work close to the marginal stability boundary for pressure-driven MHD modes. First experiments in deuterium/tritium plasmas, with up to 75% tritium target concentration, have established internal transport barriers already with heating powers at the lowest threshold of pure deuterium plasmas, resulting in a fusion power output of P fusion = 2 MW. (author)

  6. Optimising UAV topographic surveys processed with structure-from-motion: Ground control quality, quantity and bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Niethammer, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms are greatly facilitating the production of detailed topographic models based on images collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, SfM-based software does not generally provide the rigorous photogrammetric analysis required to fully understand survey quality. Consequently, error related to problems in control point data or the distribution of control points can remain undiscovered. Even if these errors are not large in magnitude, they can be systematic, and thus have strong implications for the use of products such as digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo approach to (1) improve the accuracy of products when SfM-based processing is used and (2) reduce the associated field effort by identifying suitable lower density deployments of ground control points. The method highlights over-parameterisation during camera self-calibration and provides enhanced insight into control point performance when rigorous error metrics are not available. Processing was implemented using commonly-used SfM-based software (Agisoft PhotoScan), which we augment with semi-automated and automated GCPs image measurement. We apply the Monte Carlo method to two contrasting case studies - an erosion gully survey (Taurodont, Morocco) carried out with an fixed-wing UAV, and an active landslide survey (Super-Sauze, France), acquired using a manually controlled quadcopter. The results highlight the differences in the control requirements for the two sites, and we explore the implications for future surveys. We illustrate DEM sensitivity to critical processing parameters and show how the use of appropriate parameter values increases DEM repeatability and reduces the spatial variability of error due to processing artefacts.

  7. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed

  8. Comparison of cytogenetic effects in bone marrow of mice after the flight on the biosatellite "BION-M1" and the ground-based radiobiological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Ivanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    During space flight, the astronauts are exposed to radiation exposure at low doses with low dose rates, so one of the actual areas of Radiobiology is research of action of ionizing radiation in low and ultra-low doses. Violation of the chromosome apparatus of living biosystems, ranging from viruses and bacteria to humans, is the most reliable evidence of exposure to ionizing radiation. In this regard, the study of cytogenetic damage in the cells of humans and animals is central to space radiobiology (Fedorenko B.S., 2006). In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" (Sychev V.N. et al., 2014) was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite by method of cervical dislocation. The level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. The content of animals in the experiment with onboard equipment led to some increase in aberrant mitosis (2,3 ± 0,4%) and reduction of the mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION-M1" was a statistically significant increase in level of chromosome aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). According to VA Shurshakova (2014), the radiation dose to mice ranged from 32 to 72 mGy and relate to a range of small doses (ICRP, 2012). In this connection we conducted a series of experiments in the ground conditions, the aim of which was the study of earliest effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in mice irradiated with low doses of γ-irradiation of 10 to 200 mGy in the first 24 hours after exposure, i.e. within the first post-radiation exposure cell cycle. Studies were carried out on adult female mice outbred ICR (CD-1) - SPF category at the age of 4-4.5 months with an average

  9. A wind-tunnel investigation of parameters affecting helicopter directional control at low speeds in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Young, W. H., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to measure the performance of several helicopter tail-rotor/fin configurations with regard to directional control problems encountered at low speeds in ground effect. Tests were conducted at wind azimuths of 0 deg to 360 deg in increments of 30 deg and 60 deg and at wind speeds from 0 to 35 knots. The results indicate that at certain combinations of wind speed and wind azimuth, large increases in adverse fin force require correspondingly large increases in the tail-rotor thrust, collective pitch, and power required to maintain yaw trim. Changing the tail-rotor direction of rotation to top blade aft for either a pusher tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing away from fin) or a tractor tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing against fin) will alleviate this problem. For a pusher tail rotor at 180 deg wind azimuth, increases in the fin/tail-rotor gap were not found to have any significant influence on the overall vehicle directional control capability. Changing the tail rotor to a higher position was found to improve tail-rotor performance for a fin-off configuration at a wind azimuth of 180 deg. A V-tail configuration with a pusher tail rotor with top blade aft direction of rotation was found to be the best configuration with regard to overall directional control capability.

  10. Hardware Development and Locomotion Control Strategy for an Over-Ground Gait Trainer: NaTUre-Gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Low, Kin Huat; Qu, Xingda; Lim, Hup Boon; Hoon, Kay Hiang

    2014-01-01

    Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved.

  11. Choices and control: parental experiences in pediatric terminal home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J L; Carlisle, C

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, palliative care at home has become an alternative option to hospital care for terminally ill children. This study describes the experience of caring for a dying child at home from a parent's perspective. A qualitative research design was used to conduct and analyze data. Nonstandardized, focused interviews were conducted with 10 families. Thematic content analysis assisted in deriving themes from the transcripts of the interviews. "Choice and control" was the major theme that linked all the other concepts, and it appeared to be fundamental to parental coping strategies. Most parents were willing to take responsibility for the nursing care of their child, including administration of intravenous medication. The patient's home was the overwhelming choice of parents for delivery of terminal care, with most parents perceiving it as their child's choice also.

  12. Experience with the control system for the SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The design of the multicomputer control system for the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN was described in the report CERN 75-20, issued in 1975, before the commissioning of the accelerator. The present report, which should be read in conjunction with the earlier one, describes the modification made to the system in the light of experience, and how it has adapted to changing requirements. Reliability of the system and how it has adapted to changing requirements. Reliability of the system and of its components is discussed. Taking into account modern developments of microprocessors, etc., the changes that might be made if the system were to be redesigned are examined. Finally, the application of the design philosophy to other fields is discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  13. ROCK: The readout controller for the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, A.; Cavaliere, S.; Cevenini, F.; Volpe, D. della; Merola, L.; Fiore, D.J.; Parascandolo, P.

    1996-01-01

    A read-out controller (ROCK) has been developed for the Data Acquisition System of the KLOE High Energy Physics experiment, based in Frascati, Italy. The ROCK performs data acquisition in an event-driven fashion on the AUXbus, a custom high speed parallel bus. The AUXbus's main features are data cycles labeled by event number, sparse data scan operations and an asynchronous protocol optimized to achieve data rates up to 15 MHz. On a standard VMEbus, the ROCK allows for data snooping and real-time performance monitoring, without additional overhead on data acquisition. ROCK boards can be linked together via a custom cable bus (Cbus) to build a complex DAQ subsystem. The ROCK board has been designed around three 4.2 K gate XILINX FPGAs. Dual port FIFO banks are used to decouple the asynchronous buses. A preliminary version of the board is presented and test results are briefly discussed

  14. Detector Control System for an LHC experiment - User Requirements Document

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.

  15. An Ecological Approach to the Design of UAV Ground Control Station (GCS) Status Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Susan; Morphew, Ephimia; Shively, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Use of UAVs in military and commercial applications will continue to increase. However, there has been limited research devoted to UAV GCS design. The current study employed an ecological approach to interfac e design. Ecological Interface Design (EID) can be characterized as r epresenting the properties of a system, such that an operator is enco uraged to use skill-based behavior when problem solving. When more ef fortful cognitive processes become necessary due to unfamiliar situations, the application of EID philosophy supports the application of kn owledge-based behavior. With advances toward multiple UAV command and control, operators need GCS interfaces designed to support understan ding of complex systems. We hypothesized that use of EID principles f or the display of UAV status information would result in better opera tor performance and situational awareness, while decreasing workload. Pilots flew a series of missions with three UAV GCS displays of statu s information (Alphanumeric, Ecological, and Hybrid display format). Measures of task performance, Situational Awareness, and workload dem onstrated the benefits of using an ecological approach to designing U AV GCS displays. The application of ecological principles to the design of UAV GCSs is a promising area for improving UAV operations.

  16. Material Control and Accountability Experience at the Fuel Conditioning Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D.; Fredrickson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    placed on a balance, others methods (e.g., level measurements, volume calibration equations, calculated density via additive volumes) are utilized to measure the inventory mass. This paper will discuss the material control and accountability experience at the FCF after ten-plus years of processing spent nuclear fuel. A particular area of discussion is the calculated electrolyte density via additive volumes and its importance in determining the mass and composition in the FCF electro-refiners for material control and accountability of special nuclear material. (authors)

  17. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  18. An integrative, experience-based theory of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Matthew H; Mozer, Michael C; Wickens, Christopher D

    2011-02-09

    Although diverse, theories of visual attention generally share the notion that attention is controlled by some combination of three distinct strategies: (1) exogenous cuing from locally contrasting primitive visual features, such as abrupt onsets or color singletons (e.g., L. Itti, C. Koch, & E. Neiber, 1998), (2) endogenous gain modulation of exogenous activations, used to guide attention to task-relevant features (e.g., V. Navalpakkam & L. Itti, 2007; J. Wolfe, 1994, 2007), and (3) endogenous prediction of likely locations of interest, based on task and scene gist (e.g., A. Torralba, A. Oliva, M. Castelhano, & J. Henderson, 2006). However, little work has been done to synthesize these disparate theories. In this work, we propose a unifying conceptualization in which attention is controlled along two dimensions: the degree of task focus and the contextual scale of operation. Previously proposed strategies-and their combinations-can be viewed as instances of this one mechanism. Thus, this theory serves not as a replacement for existing models but as a means of bringing them into a coherent framework. We present an implementation of this theory and demonstrate its applicability to a wide range of attentional phenomena. The model accounts for key results in visual search with synthetic images and makes reasonable predictions for human eye movements in search tasks involving real-world images. In addition, the theory offers an unusual perspective on attention that places a fundamental emphasis on the role of experience and task-related knowledge.

  19. Controlled VLF phase reversal experiment in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Dazey, M.H.; Dowden, R.L.; Amon, L.E.S.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1973 operations of the transportable very low frequency transmitter near Anchorage, Alaska (Lapprox.4), an experiment was performed to determine the effect of controlled phase change of the transmitted wave on the magnetospherically propagated signal received in the conjugate region. At periodic intervals the phase of the driving voltage was changed (essentially instantaneously) by 180degree. The amplitude of the 6.6-kHz signal detected in the conjugate region went to zero and recovered with a characteristic time constant of 33 ms. This is 10 times longer than the antenna current response time and is in fact comparable with characteristic electron interaction times with whistler mode waves. Between the times at which the phase reversals occurred the received signal was amplitude modulated. The period of the modulation was approx.26 ms. An upper side band was present in the spectrum while these pulsations were occurring. These characteristic times are in general agreement with theoretical predictions of bandwidths, growth rates, and particle-trapping frequencies for whistler instabilities in the magnetosphere. Data obtained from the controlled transmissions and from lightning-generated whistlers propagating in the same duct were combined to determine the plasma and wave parameters at the geomagnetic equator. Of particular interest is the level at which the magnetic field of the wave saturated. During the time period for which the data were analyzed this was found to be 3.5 pT (mγ)

  20. The Levitation Control System for the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Dagen, S.; Kesner, J.; Liptac, J.

    2001-10-01

    The confining field in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is provided by a 1/2 ton levitated superconducting dipole magnet. This floating coil is charged with 1.5 MA current and will be levitated continuously for the eight hour experimental run day. Earnshaw's theorem states that there exists no statically stable configuration for levitation of magnets. In LDX, the floating coil is levitated by a smaller dipole levitation coil 1.5 meters above. This configuration is unstable vertically, but stable in tilt or horizontal motion. The position of the coil will be monitored with a set of eight laser position detectors giving redundant measurements of the five degrees of freedom of the floating coil. The levitation will then be stabilized by feedback control of the current in the levitation coil. The feedback system is a digital system running on a real time operating system platform. This system is programmed, monitored, and controlled by a second computer using Matlab Simulink. The system is currently being tested on a small model and a larger test is planned before LDX operation. Results from these tests and optimizations will be presented.

  1. Below- and above-ground controls on tree water use in lowland tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, F. C.; Woodruff, D.; McCulloh, K.; Domec, J.

    2012-12-01

    scaled uniformly with branch leaf-specific conductivity and with the branch leaf area to sapwood area ratio; a tree architecture-based proxy for leaf-specific conductivity. At the canopy-atmosphere interface, a combination of high stomatal conductance and relatively large leaf size enhanced the role of the boundary layer over stomata in controlling transpiration (increased decoupling coefficient; omega). Uniform scaling of tree water use characteristics with simple biophysical, hydraulic and architectural traits across species may facilitate predictions of changes in tropical forest water use with shifts in species composition associated with climate change and changing land-use.

  2. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV: a controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M. R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kong, M.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J. M.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A. A.; Vu, N. M. T.; The EUROfusion MST1-team; The TCV-team

    2017-12-01

    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety factor profile (q-profile) and kinetic plasma parameters such as the plasma beta. This demands to establish reliable profile control routines in presently operational tokamaks. We present a model predictive profile controller that controls the q-profile and plasma beta using power requests to two clusters of gyrotrons and the plasma current request. The performance of the controller is analyzed in both simulation and TCV L-mode discharges where successful tracking of the estimated inverse q-profile as well as plasma beta is demonstrated under uncertain plasma conditions and the presence of disturbances. The controller exploits the knowledge of the time-varying actuator limits in the actuator input calculation itself such that fast transitions between targets are achieved without overshoot. A software environment is employed to prepare and test this and three other profile controllers in parallel in simulations and experiments on TCV. This set of tools includes the rapid plasma transport simulator RAPTOR and various algorithms to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium and plasma profiles by merging the available measurements with model-based predictions. In this work the estimated q-profile is merely based on RAPTOR model predictions due to the absence of internal current density measurements in TCV. These results encourage to further exploit model predictive profile control in experiments on TCV and other (future) tokamaks.

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  4. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  5. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  6. LEO-to-ground optical communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) - Payload verification results and experiments on space quantum communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Takenaka, Hideki; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Suzuki, Kenji; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Koyama, Yoshisada; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-10-01

    Free-space optical communications have held the promise of revolutionizing space communications for a long time. The benefits of increasing the bitrate while reducing the volume, mass and energy of the space terminals have attracted the attention of many researchers for a long time. In the last few years, more and more technology demonstrations have been taking place with participants from both the public and the private sector. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan has a long experience in this field. SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) was the last NICT space lasercom mission, designed to demonstrate the potential of this technology applied to microsatellites. Since the beginning of SOTA mission in 2014, NICT regularly established communication using the Optical Ground Stations (OGS) located in the Headquarters at Koganei (Tokyo) to receive the SOTA signals, with over one hundred successful links. All the goals of the SOTA mission were fulfilled, including up to 10-Mbit/s downlinks using two different wavelengths and apertures, coarse and fine tracking of the OGS beacon, space-to-ground transmission of the on-board-camera images, experiments with different error correcting codes, interoperability with other international OGS, and experiments on quantum communications. The SOTA mission ended on November 2016, more than doubling the designed lifetime of 1-year. In this paper, the SOTA characteristics and basic operation are explained, along with the most relevant technological demonstrations.

  7. Why variation of ground-level O3 differed during air quality control for APEC and Parade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R.; Shao, M.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important photochemical product, which represents the atmospheric oxidants capacity. The increasing ground-level O3 in Beijing attracts people's attention and became an urgent thing to manage in recent years. In the autumn of 2014 and summer of 2015, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014 and the 2015 China Victory Day parade (Parade) were held in Beijing. Thus, spell of emission restrictions was conducted for improving the air quality for the two great events, respectively. Previous studies indicated that significant reduction in the emissions of primary anthropogenic pollutants had been achieved, and the monthly averaged concentration of CO, SO2, NOx (NO + NO2) and NMHCs were decreased by 30%-60% for both events. In contrast to the obvious reduction in primary pollutants, O3 increased by 42% in APEC but decreased by 33% in Parade, which was surprising as the control measures are almost the same during the two events. The regional transport from the surrounding areas contributed lot in APEC, and the non-linearity relationship of O3 and its precursors may be another reason. A zero-dimensional box model based on the compact Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2 (RACM 2) was applied to chase down the internal factor to determine the O3 variation. The EKMA plot showed that / was the important role to effect photochemical regime as well as ozone production efficiency. Except that, the influence of NO-O3 titration effect and low photolysis frequencies in autumn also contributed to that. As high / does help O3 control and NOx continues to fall down due to the government policy, reactivity-based regulations for VOC controls are more cost-effective. With source profile and annual PMF analysis of source apportionment by related studies, we suggest solvent use should be focus on involving VOC control.

  8. A nonlinear model predictive control formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles in unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed, large-size autono-mous ground vehicles (AGVs) with high centre of gravity (CoG) that operate in unstructured environments, such as military vehicles. The term 'unstructured' in this context denotes that there are no lanes or traffic rules to follow. Existing MPC formulations for passenger vehicles in structured environments do not readily apply to this context. Thus, a new nonlinear MPC formulation is developed to navigate an AGV from its initial position to a target position at high-speed safely. First, a new cost function formulation is used that aims to find the shortest path to the target position, since no reference trajectory exists in unstructured environments. Second, a region partitioning approach is used in conjunction with a multi-phase optimal control formulation to accommodate the complicated forms the obstacle-free region can assume due to the presence of multiple obstacles in the prediction horizon in an unstructured environment. Third, the no-wheel-lift-off condition, which is the major dynamical safety concern for high-speed, high-CoG AGVs, is ensured by limiting the steering angle within a range obtained offline using a 14 degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model. Thus, a safe, high-speed navigation is enabled in an unstructured environment. Simulations of an AGV approaching multiple obstacles are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of the synthetic insecticides trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin emulsion concentrated (EC) and cypermethrin emulsion water based (EW) and a bio-insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), was evaluated at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) for the control of Metisa plana larvae in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia. Although all synthetic insecticides effectively reduced the larval population of M. plana, trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin EC were the fastest-acting. The larval population dropped below the economic threshold level (ETL) 30 days after a single application of the synthetic insecticides. Application of Btk, however, gave poor results, with the larval population remaining above the ETL post treatment. In terms of operational productivity, ground spraying using power spray equipment was time-consuming and resulted in poor coverage. Power spraying may not be appropriate for controlling M. plana infestations in large fields. Using a power sprayer, one man could cover 2-3 ha per day. Hence, power spraying is recommended during outbreaks of infestation in areas smaller than 50 ha.

  10. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    in order to affect the time evolution of molecular activity in a desirable manner. In this proposal, we address both the inference and control problems of GRNs. In the first part of the thesis, we consider the control problem. We assume that we are given a general topology network structure, whose dynamics follow a discrete-time Markov chain model. We subsequently develop a comprehensive framework for optimal perturbation control of the network. The aim of the perturbation is to drive the network away from undesirable steady-states and to force it to converge to a unique desirable steady-state. The proposed framework does not make any assumptions about the topology of the initial network (e.g., ergodicity, weak and strong connectivity), and is thus applicable to general topology networks. We define the optimal perturbation as the minimum-energy perturbation measured in terms of the Frobenius norm between the initial and perturbed networks. We subsequently demonstrate that there exists at most one optimal perturbation that forces the network into the desirable steady-state. In the event where the optimal perturbation does not exist, we construct a family of sub-optimal perturbations that approximate the optimal solution arbitrarily closely. In the second part of the thesis, we address the inference problem of GRNs from time series data. We model the dynamics of the molecules using a system of ordinary differential equations corrupted by additive white noise. For large-scale networks, we formulate the inference problem as a constrained maximum likelihood estimation problem. We derive the molecular interactions that maximize the likelihood function while constraining the network to be sparse. We further propose a procedure to recover weak interactions based on the Bayesian information criterion. For small-size networks, we investigated the inference of a globally stable 7-gene melanoma genetic regulatory network from genetic perturbation experiments. We considered five

  11. GROUNDING ACCESS TO JUSTICE THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN ABUSED BY THEIR INTIMATE PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E Mosher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For women seeking to extricate themselves from the web of entrapment woven together by the multiple threads that make up the coercive control repertoire of their abusive intimate partners, it is often difficult to avoid engagement with legal systems. Yet, the legal systems they encounter—criminal, family, child welfare, immigration among them—are frequently unwelcoming (if not hostile, controlling, demeaning, fragmented and contradictory. While there has been a recent explosion of interest in “access to justice,” little attention has been paid to how we might conceptualize access to justice in a manner that speaks meaningfully to the circumstances of women who experience abuse in their intimate relationships. For such women, access to justice is curtailed not only by lack of representation, delays, costs, and procedural complexities—the obstacles commonly associated with access to justice failings—but by three inter-related phenomena: the enduring hold of an incident-based understanding of domestic violence; the failure of legal actors to curb men’s strategic use of legal systems to further their power; and the host of complications—contradictory expectations, inconsistent orders, repetitious proceedings, sweeping surveillance—that arise when women are compelled to navigate multiple intersecting legal systems. What is required, I argue, is a conceptualization of access to justice that places women’s safety and well-being at its core.   Dans la plupart des cas, les femmes qui veulent se sortir de l’enfer de la violence conjugale et échapper au contrôle de leur conjoint abusif n’ont d’autre choix que de se tourner vers les systèmes judiciaires. Pourtant, ceux qui s’offrent à elles, que ce soit en matière criminelle ou familiale, ou encore en matière d’immigration ou de protection de l’enfance, sont souvent peu accueillants (sinon hostiles, en plus d’être contrôlants, rabaissants, fragmentés et

  12. File management for experiment control parameters within a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1976-10-01

    An attempt to design and implement a computer system for control of and data collection from a set of laboratory experiments reveals that many of the experiments in the set require an extensive collection of parameters for their control. The operation of the experiments can be greatly simplified if a means can be found for storing these parameters between experiments and automatically accessing them as they are required. A subsystem for managing files of such experiment control parameters is discussed. 3 figures

  13. Design and experiments of the fuel control method for the scramjet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nowadays the research on the fuel control techniques has attracted more attention in ... for the scramjet fuel control method by the design and ground verification test. ... Figure 1 is the configuration of the 2-D scramjet engine simulated in this ...

  14. Aerosol and Cloud Properties during the Cloud Cheju ABC Plume -Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) 2008: Linking between Ground-based and UAV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Venkata Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Park, S.; Kim, M.

    2009-12-01

    Cheju Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Plume-Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX), comprehsensive ground-based measurements and a series of data-gathering flights by specially equipped autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for aerosol and cloud, had conducted at Jeju (formerly, Cheju), South Korea during August-September 2008, to improve our understanding of how the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in China (so-called “great shutdown” ) during and after the Summer Beijing Olympic Games 2008 effcts on the air quliaty and radiation budgets and how atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) influences solar radiation budget off Asian continent. Large numbers of in-situ and remote sensing instruments at the Gosan ABC observatory and miniaturized instruments on the aircraft measure a range of properties such as the quantity of soot, size-segregated aerosol particle numbers, total particle numbers, size-segregated cloud droplet numbers (only AUAV), aerosol scattering properties (only ground), aerosol vertical distribution, column-integrated aerosol properties, and meteorological variables. By integrating ground-level and high-elevation AUAV measurements with NASA-satellite observations (e.g., MODIS, CALIPSO), we investigate the long range transport of aerosols, the impact of ABCs on clouds, and the role of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In this talk, we will present the results from CAPMEX focusing on: (1) the characteristics of aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties at Gosan observatory, (2) aerosol solar heating calculated from the ground-based micro-pulse lidar and AERONET sun/sky radiometer synergy, and comparison with direct measurements from UAV, and (3) aerosol-cloud interactions in conjunction with measurements by satellites and Gosan observatory.

  15. Winter Ground Temperatures Control Snowmelt DOC Export From a Discontinuous Permafrost Watershed: A Multi-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    For discontinuous and continuous permafrost watersheds, the largest mass flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurs during the snowmelt period. During this time, available allochtonous organic carbon that has accumulated over the winter in frozen organic soils is rapidly flushed to the basin outlet. While this process has been observed now in many river systems of different size and location, there have been few inter-annual reports on the mass of DOC loss and the factors controlling its variability during freshet. Hydrological and DOC fluxes were recorded for the 2002, 2003 and 2006 snowmelt season with supplementary over-winter data for an 8 square kilometer sub-basin (Granger Basin) of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Granger Basin is an alpine catchment above treeline underlain with discontinuous permafrost (approximately 70 %) and has widespread surface organic soils up to 0.4 m in thickness. Pre-melt snow water equivalent varied widely throughout the basin, yet was greatest in 2006, followed by 2002 and 2003. Ground temperatures were notably colder throughout the 2003 winter compared with 2006 and 2002. For all years, discharge began in mid-May, and was a continuous event in 2002 and 2006. In 2003 four distinct melt-periods were observed due to rising and falling temperatures. During freshet, stream DOC concentration increased rapidly from 15 mg C/L on the first ascending limb of the hydrograph in each year. In 2003, DOC was largely flushed from the catchment several weeks prior to peak freshet. DOC concentration in wells and piezometers followed a similar pattern to streamflow DOC, with 2003 groundwater DOC concentrations less than 2002 and 2006. The total mass flux of DOC during freshet was 0.85, 0.45 and 1.01 g C/m2 for 2002, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Despite differences in pre-melt snow accumulation, the timing of melt and the volume of discharge, it appears that spring DOC export is largely controlled by over-winter ground

  16. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of a theoretically grounded tailored intervention to diffuse evidence-based public health practice [ISRCTN23257060

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordheim Lena

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that Norwegian public health physicians do not systematically and explicitly use scientific evidence in their practice. They work in an environment that does not encourage the integration of this information in decision-making. In this study we investigate whether a theoretically grounded tailored intervention to diffuse evidence-based public health practice increases the physicians' use of research information. Methods 148 self-selected public health physicians were randomised to an intervention group (n = 73 and a control group (n = 75. The intervention group received a multifaceted intervention while the control group received a letter declaring that they had access to library services. Baseline assessments before the intervention and post-testing immediately at the end of a 1.5-year intervention period were conducted. The intervention was theoretically based and consisted of a workshop in evidence-based public health, a newsletter, access to a specially designed information service, to relevant databases, and to an electronic discussion list. The main outcome measure was behaviour as measured by the use of research in different documents. Results The intervention did not demonstrate any evidence of effects on the objective behaviour outcomes. We found, however, a statistical significant difference between the two groups for both knowledge scores: Mean difference of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6 in the score for knowledge about EBM-resources and mean difference of 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0–0.3 in the score for conceptual knowledge of importance for critical appraisal. There were no statistical significant differences in attitude-, self-efficacy-, decision-to-adopt- or job-satisfaction scales. There were no significant differences in Cochrane library searching after controlling for baseline values and characteristics. Conclusion Though demonstrating effect on knowledge the study failed to provide support for

  18. Current profile control experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Malmberg, J. A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

    2002-11-01

    EXTRAP T2R is a high aspect ratio (R=1.24 m, a = 0.183 m) reversed-field pinch device, characterised by a double, thin shell system. The simultaneous presence of many m=1, |n| > 11 tearing modes is responsible for a magnetic field turbulence, which is believed to produce the rather high energy and particle transport that is observed in this type of magnetic configuration. In this paper first results from current profile control experiments (PPCD) in a thin shell device are shown. When an edge poloidal electric field is transiently applied, an increase of the electron temperature and of the electron density is seen, which is consistent with an increase of the thermal content of the plasma. At the same time, the soft x-ray emission, measured with a newly installed miniaturised camera, shows a peaking of the profile in the core. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the m=1 tearing modes are reduced and and the rotation velocities increase during PPCD, which is also consistent with a reduction of magnetic turbulence and a heating of the plasma

  19. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  20. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  1. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  2. Triplet and ground state potential energy surfaces of 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, J; Dmitrenko, O; Pillai, Z S; Klima, R; Wang, S; Wharton, T; Huang, Z-N; van de Burgt, L J; Arranz, J

    2008-05-01

    Relative energies of the ground state isomers of 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene (DPB) are determined from the temperature dependence of equilibrium isomer compositions obtained with the use of diphenyl diselenide as catalyst. Temperature and concentration effects on photostationary states and isomerization quantum yields with biacetyl or fluorenone as triplet sensitizers with or without the presence of O(2), lead to significant modification of the proposed DPB triplet potential energy surface. Quantum yields for ct-DPB formation from tt-DPB increase with [tt-DPB] revealing a quantum chain process in the tt --> ct direction, as had been observed for the ct --> tt direction, and suggesting an energy minimum at the (3)ct* geometry. They confirm the presence of planar and twisted isomeric triplets in equilibrium (K), with energy transfer from planar or quasi-planar geometries (quantum chain events from tt and ct triplets) and unimolecular decay (k(d)) from twisted geometries. Starting from cc-DPB, varphi(cc-->tt) increases with increasing [cc-DPB] whereas varphi(cc-->ct) is relatively insensitive to concentration changes. The concentration and temperature dependencies of the decay rate constants of DPB triplets in cyclohexane are consistent with the mechanism deduced from the photoisomerization quantum yields. The experimental DeltaH between (3)tt-DPB* and (3)tp-DPB*, 2.7 kcal mol(-1), is compared with the calculated energy difference [DFT with B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) basis set]. Use of the calculated DeltaS = 4.04 eu between the two triplets gives k(d) = (2.4-6.4) x 10(7) s(-1), close to 1.70 x 10(7) s(-1), the value for twisted stilbene triplet decay. Experimental and calculated relative energies of DPB isomers on the ground and triplet state surfaces agree and theory is relied upon to deduce structural characteristics of the equilibrated conformers in the DPB triplet state.

  3. A study of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT)-ground source heat pump hybrid system by using fuzzy logic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Putrayudha, S.; Kang, Eun Chul; Evgueniy, E.; Libing, Y.; Lee, Euy Joon

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Heat Obligation (RHO) implementation in every country becomes an important issue to utilize more renewable energy sources while reducing the usage of fossil fuel. In 2014, South Korea has a target that every commercial building construction that exceeding 10,000 m 2 has to have on-site new & renewable power generation such as combined heat in the beginning of 2016. Photovoltaic/Thermal (PVT) and Geothermal hybrid systems have been introduced in previous research (E.J. Lee et al.) and it showed a great result from its efficiency and also its power consumption for single and multi-building cases. In this paper, Fuzzy Logic control has been applied to optimize the energy consumption of the system. By comparing it with conventional on–off control, fuzzy logic control system shows a better result in reducing primary energy consumption for both heating and cooling systems annually. Two cases were introduced in this paper, GSHP system and PVT–GSHP system with both on–off and fuzzy logic applied respectively. As a result, it shows that fuzzy logic control consumed 13.3% less energy compared with on–off controller for GSHP system annually and 18.3% less energy compared to on–off controller for PVT–GSHP system annually. - Highlights: • Two renewable systems were designed to produce heating, cooling and electricity. • System optimization by applying Fuzzy Logic in terms of energy saving. • Conventional on–off control system vs advance fuzzy logic control system. • Assumption used based on previous research experience, guidelines.

  4. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  5. Major Tom to Ground Control: How Lipoproteins Communicate Extracytoplasmic Stress to the Decision Center of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Géraldine; Collet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    The envelope of bacteria is a complex multilayered shield that ensures multiple essential functions, including protecting the cell from external assaults. Hence, bacterial cells have evolved intricate mechanisms called envelope stress response systems (ESRS) to monitor all kinds of perturbations affecting the integrity of their envelope and to mount an appropriate response to contain or repair the damage. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli , several ESRS are built around a two-component system, in which envelope stress triggers a phosphotransfer between a sensor protein in the inner membrane of the envelope and a response regulator in the cytoplasm. In this review, we focus on two major ESRS in E. coli , the Rcs and Cpx pathways, in which additional proteins not directly involved in the phosphotransfer modulate signal transduction. Both the Rcs and Cpx systems can be turned on by a lipoprotein anchored in the outer membrane, RcsF and NlpE, respectively, providing a molecular connection between the most exterior layer of the envelope and the ground control center in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these two lipoproteins, which share a striking set of features while being distinct in several aspects, act as sentinels at the front line of the bacterium by sensing and transducing stress to the downstream components of the Rcs and Cpx systems. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Study of the Reactions Controlling the Mobility of Uranium in Ground and Surface Water Systems in Contact with Apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taffet, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to define the mechanisms, equilibria, kinetics, and extent of sorption of aqueous uranium onto hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)) for a range of pH, ionic strength, aqueous uranium concentration, dissolved carbon/air CO 2 , and mineral surface area. We conducted chemical modeling, batch and flow-through experiments, chemical analysis, x-ray absorption and diffraction measurement, and electron microscopy. Our motivation was the need to immobilize U in water and soil to prevent it's entry into water supplies and ultimately, biological systems. Applying hydroxyapatite to in-situ treatment of uranium-bearing ground water could be an effective, low cost technology. We found that hydroxyapatite quickly, effectively, and reversibly sorbed uranium at a high capacity by inner-sphere complexation over a wide range of conditions. Our results indicate that at aqueous uranium concentrations below 10-20 ppb: (1) equilibrium sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite occurs in hours, regardless of pH; (2) in ambient and CO 2 -free atmospheres, over 98% of initial uranium is sorbed to hydroxyapatite, (3) in waters in equilibrium with higher air CO 2 concentrations, sorption removed over 97% of aqueous uranium, except above pH 9, where aqueous uranium concentrations were reduced by less than 40%, and (4) at near-neutral pH, bicarbonate alkalinities in excess of 500 slightly retarded sorption of uranium to hydroxyapatite, relative to lower alkalinities. Uranium sorption and precipitation are reversible and are not appreciably affected by ionic strength. The reversibility of these reactions requires that in situ treatment be carefully monitored to avoid breakthrough and de-sorption of uranium unto ground water. At typical surface conditions, sorption is the only mode of uranium sequestration below 20-50 ppb U - above this range, precipitation of uranium phosphate minerals begins to dominate sequestration processes. We verified that one m 2 of

  7. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  8. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Intrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System: An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC, where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  9. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Bardi, Federica; Fanti, Riccardo; Gigli, Giovanni; Fidolini, Francesco; Casagli, Nicola; Costanzo, Sandra; Raffo, Antonio; Di Massa, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Versace, Pasquale

    2017-10-01

    A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System): An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC), where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar) and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  10. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  11. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  12. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  13. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  14. Feelings of Control: Contingency Determines Experience of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Lagnado, David; Deal, Darvany C.; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The experience of causation is a pervasive product of the human mind. Moreover, the experience of causing an event alters subjective time: actions are perceived as temporally shifted towards their effects [Haggard, P., Clark, S., & Kalogeras, J. (2002). Voluntary action and conscious awareness. "Nature Neuroscience," 5(4), 382-385]. This temporal…

  15. Predicting Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) and Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of Engine Inoperative Flight Using Aerodynamic Database and Propulsion Database Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadder, Eric Michael

    There are many computer aided engineering tools and software used by aerospace engineers to design and predict specific parameters of an airplane. These tools help a design engineer predict and calculate such parameters such as lift, drag, pitching moment, takeoff range, maximum takeoff weight, maximum flight range and much more. However, there are very limited ways to predict and calculate the minimum control speeds of an airplane in engine inoperative flight. There are simple solutions, as well as complicated solutions, yet there is neither standard technique nor consistency throughout the aerospace industry. To further complicate this subject, airplane designers have the option of using an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), which directly alters the minimum control speeds of an airplane. This work addresses this issue with a tool used to predict and calculate the Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) as well as the Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of any existing or design-stage airplane. With simple line art of an airplane, a program called VORLAX is used to generate an aerodynamic database used to calculate the stability derivatives of an airplane. Using another program called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a propulsion database is generated to use with the aerodynamic database to calculate both VMCG and VMCA. This tool was tested using two airplanes, the Airbus A320 and the Lockheed Martin C130J-30 Super Hercules. The A320 does not use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), whereas the C130J-30 does use an ATCS. The tool was able to properly calculate and match known values of VMCG and VMCA for both of the airplanes. The fact that this tool was able to calculate the known values of VMCG and VMCA for both airplanes means that this tool would be able to predict the VMCG and VMCA of an airplane in the preliminary stages of design. This would allow design engineers the ability to use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS) as part

  16. Information Technology Management: Select Controls for the Information Security of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truex, Kathryn M; Lamar, Karen J; Leighton, George A; Woodruff, Courtney E; Brunetti, Tina N; Russell, Dawn M

    2006-01-01

    ... to the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network should read this report to reduce the risk of interruption, misuse, modification, and unauthorized access to information in the system...

  17. Export control training - Experience and pedagogical lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, P.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of the training offerings in export control within the framework of the International Nonproliferation Export Control Program. These courses are organized around 3 topics: licensing, enterprise outreach and enforcement. There are about 10 courses, a brief content of their curricula is given. The goal of these courses is not to make participants into export control experts or trade analysts, but enable them to properly take export controls into account. (A.C.)

  18. Return on experience on control gates in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valendru, N.

    2009-01-01

    In application of an EDF internal directive, control gates are used at the exit of the Controlled Areas of each nuclear power station site for the radiological control of materials or wastes on pedestrians and vehicles. The author first presents the radiological control chain for people and its principles. This chain comprises the different controls performed within the controlled area, either at the exit of a works area or at the exit of the reactor building, the different controls performed at the exit of the controlled area (depending on the site classification), the control of pedestrians at the site exit, and the 'whole body' anthropo-gamma-metric control. For each of these controls, the authors indicate the detection objectives, the different contamination threshold values, and the type of gate used. In a second part, the authors more precisely present the new C2 gates which include gamma and beta sensors, indicate how control thresholds are adjusted on different power station sites, and discuss the lessons learned after the first years of use of these new gates (difficulties and problems faced as far as detection and detection thresholds are concerned, changes in organization)

  19. Large-scale block adjustment without use of ground control points based on the compensation of geometric calibration for ZY-3 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Mi; Xu, Wen; Li, Deren; Gong, Jianya; Pi, Yingdong

    2017-12-01

    The potential of large-scale block adjustment (BA) without ground control points (GCPs) has long been a concern among photogrammetric researchers, which is of effective guiding significance for global mapping. However, significant problems with the accuracy and efficiency of this method remain to be solved. In this study, we analyzed the effects of geometric errors on BA, and then developed a step-wise BA method to conduct integrated processing of large-scale ZY-3 satellite images without GCPs. We first pre-processed the BA data, by adopting a geometric calibration (GC) method based on the viewing-angle model to compensate for systematic errors, such that the BA input images were of good initial geometric quality. The second step was integrated BA without GCPs, in which a series of technical methods were used to solve bottleneck problems and ensure accuracy and efficiency. The BA model, based on virtual control points (VCPs), was constructed to address the rank deficiency problem caused by lack of absolute constraints. We then developed a parallel matching strategy to improve the efficiency of tie points (TPs) matching, and adopted a three-array data structure based on sparsity to relieve the storage and calculation burden of the high-order modified equation. Finally, we used the conjugate gradient method to improve the speed of solving the high-order equations. To evaluate the feasibility of the presented large-scale BA method, we conducted three experiments on real data collected by the ZY-3 satellite. The experimental results indicate that the presented method can effectively improve the geometric accuracies of ZY-3 satellite images. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale mapping without GCPs.

  20. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  1. Improve observation-based ground-level ozone spatial distribution by compositing satellite and surface observations: A simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Crawford, James; Cheng, Ye; Li, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields is challenging because of the sparsity of the surface monitoring network and the difficulty in direct satellite retrievals of surface ozone. We propose an indirect satellite retrieval framework to utilize the information from satellite-measured column densities of tropospheric NO2 and CH2O, which are sensitive to the lower troposphere, to derive surface ozone fields. The method is applicable to upcoming geostationary satellites with high-quality NO2 and CH2O measurements. To prove the concept, we conduct a simulation experiment using a 3-D chemical transport model for July 2011 over the eastern US. The results show that a second order regression using both NO2 and CH2O column densities can be an effective predictor for daily maximum 8-h average ozone. Furthermore, this indirect retrieval approach is shown to be complementary to spatial interpolation of surface observations, especially in regions where the surface sites are sparse. Combining column observations of NO2 and CH2O with surface site measurements leads to an improved representation of surface ozone over simple kriging, increasing the R2 value from 0.53 to 0.64 at a surface site distance of 252 km. The improvements are even more significant with larger surface site distances. The simulation experiment suggests that the indirect satellite retrieval technique can potentially be a useful tool to derive the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields if satellite observation uncertainty is moderate.

  2. AugerNext: innovative research studies for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haungs Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings so far of the Pierre Auger Observatory and also of the Telescope Array define the requirements for a possible next generation experiment: it needs to be considerably increased in size, it needs a better sensitivity to composition, and it should cover the full sky. AugerNext aims to perform innovative research studies in order to prepare a proposal fulfilling these demands. Such R&D studies are primarily focused in the following areas iconsolidation of the detection of cosmic rays using MHz radio antennas; iiproof-of-principle of cosmic-ray microwave detection; iiitest of the large-scale application of a new generation photo-sensors; ivgeneralization of data communication techniques; vdevelopment of new ways of muon detection with surface arrays. These AugerNext studies on new innovative detection methods for a next generation cosmic-ray experiment are performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The AugerNext consortium consists presently of fourteen partner institutions from nine European countries supported by a network of European funding agencies and it is a principal element of the ASPERA/ApPEC strategic roadmaps.

  3. Chemistry control experiences at Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), NPCIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikrishna, K.; Somasundaram, K.M.; Sanathkumar, V.V.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Chemistry control section at Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), NPCIL had keenly pursued many developmental works and projects which had not only improved the system performance and reliability but also largely benefited the Station by many ways. The highlights of some of the major developmental works that have contributed significantly are: 1. Studies on frequent and sharp rise in dew point values of AGMS: In the Annulus Gas Monitoring Systems (AGMS) of KGS units, it was observed that the system dew points were rising very sharply and abruptly. The systematic studies revealed the presence of Hydrogen impurity in CO 2 gas cylinders, hence emphasized the need to ensure the gaseous contents before injecting the media from the cylinders to the system. 2. a. Studies on frequent tube failures of TG auxiliary coolers: The detailed studies and investigation revealed that under deposit corrosion contributed by microbiological attack was the main cause for frequent failures of 90/10 Cupro Nickel cooler tubes which could be minimized either by resorting to periodical mechanical/chemical cleaning of cooler tubes or by regular chemical treatment with a suitable chemical formulation. b. Development of suitable chemical formulation for chemical cleaning of TG auxiliary coolers: A series of in-house experiments at site resulted in developing a suitable chemical formulation for effective cleaning of 90/10 Cupro Nickel cooler tubes. The formulation with 1 % w/w Citric acid with pH adjusted to 8.0 by Ammonia in first step followed by 1 % w/w EDTA with pH adjusted to 9.0 by Hydrazine in the second step could yield more than 90 % cleanliness. 3. Chemical cleaning of cooling circuits of AHUs: An in-house formulation was developed and used for chemical cleaning of cooling circuits (with copper tubes) of AHUs. Post chemical cleaning, the room temperatures decreased by 3-4 degC, hence resulted in better cooling. 4. Enhancement in service period of BBD IX columns: The service period of

  4. Controlled laboratory experiments and modeling of vegetative filter strips with shallow water tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Purvis, Rebecca A.

    2018-01-01

    Natural or planted vegetation at the edge of fields or adjacent to streams, also known as vegetative filter strips (VFS), are commonly used as an environmental mitigation practice for runoff pollution and agrochemical spray drift. The VFS position in lowlands near water bodies often implies the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT). In spite of its potential importance, there is limited experimental work that systematically studies the effect of shallow WTs on VFS efficacy. Previous research recently coupled a new physically based algorithm describing infiltration into soils bounded by a water table into the VFS numerical overland flow and transport model, VFSMOD, to simulate VFS dynamics under shallow WT conditions. In this study, we tested the performance of the model against laboratory mesoscale data under controlled conditions. A laboratory soil box (1.0 m wide, 2.0 m long, and 0.7 m deep) was used to simulate a VFS and quantify the influence of shallow WTs on runoff. Experiments included planted Bermuda grass on repacked silt loam and sandy loam soils. A series of experiments were performed including a free drainage case (no WT) and a static shallow water table (0.3-0.4 m below ground surface). For each soil type, this research first calibrated VFSMOD to the observed outflow hydrograph for the free drainage experiments to parameterize the soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters, and then evaluated the model based on outflow hydrographs for the shallow WT experiments. This research used several statistical metrics and a new approach based on hypothesis testing of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) to evaluate model performance. The new VFSMOD routines successfully simulated the outflow hydrographs under both free drainage and shallow WT conditions. Statistical metrics considered the model performance valid with greater than 99.5% probability across all scenarios. This research also simulated the shallow water table experiments with

  5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  6. Data collecting and treatment control system in the «Alpha-Electron» space experiment on board the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galper, A M; Batischev, A G; Naumov, P P; Naumov, P Yu

    2017-01-01

    The fast multilayer scintillation detector of the new telescope-spectrometer for the ALFA-ELECTRON space experiment is in ground testing mode now. Modules of data control system for spectrometer are discussed. The structure of the main data format and functional blocks for data treatment are presented. The device will planned to install on the outer surface of the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2018. (paper)

  7. 'Seeking authorization': a grounded theory exploration of mentors' experiences of assessing nursing students on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon; Coffey, Michael; Murphy, Fiona

    2017-09-01

    To develop a substantive theoretical explanation of how mentors make sense of their experiences where nursing students are on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice. The reluctance of Registered Nurse mentors to fail nursing students in clinical practice despite concerns about competence remains a contemporary issue in international healthcare education. Mentors' assessment decisions have considerable impact for a variety of key stakeholders, not least for students in these circumstances. Grounded theory qualitative study. Phase one involved 20 individual semi-structured interviews with nurse mentors in one United Kingdom National Health Service Health Board (July-October 2009). Phase two included eight individual semi-structured interviews and seven focus groups with mentors and practice educators (n = 38) in four further Health Boards (June 2011-February 2012). Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory method. Three categories 'the conundrum of practice competence,' 'the intensity of nurturing hopefulness,' and 'managing assessment impasse,' led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation - 'Seeking authorization: Establishing collective accountability for mentorship.' This demonstrates how mentors are dependent on key sources of support and feedback to validate their assessment decision-making, notwithstanding substantial personal, professional and organizational pressures. We conclude that management of borderline assessment situations is considerably developed by recognition of the authorizing effects of a wider community of assessors. Consequently, we identify the personal, professional and organizational implications involved in the preparation, support and regulation of mentors specifically during borderline assessment circumstances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Escompte - Marseille 2001 International Field Experiment: Ground Based and Lidar Results Obtained At St. Chamas By The Epfl Mobile Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, I.; Jimenez, R.; Simeonov, V.; Ristori, P.; Navarette, M.; van den Bergh, H.; Calpini, B.

    The assessment of the air pollution problems in term of understanding of the non- linear chemical mechanisms, the transport or the meteorological processes, and the choice of the abatement strategies could be based on the air pollution models. Nowa- days, very few of these models were validated due to the lack of 3D measurements. The goal of the ESCOMPTE experiment was to provide such of 3D database in order to constrain the air pollution models. The EPFL-LPA mobile laboratory was part of the ESCOMPTE extensive network and was located on the northern side of the Berre Lake at St.Chamas. In this framework, measurements of the air pollutants (O3, SO2, NOx, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particulate matter of less than 10 microns mean diameter) and meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, pressure and relative humidity) were continuously performed from June 10 to July 13, 2001. They were combined with ground based lidar observations for ozone and aerosol estimation from 100m above ground level up to the free troposphere at ca.7 km agl. This paper will present an overview of the results obtained and will highlight one of the intensive observation period (IOP) during which clean air conditions were initially observed followed by highly polluted air masses during the second half of the IOP.

  9. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING ON SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL PLATFORMS FOR IMPROVED RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF MAPPING WITHOUT THE NEED FOR GROUND CONTROL POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a Direct Mapping Solution (DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV GNSS-Inertial system integrated with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate ortho-rectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform. A 55 millimeter Nikkor f/1.8 lens was mounted on the Sony a7R and the camera was then focused and calibrated terrestrially using the Applanix camera calibration facility, and then integrated with the APX-15 UAV GNSS-Inertial system using a custom mount specifically designed for UAV applications. In July 2015, Applanix and Avyon carried out a test flight of this system. The goal of the test flight was to assess the performance of DMS APX-15 UAV direct georeferencing system on the md4-1000. The area mapped during the test was a 250 x 300 meter block in a rural setting in Ontario, Canada. Several ground control points are distributed within the test area. The test included 8 North-South lines and 1 cross strip flown at 80 meters AGL, resulting in a ~1 centimeter Ground Sample Distance (GSD. Map products were generated from the test flight using Direct Georeferencing, and then compared for accuracy against the known positions of ground control points in the test area. The GNSS-Inertial data collected by the APX-15 UAV was post-processed in Single Base mode, using a base station located in the project area via POSPac UAV. The base-station’s position was precisely determined by processing a 12-hour session using the CSRS-PPP Post Processing service. The ground control points were surveyed in using differential GNSS post-processing techniques with respect to the base-station.

  10. Simulation of Local Seismic Ground Motions from the FLASK Underground Nuclear Explosion near the Source Physics Experiment Dry Alluvium Geology Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The FLASK underground nuclear explosion (UNE) was conducted in Area 2 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 26, 1970. The yield was 105 kilotons (DOE/NV-209-Rev 16) and the working point was 529 m below the surface. This test was detonated in faulted Tertiary volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat. Coincidently, the FLASK UNE ground zero (GZ) is close (earth structure, including surface topography. SW4 includes vertical mesh refinement which greatly reduces the computational resources needed to run a specific problem. Simulations are performed on high-performance computers with grid spacing as small as 10 meters and resolution to 6 Hz. We are testing various subsurface models to identify the role of 3D structure on path propagation effects from the source. We are also testing 3D models to constrain structure for the upcoming DAG experiments in 2018.

  11. Operational experience with the control scheme for IUAC linac booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B.K.; Antony, J.; Mathuria, D.S.; Pandey, A.; Ghosh, S.; Mehta, R.; Rai, A.; Patra, P.; Choudhury, G.K.; Singh, K.; Ajith Kumar, B.P.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated beam from the first superconducting linear accelerator (linac) module of IUAC has been delivered to the user. The linac control scheme has worked successfully with the existing pelletron control scheme. Local RF control system consisting of Resonator controller and supporting RF modules are used for multipactoring conditioning, high power pulse conditioning and for the phase/amplitude locking of the superconducting resonators. Beam acceleration is done by adjusting the RF phase of each resonator with respect to master oscillator. The automation of control scheme is planned for smooth operation of linac with minimum human intervention. Python software support is added for writing automation routines in present control system software. An alternate tuning mechanism based on piezoelectric actuators has been successfully tested. (author)

  12. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  13. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance

  14. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  15. Beyond Control and Rationality: Dewey, Aesthetics, Motivation, and Educative Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives in psychology and education characterize ideal students as rational and in control of their thinking and actions. The good student is often described as intentional, cognitive, metacognitive, critical, and reflective. I begin with a brief history of control and rationality to establish how "The Tradition" is deeply rooted…

  16. Output synchronization control of ship replenishment operations: theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrkjebø, E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Wondergem, M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    A leader–follower synchronization output feedback control scheme is presented for the ship replenishment problem where only positions are measured. No mathematical model of the leader ship is required, and the control scheme relies on nonlinear observers to estimate velocity and acceleration of all

  17. Control valve friction operational experience at Darlington NGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, B.

    1995-01-01

    Proper installation of valve packing is an important part of ensuring that control valves operate as intended. Darlington NGD has developed a Valve Packing Program. This program combined with valve diagnostics has enabled the station to ensure that the operability of control valves is maintained after repacking. This paper outlines the process that is used for this. (author)

  18. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyurjyan, V; Abbott, D; Heyes, G; Jastrzembski, E; Timmer, C; Wolin, E [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Ave. MS-12B3, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)], E-mail: gurjyan@jlab.org

    2008-07-01

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  19. AFECS. Multi-Agent Framework for Experiment Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2008-01-23

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  20. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurjyan, V; Abbott, D; Heyes, G; Jastrzembski, E; Timmer, C; Wolin, E

    2008-01-01

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC