Sample records for ground cereal products

  1. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.


    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  3. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe


    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  4. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.


    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  5. Mycotoxins in organic and conventional cereals and cereal products grown and marketed in Croatia. (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Zadravec, Manuela; Jaki, Vesna; Krupić, Igor; Vahčić, Nada


    In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed. Mycotoxin contamination of organic cereals and organic cereal-based products was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Given that the exposure assessment resulted in a small fraction of the TDI (maximum: DON, 12% of TDI), the levels of the investigated mycotoxins in both types of cereals and cereal-based products from the 2015 harvest did not pose a human health hazard.

  6. Counties performance evaluation of cereal production in Albania


    Silvana Mustafaj; Elfrida Dishmema; Albina Basholli; Brunilda Baraku


    Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the Albanian economy. Agricultural production occupies for about 1/5 of the country's GDP. Agricultural production includes all realized production in all counties of the country. Cereal constitutes a significant part in agricultural production, which are grown all over the country. The main cereals cultivated in the country are wheat, maize, rye, barley and oats. The highest level of cereal production in Albania is reached in low and coasta...

  7. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.


    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  8. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková


    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella


    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...... their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...

  10. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott


    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  11. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products. (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products]. (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O


    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  13. Quality and Safety Aspects of Cereals (Wheat) and Their Products. (United States)

    Varzakas, Theo


    Cereals and, most specifically, wheat are described in this chapter highlighting on their safety and quality aspects. Moreover, wheat quality aspects are adequately addressed since they are used to characterize dough properties and baking quality. Determination of dough properties is also mentioned and pasta quality is also described in this chapter. Chemometrics-multivariate analysis is one of the analyses carried out. Regarding production weighing/mixing of flours, kneading, extruded wheat flours, and sodium chloride are important processing steps/raw materials used in the manufacturing of pastry products. Staling of cereal-based products is also taken into account. Finally, safety aspects of cereal-based products are well documented with special emphasis on mycotoxins, acrylamide, and near infrared methodology.

  14. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.


    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  15. Assessing Impacts of National Scale Droughts on Cereal Production (United States)

    Udmale, P. D.; Ichikawa, Y.


    Till date, several drought indices have been developed and used to monitor local to regional scale droughts on various temporal scales. However, there are no generalized criteria to define a threshold to declare a national level drought using drought indices. EM-DAT (a global database on natural and technological disasters) lists disasters (including drought) from 1900 until the present confirming one of the following criteria: 10 or more people dead; 100 or more people affected; the declaration of a state of emergency; or a call for international assistance. This data is gathered from various organizations like United Nations Institutes, Governments, etc. and do not cover all disasters or have political limitations that could affect the numbers. These criteria are neither objective nor quantitative, and accordingly may cause uncertainties when the data is used for further investigation on disaster impacts. Here we present a methodology to define drought at a national scale and its impacts on national level crop production (mainly cereals). We define drought based on the percentage of cropland area affected by drought in a country during its seasonal rainfall. For this purpose meteorological definition of drought in combination with country's cropland area is proposed to prepare a drought inventory for major cereal producing countries (1902-2012). This drought inventory together with FAO's Crop data is used to identify the impacts of drought on a national level cereal production (and yield) using Superposed Epoch Analysis for the period 1961-2012.

  16. Disinfestation of different cereal products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Kiss, I.; Boros, A.; Horvath, Ny.; Toth, J.; Gyulai, P.; Szalma, A.


    The sensitivity of Tribolium confusum - small flour beetle -to radiation was studied in a dose range of 0-0.8 kGy. We found that the insect egg was the most sensitive to radiation, then larvae and pupae followed it. 0.2 kGy dose of irradiation kills these forms or their further development is inhibited. Imagoes do not immediately die after 0.8 kGy dose of irradiation; the young imagoes are more sensitive to radiation than the aged ones. 0.4 kGy average dose of irradiation is a suitable protection against Tribolium confusum. Disinfestation experiments were performed with wheat-germ and wheat-bran and the most important ingredients of the two products were analysed. The vitamin E content and the rate of lipid-oxidation of wheat germ were determined. The vitamin E content decreased after radiation treatment, however, during storage of at least 6 months, it remained at a level specified by food quality standards (higher than 10 mg%). Carbohydrate content of wheat-bran (water soluble carbohydrate content, crude-fibre and dietary fibre content) did not change at all. Storability of radiation disinfested wheat-germ was 8 months, wheat-bran 3-4 months. On the base of the results 2-2 tons of wheat-germ and wheat-bran were irradiated and trial marked in 1985. In 1986 the irradiation of 10 tons of wheat-germ is planned. (author)

  17. Disinfestation of different cereal products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E; Kiss, I; Boros, A; Horvath, Ny; Toth, J; Gyulai, P; Szalma, A


    The sensitivity of Tribolium confusum - small flour beetle -to radiation was studied in a dose range of 0-0.8 kGy. We found that the insect egg was the most sensitive to radiation, then larvae and pupae followed it. 0.2 kGy dose of irradiation kills these forms or their further development is inhibited. Imagoes do not immediately die after 0.8 kGy dose of irradiation; the young imagoes are more sensitive to radiation than the aged ones. 0.4 kGy average dose of irradiation is a suitable protection against Tribolium confusum. Disinfestation experiments were performed with wheat-germ and wheat-bran and the most important ingredients of the two products were analysed. The vitamin E content and the rate of lipid-oxidation of wheat germ were determined. The vitamin E content decreased after radiation treatment, however, during storage of at least 6 months, it remained at a level specified by food quality standards (higher than 10 mg%). Carbohydrate content of wheat-bran (water soluble carbohydrate content, crude-fibre and dietary fibre content) did not change at all. Storability of radiation disinfested wheat-germ was 8 months, wheat-bran 3-4 months. On the base of the results 2-2 tons of wheat-germ and wheat-bran were irradiated and trial marked in 1985. In 1986 the irradiation of 10 tons of wheat-germ is planned.

  18. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski


    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  19. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen


    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  20. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products


    Moreau, Lydie


    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  1. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence. (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin


    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  2. Long-lasting ergot lipids as new biomarkers for assessing the presence of cereals and cereal products in archaeological vessels. (United States)

    Lucejko, Jeannette J; La Nasa, Jacopo; Porta, Francesca; Vanzetti, Alessandro; Tanda, Giuseppa; Mangiaracina, Claudio Filippo; Corretti, Alessandro; Colombini, Maria Perla; Ribechini, Erika


    Cereals were very important in ancient diets, however evidence from archaeological sites of the vessels used for processing or storing cereals is comparatively rare. Micro-organisms, as well as chemical-physical effects can easily degrade cereals during the burial period. This can lead to a complete cereal decay and to serious difficulties in estimating the intensity of use of the cereals by ancient populations. Here, we present a novel biomarker approach entailing the detection of secondary lipid metabolites produced by ergot fungi (genus Claviceps), which are common cereal pests. The aim was to identify the original presence of Gramineae and to indirectly establish if vessels were used for cereal storage/processing. The fatty acid and TAG-estolide profiles of the remains from more than 30 archaeological vessels were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-Q-ToF). The detection of lipids derived from ergot in archaeological and historic contexts rests on its complex chemistry, providing a unique and relatively recalcitrant chemical signature for cereals. This research demonstrated that the combination of our innovative biomarker approach along with environmental and archaeological evidence can provide unprecedented insights into the incidence of cereals and related processing activities in ancient societies.

  3. Production, consumption, and quality attributes of Akpan – a yoghurt-like cereal product from West Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sassa, C


    Full Text Available Akpan is a high-potential, traditional yoghurt-like product made from fermented cereal starch, and consumed as a thirst-quenching beverage in Benin. This study investigated the characteristics of consumers, the traditional processing techniques...

  4. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.


    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  5. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment. (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra


    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  6. Allergen labelling in meat, dairy and cereal products from the Serbian market (United States)

    Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.


    Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.

  7. exergetic analysis of breakfast cereal production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    NIGERIA. 2 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT., FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA ... Thermodynamic analysis of food production industries ..... 7th International Conference on Fluid and.

  8. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags. (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano


    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-cultural acceptance of a traditional yoghurt-like product made from fermented cereal. (United States)

    Akissoé, Noël H; Sacca, Carole; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Bechoff, Aurelie; Anihouvi, Victor B; Dalodé, Générose; Pallet, Dominique; Fliedel, Géneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Tomlins, Keith I


    Akpan is a traditional ready-to-drink fermented yoghurt-like cereal beverage consumed in urban and rural areas in Benin. With the aim of adapting the product to new local and export markets, this work maps African and European consumer preferences for different types of Akpan. A sensory profile of Akpan was created and consumer tests were conducted with 103 consumers of African origin and 74 consumers of European origin. Consumer acceptance was significantly correlated with fermented odour (r = -0.94) and milky taste (r = 0.92-0.97) attributes. Cluster analysis revealed different behaviour by African and European consumers with respect to acceptability of Akpan; European consumers did not like the sour taste and African consumers liked an intense sweet milky taste. This study provides information on how Akpan, and other fermented yoghurt-type cereal products, could be adapted to African and European consumer preferences. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Construction of Traceability System for Quality Safety of Cereal and Oil Products (United States)

    Zheng, Huoguo; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan

    After several significant food safety incident, global food industry and governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food quality and safety management. The traceability system for quality safety of cereal and oil products was designed and implemented with HACCP and FMECA method, encoding, information processing, and hardware R&D technology etc, according to the whole supply chain of cereal and oil products. Results indicated that the system provide not only the management in origin, processing, circulating and consuming for enterprise, but also tracing service for customers and supervisor by means of telephone, internet, SMS, touch machine and mobile terminal.

  11. Cross-cultural acceptance of a traditional yoghurt-like product made from fermented cereal


    Akissoé, Noël H.; Sacca, Carole; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Bechoff, Aurelie; Anihouvi, Victor B.; Dalodé, Générose; Pallet, Dominique; Fliedel, Géneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Tomlins, Keith I.


    BACKGROUND: Akpan is a traditional ready-to-drink fermented yoghurt-like cereal beverage consumed in urban and rural areas in Benin. With the aim of adapting the product to new local and export markets, this work maps African and European consumer preferences for different types of Akpan.\\ud \\ud RESULTS: A sensory profile of Akpan was created and consumer tests were conducted with 103 consumers of African origin and 74 consumers of European origin. Consumer acceptance was significantly correl...

  12. The establishment of good irradiation practice for insect disinfestation of cereal grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yin; Liu Hongyue; Li Xiangling; Shi Peixin


    According to the reference data and test results, the parameters and technicality of good irradiation practice (GIP) were established as follows: (1) the moisture level of grain products should be < 12% for pre-irradiation treatment of grains, and pupae and adult stages insects should not exist in the products; (2) grain products should be irradiated immediately after packing; (3) the minimum effective dose for insect disinfestation is 0.3 kGy and the maximum tolerant doses for different cereal grains products are 0.5 ∼ 0.8 kGy. (authors)

  13. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts. (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil


    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  14. Adding value to the by-products of cereal processing by fungal production of highly unsaturated fatty acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A


    Full Text Available not only lead to economic losses for the industry, but constitute an environmental hazard. Currently cereal by-products are mainly utilised as animal and fish feeds. This application is limited by the high fibre and low protein levels generally present...

  15. In Vitro Fermentative Production of Plant Lignans from Cereal Products in Relationship with Constituents of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bartkiene


    Full Text Available Recently special attention has been paid to dietary fibre-associated phytoestrogens such as plant lignans, which are related to the prevention of different hormone-dependent diseases. Therefore, phytoestrogens associated with dietary fibre and their metabolites are of interest for investigation. The aim of this work is to investigate the formation of enterolignans: enterolactone (ENL and enterodiol (END from their precursors by the action of intestinal microflora and their relationship with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP in various cereal products from wheat, rye, barley and oats. For the investigation of the bioconversion of plant lignans, a technique of in vitro fermentation was used and the quantitative analysis of their metabolites ENL and END was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with coulometric electrode array detection. The enterolignan formation in various cereal products ranged from 78.3 to 321.9 nmol/g depending on the product type: END from 8.7 to 149.3 nmol/g and ENL from 64.4 to 278.3 nmol/g. The lignan production in bran was about two times higher than that in whole flour of the same kind of cereals. Close correlations were found between the total NSP content and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between pentoses and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between arabinose or xylose and ENL; and between galactose and END values. Considering the correlations between hexoses and END as well as between pentoses and ENL found in cereals, it can be assumed that pentoses are closely related to the quantities of plant lignans in cereal products and their conversion to enterolignans.

  16. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai


    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  17. Flax - Evaluation of composite flour and using in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková


    Full Text Available Two types of yellow and brown linseed, differing in granulation, were tested in form of wheat flour composites (additions 2.5% and 5.0% by using the Farinograph, the Extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA apparatuses. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly affected Falling Number and Zeleny test values. Curves of farinograph were differed according to flax fibre type - finer flax (better terminology granulation meant somewhat stronger negative changes in dough stability and dough softening degree. Results of extensigraph test demonstrated changes in dough elasticity and extensibility due to lowering of gluten protein content. Appearance of the RVA profiles was verifiably different, reflecting diverse wheat and flax polysaccharides, added dietary fibre type and its granulation. Due to that, bread volume and shape was lowered up to one-half in case of golden flax composites. Similar tendencies with smaller negative influence caused the brown linseed. Fibre from flax is used for technical (textile use, but linseed dietary fibre addition affected quality of laboratory prepared cut-off biscuits and dried pasta differently, showing a dependence on the fibre type, granulation as well as addition level. Sensory profiles of all mentioned product types were acceptable.

  18. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler


    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS


    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Van Dalen


    Full Text Available Efficient design of multi-component food products containing dry and wet components such as biscuits with a moist fruit filling, is of growing interests for food industry. Technology is needed to prevent or reduce water migration from the moist filling to the dry porous cereal material. This can be done by using moisture barrier systems. Knowledge of the microstructure and its relation to water mobility is necessary to develop stable products. This paper describes a study that uses X-ray microtomography (μCT for the characterisation and visualisation of the 3-D structure of crackers with different porosity, coated biscuit shells and soup inclusions. μCT was used for imaging the inner cellular structure of the cereal matrix or to analyse the integrity of moisture barriers applied on the cereal product. 3-D image analysis methods were developed to obtain quantitative information about the cellular matrix which can be used as input for simulation models for moisture migration. The developed 3-D image analysis method maps the open cellular structure onto a network (graph representation in which the nodes correspond to the pores and the vertices to the pore-topore interconnection. The pores (nodes have properties such as volume, surface area and location whereas the vertices have properties such as direct (open connection and indirect (separated by a single lamella area. To check the segmentation and network description a model for pore to pore resistance was used. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of μCT and 3-D image analysis for extracting structural information which can be used in models for the moisture penetration in a cellular bakery product.

  1. Development of cereal and legume based food products for the elderly. (United States)

    Satusap, Pruet; Chavasit, Visith; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Judprasong, Kunchit


    Diets for elderly must contain nutritious foods, fit their physiological limitations, and match with their food culture. Cereals and legumes are suggested food choices regardless of their cultures and beliefs. Ready-to-eat products containing suitable macronutrient patterns from cereals and legumes were developed. Energy distributions from carbohydrate (60 kcal/100 kcal), protein (15 kcal/100 kcal), and fat (25 kcal/100 kcal), protein quality, and percent energy from saturated fatty acid and free sugar were criteria for the formulation. Carbohydrate sources were rice flour, brown rice flour, mung bean starch, which carbohydrate in rice flour was the most digestible on in vitro test. Protein and fat sources were soybean flour, black sesame seed, and rice bran oil. Three products, i.e., flake snack, instant beverage, and instant soup were produced by drying basic ingredients as flakes on a double-roller drum dryer and directly used or dry-mixed with other ingredients. The products (Aw good quality protein, and energy from saturated fat snacks from both carbohydrate sources were significantly more acceptable than the other two products.

  2. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. (United States)

    Cassman, K G


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  3. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Cereal Production: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem Bawayelaazaa Nyuor


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.

  4. AGPase: its role in crop productivity with emphasis on heat tolerance in cereals. (United States)

    Saripalli, Gautam; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar


    AGPase, a key enzyme of starch biosynthetic pathway, has a significant role in crop productivity. Thermotolerant variants of AGPase in cereals may be used for developing cultivars, which may enhance productivity under heat stress. Improvement of crop productivity has always been the major goal of plant breeders to meet the global demand for food. However, crop productivity itself is influenced in a large measure by a number of abiotic stresses including heat, which causes major losses in crop productivity. In cereals, crop productivity in terms of grain yield mainly depends upon the seed starch content so that starch biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in this process have been a major area of investigation for plant physiologists and plant breeders alike. Considerable work has been done on AGPase and its role in crop productivity, particularly under heat stress, because this enzyme is one of the major enzymes, which catalyses the rate-limiting first committed key enzymatic step of starch biosynthesis. Keeping the above in view, this review focuses on the basic features of AGPase including its structure, regulatory mechanisms involving allosteric regulators, its sub-cellular localization and its genetics. Major emphasis, however, has been laid on the genetics of AGPases and its manipulation for developing high yielding cultivars that will have comparable productivity under heat stress. Some important thermotolerant variants of AGPase, which mainly involve specific amino acid substitutions, have been highlighted, and the prospects of using these thermotolerant variants of AGPase in developing cultivars for heat prone areas have been discussed. The review also includes a brief account on transgenics for AGPase, which have been developed for basic studies and crop improvement.

  5. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels in selected ecological cereal food products and their non-ecological counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slepecka Katarzyna


    Full Text Available In the everyday human diet, cereal products are considered to be basics. Such food should have healthy properties and not contain harmful additives, especially heavy metals as exposure to low doses of such xenobiotics can adversely affect human health. Ecological farming is the answer to consumer expectations regarding food safety, and ecological products are recommended as a basis for proper nutrition, despite the higher cost of their purchase. The present study was carried out to evaluate the content of heavy metals in ecological cereal products and their non-ecological analogues.

  6. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems. (United States)

    Ladha, J K; Tirol-Padre, A; Reddy, C K; Cassman, K G; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D S; van Kessel, C; de B Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu


    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.

  7. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Adaku Chilaka


    Full Text Available In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136, sorghum (110, millet (87, and ogi (30 were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%, sorghum (18%, and millet (29%, irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins.

  8. Cereal Intake Increases and Dairy Products Decrease Risk of Cognitive Decline among Elderly Female Japanese. (United States)

    Otsuka, R; Kato, Y; Nishita, Y; Tange, C; Nakamoto, M; Tomida, M; Imai, T; Ando, F; Shimokata, H


    If cognitive decline can be prevented through changes in daily diet with no medical intervention, it will be highly significant for dementia prevention. This longitudinal study examined the associations of different food intakes on cognitive decline among Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study. Participants included 298 males and 272 females aged 60 to 81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least one time. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in all study waves. Nutritional intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with an MMSE >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an MMSE score ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of each food intake at baseline were estimated, after adjusting for age, follow-up time, MMSE score at baseline, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake, and history of diseases. In men, after adjusting for age, and follow-up period, MMSE score at baseline, the adjusted OR for a decline in MMSE score was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; p=0.032) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake. After adjusting for education and other confounding variables, the OR for a decrease in MMSE score did not reach statistical significance for this variable. In women, multivariate adjusted OR for MMSE decline was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15-1.77; p=0.001) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.98; p=0.034) with a 1-SD increase in milk and dairy product intake. This study indicates that a 1-SD (108 g/day) decrease in cereal intake and a 1-SD (128 g/day) increase in milk and dairy product intake may have an

  9. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana


    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods, and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review, we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean technology methods can be implemented to replace, for example, chemical modification. The recently...... released cereal genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now pave the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain, converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome...

  10. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P


    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  11. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems (United States)

    Eigenbrode, S. D.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Burke, I. C.; Capalbo, S.; Gessler, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Johnson-Maynard, J.; Kruger, C.; Lamb, B. K.; Machado, S.; Mote, P.; Painter, K.; Pan, W.; Petrie, S.; Paulitz, T. C.; Stockle, C.; Walden, V. P.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Wolf, K. J.


    The long-term environmental and economic sustainability of agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest (northern Idaho, north central Oregon, and eastern Washington) depends upon improving agricultural management, technology, and policy to enable adaptation to climate change and to help realize agriculture's potential to contribute to climate change mitigation. To address this challenge, three land-grant institutions (Oregon State University, the University of Idaho and Washington State University) (OSU, UI, WSU) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) units are partners in a collaborative project - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH-PNA). The overarching goal of REACCH is to enhance the sustainability of Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) cereal production systems under ongoing and projected climate change while contributing to climate change mitigation. Supporting goals include: - Develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices for cereal production within existing and projected agroecological zones throughout the region as climate changes, - Contribute to climate change mitigation through improved fertilizer, fuel, and pesticide use efficiency, increased sequestration of soil carbon, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions consistent with the 2030 targets set by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), - Work closely with stakeholders and policymakers to promote science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation, - Increase the number of scientists, educators, and extension professionals with the skills and knowledge to address climate change and its interactions with agriculture. In this poster, we provide an overview of the specific goals of this project and activities that are underway since its inception in spring of 2011.

  12. Monitoring Food Security Indicators from Remote Sensing and Predicting Cereal Production in Afghanistan (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.


    We extract percent of basin snow covered areas above 2500m elevation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-meter 8-day snow cover composites to monitor accumulation and depletion of snow in the basin. While the accumulation and depletion of snow cover extent provides an indication of the temporal progression of the snow pack, it does not provide insight into available water for irrigation. Therefore, we use snow model results from the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center to quantify snow water equivalent and volume of water available within the snowpack for irrigation. In an effort to understand how water availability, along with its inter-annual variability, relates to the food security of the country, we develop a simple, effective, and easy-to-implement model to identify irrigated areas across the country on both annual and mid-season basis. The model is based on applying thresholds to peak growing season vegetation indices—derived from 250-meter MODIS images—in a decision-tree classifier to separate irrigated crops from non-irrigated vegetation. The spatial distribution and areal estimates of irrigated areas from these maps compare well with irrigated areas classified from multiple snap shots of the landscape from Landsat 5 optical and thermal images over selected locations. We observed that the extents of irrigated areas varied depending on the availability of snowmelt and can be between 1.35 million hectares in a year with significant water deficit and 2.4 million hectares in a year with significant water surplus. The changes in the amount of available water generally can contribute up to a 30% change in irrigated areas. We also observed that the strong correlation between inter-annual variability of irrigated areas and the variability in the country's cereal production could be utilized to predict an annual estimate of cereal production, providing early indication of food security scenarios for the country.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL


    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  14. Prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of cereal grains and by-products for poultry from its chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, B.; Blas, C. de; Garcia-Rebollar, P.; Cachaldora, P.; Mendez, J.; Ibañez, M.


    In order to predict the metabolisable energy content of ninety batches of cereal grains and cereal by-products for poultry, regression models derived from different sample aggregations and using chemical components as independent variables were compared. Several statistics have been calculated to estimate the error of prediction. The results indicate that the highest levels of significance and coefficients of determination were obtained for equations derived from the larger data sets. However, the lowest prediction errors were associated to equations calculated for data or groups of data closer to the ingredient studied. (Author)

  15. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield (United States)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  16. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.


    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  17. The exploit of cereal embryo structure for productive reasons by in vitro techniques (United States)

    Savaskan, C.


    There are two main sides of our works exploiting embryo structure in durum wheat and some other cereals. First is haploid (or doubled haploid) embryo production using anther or microspore culture or intergeneric crosses, to ameliorate desirable characters genetically homozygote. Secondly, to develope convenient embryo culture technique in order to be stored and cultivated longer time of genotypes without being alien pollination etc. in field conditions. For that reason, two different auxin and also their combination with kinetin were used for mature embryos of wheat genotypes (hexaploid and tetraploid), to understand efficient dose for calli production and plant regeneration in plant tissue culture. Modified MS media were used adding a single dose of arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and without adding for regeneration. In further step of this study, most efficient auxin+kinetin combination which is determined previous research, it was used in the same modified MS medium to produce calli production and plant regeneration in three different genotypes (hexaploid and tetraploid wheat and diploid barley). Data were calculated in five different developmental stages of treatments. All statistical analysis of data were performed and means were compared with Duncan's test. Genetics and morphological effects of AGP on genotypes were discussed with the results of variance analysis. Simple correlation coefficient (r) was calculated base on the main values of replications.

  18. Country-wise differences in perception of health-related messages in cereal-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.


    and on likelihood to buy the products, whereas the pictorial representations were found to have a weak influence on the two dependent variables. However, the findings showed that health-related information on food labels differently influenced the healthiness perception and the likelihood to buy the product across......The objective of the present study was to explore the impact of health-related messages on the perceived overall healthiness and consumers' likelihood to buy cereal-based products or non-cereal products containing beneficial compounds from grains, across four European countries. The data were...... collected from a sample of 2392 members of the public in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. The results from a conjoint task with a main effects additive model were reported. In general, the presence of a health claim on foods had positive influence on respondents perception of healthiness...

  19. Species composition of and fumonisin production by the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from Korean cereals. (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Seolhee; Nah, Ju-Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Soohyung; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Theresa


    To assess the risk of fumonisin contamination in Korean cereals, we isolated colonies of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) from barley, maize, rice and soybean samples from 2011 to 2015. A total of 878 FFSC strains were isolated mostly from maize and rice, and species identity of the isolates were determined using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. Fusaria recovered from Korean cereals included F. fujikuroi (317 isolates and a frequency of 36%), F. proliferatum (212 isolates and 24.1%), F. verticillioides (170 isolates and 19.4%), F. concentricum (86 strains and 9.8%), F. andiyazi (56 isolates and 6.4%), F. subglutinans (28 isolates and 3.2%), F. thapsinum (5 isolates and 0.6%), and F. circinatum (2 isolates and 0.2%). The rice samples were dominated by F. fujikuroi (47.4%), F. proliferatum (27.3%), and F. concentricum (15.1%), whereas maize samples were dominated by F. verticillioides (33.9%), F. fujikuroi (25.3%), and F. proliferatum (21.1%). A phylogenetic analysis of 70 representative isolates demonstrated that each species was resolved as genealogically exclusive in the ML tree. Fumonisin production potential was evaluated using a PCR assay for the fumonisin biosynthesis gene, FUM1 in all of the isolates. Most of the isolates tested (94%) were positive for FUM1. All of the isolates assigned to F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. thapsinum were positive for FUM1 irrespective of their host origin. Seventy-seven representative isolates positive for FUM1 were examined for fumonisin production in rice medium. The majority of F. proliferatum (26/27, 96.3%), F. verticillioides (16/17, 94.1%) and F. fujikuroi (19/25, 76.0%) produced both FB 1 and FB 2 . Notably, 16 of 19 fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi produced >1000μg/g of fumonisins (FB 1 +FB 2 ) in rice medium, which is higher than that in previous reports. These results suggest that F. fujikuroi can produce

  20. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Bustamante


    Full Text Available The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141 from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC. Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Duchoňová


    Full Text Available Whole grains flours of diverse colored wheat species (Triticum sp. and various varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oat (Avena sativa were analysed for their nutritional composition. The highest protein values were observed in wheat yellow variety BONA DEA (14% and also in blue variety UC 66049 (13%. Lower content of starch was determined in barley and oat varieties in compared to wheat varieties. The lowest levels of betaglucans were observed in wheat (0.3 – 0.6% and the highest content was assessed in barley and oat (2.5 – 3.8%. Variation in dietary fiber was considerable in barley and oat varieties. Barley varieties possessed significantly the highest content of total dietary fiber among all monitored cereals (≈17%, while oat grains showed significantly the lowest values (≤7%. Knowledge of the composition of healthy substances was used to select the best variety for the development of fermented product which was developed using specially prepared oat flour and potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum. The series of fermentation experiments resulted in a final gelatinous product with vital bacterial cell count about 1010 CFU.g-1, significantly reduced level of starch (1.7% and following nutritional characteristics: dry matter of 12.91%, water activity of 0.977, pH value 4.6 and lactic acid content of 2.95 g/l. Final product was added into the dough in different quantities and served also as a starter culture. Rheological properties of dough were evaluated for the purpose of finding a suitable recipe.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš


    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  3. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Tremorin, Denis


    Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg) by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG) data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS) (NBS/g CO2 per serving), a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets. PMID:29659497

  4. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS, respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS (NBS/g CO2 per serving, a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets.

  5. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.


    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  6. Linseed fibre – effect on composite flour properties and cereal products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková


    Full Text Available Wheat flour was fortified by 2.5 or 5.0 wt. per cent of linseed fibre, gained from seeds of golden flax varieties Amon and Raciol and brown one Recital (granulation 500 - 700 m, prepared from 2015 harvest. Technological quality of six flour composites was described analytically by Falling Number and Zeleny sedimentation test. Both screening methods shown a little impact on amylases activity and protein quality, respectively. Rheological tests included the farinograph, the extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA proofs. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly increased farinograph water absorption and shortened dough stability, somewhat stronger by addition of brown linseed fibre. Extensigraph curves course depended on dough resting time, higher differences between wheat control and flour composites were observed after 60 min dough resting. Linseed fibre supported dough extensibility, and energy as area under curve significantly decreased about 7 - 18%, mainly due to increasing alternative material portion in dough. In general, fibre is characterised as hydrophilic material, and pasting profiles of flour composites confirmed this experience. During dough leavening, tested samples were differentiated according to maturograph dough resistance; optimal leavening time of wheat-linseed fibre dough was shorter than control. Regardless described modifications in dough machinability, specific volumes of bread buns were similar though whole sample set. A weak worsening of buns vaulting reflected a partial dilution of dough gluten skeleton. Cut-off biscuits were characterised by gradually lowering spread ratio, correspondingly to elevated dough elasticity. Laboratory prepared elbow-pasta have the same cooking time as the control (8.0 min, and data variation could not be attributed to linseed fibre or addition level. All three cereal products were found to have acceptable sensory profiles. PCA method verified partial lowering of

  7. Country of origin (COO) effect in cereal products: A comparative study of Danish and Lithuanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.


    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling. P...

  8. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)]. (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz


    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  9. Mycological survey of Korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by Fusarium isolates.


    Lee, U S; Jang, H S; Tanaka, T; Toyasaki, N; Sugiura, Y; Oh, Y J; Cho, C M; Ueno, Y


    The fungal species isolated from Korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Drechslera spp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., etc. The number of Fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce Fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. Nivalenol (NIV) was produced by Fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), Fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and Fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). Of 1...

  10. Radioactivity of milk, meat, cereals and other agricultural products in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Haukka, S.


    The paper describes the surveillance of radioactive substances in agricultural products in Finland after the end of April 1986. The main objective was to assess the dietary intake of fallout radionuclides via milk, meat, cereals and eggs in Finland during the period May-December 1986. In spring 1986 the sampling programmes were extended on the basis of the continuous surveys carried out earlier. The sampling of different types of produce covered a considerable part of the main production areas. The frequency of the sampling was greatly increased from that in previous years, specially in spring and summer, in order to follow the temporal variation in the contents of radionuclides in milk and meat. Gamma-emitting radionuclides, especially ''1''3''1I, ''1''3''4Cs and ''1''3''7Cs, were measured on all samples. ''8''9Sr and ''9''0Sr were determined on the milk and cereal samples used for nationwide assessments. The mean dietary intakes of radionuclides in May-December 1986, calculated from the average consumption of foodstuffs in Finland and the nationwide production-weighted mean mean contents of radionuclides. Contamination of agricultural products due to fallout radionuclides did not cause any restrictions for their use in Finland

  11. Deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and enniatins: the major mycotoxins found in cereal-based products on the Czech market. (United States)

    Malachova, Alexandra; Dzuman, Zbynek; Veprikova, Zdenka; Vaclavikova, Marta; Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana


    Fusarium toxins, Alternaria toxins, and ergot alkaloids represent common groups of mycotoxins that can be found in cereals grown under temperate climatic conditions. Because most of them are chemically and thermally stable, these toxic fungal secondary metabolites might be transferred from grains into the final products. To get information on the commensurate contamination of various cereal-based products collected from the Czech retail market in 2010, the occurrence of "traditional" mycotoxins such as groups of A and B trichothecenes and zearalenone, less routinely determined Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and altenuene), ergot alkaloids (ergosine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, and ergocornine) and "emerging" mycotoxins (enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 and beauvericin) were monitored. In a total 116 samples derived from white flour and mixed flour, breakfast cereals, snacks, and flour, only trichothecenes A and B and enniatins were found. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 75% of samples with concentrations ranging from 13 to 594 μg/kg, but its masked form, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside, has an even higher incidence of 80% of samples, and concentrations ranging between 5 and 72 μg/kg were detected. Nivalenol was found only in three samples at levels of 30 μg/kg. For enniatins, all of the samples investigated were contaminated with at least one of four target enniatins. Enniatin A was detected in 97% of samples (concentration range of 20-2532 μg/kg) followed by enniatin B with an incidence in 91% of the samples (concentration range of 13-941 μg/kg) and enniatin B1 with an incidence of 80% in the samples tested (concentration range of 8-785 μg/kg). Enniatin A1 was found only in 44% of samples at levels ranging between 8 and 851 μg/kg.

  12. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji. (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William


    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.


    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  14. A dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products and low consumption of refined cereals is positively associated with plasma adiponectin levels in healthy women. (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Malagaris, Ioannis; Mantzoros, Christos S


    In light of the potential beneficial effects of adiponectin on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, it is becoming increasingly important to identify all modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, that may affect circulating adiponectin concentrations. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between dietary patterns and plasma adiponectin levels using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. Two hundred twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Blood samples were taken, and adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated by 3-day food diaries, and PCA was used for the identification of the participants' dietary patterns. The PCA identified 10 dietary components explaining 82% of the total variance in food intake. Bivariate correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and dietary components revealed a positive significant association only with the first component that was characterized by high intake of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products as well as low intake of refined cereals (P = .04). This association remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounders (standardized beta coefficient = 0.18, P = .03). A dietary pattern characteristic of consumption of alcoholic beverages was found to be marginally related to adiponectin levels in the multivariate model (standardized beta coefficient = 0.14, P = .10). Our data indicate that a dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products is modestly positively associated with adiponectin concentrations.

  15. [Deep frying snack product of legume/cereal mixture based on corn and three varieties of beans]. (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M


    To increase legume consumption and give a better protein quality in the snack products, mixtures of fried beans-corn were formulate in different proportions: 60:40 (A); 50:50 (B) and 40:60 (C). Fried corn used in mixtures was previously soaked in a predetermined solution (NaOH/EDTA) and then blanched. Three beans varieties (Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia) were mixed with fried yellow dent corn in the above described proportions, obtaining nine mixtures whose physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were very homogeneous in all the analyzed characteristics. The protein content for the A mix was the greatest, nevertheless the sensorial analysis showed the last acceptance. The moisture content and water activity of these mixtures was low assuring a good microbiological stability under storage conditions. The protein contribution of each species in different prepared mixtures determined the selection of the best cereal/legume mix. From a nutritional stand point the best results were obtained when the 50% of protein was supplied by bans and the 50% by corn. From the mixtures tried in this study, mix C with bean Pinto 114 one closed to the recommended conditions. Nevertheless, for each cereal/legume mix, the best proportion was C, due to its better acceptability, even though it had less nutritional value.

  16. Availability and dose response of phytophenols from a wheat bran rich cereal product in healthy human volunteers. (United States)

    Neacsu, Madalina; McMonagle, Jolene; Fletcher, Reg J; Hulshof, Toine; Duncan, Sylvia H; Scobbie, Lorraine; Duncan, Gary J; Cantlay, Louise; Horgan, Graham; de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Garry G; Russell, Wendy R


    Phytophenols present in cereals are metabolised to compounds that could be partly responsible for the reduced risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality associated with fibre-rich diets. The bioavailability, form and in vivo concentrations of these metabolites require to be established. Eight healthy volunteers consumed a test meal containing a recommended dose (40 g) and high dose (120 g) of ready-to-eat wheat bran cereal and the systemic and colonic metabolites determined quantitatively by LC-MS. Analysis of the systemic metabolomes demonstrated that a wide range of phytophenols were absorbed/excreted (43 metabolites) within 5 h of consumption. These included 16 of the 21 major parent compounds identified in the intervention product and several of these were also found to be significantly increased in the colon. Not all of the metabolites were increased with the higher dose, suggesting some limitation in absorption due to intrinsic factors and/or the food matrix. Many compounds identified (e.g. ferulic acid and major metabolites) exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and impact on redox pathways. The combination of postprandial absorption and delivery to the colon, as well as hepatic recycling of the metabolites at these concentrations, is likely to be beneficial to both systemic and gut health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila


    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  18. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team


    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  19. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego


    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  20. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit


    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... of difficulties in applying multi-parameter models and emphasized the advantages of "classical" approaches to process modelling, especially for use in an industrial context. The study faced with a significant degree of variability in the data, due to fluctuations in the process, which also emphasized...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...

  1. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)


    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  2. Control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and other dicotyledonous weeds with GF-145, a new cereal herbicide product containing isoxaben and florasulam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Jörg


    Full Text Available GF-145 contains the active ingredients isoxaben (610 g ai/kg and florasulam (40 g ai/kg and is formulated as a Wettable Granule (WG. The active ingredients are found in commercial products such as Primus™2 (florasulam, Starane XL™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam, Ariane C™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam + clopyralid or Flexidor™ (isoxaben. While florasulam has been widely used in cereal crops in recent years, isoxaben offers a new mode of action (MOA for use in German cereal herbicides even when considering that Flexidor™ has had regulatory approval in 1988 to 1991. The MOA of isoxaben is inhibition of cellulose synthesis (HRAC class L, while florasulam inhibits Acetolactate Synthase (ALS and is a representative of the HRAC class B. It is known that florasulam works through uptake by green leaves. Isoxaben is a herbicide with soil activity and with a very low activity when foliar applied, except on some species in the cruciferae family. GF-145 is intended to be applied in the autumn in cereals (wheat, barley, rye, triticale for the control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and annual dicotyledonous weeds including Matricaria spp., Stellaria media, Papaver rhoeas, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Myosotis arvensis, Lamium spp., Galium aparine, Veronica spp. and others when applied at early post-emergence from BBCH 10 to 13 of the crop. The use rate in winter cereals is 95 g product/ha (58 g ai/ha isoxaben plus 3.75 g ai/ha florasulam. Field trials conducted in previous years confirmed excellent selectivity in all cereal crops and efficacy trials initiated in autumn 2012 show that GF-145 provides excellent and superior control to ALS resistant oil seed rape that was better than straight florasulam and other ALS active ingredients. GF-145 adds a new MOA to the cereal herbicide portfolio and controls volunteer oil seed rape, cruciferous weeds and broad-leaved weeds and is more robust than florasulam based products that do not contain isoxaben.

  3. How Does Gender Affect Sustainable Intensification of Cereal Production in the West African Sahel? Evidence from Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Theriault, Veronique; Smale, Melinda; Haider, Hamza


    Better understanding of gender differences in the adoption of agricultural intensification strategies is crucial for designing effective policies to close the gender gap while sustainably enhancing farm productivity. We examine gender differences in adoption rates, likelihood and determinants of adopting strategy sets that enhance yields, protect crops, and restore soils in the West African Sahel, based on analysis of cereal production in Burkina Faso. Applying a multivariate probit model to a nationally representative household panel, we exploit the individual plot as unit of analysis and control for plot manager characteristics along with other covariates. Reflecting the socio-cultural context of farming combined with the economic attributes of inputs, we find that female managers of individual cereal fields are less likely than their male counterparts to adopt yield-enhancing and soil-restoring strategies, although no differential is apparent for yield-protecting strategies. More broadly, gender-disaggregated regressions demonstrate that adoption determinants differ by gender. Plot manager characteristics, including age, marital status, and access to credit or extension services do influence adoption decisions. Furthermore, household resources influence the probability of adopting intensification strategy sets differently by gender of the plot manager. Variables expressing the availability of household labor strongly influence the adoption of soil-restoring strategies by female plot managers. By contrast, household resources such as extent of livestock owned, value of non-farm income, and area planted to cotton affect the adoption choices of male plot managers. Rectifying the male bias in extension services along with improving access to credit, income, and equipment to female plot managers could contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification.

  4. Quantifying the Limitation to World Cereal Production Due To Soil Phosphorus Status (United States)

    Kvakić, Marko; Pellerin, Sylvain; Ciais, Philippe; Achat, David L.; Augusto, Laurent; Denoroy, Pascal; Gerber, James S.; Goll, Daniel; Mollier, Alain; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Wang, Xuhui; Ringeval, Bruno


    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth. Low P availability in soils is likely to limit crop yields in many parts of the world, but this effect has never been quantified at the global scale by process-based models. Here we attempt to estimate P limitation in three major cereals worldwide for the year 2000 by combining information on soil P distribution in croplands and a generic crop model, while accounting for the nature of soil-plant P transport. As a global average, the diffusion-limited soil P supply meets the crop's P demand corresponding to the climatic yield potential, due to the legacy soil P in highly fertilized areas. However, when focusing on the spatial distribution of P supply versus demand, we found strong limitation in regions like North and South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Averaged over grid cells where P supply is lower than demand, the global yield gap due to soil P is estimated at 22, 55, and 26% in winter wheat, maize, and rice. Assuming that a fraction (20%) of the annual P applied in fertilizers is directly available to the plant, the global P yield gap lowers by only 5-10%, underlying the importance of the existing soil P supply in sustaining crop yields. The study offers a base for exploring P limitation in crops worldwide but with certain limitations remaining. These could be better accounted for by describing the agricultural P cycle with a fully coupled and mechanistic soil-crop model.

  5. Patterns of Cereal Yield Growth across China from 1980 to 2010 and Their Implications for Food Production and Food Security. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Nianjie; You, Liangzhi; Ke, Xinli; Liu, Haijun; Huang, Malan; Waddington, Stephen R


    After a remarkable 86% increase in cereal production from 1980 to 2005, recent crop yield growth in China has been slow. County level crop production data between 1980 and 2010 from eastern and middle China were used to analyze spatial and temporal patterns of rice, wheat and maize yield in five major farming systems that include around 90% of China's cereal production. Site-specific yield trends were assessed in areas where those crops have experienced increasing yield or where yields have stagnated or declined. We find that rice yields have continued to increase on over 12.3 million hectares (m. ha) or 41.8% of the rice area in China between 1980 and 2010. However, yields stagnated on 50% of the rice area (around 14.7 m. ha) over this time period. Wheat yields increased on 13.8 m. ha (58.2% of the total harvest area), but stagnated on around 3.8 m. ha (15.8% of the harvest area). Yields increased on a smaller proportion of the maize area (17.7% of harvest area, 5.3 m. ha), while yields have stagnated on over 54% (16.3 m. ha). Many parts of the lowland rice and upland intensive sub-tropical farming systems were more prone to stagnation with rice, the upland intensive sub-tropical system with wheat, and maize in the temperate mixed system. Large areas where wheat yield continues to rise were found in the lowland rice and temperate mixed systems. Land and water constraints, climate variability, and other environmental limitations undermine increased crop yield and agricultural productivity in these systems and threaten future food security. Technology and policy innovations must be implemented to promote crop yields and the sustainable use of agricultural resources to maintain food security in China. In many production regions it is possible to better match the crop with input resources to raise crop yields and benefits. Investments may be especially useful to intensify production in areas where yields continue to improve. For example, increased support to maize

  6. Complementary sample preparation strategies for analysis of cereal β-glucan oxidation products by UPLC-MS/MS (United States)

    Boulos, Samy; Nyström, Laura


    The oxidation of cereal (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucan can influence the health promoting and technological properties of this linear, soluble homopolysaccharide by introduction of new functional groups or chain scission. Apart from deliberate oxidative modifications, oxidation of β-glucan can already occur during processing and storage, which is mediated by hydroxyl radicals (HO•) formed by the Fenton reaction. We present four complementary sample preparation strategies to investigate oat and barley β-glucan oxidation products by hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), employing selective enzymatic digestion, graphitized carbon solid phase extraction (SPE), and functional group labeling techniques. The combination of these methods allows for detection of both lytic (C1, C3/4, C5) and non-lytic (C2, C4/3, C6) oxidation products resulting from HO•-attack at different glucose-carbons. By treating oxidized β-glucan with lichenase and β-glucosidase, only oxidized parts of the polymer remained in oligomeric form, which could be separated by SPE from the vast majority of non-oxidized glucose units. This allowed for the detection of oligomers with mid-chain glucuronic acids (C6) and carbonyls, as well as carbonyls at the non-reducing end from lytic C3/C4 oxidation. Neutral reducing ends were detected by reductive amination with anthranilic acid/amide as labeled glucose and cross-ring cleaved units (arabinose, erythrose) after enzyme treatment and SPE. New acidic chain termini were observed by carbodiimide-mediated amidation of carboxylic acids as anilides of gluconic, arabinonic, and erythronic acids. Hence, a full characterization of all types of oxidation products was possible by combining complementary sample preparation strategies. Differences in fine structure depending on source (oat vs. barley) translates to the ratio of observed oxidized oligomers, with in-depth analysis corroborating a random HO

  7. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús G. Arámburo-Gálvez


    Full Text Available Sugar-free (SF, sugar-reduced (SR, or low-glycemic-index (low GI cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016. The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p < 0.001 and by product categories (53.57% versus 26.92%, respectively; p < 0.001. Five categories of products labeled as SF, SR, and low GI (oats, cookies and crackers, flours, snacks, and tostadas/totopos had higher prices than their conventional counterparts (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  8. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  9. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México. (United States)

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco


    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  10. Integration of biochar and legumes in summer gap for enhancing productivity of wheat under cereal based cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Munif, F.; Khan, M. J.


    Biochar application is gaining popularity in agriculture system as prime technology in sustainable context. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e., mungbean, cowpea and Sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 to subsequent wheat crop. Biohcar application and plots previously sown with legumes improved thousand grain weight of wheat crop. Nitrogen application increased thousand spikes m-2, grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional summer gap crop. (author)

  11. Iron bioavailability from cereal products enriched with Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms in rats with induced anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła


    Product may be a valuable source of iron in the nutrition of individuals with a deficiency of this element, first of all patients with absorption and metabolism disorders, but also may add variety to the traditional daily diet.

  12. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský


    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  13. Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu--a non alcoholic cereal beverage. (United States)

    Gaffa, T; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I


    A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing techniques and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha (Digitalis exilis) were used in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 12-72 h, depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, calabashes or basins or 5-7 h in warm water (60-70 degrees C). The grains were dry or wet milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper, clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki, Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko, Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes of the society.

  14. [Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack]. (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura


    The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children.

  15. Uptake and distribution of soil-applied labelled heavy metals in cereal plants and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, H.E.; Roth, K.


    In the present paper investigations are described on the uptake, distribution and translocation of mercury, cadmium, chromium and zinc by spring and winter varieties of wheat, rye and barley. Pot experiments were carried out at low concentrations of the heavy metals in order to avoid growth interference during the uptake. Using radioisotopes the pathway of the metals was traced through different organs into the milling products. An ion-exchanger was added to the soils and its efficiency of reducing the uptake of the metals by the plants was tested

  16. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva


    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  17. Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: a comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain. (United States)

    Bogaard, Amy; Hodgson, John; Nitsch, Erika; Jones, Glynis; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Pouncett, John; Herbig, Christoph; Charles, Michael; Ertuğ, Füsun; Tugay, Osman; Filipovic, Dragana; Fraser, Rebecca

    This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices-functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis-in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, France features crop varieties adapted to low-nutrient soils managed through crop rotation, with little to no manuring. Weed quadrat survey of 60 crop field transects in this region revealed that floristic variation primarily reflects geographical differences. Functional ecological weed data clearly distinguish the Provence fields from those surveyed in a previous study of intensively managed spelt wheat in Asturias, north-western Spain: as expected, weed ecological data reflect higher soil fertility and disturbance in Asturias. Similarly, crop stable nitrogen isotope values distinguish between intensive manuring in Asturias and long-term cultivation with minimal manuring in Haute Provence. The new model of cereal cultivation intensity based on weed ecology and crop isotope values in Haute Provence and Asturias was tested through application to two other present-day regimes, successfully identifying a high-intensity regime in the Sighisoara region, Romania, and low-intensity production in Kastamonu, Turkey. Application of this new model to Neolithic archaeobotanical assemblages in central Europe suggests that early farming tended to be intensive, and likely incorporated manuring, but also exhibited considerable variation, providing a finer grained understanding of cultivation intensity than previously available.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK


    Full Text Available In the year 2006, 181 apple, cauliflower, cereal, grape, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and strawberry samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 86 different active compounds using four analytical methods. In nine samples (5.0 % exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is comparable with the results of the monitoring of plant protection product residues in products of plant origin in the European union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in 2005 (4.9 %.

  19. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga


    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  20. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits]. (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena


    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum with broad antifungal activity: A promising approach to increase safety and shelf-life of cereal-based products. (United States)

    Russo, Pasquale; Arena, Mattia Pia; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe


    Cereal-based fermented products are worldwide diffused staple food resources and cereal-based beverages represent a promising innovative field in the food market. Contamination and development of spoilage filamentous fungi can result in loss of cereal-based food products and it is a critical safety concern due to their potential ability to produce mycotoxins. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been proposed as green strategy for the control of the moulds in the food industry due to their ability to produce antifungal metabolites. In this work, eighty-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp. The overlayed method was used for a preliminary discrimination of the strains as no, mild and strong inhibitors. L. plantarum isolates that displayed broad antifungal spectrum activity were further screened based on the antifungal properties of their cell-free supernatant (CFS). CFSs from L. plantarum UFG 108 and L. plantarum UFG 121, in reason of their antifungal potential, were characterized and analyzed by HPLC. Results indicated that lactic acid was produced at high concentration during the growth phase, suggesting that this metabolic aptitude, associated with the low pH, contributed to explain the highlighted antifungal phenotype. Production of phenyllactic acid was also observed. Finally, a new oat-based beverage was obtained by fermentation with the strongest antifungal strain L. plantarum UFG 121. This product was submitted or not to a thermal stabilization and artificially contaminated with F. culmorum. Samples containing L. plantarum UFG 121 showed the best biopreservative effects, since that no differences were observed in terms of some qualitative features between not or contaminated samples with F. culmorum. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the suitability of LAB

  2. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  3. Grounded Innovation Strategies for Creating Digital Products

    CERN Document Server

    Holmquist, Lars Erik


    How will you design the next big thing? And the thing after that? And after that…? This book can help, by providing practical techniques for the innovation process which consists of invention and investigation. Smart products are popping up everywhere and we are constantly presented with newer, better 'things' that enhance our everyday lives - the pace continually speeding up. Efficiency of creativity mixed with designing within budgetary and business culture parameters is difficult on a good day. This book provides extensive examples of products that did and didn't make it to consumers an

  4. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU). (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg


    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.


    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  6. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik


    fertilizers use and associated fossil energy consumption. Organic farming, which does not allow the use of chemical, is also regarded as one prototype to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture while decreasing environmental impacts. Here, we review the potential advantages of eco......-functional intensification in organic farming by intercropping cereal and grain legume species sown and harvested together. Our review is based on a literature analysis reinforced with integration of an original dataset of 58 field experiments conducted since 2001 in contrasted pedo-climatic European conditions in order...... mechanistic understanding is required to propose generic crop management procedures. Also, development of this practice must be achieved with the collaboration of value chain actors such as breeders to select cultivars suited to intercropping...

  7. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)


    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  8. Can productivity and profitability be enhanced in intensively managed cereal systems while reducing the environmental footprint of production? Assessing sustainable intensification options in the breadbasket of India. (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Jat, Hanuman S; Sharma, Parbodh C; Balwinder-Singh; Gathala, Mahesh K; Malik, Ram K; Kamboj, Baldev R; Yadav, Arvind K; Ladha, Jagdish K; Raman, Anitha; Sharma, D K; McDonald, Andrew


    Scenarios 3 and 4 were 15-17% higher, whereas, in Scenario 2, yield was either similar in normal years or higher in warmer years. During the rainy ( kharif ) season, ZT-DSR provided yields similar to or higher than those of PTR in the first three years and lower (11-30%) in Years 4 and 5, a result that provides a note of caution for interpreting technology performance through short-term trials or simply averaging results over several years. The resource use and economic and environmental advantages of DSR were more stable through time, including reductions in irrigation water (22-40%), production cost (11-17%), energy inputs (13-34%), and total GWP (14-32%). The integration of "best practices" in PTR in Scenario 2 resulted in reductions of 24% in irrigation water and 21% in GWP, with a positive impact on yield (0.9 t/ha) and profitability compared to conventional PTR, demonstrating the power of simple management changes to generate improved SI outcomes. When ZT maize was used as a diversification option instead of rice in Scenario 4, reductions in resource use jumped to 82-89% for irrigation water and 49-66% for energy inputs, with 13-40% lower GWP, similar or higher rice equivalent yield, and higher profitability (27-73%) in comparison to the rice-based scenarios. Despite these advantages, maize value chains are not robust in this part of India and public procurement is absent. Results do demonstrate that transformative opportunities exist to break the cycle of stagnating yields and inefficient resource use in the most productive cereal-based cropping systems of South Asia. However, these SI entry points need to be placed in the context of the major drivers of change in the region, including market conditions, risks, and declining labor availability, and matching with the needs and interests of different types of farmers.

  9. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja


    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  10. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals. (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja


    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age. (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G


    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  12. Starter cultures for cereal based foods. (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J


    Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability]. (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R


    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  14. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures]. (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R


    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  15. Productive consulting room value chains(I): meat, lacteous, cereals, woods, self driven, pharmaceutical, Tic's, renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since June of 2008 have took up the productive consulting room wich it has had as aim to improve a national production structure reaching a sustainable economical growing with social justice. Between the most important productive chains has been found a study of the main sources of energy renewables, such as biomass, agrofuels, eolic and solar energy and finally a deep study about advantages and disadvantages and supply and demand in Uruguay country.

  16. Rainfall Product Evaluation for the TRMM Ground Validation Program (United States)

    Amitai, E.; Wolff, D. B.; Robinson, M.; Silberstein, D. S.; Marks, D. A.; Kulie, M. S.; Fisher, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Evaluation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observations is conducted through a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program. Standardized instantaneous and monthly rainfall products are routinely generated using quality-controlled ground based radar data from four primary GV sites. As part of the TRMM GV program, effort is being made to evaluate these GV products and to determine the uncertainties of the rainfall estimates. The evaluation effort is based on comparison to rain gauge data. The variance between the gauge measurement and the true averaged rain amount within the radar pixel is a limiting factor in the evaluation process. While monthly estimates are relatively simple to evaluate, the evaluation of the instantaneous products are much more of a challenge. Scattegrams of point comparisons between radar and rain gauges are extremely noisy for several reasons (e.g. sample volume discrepancies, timing and navigation mismatches, variability of Z(sub e)-R relationships), and therefore useless for evaluating the estimates. Several alternative methods, such as the analysis of the distribution of rain volume by rain rate as derived from gauge intensities and from reflectivities above the gauge network will be presented. Alternative procedures to increase the accuracy of the estimates and to reduce their uncertainties also will be discussed.

  17. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products... (United States)


    .... FSIS-2005-0018] Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry... major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products and ground or chopped meat and poultry... Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 82148) that, among other...

  18. Projecting meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of income elasticities


    Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David; Chen, Danhong


    There are many projections for China’s food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, ...

  19. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.


    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  20. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård


    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...... phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  1. Use of high metal-containing biogas digestates in cereal production - Mobility of chromium and aluminium. (United States)

    Dragicevic, Ivan; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Sogn, Trine A; Horn, Svein J; Krogstad, Tore


    Biogas digestate use as organic fertilizer has been widely promoted in recent years as a part of the global agenda on recycling waste and new sustainable energy production. Although many studies have confirmed positive effects of digestates on soil fertility, there is still lack of information on the potential adverse effects of digestates on natural soil heavy metal content, metal leaching and leaching of other pollutants. We have investigated the release of aluminium (Al) and chromium (Cr) from different soils treated with commercial digestates high in mentioned potentially problematic metals in a field experiment, while a greenhouse and a laboratory column experiment were used to address mobility of these metals in two other scenarios. Results obtained from the field experiment showed an increase in total concentrations for both investigated metals on plots treated with digestates as well as a significant increase of water-soluble Al concentrations. Factors that were found to be mostly affecting the metal mobility were dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and type of soil. Metal binding and free metal concentrations were modelled using the WHAM 7.0 software. Results indicated that the use of digestates with high metal content are comparable to use of animal manure with respect to metal leaching. Data obtained through chemical modelling for the samples from the field experiment suggested that an environmental risk from higher metal mobility has to be considered for Al. In the greenhouse experiment, measured concentrations of leached Cr at the end of the growing season were low for all treatments, while the concentration of leached Al from digestates was higher. The high irrigation column leaching experiment showed an increased leaching rate of Cr with addition of digestates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of... entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same that infringe one or more of...

  3. Effects of tillage practice on soil structure, N2O emissions and economics in cereal production under current socio-economic conditions in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. (United States)

    Žurovec, Ognjen; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar; Čustović, Hamid; Žurovec, Jasminka; Dörsch, Peter


    Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT > RT > NT, while in the drier 2015, the order was RT > CT > NT. The emission factors were within or slightly above the uncertainty range of the IPCC Tier 1 factor, if taking account for the N input from the cover crop (alfalfa) preceding the first experimental year. Saturated soils in spring, formation of soil crusts and occasional droughts adversely affected yields, particularly in the second year (barley). In 2014, yield-scaled N2O emissions ranged from 83.2 to 161.7 g N Mg-1 grain (corn) but were much greater in the second year due to crop failure (barley). RT had the smallest yield-scaled N2O emission in both years. NT resulted in economically inacceptable returns, due to the increased costs of weed control and low yields in both years. The reduced number of operations in RT reduced production costs and generated positive net returns. Therefore, RT could potentially provide agronomic and environmental benefits in crop production in BH.

  4. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and stockfeeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.


    Gamma-radiation may be used on cereals and stockfeeds to control insect infestation and, at higher dose rates, microbiological problems such as mould growth, aflatoxin production, pathogens, rope producing bacteria and total plate count. Major problems arise only at relatively high dose levels and affect functionality of cereals in terms of germination, dough properties, starch behaviour and cake and noodle quality. Chemical and physical changes to starch have the greatest impact on the properties of cereals and their products as a consequence of gamma-radiation

  5. Les Malalties dels cereals


    Puiggrós i Jové, Josep Maria


    En aquest treball es fa una descripció de les principals malalties dels cereals que han estat trobades a Catalunya. Agrupant-les segons ataquin la fulla i espiga: oïdi, rovells, septòries, Rhynchosporium, Helminthosporium, i virus; al coll i tija: Cercosporella, Ophiobolus, Rhizoctbnia i Fusarium o bé les que vénen de la llavor: carbons, càries i Helminthospbrium. A part de la descripció, hom fa esment de les observacions efectuades els darrers anys en els diferents indrets de...

  6. Current and Future Technologies for Microbiological Decontamination of Cereal Grains. (United States)

    Los, Agata; Ziuzina, Dana; Bourke, Paula


    Cereal grains are the most important staple foods for mankind worldwide. The constantly increasing annual production and yield is matched by demand for cereals, which is expected to increase drastically along with the global population growth. A critical food safety and quality issue is to minimize the microbiological contamination of grains as it affects cereals both quantitatively and qualitatively. Microorganisms present in cereals can affect the safety, quality, and functional properties of grains. Some molds have the potential to produce harmful mycotoxins and pose a serious health risk for consumers. Therefore, it is essential to reduce cereal grain contamination to the minimum to ensure safety both for human and animal consumption. Current production of cereals relies heavily on pesticides input, however, numerous harmful effects on human health and on the environment highlight the need for more sustainable pest management and agricultural methods. This review evaluates microbiological risks, as well as currently used and potential technologies for microbiological decontamination of cereal grains. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by... issued a general exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe the...

  8. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” (United States)


    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is intended...

  9. Radiation disinfestation of stored cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.


    Post-harvest grain losses range world-wide between 5 and 10 percent and even 40 percent in some tropical areas where environmental conditions are favourable to cereal degradation. The grain losses during storage are of various origins: insects, microorganisms, rodents, birds. Their consequences on human health and cereal processing are of quantitative and qualitative nature [fr

  10. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients (United States)

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung


    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  11. Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition


    Benaissa Chidmi; Rigoberto A. Lopez


    The Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model is extended to the supermarket chain level to examine consumer choices and retail competition for thirty-seven brands of breakfast cereals in Boston. Estimated taste parameters for product characteristics vary significantly across consumers. Although consumers are price-sensitive with respect to their chosen cereals, they exhibit strong brand and supermarket loyalty. Retail markups increase and marginal costs decrease with grocer...

  12. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?


    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.


    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  13. The healthfulness and prominence of sugar in child-targeted breakfast cereals in Canada. (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Cameron, Cher; Philippe, Sarah


    The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional content and healthfulness of child-targeted and "not child-targeted" breakfast cereals and to assess the predominance of added sugar in these products. We collected data on the nutritional content of 262 unique breakfast cereals found in the five largest grocery store chains in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec). We noted the first five ingredients and the number of added sugars present in each cereal from the ingredients list. The various cereal brands were then classified as either "healthier" or "less healthy" using the UK Nutrient Profile Model. We assessed each cereal to determine if it was child-targeted or not, based on set criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between child and not child-targeted cereals. 19.8% of all breakfast cereals were child-targeted, and these were significantly lower in total and saturated fat. Child-targeted cereals were significantly higher in sodium and sugar and lower in fibre and protein, and were three times more likely to be classified as "less healthy" compared to not child-targeted cereals. No child-targeted cereals were sugar-free, and sugar was the second most common ingredient in 75% of cereals. Six breakfast cereal companies had child-targeted product lines that consisted entirely of "less healthy" cereals. There is a need for regulations that restrict food marketing to children and youth under the age of 17 on packaging to reduce their appeal to this age group. Children's breakfast cereals also need to be reformulated through government-set targets, or through regulation should compliance be deemed unacceptable.

  14. Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges. (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang


    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  15. Nutritional quality and child-oriented marketing of breakfast cereals in Guatemala. (United States)

    Soo, J; Letona, P; Chacon, V; Barnoya, J; Roberto, C A


    Food marketing has been implicated as an important driver of obesity. However, few studies have examined food marketing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study documents the prevalence of advertising on cereal boxes in Guatemala and examines associations between various marketing strategies and nutritional quality. One box from all available cereals was purchased from a supermarket located in an urban area in Guatemala City, Guatemala. A content analysis was performed to document child-oriented marketing practices, product claims and health-evoking images. The Nutrient Profile Model (NPM) was used to calculate an overall nutrition score for each cereal (the higher the score, the lower the nutritional quality). In all, 106 cereals were purchased, and half of the cereals featured child-oriented marketing (54, 50.9%). Cereals had a mean (±s.d.) of 5.10±2.83 product claims per cereal, and most cereals (102, 96.2%) contained health-evoking images. Child-oriented cereals had, on average, higher NPM scores (13.0±0.55 versus 7.90±0.74, Ptargeting children were generally of poor nutritional quality. Cereals displaying health claims were also not healthier than those without such claims. Our findings support the need for regulations restricting the use of child-oriented marketing and health claims for certain products.

  16. Defining a middle ground for philosophers and production: bioethics. (United States)

    Davis, S L; Croney, C C


    From the perspective of most animal scientists and producers, animal agriculture has become increasingly contentious over the last 10 to 20 years. Furthermore, our critics seem to be extremists whose views are biased and unreasonable. But guess what? The critics say the same thing about animal producers and scientists (us). So where is the middle ground and how do we get there? Should we even worry about trying to define the middle ground? Are these contentious issues a fad that will go away? Are these "extremist" critics so far outside reason that they will be ignored by society? Ignoring "them" is not likely to work because we have seen society changing its mind (developing a new social ethic) with regard to farm animals, in part because of what these critics are saying. As a result, it is vitally important for us to know and understand what is happening and why. For example, there isn't just one voice among the critics. There is actually a spectrum of opinion among the group which conventional agriculturalists usually call their critics. The WCC-204 committee generally agrees that the key to finding the middle ground between what is perceived as a polarized set of issues between "us" (animal scientists and producers) and "them" (philosopher critics) is for both sides to learn about the reasons why each side says what they do. Only then can all parties rationally begin to identify where the middle ground lies.

  17. Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006. (United States)

    Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Bailey, Lynn B; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J


    US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed ≥ 200 μg folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.

  18. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.


    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  19. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati


    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  20. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  1. More protein in cereals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  2. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand? (United States)

    Timsina, J; Wolf, J; Guilpart, N; van Bussel, L G J; Grassini, P; van Wart, J; Hossain, A; Rashid, H; Islam, S; van Ittersum, M K


    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and wheat production by the years 2030 and 2050 by closing the existing gap (Yg) between yield potential (Yp) and actual farm yield (Ya), accounting for possible changes in cropland area. Yield potential and yield gaps were calculated for the three crops using well-validated crop models and site-specific weather, management and soil data, and upscaled to the whole country. We assessed potential grain production in the years 2030 and 2050 for six land use change scenarios (general decrease in arable land; declining ground water tables in the north; cropping of fallow areas in the south; effect of sea level rise; increased cropping intensity; and larger share of cash crops) and three levels of Yg closure (1: no yield increase; 2: Yg closure at a level equivalent to 50% (50% Yg closure); 3: Yg closure to a level of 85% of Yp (irrigated crops) and 80% of water-limited yield potential or Yw (rainfed crops) (full Yg closure)). In addition, changes in demand with low and high population growth rates, and substitution of rice by maize in future diets were also examined. Total aggregated demand of the three cereals (in milled rice equivalents) in 2030 and 2050, based on the UN median population variant, is projected to be 21 and 24% higher than in 2010. Current Yg represent 50% (irrigated rice), 48-63% (rainfed rice), 49% (irrigated wheat), 40% (rainfed wheat), 46% (irrigated maize), and 44% (rainfed maize) of their Yp or Yw. With 50% Yg closure and for various land use changes, self-sufficiency ratio will be > 1 for rice in 2030 and about one in 2050 but well below one for maize and wheat in both 2030 and 2050. With full Yg closure, self-sufficiency ratios will be well above one for

  3. A healthy diet with and without cereal grains and dairy products in patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a random-order cross-over pilot study--Alimentation and Diabetes in Lanzarote--ADILAN. (United States)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Frassetto, Lynda A; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Fika-Hernándo, María; Picazo, Óscar; Lindeberg, Staffan


    Research on the role of nutrition in type 2 diabetes has largely focused on macro/micronutrient composition and dietary fiber intake, while fewer studies have tested the effects of differing food choice. Some observational studies and short-term intervention studies suggest that a food pattern mimicking the diet with which humans evolved positively influences glucose control and associated endocrine systems. Such a food pattern mainly differs from other common healthy food patterns in its absence of cereal grains and dairy products. The primary aim of this pilot study is to determine the effect of two healthy diets with or without cereal grains and dairy products on glucose control, while keeping participants' weight stable and other food parameters, such as macro/micronutrient composition, dietary fiber and glycemic load, the same in both diets. We intend to include 15 adult patients with a medical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without medication and with an increased waist circumference (≥ 80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men) in a random-order cross-over diet intervention study during two periods of four-weeks separated by a six-week washout period. Patients will be instructed to eat two healthy diets according to official dietary guidelines with respect to macro/micronutrient composition and fiber content, but differing in the type of food included, with one diet being without cereal grains and dairy products. Lunch will be served in a hospital kitchen for control of nutrient intake, while the rest of the meals will be eaten at home according to specific directions. The energy content of the diets will be individually adjusted to maintain a stable body weight during the two four-week intervention periods. Primary outcomes will be change in fasting plasma glucagon and fructosamine, while secondary outcomes include change in fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, glucose and glucagon response during oral glucose tolerance test, blood

  4. A healthy diet with and without cereal grains and dairy products in patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a random-order cross-over pilot study - Alimentation and Diabetes in Lanzarote -ADILAN (United States)


    Background Research on the role of nutrition in type 2 diabetes has largely focused on macro/micronutrient composition and dietary fiber intake, while fewer studies have tested the effects of differing food choice. Some observational studies and short-term intervention studies suggest that a food pattern mimicking the diet with which humans evolved positively influences glucose control and associated endocrine systems. Such a food pattern mainly differs from other common healthy food patterns in its absence of cereal grains and dairy products. The primary aim of this pilot study is to determine the effect of two healthy diets with or without cereal grains and dairy products on glucose control, while keeping participants’ weight stable and other food parameters, such as macro/micronutrient composition, dietary fiber and glycemic load, the same in both diets. Methods/Design We intend to include 15 adult patients with a medical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without medication and with an increased waist circumference (≥ 80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men) in a random-order cross-over diet intervention study during two periods of four-weeks separated by a six-week washout period. Patients will be instructed to eat two healthy diets according to official dietary guidelines with respect to macro/micronutrient composition and fiber content, but differing in the type of food included, with one diet being without cereal grains and dairy products. Lunch will be served in a hospital kitchen for control of nutrient intake, while the rest of the meals will be eaten at home according to specific directions. The energy content of the diets will be individually adjusted to maintain a stable body weight during the two four-week intervention periods. Primary outcomes will be change in fasting plasma glucagon and fructosamine, while secondary outcomes include change in fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, glucose and glucagon response during oral

  5. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings AGENCY: U.S... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  6. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A.; Nowak, S.


    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  7. Ground-breaking virtual research in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Buck, Nuka


    MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument.......MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument....

  8. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile. (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina


    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Development of cereals for animal feed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov


    Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.

  10. Solar grounds for the production of foamed concrete items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich


    Full Text Available The method and low-energy intensive technology of manufacturing products of foamed concrete are developed providing bringing-in a solar energy in technological conversion for reducing the energy consumption for heat treating, allowing to obtain high quality products at low cost with a diurnal cycle of production. Thereby, the use of a minimal amount of additional electrical energy is stipulated for providing a consistence of temperature fields in the cross section of helio heated products in landfills in combination with solar energy. Until now, many scientists have investigated the issues of using the renewable energy resources in the construction industry including solar ones, for replacement of conventional fuels applied in the thermal treatment of concrete products and structures. However, pursuant to the analysis of the scientific literature, all known research studies and developments in this area are devoted to heliothermal treatment of conventional concrete, and at the same time the traditional methods for acceleration of hardening requiring significant energy consumption are still in use in production of such an effective building material as foam concrete. There are various methods of heliothermal treatment including combined ones, but they are not applicable in their production due to the specific characteristics (unlike conventional concrete of manufacturing technology, the used components, the particular rheological properties, as well as a porous structure of foam concrete. Both the examining the use of solar energy in acceleration of foam concrete hardening according to the literature data and the pre-studies have revealed a problem under unilateral heliothermal treatment of foam concrete. It is found out that the temperature field of across thickness of the massif, especially during the first 7-8 hours, is irregular, that significantly affects the process of heating moisture transfer occurring within the massif. According to the

  11. Evaluation of terrain geomorphometric characteristics for ground clearance charts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko A. Borisov


    Full Text Available Geomorphometric exploration applied in the military terrain analysis is based on the GIS methodology of spatial analyses and is related primarily to military terrain analyses. It includes relief assessment aiming at producing ground clearance charts for the analysis of terrain maneuverability and its deployment, cover and concealment possibilities. An evaluation analysis of geomorphological parameters was performed for the Avala test area using a few terrain parameters (visibility, terrain aspect and slope as well as some terrain qualitative categories (e.g. vegetation density. Terrain slope Slope and aspect are morphometric terrain parameters that can be derived directly from the DTM using some GIS operations. Slope is the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. Slope is perhaps the most important aspect of the surface form, since surfaces are formed completely of slopes, and slope angles control the gravitational force available for geomorphic work. Mathematically, the tangent of the slope angle is the first derivative of altitude, and it is a tangent or percent slope as this surface parameter is generally referred to. Slope is defined at each point as the slope of a plane tangent to the surface at that point. In practice, however, slope is generally measured over a finite distance, especially when data are obtained from a contour map. Terrain aspect Aspect is also the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. The term aspect is defined as the direction of the biggest slope vector on the tangent plane projected onto the horizontal plane. Aspect is the bearing (or azimuth of the slope direction, and its angle ranges from 0 to 360°. Analyses of terrain slope and ground clearance for military forces The analysis of land assessment of the Avala test area included the definition of relief categories in relation to cover and concealment purposes with the aim to include the geomorphological basis

  12. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  13. Studies on the transport of fission products through food chains.3. Analysis of the relationship between 137Cs in cereal grain and137Cs deposited in 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.; Haak, E.; Karlstroem, F.


    REGRESSION ANALYSES WERE USED TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 137 Cs content in grain and the deposition of 137 Cs during the months of Jun, Jul and Aug in 1964. Data from about half of the 400 yield survey districts in the country were available. The analyses gave coefficients which describe the influence of different monthly depositions of 137 Cs on the final 137 Cs content in grain under normal weather conditions. Coefficients were obtained for the different crops, one set for the Southern region and one for the Eastern and Western regions. In the Southern region the influence of the deposition in Jun on the 137 Cs content in grain was considerably larger than that of the deposition in July. The influence of the deposition in August was noticeable only in the grain of spring wheat. For the other regions the coefficients indicated about the same influence of the depositions in Jun and Jul on the 137 Cs content in grain of winter wheat. With regard to the spring-sown cereals, however, the transfer efficiency increased in the order: Jun 137 Cs deposited 3-6 per cent were recovered in grain in the southern region and 1.5-4 per cent in the other regions. (author)

  14. Estimating and validating ground-based timber harvesting production through computer simulation (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux


    Estimating ground-based timber harvesting systems production with an object oriented methodology was investigated. The estimation model developed generates stands of trees, simulates chain saw, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip harvester felling, and grapple skidder and forwarder extraction activities, and analyzes costs and productivity. It also...

  15. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.


    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  16. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims...

  17. El cerealémetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual


    Full Text Available "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  18. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC-ICPMS. (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Calderón, Josep; Centrich, Francesc; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín


    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICPMS) was used for arsenic speciation. The main quality parameters were established. To expand the applicability of the method, different cereal products were analysed: bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, wheat flour, corn snacks, pasta and infant cereals. The total and inorganic arsenic content of 29 cereal-based food samples ranged between 3.7-35.6 and 3.1-26.0 μg As kg(-1), respectively. The present method could be considered a valuable tool for assessing inorganic arsenic contents in cereal-based foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages. (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A


    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  20. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.


    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin (CoO) for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka...

  1. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were...

  2. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim


    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  3. Mineral Retention Values for Blends of Cereal Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    household diets can be manipulated to enhance the micronutrients content or alter the levels of ... (2007) reported that fermentation for 72h increased most of the minerals in cereal based ... Production of Amylase Rich Flour (ARF): Amylase rich flour was produced by the method of Odumodu ..... Practical chemistry (3rd Ed).

  4. Bioactive small molecules in commercially available cereal food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine K.; Adhikari, Khem B.; Laursen, Bente B.


    processes. The concentrations of 11 BX compounds were determined by liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in 25 supermarket-available cereal food products. The total BX content varied from below the limit of detection to >500 μg/g dry matter (DM) with some degree of variation...

  5. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  6. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review. (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu


    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  7. Resilience of cereal crops to abiotic stress: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 16, 2014 ... Key words: Cereal crops, abiotic stresses, food insecurity, molecular breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), salinity, water stress. ... production of genetically modified (GM) crops, exo- genous use of osmo protectants etc. ... stressful environments is important to fulfill food demand of the ever-increasing world ...

  8. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.


    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  9. Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases. (United States)

    Gil, Angel; Ortega, Rosa M; Maldonado, José


    The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Wholegrain cereals are rich in nutrients and many phytochemical compounds, with recognised benefits for health, including dietary fibre, a number of phenolic compounds, lignans, vitamins and minerals and other bioactive components. The aim of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases. Descriptive review considering human studies. Subjects included in randomised intervention trials and cohort studies from different countries published up to 2010. Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products. The regular intake of wholegrain cereals can contribute to reduction of risk factors related to non-communicable chronic diseases.

  10. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications. (United States)

    Lorenz, K


    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  11. Collection and hauling of cereal grain chaff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reding, B.; Leduc, P. [Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute, Humboldt, Saskatchewan (Canada); Stumborg, M. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Cereal grain chaff has been identified by Energy Mines and Resources, Canada, and Agriculture Canada, as a suitable feedstock for ethanol production. Canada produces 13,300,000 t (14,600,000 ton) of cereal grain chaff annually; mainly in the prairie region. Work conducted at the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI), Humboldt, Saskatchewan, has determined that the collection of chaff for centralized processing is a problem due to low bulk density in its natural state. This problem can be overcome by densification using either compression or size reduction. Either method will be economical in a chaff shed radius of 140 km (87 mi) when chaff is densified to 160 kg/m{sup 3} (10 lb/ft{sup 3}). The size reduction method of densification may be economical to hauling distances exceeding 166 km (103 mi), particularly if size reduction is a required part of ethanol processing. Further work is under way to develop the required equipment modifications to allow existing farm equipment to be used for this purpose.

  12. Purchases of ready-to-eat cereals vary across US household sociodemographic categories according to nutritional value and advertising targets. (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B


    To describe ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal purchases in 2008 in the USA according to cereal nutritional quality and marketing strategy and household sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of purchases in one year. Each type of cereal was assigned to one of four nutrition quality categories (based on Nutrient Profile Index, NPI) and one of four advertising categories based on television exposure and analysis of packaging (child-targeted, family-targeted, adult-targeted and no television advertising). Medians and distributions of purchase indicators were calculated for the cereal categories and the distributions were compared across sociodemographic groups. RTE cereals (n 249) with complete label and nutritional content. RTE cereal purchases according to household sociodemographic characteristics obtained from Nielsen Homescan, a nationally representative panel of households. Purchases of RTE cereals were highest in households with one or more child and lowest in African-American and Asian households, as well as those earning advertised products, advertised child-targeted cereals were purchased thirteen times more frequently; family-targeted brand purchases were ten times higher; and adult-targeted cereals were purchased four times more frequently. Our findings suggest that improving the nutritional quality of RTE cereals with advertising targeted to children could also lead to increased consumption of healthier products by young people.

  13. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground (United States)


    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to introduce a new competitive shipping option, Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011...

  14. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan


    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.

  15. A spent coffee grounds based biorefinery for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, antioxidants and biocomposites. (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar


    Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas. The in-situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds was carried out in a large scale (4 kg), which led to 80-83% biodiesel yield. In addition, a large number of value added and diversified products viz. polyhydroxyalkanoates, biosorbent, activated carbon, polyol, polyurethane foam, carotenoid, phenolic antioxidants, and green composite are obtained from spent coffee grounds. The principles of circular economy are applied to develop a sustanaible biorefinery based on valorisation of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating. (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B


    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  17. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study. (United States)

    Mix, Felicia M; Zielinski, Martin D; Myers, Lucas A; Berns, Kathy S; Luke, Anurahda; Stubbs, James R; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D


    IntroductionHemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90). A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort. In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in

  18. Detection of Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat Products in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Visser


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN, toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile isolates belonged to different pulsotypes, all of which had been previously isolated from the stool of Manitoba patients with C difficile disease. Because cooking of meat will not eradicate C difficile spores, this raises a concern regarding potential foodborne transmissibility of this organism.

  19. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony


    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  20. Nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala and effects of pruning s on cereal yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekunda, M.


    Leucaena leucocephala was interplanted with reference tree species, Cassia siamea and Cassia spectabilis, and estimates of percent N derived from N 2 fixation (%Ndfa) were made, by the isotope-dilution method, at 4, 6, 14, 20 and 30 months after transplanting. The %Ndfa values were low and variable throughout the growth period, except after thinning at 14 months when there was a five-fold increase. The two non-fixing reference species outperformed the N 2 -fixing Leucaena in above-ground vegetative production, and provided different fixed-N estimates. Prunings from the L. leucocephala and C. Siamea trees were applied separately to soil as green manure. Maize was planted to test the effects of the Leucaena green manure on soil fertility, and millet was the test crop for the Cassia. Whether surface-applied or incorporated, the prunings significantly improved yields, which were generally similar among rates and methods of application. The proportions of cereal N obtained from prunings ranged from 8 to 33%, with no cereal-yield correlation. The data indicate that multipurpose tree prunings are of potential use to farmers as organic sources of nutrients, even at relatively low application rates, without need for incorporation into the soil. (author)

  1. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    . NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination of FEsv and FEso, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. The aim is to develop a rapid method to analyse grain feed value. This will contribute to highlight the opportunities...... feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool for cereal breeders. A bank of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established...... with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value has been shown to be above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it has proved possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply, but prediction error with this method...

  2. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry. (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio


    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  3. Effects of climate change on productivity of cereals and legumes; model evaluation of observed year-to-year variability of the CO2 response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.; Dijkstra, P.; Nonhebel, S.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Geijn, van de S.C.


    The effect of elevated [CO2] on the productivity of spring wheat, winter wheat and faba bean was studied in experiments in climatized crop enclosures in the Wageningen Rhizolab in 1991–93. Simulation models for crop growth were used to explore possible causes for the observed differences in the CO2

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee grounds with different waste feedstocks for biogas production. (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Baek, Gahyun; Lee, Changsoo


    Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane. Meanwhile, the other co-substrates enhanced the reaction rate while maintaining methane production at a comparable or higher level to that of the mono-digestion of spent coffee ground. The reaction rate increased with the proportion of co-substrates without a significant loss in methanation potential. These results suggest the potential to reduce the reaction time and thus the reactor capacity without compromising methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    An advisory group of experts, comprising nutritionists, analysts and plant breeders, discussed the desirability of nutritional goals for plant breeding and attempted to specify the deficiencies of various cereal crops in essential nutrients. It considered the plant factors influencing the value for human and animal nutrition and the feasibility of improving these by genetic and plant breeding methods. Methods of assaying nutritional quality were discussed, particularly in relation to the need for rapid, inexpensive methods capable of being used as screening procedures in plant breeding programmes. The proceedings contain 9 scientific papers and a conclusion and recommendations, including a review of the chemical cuzymatic, microbiological and animal assay techniques that are available



    Shi, Hongqi; Price, David W.


    The implicit values of nutrient and nonnutrient characteristics of breakfast cereal were estimated using the 1987-88 household portion of the USDAÂ’'s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The effects of sociodemographic variables on cereal characteristic values were also estimated. The conceptual framework of the hedonic price model, used for food products, has traditionally focused on the nutritional characteristics of these products. This framework was extended to incorporate nonnutriti...

  7. Ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised on corn stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Vesna M.


    Full Text Available Cell immobilisation in alcoholic fermentation has been extensively studied during the past few decades because of its technical and economical advantages over those of free cell systems. A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilising a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (baker yeast on corn stem ground tissue for use in alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the yeast cells were submitted to the batch tests 'in situ' adsorption onto pieces of the corn stem ground tissue. Cells immobilisation was analysed by optical microscopy. It was determined that the addition of the corn stem ground tissue led to an increase of the pH value, total dissolved salts content, and sugar content in fermentation medium. The addition of 5 and 10g of the corn stem ground tissue per liter of medium, increased ethanol yield, decreased amount of residual sugar and the cells immobilisation was effective. Corn stem is one of the abundant, available, inexpensive, stable, reusable, nontoxic celulosic biomaterial with high porosity, which facilitates the transmission of substrates and products between carrier and medium. The prepared immobilised biocatalyst showed higher fermentation activity than free cells. The results indicate that corn stem might be an interesting support for yeast cell immobilisation, and also a cheap alternative recourse of mineral components with possibility of application for improving ethanol productivities.

  8. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience. (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  9. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault... fault circuit interrupters and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims...

  10. Characterization of bioactive compounds from monascus purpureus fermented different cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová


    Full Text Available Solid-state fermenting of cereals by Monascus is interesting strategy to produce cereals with more beneficial components.  The objective of this study was to determine selected primary and secondary metabolites in cereals (rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, corn, buckwheat fermented by Monascus purpreus and subsequently compare amount of these compounds with control sample (cereals without Monascus. In fermented cereals was determined higher protein, fat, reducing sugars, crude fiber and ash content with compare to non-fermented cereals. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay as well as reducing power assay was also higher in fermented Monascus cereals with the best results in rice (3.09 ±0.02; 62.9 ±2.24; 43.19 ±2.07 mg TEAC per g of dry weight. Sample of fermented rice contained the highest level of total polyphenols (15.31 ±3.62 mg GAE per g of dry weight, total flavonoids (1.65 mg QE per g of dry weight and total phenolic acids (9.47 ±0.56 mg CAE per g of dry weight. In fermented cereals was also determined higher contact of reducing sugars (highest value in rice 246.97 ±7.96 mg GE per g, proteins (highest value in buckwheat 28.47 ±1.24%, ash (highest value in sorghum 2.74 ±0.08% and fat (highest value in corn 4.89 ±0.03% with compare to non-fermented samples. Results of crude fiber content of both - fermented and non-fermented cereals were balanced with similar values. Results of this study shown that Monascus purpureus fermented cereal substrates might be a potential sources of several bioactive compounds in food products.

  11. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving. (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian


    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  12. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  13. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape? (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D


    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  14. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals. (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas


    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals. (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Morales, Francisco J


    During the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction (MR) in food processing and cooking, Amadori rearrangement products undergo dehydration and fission and fluorescent substances are formed. Free and total (free + linked to the protein backbone) fluorescence (FIC) due to Maillard compounds in 60 commercial breakfast cereals was evaluated. Pronase was used for efficient release of linked fluorescent Maillard compounds from the protein backbone. Results were correlated with some heat-induced markers of the extent of the MR or sugar caramelisation during cereal processing, such as hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, glucosilisomaltol and furosine. The effect of sample composition (dietary-fibre added, protein, etc.) on levels of FIC, expressed as fluorescence intensity (FI) per milligram of sample, is discussed. FIC is significantly correlated to the protein content of the sample and fluorescent Maillard compounds are mainly linked to the protein backbone. The ratio of total-FIC to free-FIC was 10.4-fold for corn-based, wheat-based and multicereal-based breakfast cereals but significantly higher in rice-based samples. Addition of dietary fibre or honey increased the FIC values. Data support the usefulness of FIC measurement as an unspecific heat-induced marker in breakfast cereals.

  16. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  17. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method. (United States)

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G


    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi


    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  19. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  20. Aflatoxin contamination of locallyprocessed cereal-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding children with cereal-based foods has potential to expose them to aflatoxins (AFs).This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in 64 commercial locally produced cereal-based complementary foods obtained from producers and popular markets in ...

  1. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol. (United States)

    Smith, A P


    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  2. Studies on the control of fungal contamination and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus link in a cereal grain by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odamtten, G.T.


    Traditional storage of maize in tropical countries such as Ghana results in the rapid development of numerous fungi, including potential mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxins, penicillic acid), Fusarium moniliforme (moniliformin), Paecilomyces varioti and Penicillium expansum (patulin). Treatment of maize with a combination of moist heat (30 min. at 60 0 C and relative humidity > 85%) and gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy) proved to be effective in inactivating the resident population of fungal spores. This result was confirmed by in vitro studies with spores of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5906. In a comparative study of packaging materials it was found that food commodities stored in woven polypropylene bags for six months at 85% R.H. had mould and yeast counts which were 2-3 log cycles lower than those of products kept in jute bags. Also, the viability of the seeds was better preserved in polypropylene sacks. It is recommended that the combination treatment be carried out on good quality grains, and that woven polypropylene sacks are used in packaging prior to irradiation, for maximum extension of shelf-life. (Auth.)

  3. Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals. (United States)

    Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D


    Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

  4. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis (United States)

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  5. Wheat bran cereal, human gut bacteria and subjective wellbeing


    Smith, Andrew; Deaville, Eddie; Gibson, Glenn


    Research has shown that consumption of high fiber breakfast cereal is associated with improved subjective well-being, especially increased energy. One possible explanation of these results is through metabolism by gut bacteria and concomitant production of metabolites that influence psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) welfare. This was examined in the present study to determine whether consumption of wheat bran could modulate the composition of the GI microbiota. This human volunteer stud...

  6. Influence of Higher Wheat Prices on Ready-to-Eat Cereal Companies in 2010




    In 2010, sever droughts and fires destroyed 20 percent of Russia’s wheat crop. This incident increased dramatically the prices of wheat worldwide. This paper studies the financial consequences that these higher wheat prices brought to companies that use wheat to manufacture ready-to-eat cereal and wheat-related products. The international cereal companies selected for this study were Kellogg Company, Nestlé Group and Ralcorp Holdings, Inc., owner of Post Foods Company. Keywords: Wheat, ce...

  7. Accuracy assessment of the vegetation continuous field tree cover product using 3954 ground plots in the southwestern USA (United States)

    M. A. White; J. D. Shaw; R. D. Ramsey


    An accuracy assessment of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation continuous field (VCF) tree cover product using two independent ground-based tree cover databases was conducted. Ground data included 1176 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots for Arizona and 2778 Southwest Regional GAP (SWReGAP) plots for Utah and western Colorado....

  8. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  9. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit...

  10. Production dynamics of fine roots in beech forests: possible mechanism of resource allocation between above- and below-ground production (United States)

    Nakahata, R.; Osawa, A.; Naramoto, M.; Mizunaga, H.; Sato, M.


    The masting phenomenon that seed production has large annual variation with spatial synchrony appears generally in beeches. Therefore, net primary production and carbon allocation mechanism in beech forests may differ among several years in relation to annual variation of seed production. On the other hand, fine roots play key roles in carbon dynamics and nutrient and water acquisition of an ecosystem. Evaluation of fine root dynamics is essential to understand long-term dynamics of production in forest ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of mast seeding on resource allocation should be clarified in such beech forests. The aim of this study is to clarify possible relationships between the patterns of above- and below-ground production in relation to the masting events using observation data of litter fall and fine root dynamics. We applied the litter trap method and a minirhizotron method in a cool-temperate natural forest dominated by beech (Fagus crenata Blume). Ten litter traps were set from 2008 to 2016, then annual leaf and seed production were estimated. Four minirhizotron tubes were buried in Aug. 2008 and soil profiles were scanned monthly until Nov. 2016 during the periods of no snow covering. The scanned soil profiles were analyzed for calculating fine root production using the WinRHIZO Tron software. In the present study site, rich production of mast seeding occurred biennially and fine root production showed various seasonal patterns. There was no significant correlation between seed production and annual fine root production in the same year. However, seed production had a positive correlation with fine root production in autumn in the previous year and indicated a negative correlation with that in autumn in the current year. These results indicate that higher fine root production has led to increased nutrient acquisition, which resulted in rich seed production in the next year. It is also suppressed after the masting events due to shortage in

  11. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry


    John M. Connor


    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  12. Radiolysis of ground water: influence of carbonate and chloride on the hydrogen peroxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Ndalamba, P.; Bjergbakke, E.


    Small volumes of aqueous solutions have been subjected to α-radiation from a Am-241 source. The irradiated solution was separated from the bulk solution by a glass filter serving as a diffusion barrier. The H 2 O 2 concentration in the bulk solution was monitored by a chemiluminescence technique and the overall production of oxidizing species (H 2 O 2 /O 2 ) in irradiated ground water was studied by measuring the Fe 2+ -consumption in ground water initially containing 2 x 10 -6 mol x dm -3 Fe 2+ . H 2 O 2 yields calculated using the computer program CHEMSIMUL are in fair agreement with experimental yields for 'pure' water (pH 8) and aqueous methanol solutions (pH 5). Experimentally G(H 2 O 2 ) = 1.06 +- 0.1 was obtained in 'pure' water. In solutions containing 2 x 10 -3 mol x dm -3 HCO 3 - and in ground water G(H 2 O 2 ) decreased to 0.69 +- 0.03. A corresponding decrease in G(H 2 O 2 ) was not found in the calculations. The agreement between measured and calculated Fe 2+ consumption is fair when slow oxidative reactions in the bulk solutions are taken into account. (authors)

  13. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.


    the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz


    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  15. Perancangan Interior Nestlé's Cereal World Di Surabaya


    Mariana Wibowo, Linda Gunawan


    Nestlé's Cereal World is a new facility in foodservice industry, which people can explore and obtain a new experience about cereal through 4 main facilities: attraction, discover, dining, and shopping. Nestlé's Cereal World design will use Nestlé's interior branding, which the tangible and intangible design will represent the Nestlé's Cereal identity.

  16. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products. (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores


    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cement plate slab production with the incorporation of glass wool waste ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathany Angélica dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the characteristics of Civil Construction is its ability to absorb a wide range of wastes to produce new products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of cement plates produced with the addition of ground glass wool waste and in natura, in shredded form. The tensile strength tests in bending and permeability were performed, according to ABNT NBR 15498: 2007 as well as environmental ones according to ABNT NBR 10004: 2004. The plates produced in this study were characterized as being impermeable, with a satisfactory tensile strength in bending and being classified as plates for indoor and outdoor use, and as products that do not offer immediate risk to health and to the environment; however, it should be discarded in landfill.

  18. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in uncooked ground meat products from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (United States)

    Curry, Scott R; Marsh, Jane W; Schlackman, Jessica L; Harrison, Lee H


    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retail meat samples has varied widely. The food supply may be a source for C. difficile infections. A total of 102 ground meat and sausage samples from 3 grocers in Pittsburgh, PA, were cultured for C. difficile. Brand A pork sausages were resampled between May 2011 and January 2012. Two out of 102 (2.0%) meat products initially sampled were positive for C. difficile; both were pork sausage from brand A from the same processing facility (facility A). On subsequent sampling of brand A products, 10/19 samples from processing facility A and 1/10 samples from 3 other facilities were positive for C. difficile. The isolates recovered were inferred ribotype 078, comprising 6 genotypes. The prevalence of C. difficile in retail meat may not be as high as previously reported in North America. When contamination occurs, it may be related to events at processing facilities.

  19. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B.; Rela, P.R.; Mancini-Filho, J.


    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in Sao Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares' (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60 Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process

  20. A biophysical process based approach for estimating net primary production using satellite and ground observations (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    An approach is presented for calculating interannual variation of net primary production (C) of terrestrial plant communities at regional scale using satellite and ground measurements. C has been calculated as the difference of gross photosynthesis (A g) and respiration (R), recognizing that different biophysical factors exert major control on these two processes. A g has been expressed as the product of radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis by an unstressed canopy and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, which is then adjusted for stresses due to soil water shortage and temperature away from optimum. R has been calculated as the sum of growth and maintenance components (respectively, R g and R m. The R m has been determined from nitrogen content of plant tissue per unit ground area, while R g has been obtained as a fraction of the difference of A g and R m. Model parameters have not been determined by matching the calculated fluxes against observations at any location. Results are presented for cultivated and temperate deciduous forest areas over North America for five consecutive years (1986-1990) and compared with observations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ton


    Full Text Available Near infrared transmittance (NIT, 850 to 1048 nm spectroscopy was used to predict groups of fatty acids (FA, namely saturated FA (SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA, in commercial ground meat samples aiming to develope a fast and reliable method for their determination in support of label declaration by the new EC Regulation 1169/2011. Dataset was built using 81 samples of commercial ground meat from different species: beef, pork, chicken and turkey. In some samples, meat was mixtured with different ingredients such as bread, cheese, spices and additives. Samples were first analysed by NIT instrument for spectral information and reference FA values were obtained by gas chromatographic analysis. Prediction models for SFA, MUFA and PUFA expressed on total FA exhibited coefficients of determination of calibration of 0.822, 0.367 and 0.780 on intact samples, and 0.879, 0.726 and 0.908 on minced samples, respectively. Good results were also obtained when FA groups were expressed as g/100g of fresh meat: the coefficient of determination of calibration increased to values larger than 0.915. Moreover, comparing the slightly lower coefficient of determination in crossvalidation of intact compared with minced meat suggested that equations developed for minced samples were more accurate than those built for intact products. Results highlighted the effectiveness of NIT spectroscopy to predict the major FA groups in commercial meat products.

  2. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach


    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases – coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes and colonic and breast cancer. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of whole......-grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... lignin. The main NSP in cereals are arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkages β(1-3; 1-4)-glucan (β-glucan) and cellulose, which vary significantly according to the cereal species but also between different tissues of the grains. Rye, triticale, wheat and corn are rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain...

  3. Atomic oxygen production scaling in a nanosecond-pulsed externally grounded dielectric barrier plasma jet (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Schmidt, Jacob; Ganguly, Biswa; Scofield, James


    Atomic oxygen production is studied in a capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet that is externally grounded and driven with a 20-ns risetime positive unipolar pulsed voltage at pulse repetition rates up to 25 kHz. The power coupled to the discharge can be easily increased by increasing the pulse repetition rate. At a critical turnover frequency, determined by the net energy density coupled to the discharge, the plasma chemistry abruptly changes. This is indicated by increased plasma conductance and a transition in reactive oxygen species production from an ozone-dominated production regime below the turnover frequency to atomic-oxygen-dominated production at higher pulse rates. Here, we characterize atomic oxygen production scaling using spatially- and temporally-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (TALIF). Quantitative results are obtained via calibration with xenon using a similar laser excitation and collection system. These results are compared with quantitative ozone and discharge power measurements using a helium gas flow with oxygen admixtures up to 3%.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on biomass production of ground vegetation under broadleaved forests of northern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.; Salmonson, B.J.


    Effects of gamma irradiation (10,000-Ci 137 Cs source) for one growing season on biomass production of ground vegetation under northern Wisconsin aspen and maple-aspen-birch forests and on an abandoned logging road were evaluated during and 1 year after irradiation. No significant changes in production were determined during the irradiation year. One year later three distinct zones--semidevastated, herbaceous, and original forest--developed along the radiation gradient. Biomass production under forest canopies decreased significantly in the semidevastated zone, increased significantly in the herbaceous zone (primarily responding to additional light), and remained unchanged under the original forest. Logging-road vegetation responded similarly, but the changes were restricted within higher radiation doses. At comparable levels of radiation, production of species of the logging-road vegetation was affected less than that of species under forest canopies. Such a trend was predictable from the generally smaller interphase chromosome volumes of the species on the logging road and from their ability to survive in severe habitats

  5. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  6. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.


    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  7. Preventive and therapeutic potential of peptides from cereals against cancer. (United States)

    Ortiz-Martinez, Margarita; Winkler, Robert; García-Lara, Silverio


    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of food based on whole-grain cereals and their products is associated with reduced risks of various types of degenerative chronic diseases. Food proteins are considered an important source of nutraceutical peptides and amino acids that can exert biological functions to promote health and prevent disease, including cancer. There have been several reports on peptides with anti-tumour activity in recent years. Plant-derived peptides, such as rapeseed, amaranth and soybean lunasin have received main attention. In this review, we extend this vision to analyse the evidence of current advances in peptides in cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, barley, rye and pseudocereals compared with soybean. We also show evidence of several mechanisms through which bioactive peptide exerts anti-tumour activity. Finally, we report the current status of major strategies for the fractionation, isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides in cereals. In recent reports, it has been shown that peptides are an interesting alternative in the search for new treatments for cancer. One of the most studied sources of these peptides is food proteins; however, a review that includes more recent findings for cereals as a potential source of bioactive peptides in the treatment of cancer, the techniques for their isolation and characterisation and the assays used to prove their bioactivity is not available. This review can be used as a tool in the search for new sources of anti-cancer peptides. The authors have no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Productivity and cost estimators for conventional ground-based skidding on steep terrain using preplanned skid roads (United States)

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux


    Continuous time and motion study techniques were used to develop productivity and cost estimators for the skidding component of ground-based logging systems, operating on steep terrain using preplanned skid roads. Comparisons of productivity and costs were analyzed for an overland random access skidding method, verses a skidding method utilizing a network of preplanned...

  9. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel. (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W


    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental contamination from a ground-level release of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Kephart, G.S.; Rittmann, P.D.


    On January 11, 1985, a ground-level release of fission products, primarily 90 Sr, occurred at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The release was detected during routine surveys and the majority of the contamination was confined to the immediate area where the release occurred. Response to the incident was complicated by a strong inversion that resulted in a buildup of 222 Rn daughter products on environmental air samples and outdoor surfaces. The cause of the release appears to have been the operation of a transfer jet that inadvertently pressurized an unblanked line leading to the 241-C-151 Diversion Box. A buildup of pressure inside the diversion box forced contaminated air through gaps in the diversion box cover blocks resulting in an unmonitored, short duration release to the environment. The source term was estimated using data obtained from environmental air samplers. The ground deposition speed was calculated using the integrated exposure (air samples) and surface contamination levels obtained from recently fallen snow. The total release was estimated to be 1.4 Ci 90 Sr and 0.02 Ci 137 Cs. Based on this source term, the maximum 50-yr dose commitment to onsite pesonnel was 50 mrem whole body and 600 mrem bone. No detectable internal deposition occurred during the incident and corrective action which followed; this was probably due to several factors: (1) prompt detection of the release; (2) localized contamination control; (3) excellent personnel protection practices; and (4) the protection offered by building ventilation systems. The theoretical maximum offsite individual would receive a potential 1-yr dose commitment of 0.01 mrem whole body and 0.2 mrem bone from this incident. The potential 50-yr dose commitment would be 0.13 mrem whole body and 2.0 mrem bone. In actuality, neither onsite or offsite individuals would be expected to receive even these small dose commitments

  11. Climate change, productivity shocks and demand for freight ground transportation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevdokimov, Y. |; New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB; Byelyayev, O.


    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of climate change on the transportation sector in a regional context. The purpose was to analyze potential climate change impacts on demand for freight transportation in Atlantic Canada through its association with other sectors of the regional economy. Freight transportation is designed to meet transportation demands of commodity producers who must deliver their goods to final users. Since it is a by-product of profit maximization and cost minimization by producers of all types of commodities in various sectors of the economy, this study modelled climate change impacts as productivity shocks in relevant sectors of the economy. A computerized simulation was then used to determine how the consequences of these shocks influence the demand for freight transportation. This was accomplished by collecting climate related data in Atlantic Canada as well as aggregate economic data that reflects the economic performance of the regional economy. A growth model that links regional economy to freight transportation was then developed and different scenarios for future developments associated with climate change impacts were evaluated. Computer simulation with Mathcad-8 showed that the conditions specified in the best-case scenario, expected-case scenario and worst-case scenario resulted in a cumulative loss in demand for ground freight transportation of 7.213, 582.127 and 610.92 billion tonne-kilometers respectively, over the 2001-2100 period. In general, the results of the computer simulation demonstrated a considerable decrease in the demand for ground freight transportation in Atlantic Canada resulting from climate change impacts. The loss in demand was found to occur mostly in the first half of this century, with some recovery in the second half because the economic system would adapt to new climate conditions. It was recommended that policy instruments such as regulations or taxes, should be put in place to reduce the impacts

  12. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios


    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  13. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-M. Zempila


    Full Text Available This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4 UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh, in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990 and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5

  14. Cereals for the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.


    The region of semi-arid tropics is the most famine prone area of the world. This region with nearly one billion people extends across some 20 million square kilometres. Major domesticated cereals adapted to semi-arid regions are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Several minor cereals are grown as speciality crops, or harvested in the wild in times of severe drought and scarcity. Important in the African Sahel are the fonios Digitaria iburua Stapf, D. exilis (Kapist) Stapf and Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach). C.E. Hubbard. These species are aggressive colonizers and are commonly encouraged as weeds in cultivated fields. Sown genotypes differ from their close wild relatives primarily in the lack of efficient natural seed dispersal. The fonios lend themselves to rapid domestication. Several wild cereals extend well beyond the limits of agriculture into the Sahara. Commonly harvested are the perennial Stipagrostis pungens and Panicum turgidum, and the annual Cenchrus biflorus (kram-kram). Kram-kram yields well under extreme heat and drought stress, and holds promise as a domesticated cereal. Sauwi millet (Panicum sonorum) is promising cereal in arid northwestern Mexico. (author). 31 refs

  15. Monosaccharides and Ethanol Production from Superfine Ground Sugarcane Bagasse Using Enzyme Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li


    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of particle size on the enzymatic hydrolysis of milled and sieved sugarcane bagasse (SCB was studied. The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of superfine ground SCB (SGP400 using an enzyme cocktail strategy were also explored. Particle size reduction improved the enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose yield was 44.75%, which was obtained from SGP400. The enzyme cocktail strategy greatly enhanced the glucose and xylose yield. The maximum glucose and xylose yield was from the enzyme cocktail of cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase. Synergistic action between xylanase and pectinase as well as cellulase and pectinase was quite noticeable. Hydrolysis times affected the degree of synergism. Ethanol production was carried out by employing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF and semi-SSF using enzymes and their cocktails. Semi-SSF was found to be the better one compared with SSF. Xylanase and pectinase aided the ethanol production in both fermentation modes. Ethanol yield was 7.81 and 7.30 g/L for semi-SSF and SSF, respectively by using an enzyme cocktail of cellulase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and xylanase.

  16. Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds for bio-hydrotreated diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phimsen, Songphon; Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Tomohiko; Kiatkittipong, Kunlanan; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai


    Highlights: • The spent coffee oil with high FFAs was hydrotreated to liquid biofuel. • Pd/C gave higher olefins while NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 gave higher isoparaffins liquid products. • The diesel fuel fraction can have a cetane number as high as 80. • The physiochemical properties of diesel fraction comply with commercial standard. - Abstract: Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds is utilized as a renewable source for bio-hydrotreated fuel production. In the present work, oil yield up to 13% can be obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane as a solvent. As the extracted oil contained high content of free fatty acids (6.14%), therefore one step alkali-catalyzed for ester based biodiesel production is impractical. Hydrotreating of extracted oil was performed over two catalysts i.e. NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 and Pd/C with different operating parameters i.e. reaction time, operating temperature, and H_2/oil. It was found that the reaction time of 2 h and the reaction temperature of 400 °C are favorable operating conditions. The liquid products mostly consisted of n-pentadecane and n-heptadecane, which contain one carbon atom shorter than the corresponding fatty acid (C_n_−_1) i.e. palmitic and stearic acid, respectively. Unfavorable cracking of diesel product is pronounced at high temperature and prolonged reaction time. In addition, although increased H_2/oil promoted overall reaction and hydrodeoxygenation activity (C_n_−_1/C_n decreased) for both catalysts, hydrocracking is enhanced over Pd/C, leading to significant increase in gasoline yield. Moreover, Pd/C gave higher olefin content in liquid product (22.3 wt%) than NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 (4.8 wt%). However, NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 shows higher isomerization activity. The amount of isoparaffins catalyzed by NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 and Pd/C were 10.8 and 1.7 wt%, respectively. Physiochemical analysis of the diesel fraction exhibit satisfactory properties. The density and kinematic viscosity were consistent with the specification of

  17. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2014 ... stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has ... pasteurization and sterilization. (Abdulrazzaq et al., 2003; Sadeghi et al., 2009). Aflatoxins are generally found in feed and foodstuffs, such as beans, cereals fruits and seeds. ... Contamination of foods and.

  18. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements (United States)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.


    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  20. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

  1. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Wambui Kimani


    Full Text Available Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better agricultural and water management decision-making and planning. In East Africa, accurate rainfall estimation with an adequate spatial distribution is limited due to sparse rain gauge networks. Satellite rainfall products can potentially play a role in increasing the spatial coverage of rainfall estimates; however, their performance needs to be understood across space–time scales and factors relating to their errors. This study assesses the performance of seven satellite products: Tropical Applications of Meteorology using Satellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT, African Rainfall Climatology And Time series (TARCAT, Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-3B43, Climate Prediction Centre (CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR, CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, using locally developed gridded (0.05° rainfall data for 15 years (1998–2012 over East Africa. The products’ assessments were done at monthly and yearly timescales and were remapped to the gridded rain gauge data spatial scale during the March to May (MAM and October to December (OND rainy seasons. A grid-based statistical comparison between the two datasets was used, but only pixel values located at the rainfall stations were considered for validation. Additionally, the impact of topography on the performance of the products was assessed by analyzing the pixels in areas of highest negative bias. All the products could substantially replicate rainfall patterns, but their differences are mainly based on retrieving high rainfall amounts, especially of localized orographic types. The products exhibited systematic errors, which

  2. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim


    experiments and areas where ‘traditional’ farming is practised. Our aim is to ground-truth interpretation of δ15N values in archaeobotanical crop remains as evidence of past growing conditions and husbandry practices. The results confirm the potentially radical impact of manuring on δ15N values in cereals......, depending on manuring level, but indicate only a slight effect on pulses, which can fix atmospheric nitrogen. The expected geographical trend towards greater δ15N with increasing climatic aridity is not apparent, probably because the growing conditions for crops are ‘buffered’ through crop management. Each...... of these observations has fundamental implications for archaeobotanical interpretation of δ15N values as evidence of land use practices and (together with analysis of bone collagen/tooth enamel in potential consumers) palaeodiet....

  3. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.


    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  4. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä


    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  5. In-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for sustainable biodiesel production. (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W


    This work addresses in-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) for the production of biodiesel. For in-situ transesterification process, the methanol, organic solvent and acid catalyst were mixed with wet SCG in one pot and the mixture was heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. Maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 16.75wt.% based on the weight of dry SCG at 95°C. Comprehensive experiments were conducted with varying temperatures and various amounts of moisture, methanol, co-solvent and acid catalyst. Moderate polar and alcohol-miscible organic solvent is suitable for the high FAME yield. Unsaturated FAMEs are subject to oxidative cleavage by nitric acid and shorter chain (C6 and C10) FAMEs were mainly produced while sulfuric acid yielded long chain unsaturated FAMEs (C16 and C18). Utilization of wet SCGs as a biodiesel feedstock gives economic and environmental benefits by recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium production - needs and 'in the ground' resources, situation in 2007 and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.


    Under the combined effect of energies price increase and of the worldwide growing fear of global warming effects, nuclear power is again entering a favorable era. The questions of how much and how long it might bring a significant contribution to global power supplies must be addressed. In particular, it is worth considering uranium production capability and its long term perspective, in accordance to the currently available knowledge about uranium resources. Also, the issue of world resources geographic distribution should be analyzed from a security of supply viewpoint. The careful analysis of all available information leads us to the following conclusive remarks. The current tension on uranium market prices is by no mean a signal of 'in the ground' resources depletion. It is just the temporary consequence of a too long depressed market. There are enough identified and foreseen uranium resources to quietly start a huge power plant fleet increase (a doubling or tripling the current installed capacity by 2030). Ultimately, several types within the generation 4 reactors allow us to envisage a very far extended use of currently available fissile and fertile nuclear material, along with a significant expansion of fission based nuclear power. (author)

  7. Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Scurlock, J. M. O.; Turner, R. S.; Jennings, S. V.


    Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote-sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program's (IGBP's) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Scurlock, J.M.O. [King`s College London, (England); Jennings, S.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote- sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme`s (IGBP`s) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Solvo-thermal in situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for the production of biodiesel. (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Son, Jeesung; Lee, Jae W


    This work addresses non-catalytic biodiesel production from spent coffee ground (SCG) by integrating solvo-thermal effect of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) with in situ transesterification over 160 °C. The SCG water content has a positive effect on the DCE hydrolysis up to 60 wt% due to the bimolecular substitution mechanism. The hydrolysis gives an acidic environment favorable for cellulose decomposition, SCG particle size reduction and lipid conversion. The optimal fatty acid ethyl ester yield was 11.8 wt% based on the mass of dried SCG with 3.36 ml ethanol and 3.16 ml DCE at 196.8 °C through the response surface methodology. Using the solvo-thermal effect, direct utilization of wet SCG as a biodiesel feedstock provides not only economic feasibility without using drying process and additional acid catalyst but also environmental advantage of recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Kristensen, Søren B.P.; Traoré, Oumar


    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha −1 , depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  11. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  12. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri


    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  13. The Need for Cooperation in Cereal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der


    The trends and needs in cereal research as discussed in 2003 AACC annual meeting are presented. The seminar identified the need of feeding a growing world population with less arable land and under more adverse agronomic conditions. An urgent need of eliminating mycotoxins and coeliac diseases to

  14. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.


    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain prote...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  16. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida


    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  17. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain. (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H


    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  18. Detection genetic variability of secale cereale L. by scot markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová


    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is our traditional cereal used for baking. The genetic variability of grown rye has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which subsequently prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a gene pool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect genetic variability among the set of 45 rye genotypes using 8 SCoT markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 45 genotypes, using SCoT analysis, yielded 114 fragments, with an average of 14.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. The most polymorphic primer was SCoT 36, where 21 polymorphic amplification products were detected. In contract the lowest polymorphic primer was SCoT 45 with 5 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the rye genotypes were divided into 2 main clusters. One rye genotype Motto, origin from Poland formed a separate subcluster (1b. Subscluster 2a included only genotype Valtické (CSK. In this experiment, SCoT proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  19. The importance, biology and management of cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mokrini


    Full Text Available Cereals are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, plant-parasitic nematodes play an important role in decreasing crop yield. Cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs are known to be a major constraint to wheat production in several parts of the world. Significant economic losses due to CCNs have been reported. Recognition and identification of CCNs are the first steps in nematode management. This paper reviews the current distribution of CCNs in different parts of the world and the recent advances in nematode identification. The different approaches for managing CCNs are also discussed.

  20. Aspects of the selection, design and use of high lysine cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munck, L.


    A discussion of the need for and the considerations involved in the breeding of high lysine cereals is presented. Progress in the discovery and exploitation of genotypes with high lysine characters in maize and barley are briefly reviewed. The role and some of the characteristics of the dye-binding capacity (DBC) methods are evaluated along with the ways in which DBC results should be used in combination with other information. Lastly, the changes in attitudes and procedures associated with the acceptance of a product of a new technology such as nutritionally improved cereals is discussed. (author)

  1. Confronting remote sensing product with ground base measurements across time and scale (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Dietze, M.


    Ecosystem models are essential tools in forecasting ecosystem responses to global climate change. One of the most challenging issues in ecosystem modeling is scaling while preserving landscape characteristics and minimizing loss of information, when moving from point observation to regional scale. There is a keen interest in providing accurate inputs for ecosystem models which represent ecosystem initial state conditions. Remote sensing land cover products, such as Landsat NLCD and MODIS MCD12Q1, provide extensive spatio-temporal coverage but do not capture forest composition and structure. Lidar and hyperspectral have the potential to meet this need but lack sufficient spatial and historical coverage. Forest inventory measurements provide detailed information on the landscape but in a very small footprint. Combining inventory and land cover could improve estimates of ecosystem state and characteristic across time and space. This study focuses on the challenges associated with fusing and scaling the US Forest Service FIA database and NLCD across regional scales to quantify ecosystem characteristics and reduce associated uncertainties. Across Southeast of U.S. 400 stratified random samples of 10x10 km2 landscapes were selected. Data on plant density, species, age, and DBH of trees in FIA plots within each site were extracted. Using allometry equations, the canopy cover of different plant functional types (PFTs) was estimated using a PPA-style canopy model and used to assign each inventory plot to a land cover class. Inventory and land cover were fused in a Bayesian model that adjusts the fractional coverage of inventory plots while accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. Results were compared to estimates derived from inventory alone, land cover alone, and model spin-up alone. Our findings create a framework of data assimilation to better interpret remote sensing data using ground-based measurements.

  2. Evaluation of ground calcite/water heavy media cyclone suspensions for production of residual plastic concentrates. (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm; Sierra, Héctor Muñiz; Menéndez, Mario; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier


    Viable recycled residual plastic (RP) product(s) must be of sufficient quality to be reusable as a plastic or source of hydrocarbons or fuel. The varied composition and large volumes of such wastes usually requires a low cost, high through-put recycling method(s) to eliminate contaminants. Cyclone separation of plastics by density is proposed as a potential method of achieving separations of specific types of plastics. Three ground calcite separation medias of different grain size distributions were tested in a cylindrical cyclone to evaluate density separations at 1.09, 1.18 and 1.27 g/cm 3 . The differences in separation recoveries obtained with these medias by density offsets produced due to displacement of separation media solid particles within the cyclone caused by centrifugal settling is evaluated. The separation density at which 50% of the material of that density is recovered was found to increase from 0.010 to 0.026 g/cm 3 as the separation media density increased from 1.09 to 1.27 g/cm 3 . All separation medias were found to have significantly low Ep 95 values of 0.012-0.033 g/cm 3 . It is also demonstrated that the presence of an excess content of 75%) resulted in reduced separation efficiencies. It is shown that the optimum separations were achieved when the media density offset was 0.03-0.04 g/cm 3 . It is shown that effective heavy media cyclone separations of RP denser than 1.0 g/cm 3 can produce three sets of mixed plastics containing: PS and ABS/SAN at densities of >1.0-1.09 g/cm 3 ; PC, PMMA at a density of 1.09-1.18 g/cm 3 ; and PVC and PET at a density of >1.27 g/cm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum reveals signatures of divergent evolution within a major cereal pathogen (United States)

    The cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a significant threat to food safety and crop production. To elucidate population structure and identify genomic targets of selection within major FHB pathogen populations in North America we sequenced the...


    Elevated particulate concentrations in ground water samples can bias contaminant concentration data. This has been particularly problematic for metal analyses where artificially increased turbidity levels can affect metals concentrations and confound interpretation of the data. H...

  5. Classification of matrix-product ground states corresponding to one-dimensional chains of two-state sites of nearest neighbor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Amir


    A complete classification is given for one-dimensional chains with nearest-neighbor interactions having two states in each site, for which a matrix product ground state exists. The Hamiltonians and their corresponding matrix product ground states are explicitly obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík


    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Koman


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Bread is the most common and traditional food in the world. For years, enzymes such as malt and fungal alpha-amylase have been used in bread making. Due to the changes in the baking industry and the ever-increasing demand for more natural products, enzymes have gained real importance in bread-making. If an enzyme is added, it is often destroyed by the heat during the baking process. For generations, enzymes have been used for the improvement of texture and appearance, enhancement of nutritional values and generation of appealing flavours and aromas. Enzymes used in bakery industry constitute nearly one third of the market. The bakery products have undergone radical improvements in quality over the past years in terms of flavour, texture and shelf-life. The the biggest contributor for these improvementsis the usage of enzymes. Present work seeks to systematically describe bakery enzymes, their classification, benefits, usage and chemical reactions in the bread making process.doi:10.5219/193

  8. Presence of aflatoxins in cereals from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.


    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs, one of the most toxic and the strongest natural carcinogens can be found in a variety of food commodities, including cereals. For that purpose, the aim of this study was to investigate occurrence of AFs (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 in 130 cereal samples. AFs content was determined by direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Samples with AFs content higher than 1 μg/kg were analyzed again with confirmatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Analyses showed that none of the analyzed wheat (30, barley (20, oats (20 and rye (20 samples was contaminated with AFs. On the other hand, among 40 analyzed maize samples 24 of them (60% were contaminated in the following way: 6 (25% samples had AFs concentration between 1 and 10 μg/kg, 14 (58% samples between 10 and 50 μg/kg and 4 (17% between 50 and 70.3 μg/kg. The most predominant aflatoxin was AFB1 which was detected in all contaminated maize samples. AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 were found in 12, 5 and 1 sample, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of the occurrence of AFs in five different cereals from Serbia.

  9. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maneva


    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  10. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan


    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  11. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ccm 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis ccm 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Romanová


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus is the most representative strain in a group of lactic acid bacteria, which perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Lactic acid fermentation is the oldest traditional method for preparation of fermented vegetables, meat products, dairy products and cereal foods. Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people. The main exploitation of cereals is to prepare sourdough, which is a mixture of wheat, rye or other cereal flour with water and contains yeasts and lactobacilli. The basic biochemical changes that occur in sourdough bread fermentation are acidification of the dough with organic acids produced by the lactobacilli and leavening with carbon dioxide produced by the yeast and the lactobacilli. Acidification perhaps initiate enzymatic processes of proteins and phytates degradation. Lactobacilli produce various enzymes which make flavour precursors, improve of mineral bioavailability or degrade celiac active peptides, because some species of lactobacilli produce specific peptidases during growth, which are capable to hydrolyze hardly cleavable, celiac-active proline-rich peptides. Microbial fermentation with selected strains of lactobacilli may be new alternative approach for modification of gluten by hydrolysis. In this paper are described growth characteristics and intracellular aminopeptidases activities of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815. Work was focused on characterization of the lactobacilli for potential usage as a starter culture in further fermentation experiments.

  12. Impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production on above and below-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bech Bruun, Thilde


    The need to mitigate climate change makes production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Substituting fossil fuels by biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas has gained widespread attention as Jatropha cultivation is claimed to offer green house gas emission reductions. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests into Jatropha, but whether Jatropha-based biodiesel offers carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to Jatropha. This paper provides an impact assessment of a small-scale Jatropha project in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above and below-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase Jatropha production. The results show that expansion of Jatropha production will most likely lead to the conversion of miombo forest areas to Jatropha, which implies a reduction in above and below-ground carbon stocks. The carbon debts created by the land use change can be repaid by replacing fossil fuels with Jatropha-based biodiesel. A repayment time of almost two centuries is found with optimistic estimates of the carbon debt, while the use of pessimistic values results in a repayment time that approaches the millennium. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of Jatropha-based biodiesel a priority. ► Farmers in Northern Mozambique are likely to convert un-logged miombo to Jatropha. ► Converting miombo to Jatropha creates reductions in above and below-ground carbon. ► It takes 187–966 years to repay emissions from above and below-ground carbon stocks.

  13. Effect of Humidity of Poly-Cereal Flour Mixture and Screw Rotation Rate on Efficiency of Extrusion Process (United States)

    Ospanov, ?bdymanap ?.; Muslimov, Nurzhan Zh.; Timurbekova, ?igul ?.; Jumabekova, Gulnar? B.


    The food industry is an important constituent of a country's economy, which provides the population with food. The development of the food industry and the supply of food products to the entire population requires improving food-manufacturing technologies, such as the process for production of extruded poly-cereal food products using…

  14. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  15. Fermented cereal beverages: from probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic towards Nanoscience designed healthy drinks. (United States)

    Salmerón, I


    The consumption of fermented foods by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food Science and Technology has progressed from designing nutritional foods towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of nondairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products. Finally, through Nanoscience and the application of Nanotechnology techniques in the food sector, it has been possible to design fermented beverages with synbiotic properties, and the incorporation of nanoparticles with unique and specific bioactivity, which has opened a new horizon in this segment of food created to improve human health and well-being. There is currently a great interest in producing healthy food in particular that which has an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Most of these functional foods are dairy based and have been greatly accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products. This has encouraged food scientists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. Therefore, in this review we have addressed the significance of applying cereals and their fractions for the development of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic beverages. Furthermore, we have presented the importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive

  16. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system (United States)

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  17. Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Teixeira, Jose A.


    Extracts rich in polysaccharides were obtained by alkali pretreatment (PA) or autohydrolysis (PB) of spent coffee grounds, and incorporated into a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based film aiming at the development of bio-based films with new functionalities. Different concentrations of PA or PB (up...

  18. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites. (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L


    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques.

  19. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric


    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  20. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene


    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  1. Sorption Regularities in Behaviour of Fission-Product Elements during Filtration of their Solutions through Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, V. I.; Balukova, V. D.; Gromov, V. V.; Zakharov, S. I.; Zhagin, B. P.; Spiridonov, F. M.


    Research on the sorption of radioisotopes under natural conditions employing the controlled filtration process was performed. Radioisotopes were introduced into the solution as soon as filtration had become steady and the process continued for four months. Soil samples were then taken by drilling at different depths and analysed to determine their radioisotope content. Diffusion of radioisotopes was observed at depths of up to 10 m; two distinct boundaries of soil-activity decrease were ascertained: at the surface of the site and at the depth of the solution filtration front. In addition, the radiostrontium absorption by natural sorbents, principally pure minerals widely distributed in soils and subsoils, was investigated separately. The presence of calcium ions, even in small quantities, sharply reduces the degree of radiostrontium sorption. However, other conditions being equal, strontium may be absorbed to a greater extent than calcium, according to the composition of the sorbent. The field investigations of radiostrontium sorption and migration showed that when filtering radioactive solutions two possible variants have to be taken into account. In the first case the solutions are discharged into soil unaffected by any flow of ground water. In this situation the radiostrontium is retained by the soil. In the second case, the radioisotopes proceed directly into the water-bearing horizon. The radiostrontium will then migrate with the ground water flow and through the soil and this migration will be further affected by the sorption and desorption processes occurring. The experiments performed demonstrate the ease with which long-lived radioisotopes migrate under natural conditions and call attention to the need for thorough study of ground water problems in connexion with various methods of disposing of radioactive waste into ground. (author)

  2. Development of Deep Learning Based Data Fusion Approach for Accurate Rainfall Estimation Using Ground Radar and Satellite Precipitation Products (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.; Tan, H.; Cifelli, R.; Xie, P.


    Rainfall estimation based on onboard satellite measurements has been an important topic in satellite meteorology for decades. A number of precipitation products at multiple time and space scales have been developed based upon satellite observations. For example, NOAA Climate Prediction Center has developed a morphing technique (i.e., CMORPH) to produce global precipitation products by combining existing space based rainfall estimates. The CMORPH products are essentially derived based on geostationary satellite IR brightness temperature information and retrievals from passive microwave measurements (Joyce et al. 2004). Although the space-based precipitation products provide an excellent tool for regional and global hydrologic and climate studies as well as improved situational awareness for operational forecasts, its accuracy is limited due to the sampling limitations, particularly for extreme events such as very light and/or heavy rain. On the other hand, ground-based radar is more mature science for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), especially after the implementation of dual-polarization technique and further enhanced by urban scale radar networks. Therefore, ground radars are often critical for providing local scale rainfall estimation and a "heads-up" for operational forecasters to issue watches and warnings as well as validation of various space measurements and products. The CASA DFW QPE system, which is based on dual-polarization X-band CASA radars and a local S-band WSR-88DP radar, has demonstrated its excellent performance during several years of operation in a variety of precipitation regimes. The real-time CASA DFW QPE products are used extensively for localized hydrometeorological applications such as urban flash flood forecasting. In this paper, a neural network based data fusion mechanism is introduced to improve the satellite-based CMORPH precipitation product by taking into account the ground radar measurements. A deep learning system is

  3. An Empirical Analysis of Equilibrium Pricing and Advertising in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market


    Michael Cohen; Adam Rabinowitz


    We introduce a model of dynamic price and advertising competition and use the model to investigate a popular segment of the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Market. It is well understood that advertising is a key non-price strategic demand determinant in differentiated product markets. Two popular and compatible models for the role of advertising have emerged. One model specifies advertising as a determinant of a consumer's level of product awareness (informative) and the other model specifies advertising...

  4. Thorium contents in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindik, O.


    Thorium contents (α-activities of the naturally occurring isotopes Th-228, Th-230, and Th-232) were detrmined in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits. The thorium content of plants depends on the degree of contamination by soil resuspension and thus on the specific surface of the plants. The activity of the isotope Th-230 is almost the same as that of the main isotope Th-232. Th-228, with about the same activity as Th-232 in soil, increases to about 10-fold the activity in vegetables, 29-fold in sweet chestnuts and 740-fold in Brazil nuts. Thorium concentration factors from the soil to these vegetable products are calculated; they include the total concentration, not only the soluble portion of thorium. (orig.) [de

  5. New radiocarbon dates on the cereals from Wadi Kubbaniya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendorf, F.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.


    In 1978, three carbonized grains of barley and a carbonized grain of einkorn wheat were found in a buried hearth at a Late Paleolithic site at Wadi Kubbaniya in Egypt. In 1981, two large clusters of barley seeds, which were identified as six-row barley and thus domestic, were found at a nearby site of comparable age. Numerous grinding stones, presumed to have been used for processing the cereals, were found in these and other sites, often deeply buried, and 30 radiocarbon dates placed the occupations between 18,500 and 17,000 radiocarbon years ago. These finds led us to suggest an early origin of food production, with implications for the initial development of complex societies. Several barley seeds were analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy to determine the maximal temperature to which they had been subjected before burial. Six barley seeds and three small pieces of wood charcoal were dated directly by using a tandem accelerator mass spectrometer

  6. The ground stone assemblage of a metal workers community: An unexplored dimension of Iron Age copper production at Timna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Greener


    In the framework of the renewed excavations at several of the copper smelting sites at Timna, a pioneering study was conducted in which more than 1000 ground stone tools were identified and registered. These tools include, among others, grinding stones, pounders, anvils and mortars; most were manufactured of compacted sandstone and granite, exposed in several locations in the valley. In this paper we present a typology and quantitative analysis of the ground stone tools which were used by the metal workers, and offer an interpretation of how the various types of tools were employed as part of the copper production process. This provides new insights regarding the smelting process and the conditions needed for its successful outcome.

  7. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  8. Upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions. (United States)

    Bhanja Dey, T; Kuhad, R C


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 30°C for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, Aspergillus awamori MTCC No. 548, Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties including ABTS(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and DPPH(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of four whole grain cereals, namely wheat, brown rice, maize and oat. A maximum 14-fold improvement in TPC (11·61 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) grain) was observed in A. oryzae fermented wheat, while extract of R. oryzae fermented wheat (ROFW) showed maximum of 6·6-fold and fivefold enhancement of DPPH(●) scavenging property (8·54 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain) and ABTS(●+) scavenging activity (19·5 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain), respectively. The study demonstrates that SSF is an efficient method for the improvement of antioxidant potentials of cereals and R. oryzae RCK2012 fermented wheat can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich food products are getting popularity day by day. In this study, potential of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for the improvement of antioxidant potential of different cereals by GRAS micro-organisms. The comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of various fungal fermented products derived from whole grain cereals, such as wheat, brown rice, oat and maize, has been carried out. Among these, Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012-fermented wheat was observed as a potent source of natural antioxidants. A diet containing fermented cereals would be useful for the prevention of free radical-mediated diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary


    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  10. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo


    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  12. Study on Full Supply Chain Quality and Safetytraceability Systems For Cereal And Oilproducts (United States)

    Liu, Shihong; Zheng, Huoguo; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan; Wu, Jiangshou; Li, Chunhua

    Global food industry and Governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food safety management. Aimed at the major quality problems of cereal and oil products existing in the production, processing, warehousing, distribution and other links in the supply chain, this paper firstly proposes a new traceability framework combines the information flow with critical control points and quality indicators. Then it introduces traceability database design and data access mode to realize the framework. In practice, Code design for tracing goods is a challenge thing, so this paper put forward a code system based on UCC/EAN-128 standard.Middleware and Electronic terminal design are also briefly introduced to accomplish traceability system for cereal and oil products.

  13. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes. (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W


    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  14. Influence of ground level enhancements on the terrestrial production of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Konstantin; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Beer, Juerg [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG (Switzerland); Tylka, Allan J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Dietrich, William F. [Praxis, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)


    Cosmogenic radionuclides are a product of the interaction of primary cosmic rays, in particular galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), with the Earth's atmosphere. But only primary particles with energies above several 100 MeV can trigger the necessary reaction chains. Because GCRs are modulated by the solar activity on their way through the interplanetary medium the GCR-induced cosmogenic radionuclide production is anti-correlated to the solar cycle. During phases of strong solar activity also solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur frequently. In particular SEP events which can be detected by ground-based instruments, so-called ground level enhancements (GLEs), may strongly contribute to the cosmogenic radionuclide production. Beside the variation due to the modulation of GCRs we investigate the influence of 58 GLEs, which occurred within the past five solar cycles and discuss the possibility to detect such events in present ice-core and tree-ring records. In addition, an estimate for the probability to find such events over the past 10'000 years, also known as Holocene, during different modulation conditions are given.

  15. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals. (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Laerke, Helle Nygaard


    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases-coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption. Associated with the DF matrix of cereals is an array of nonnutritive constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Among them, the phenolic phytochemicals, benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans, are of importance in a nutritional-health perspective. Only a small fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other metabolites that are absorbed into the body and with the capability of influencing the metabolism at the cellular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine. (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S


    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  17. Irradiation on cereal bars incorporated with pineapple skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques; Silva, Yasmini Portes Abraham; Costa, Naiane Vieira; Almeida, Thatyana Lacerda; Damiani, Clarissa; Arthur, Valter; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez


    One of the major current concerns to the food industry is the management of residues generated in its production processes. Thus, several studies have been developed, seeking alternative uses for these residues, in order to minimize environmental impacts and add value to products previously discarded. Combining this idea with the increasingly search for healthy and practical products, by consumers, this study aimed the characterization of cereal bars irradiated with doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy, and 2 kGy, incorporated with dried pineapple skin. The following analyses were carried out: moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, carbohydrates, energetic value, antioxidant potential, phenolic content, organic acids, and fatty acids profile. The results observed for the centesimal composition did not vary as a function of the radiation doses used, reducing only the levels of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and organic acids. The product showed potential for becoming an effective way of reusing a food industry residue and the irradiation interfered on the nutritional characteristics of the final product. (author)

  18. Challenges to develop nitrogen-fixing cereals by direct nif-gene transfer. (United States)

    Curatti, Leonardo; Rubio, Luis M


    Some regions of the developing world suffer low cereal production yields due to low fertilizer inputs, among other factors. Biological N2 fixation, catalyzed by the prokaryotic enzyme nitrogenase, is an alternative to the use of synthetic N fertilizers. The molybdenum nitrogenase is an O2-labile metalloenzyme composed of the NifDK and NifH proteins, which biosyntheses require a number of nif gene products. A challenging strategy to increase cereal crop productivity in a scenario of low N fertilization is the direct transfer of nif genes into cereals. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to O2 and the apparent complexity of nitrogenase biosynthesis are the main barriers identified so far. Expression of active NifH requires the products of nifM, nifH, and possibly nifU and nifS, whereas active NifDK requires the products of nifH, nifD, nifK, nifB, nifE, nifN, and possibly nifU, nifS, nifQ, nifV, nafY, nifW and nifZ. Plastids and mitochondria are potential subcellular locations for nitrogenase. Both could provide the ATP and electrons required for nitrogenase to function but they differ in their internal O2 levels and their ability to incorporate ammonium into amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.


    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  20. East African governments' responses to high cereal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, G.W.; Roza, P.; Berkum, van S.


    This study analyses the responses of governments in four East African countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia) with respect to price formation and price transmission in the cereal sector. All four countries were confronted with high cereal prices in 2008. Government policies applied largely

  1. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  2. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  3. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E


    The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring...... loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic...... systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark...

  4. Weeds in spring cereal fields in Finland - a third survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring cereal fields was conducted in 16 regions of southern and central Finland in 1997-1999. Data were collected from conventional and organic farms, both of which applied their normal cropping practices. A total of 690 fields were investigated by counting and weighing the weed species from ten sample quadrats 0.1 m2 in size in late July - early August. Altogether 160 weed species were found, of which 134 were broad-leaved and 26 grass species. The total number of weed species ranged from 41 to 84 between regions. In organically farmed fields, the average species number was 24 and in conventionally farmed fields 16. The most frequent weed species were Viola arvensis 84%, Stellaria media 76% and Galeopsis spp. 70%. Only 18 species exceeded the frequency level of 33%. The average density of weeds was 136 m-2 (median= 91 in sprayed conventional fields, 420 m-2 (374 in unsprayed conventional fields and 469 m-2 (395 in organic fields. The average air-dry above-ground biomass of weeds was 163 kg ha-1 (median=63, 605 kg ha-1 (413 and 678 kg ha-1 (567, respectively. Weed biomass accounted for 3% of the total biomass of the crop stand in sprayed conventional fields and for 17% in organic fields. Elymus repens, the most frequent grass species, produced the highest proportion of weed biomass.

  5. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same (United States)


    ... cease and desist order prohibiting AED from selling or distributing infringing articles in the United... and welfare; (2) competitive conditions in the U.S. economy; (3) U.S. production of articles that are...

  6. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn


    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon3, 4. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear3. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...

  7. Study and development of three jaboncillo (Sapindus saponaria L.) products as grounding in its industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechas, Henry; Arango, Camilo; Morales, Nelly B; Jimenez, Jhon


    This research included the chemical and phyto chemical studies and the industrial scaling in pilot plant of three products of Sapindus saponaria, commonly known as jaboncillo, Michu. This work is part of an interdisciplinary research project aimed at the exploitation and commercialization of its harvested products: oil, gum, and triterpenoidal sapogenins. These three products were obtained through physical and chemical processes both in laboratory (phase 1) and in the industrial scaling stage (phase 2). During the laboratory stage different methods of extraction and purification were studied and assessed, along with the corresponding methods of chemical analysis for the three origins (Palmira, Valle; Viota, Cundinamarca, and Santa Maria, Huila). Based on laboratory studies, extraction and purification processes were designed in a pilot plant supplied by the QUINACOL Ltda. company, whose business is the production, research and development of products for the phyto pharmaceutical industry. Developed products were characterized by methods of instrumental analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C), flame ionization detector gas chromatography (GC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and specific chemical analysis techniques designed for these products. The mature fruit of Santa Maria presented increased performance of oil and rubber; as well as the green fruit of Viota, in a substance called Ss1, possibly hederagenina. Of the products obtained in the pilot phase, oil presented a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and rubber showed a high thickening capacity in aqueous solutions. Oil and rubber could be marketed from this species' fruit, because its composition and characteristics, as well as its performance, meets the main parameters of marketing, for which studies on industrial perfectibility are needed.

  8. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You


    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  9. Transformation of Food Habits through Promotion of Under-Utilized Cereals in High Hills of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Pramod; Bajracharya, Keshari; Chalise, Ananda


    Full text: Malnutrition is a persistent social setback in Nepal. High hills in Nepal is considered as the headquarter of the malnourished people as it holds almost the twice of stunted children than the national average. Food insecurity is the major causes of malnutrition as there is low agriculture production followed by difficult terrain and poor road connectivity. Nevertheless, there are several types of locally produced cereals that are under-utilized because of the traditional food-habit of eating rice. In order to bring a change in local food habit by the high-hill residents, attempts were made in processing of under-utilized cereals. Six different cereals were processed into super flour, porridge, cookies, flakes and traditional sweets for which locally accessible home level processing technology was used. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Porso Millet (Panicum miliaceum), Buck Wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Amaranth (Amaranth caudatus) and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) were processed into diverse products that suit to the local taste. The processing steps were standardized and laboratory analysis was carried out. It was then distributed to local development partners through trainers' training. Now, local people have started processing and consuming these products. It is anticipated that processed products promotion helps in solving food insecurity to some extent, and contributes in reducing malnutrition for the children below two. (author)

  10. Effect of different rates of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on composting process, gaseous emissions and quality of end-product. (United States)

    Santos, Cátia; Fonseca, João; Aires, Alfredo; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique


    The use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) in composting for organic farming is a viable way of valorising these agro-industrial residues. In the present study, four treatments with different amounts of spent coffee grounds (SCG) were established, namely, C 0 (Control), C 10 , C 20 and C 40 , containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% of SCG (DM), respectively; and their effects on the composting process and the end-product quality characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were completed with Acacia dealbata L. shoots and wheat straw. At different time intervals during composting, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions were measured and selected physicochemical characteristics of the composts were evaluated. During the composting process, all treatments showed a substantial decrease in total phenolics and total tannins, and an important increase in gallic acid. Emissions of greenhouse gases were very low and no significant difference between the treatments was registered. The results indicated that SCG may be successfully composted in all proportions. However C 40 , was the treatment which combined better conditions of composting, lower GHG emissions and better quality of end product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  12. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products. (United States)

    Cho, Min Guk; Bae, Su Min; Jeong, Jong Youn


    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed ( p cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar ( p >0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher ( p egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

  13. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France. (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge


    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  14. Lists of semi-dwarf cereal stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The lists are prepared in relation to the Co-ordinated Research Programme. At the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on evaluation of cereal semi-dwarf mutants for cross breeding, March 1981, programme participants were requested to list semi-dwarf mutants available at their institutes including also non-induced semi-dwarf stocks being used in cross-breeding programme for short stature. List-I is prepared from such lists provided by programme participants. Further it was requested to name breeders and institutes providing characteristics of the listed semi-dwarf stocks. List-II gives that information. In the List-I: Parents of semi-dwarf stocks derived from cross breeding, are shown in brackets. In column ''Culm length'', figures are in cm and those of parent cultivars are shown in brackets

  15. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen


    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  16. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi


    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  17. On Uneven Ground: How Corporate Governance Prioritizes Short-term Speculative Investments, Impedes Productive Investments, and Jeopardizes Productivity Growth


    Christian E. Weller; Luke Reidenbach


    The economic recovery after the Great Recession highlighted a continuous divergence between soaring profits and lagging investment. These trends are related at the corporate level, where corporate managers have stronger incentives to pursue short-term profit-seeking activities than to invest in longer-term productive activities, such as hiring and training people and investment in physical infrastructure. This prioritization results because the corporate governance system is biased towards th...

  18. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...


    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea) is the principal herbicide used in grass seed production. The occurrence and distribution of diuron was investigated at a poorly-drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette ...

  20. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews

  1. Thermic model to predict biogas production in unheated fixed-dome digesters buried in the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terradas-Ill, Georgina; Cuong, Pham Hung; Triolo, Jin Mi


    buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope...

  2. The field-tested and grounded technological rule as product of mode 2 management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.


    The relevance problem of academic management research in organization and management is an old and thorny one. Recent discussions on this issue have resulted in proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge production in our field. These discussions focused mainly on the process of research itself and less

  3. The effects of high pressure treatments on C. jejuni in ground poultry products containing polyphosphate additives (United States)

    Marinades containing polyphosphates have been previously implicated in the enhanced survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry product exudates. The enhanced Campylobacter survival was attributed primarily to the ability of some polyphosphates to change the pH of the exudate to one more amenable to ...

  4. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E


    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  5. Microbial culture selection for bio-hydrogen production from waste ground wheat by dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Hidayet; Kargi, Fikret; Kapdan, Ilgi K. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)


    Hydrogen formation performances of different anaerobic bacteria were investigated in batch dark fermentation of waste wheat powder solution (WPS). Serum bottles containing wheat powder were inoculated with pure cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum (CAB), Clostridium butyricum (CB), Enterobacter aerogenes (EA), heat-treated anaerobic sludge (ANS) and a mixture of those cultures (MIX). Cumulative hydrogen formation (CHF), hydrogen yield (HY) and specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) were determined for every culture. The heat-treated anaerobic sludge was found to be the most effective culture with a cumulative hydrogen formation of 560 ml, hydrogen yield of 223 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch and a specific hydrogen production rate of 32.1 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} h{sup -1}. (author)

  6. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa


    Kimani, M.W.; Hoedjes, Johannes Cornelis Bernardus; Su, Z.


    Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better agricultural and water management decision-making and planning. In East Africa, accurate rainfall estimation with an adequate spatial distribution is limited due to sparse rain gauge networks. Satellite rainfall products can potentially play a role in increasing the spatial coverage of rainfall estimates; however, their performance needs to be understood across space–time scales and factors...

  7. Radio-Agriculture - Ground and Space-Based Determination of Agricultural Productivity (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    The decision to sow seeds in a field, either on a local level (such as on an individual plot) or on vast agricultural complexes, is irreversible. Once the seed is sown, provided there is liquid water, tem- perature conditions are adequate and in some cases light is available, it will germinate. The timing of seed sowing has important effects on subsequent agricultural productivity [1-4]. The correlation between time of sowing and productivity causes several problems. Firstly, sowing seed depends absolutely upon a correct judgement on weather conditions, sometimes to the day. Secondly, not all crops need to be sown at the same time and so resources in manpower and equipment must be available for sowing different crops at different times. Great im- provements in resource allocation could be made if all seeds could be sown at the same time. Thirdly, there is no flexibility once resources to sowing have been committed. For example, in large agricultural areas manpower and machinery might be committed at particular times of the year to sowing, but if the weather conditions are not correct either they must be re-scheduled or productivity is lost. Local factors such as irrigation system availability might also impose upon a farmer a wish to be able to regulate the germination of particular fields, particularly in developing countries.

  8. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain


    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  9. A meta-analysis of relative crop yields in cereal/legume mixtures suggests options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yang; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Makowski, David; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke


    Intercrops of cereals and legumes are grown worldwide, both in smallholder agriculture in developing countries and in organic farming systems in developed countries. The competitive balance between species is a key factor determining productivity in mixtures. Management factors, e.g. sowing time,

  10. Assessment of the nutritive value of cereal and legume straws based on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, S.; Davies, D.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.


    The nutritive value of 17 straws was determined on the basis of their chemical composition, in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics (from gas production curves measured in vitro). Five roughages were from the cereal species Avena sativa (oat), Hordeum vulgare (barley),

  11. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors. (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel


    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  12. Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management. (United States)

    Ferrigo, Davide; Raiola, Alessandro; Causin, Roberto


    Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals.

  13. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Biljana M.


    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  14. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. (United States)


    ... produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking. ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. The...

  15. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  16. Parental adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with their adolescents´ cereals intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet (MD, abundant in whole grains, is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns. Given the health benefits of whole grain cereals as a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals, this study examined parental adherence to MD and its association with their adolescents’ cereals intake, in 203 parent-adolescent dyads. Adherence to MD was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for adolescents (13.5±1.2y and the Short Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire for parents (41.53±5.99y. Although the level of the parents’ adherence to MD did not significantly influence the adolescents´ weekly consumption frequency of pasta and rice, adolescents whose parents had higher adherence to MD (44.3% more often ate cereals or grains for breakfast (p=0.045 and less frequently, commercially baked goods or pastries (p=0.043. Adolescents of parents who had lower adherence to MD (55.7% stated that they would eat more whole grain bakery products (p=0.049 and more breakfast cereals (p=0.039 if those foods were more often available at home. Adolescents with parents who had higher adherence to MD stated that they were more often encouraged by their parents to eat whole grain bakery products (p=0.030, compared with their counterparts whose parents had lower adherence to MD. With this study, we revealed that food environment and parental eating behaviour are notable factors that influence adolescents’ dietary intake. Disease prevention health programs should focus more strongly on encouraging parents to adopt MD features in their family food environment.

  17. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays. (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J


    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  18. Physicochemical, nutritive and safety evaluation of local cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 30, 2014 ... practices and good manufacturing processing should be considered. Such initiatives need to be carried amongst local cereal producers to help minimize food safety risk and ... potential for contamination and deterioration with.

  19. Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods – A review. ... The realization that food has a role beyond provision of energy and body forming ... with growing interest in the research and development of functional foods.

  20. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.


    that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase-catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from the phytate-rich cereals at the simulated gastric......BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...

  1. Fruit and cereal bioactives: sources, chemistry, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem; Hall, Clifford, III


    "Presenting up-to-date data in an easy-to-use format, this comprehensive overview of the chemistry of bioactive components of fruits and cereals addresses the role of these compounds in determining...

  2. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.


    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  3. Comparison of ground based indices (API and AQI) with satellite based aerosol products. (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Cao, Chun-Xiang; Singh, Ramesh P


    Air quality in mega cities is one of the major concerns due to serious health issues and its indirect impact to the climate. Among mega cities, Beijing city is considered as one of the densely populated cities with extremely poor air quality. The meteorological parameters (wind, surface temperature, air temperature and relative humidity) control the dynamics and dispersion of air pollution. China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) started air pollution index (API) as of 2000 to evaluate air quality, but over the years, it was felt that the air quality is not well represented by API. Recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) started using a new index "air quality index (AQI)" from January 2013. We have compared API and AQI with three different MODIS (MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer, onboard the Terra/Aqua satellites) AOD (aerosol optical depth) products for ten months, January-October, 2013. The correlation between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be reasonably good as compared with API, mainly due to inclusion of PM2.5 in the calculation of AQI. In addition, for every month, the correlation coefficient between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be relatively higher in the month of February to May. According to the monthly average distribution of precipitation, temperature, and PM10, the air quality in the months of June-September was better as compared to those in the months of February-May. AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD show highly polluted days associated with dust event, representing true air quality of Beijing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) - a New Pest of Cereals in Croatia


    Tanja Gotlin Čuljak; Jasminka Igrc Barčić


    The first finding of the Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov in Croatia was registered in 1999. This insect is important pest of cereals (specially in wheat and barley) in USD and South Africa. Information on morphometrie allows a differentiation to other similar-looking species. The distribution of the species is briefly demonstrated. Damage to small grain cereals, range of host plants and possible strategies to control the aphids are presented.

  5. Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzesi, I.; Susan, M.


    The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

  6. Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Food: How to Reconcile Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Proteins with Safety for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Lamacchia


    Full Text Available The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a process somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.

  7. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.


    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  8. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.)


    La Hovary, C.; Danehower, D. A.; Ma, G.; Reberg-Horton, C.; Williamson, J. D.; Baerson, S. R.; Burton, J. D.


    Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX) levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of tot...

  9. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans. (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N


    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  10. Species of Heterodera cysts in cereal fields in Flanders. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole


    Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.

  11. Reconstruction of the muon production depth with ground array data based on the TTC (Time-Track Complementarity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valore L.


    Full Text Available The muon longitudinal profile along the shower axis depends on the nature of the primary particle and primary hadronic interaction with air nuclei. The measurement of muonic component inside showers generated by Very High Energy Cosmic Rays provides a very powerful tool for sensing high energy interactions between cosmic ray particles and air molecules. Fundamental parameters such as the interaction cross section, inelasticity, hadron production and multiplicity can be measured by comparing the development of shower electromagnetic component with that of muonic component. Since 1992 a method has been developed to combine the muon arrival direction in a ground based array for cosmic ray detection with their arrival delay with respect to the shower core. This combination permits to select high energy muons weakly scattered in the atmosphere and to reconstruct their height of production with good accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility to realize a “dual” apparatus able to detect both electromagnetic and muonic component at primary energies greater than 1017eV.

  12. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L. D.; Knobel, L. L.; Green, J. R.; Frape, S. K.


    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water

  13. Clear-sky irradiance simulation using GMAO products and its comparison to ground and CERES satellite observation (United States)

    Ham, S. H.; Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Huang, X.; Collow, A.


    Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS assimilated datasets are used to describe temperature and humidity profiles in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data processing. Given that advance versions of the assimilated data sets known as of Forward Processing (FP), FP Parallel (FPP), and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) datasets are available, we examine clear-sky irradiance calculation to see if accuracy is improved with these newer versions of GMAO datasets when their temperature and humidity profiles are used in computing irradiances. Two older versions, GEOS-5.2.0 and GEOS-5.4.1 are used for producing, respectively, Ed3 and Ed4 CERES data products. For the evaluation, CERES-derived TOA irradiances and observed ground-based surface irradiances are compared with the computed irradiances for clear skies identified by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Surface type dependent spectral emissivity is taken from an observationally-based monthly gridded emissivity dataset. TOA longwave (LW) irradiances computed with GOES-5.2.0 temperature and humidity profiles are biased low, up to -5 Wm-2, compared to CERES-derived TOA longwave irradiance over tropical oceans. In contrast, computed longwave irradiances agree well with CERES observations with the biases less than 2 W m-2 when GOES-5.4.1, FP v5.13, or MERRA-2 temperature and humidity are used. The negative biases of the TOA LW irradiance computed with GOES-5.2.0 appear to be related to a wet bias at 500-850 hPa layer. This indicates that if the input of CERES algorithm switches from GOES-5.2.0 to FP v5.13 or MERRA-2, the bias in clear-sky longwave TOA fluxes over tropical oceans is expected to be smaller. At surface, downward LW irradiances computed with FP v5.13 and MERRA-2 are biased low, up to -10 Wm-2, compared to ground observations over tropical oceans. The magnitude of the bias in the longwave surface irradiances

  14. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan George Thomas Lowe


    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterise the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviours. An orbitrap MS/MS proteomics technique defined the extracellular proteases secreted by Fusarium graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases.

  15. Crop-climate relationships of cereals in Greece and the impacts of recent climate trends (United States)

    Mavromatis, Theodoros


    Notwithstanding technological developments, agricultural production is still affected by uncontrollable factors, such weather and climate. Within this context, the present study aims at exploring the relative influence of growing season climate on the yields of major cereals (hard and soft wheat, maize, and barley) on a regional scale in Greece. To this end, crop-climate relationships and the impacts of climate trends over the period 1978-2005 were explored using linear regression and change point analysis (CPA). Climate data used include maximum (Tx) and minimum temperature (Tn), diurnal temperature range (Tr), precipitation (Prec), and solar radiation (Rad). Temperature effects were the most substantial. Yields reduced by 1.8-7.1 %/°C with increasing Tx and by 1.4-6.1 %/°C with decreasing Tr. The warming trends of Tn caused bilateral yield effects (from -3.7 to 8.4 %/°C). The fewer significantly increasing Rad and decreasing Prec anomalies were associated with larger yield decreases (within the range of 2.2 % MJ/m2/day (for maize) to 4.9 % MJ/m2/day (for hard wheat)) and smaller yield increases (from 0.04 to 1.4 %/mm per decade), respectively. Wheat and barley—the most vulnerable cereals—were most affected by the trends of extreme temperatures and least by Tr. On the contrary, solar radiation has proven to be the least affecting climate variable on all cereals. Despite the similarity in the direction of crop responses with both analyses, yield changes were much more substantial in the case of CPA analysis. In conclusion, regional climate change has affected Greek cereal productivity, in a few, but important for cereal production, regions. The results of this study are expected to be valuable in anticipating the effects of weather/climate on other warm regions worldwide, where the upper temperature limit for some cereals and further changes in climate may push them past suitability for their cultivation.

  16. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)]. (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A


    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  17. Recent Advances in Physical Post-Harvest Treatments for Shelf-Life Extension of Cereal Crops (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.


    As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards. In particular, physical treatments have gained popularity making chemical additives unnecessary. Therefore, this review focuses on recent advances in physical treatments with potential applications for microbial post-harvest decontamination of cereals. The treatments discussed in this article were evaluated for their ability to inhibit spoilage microorganisms and degrade mycotoxins without compromising the grain quality. All treatments evaluated in this review have the potential to inhibit grain spoilage microorganisms. However, each method has some drawbacks, making industrial application difficult. Even under optimal processing conditions, it is unlikely that cereals can be decontaminated of all naturally occurring spoilage organisms with a single treatment. Therefore, future research should aim for the development of a combination of treatments to harness their synergistic properties and avoid grain quality deterioration. For the degradation of mycotoxins the same conclusion can be drawn. In addition, future research must investigate the fate of degraded toxins, to assess the toxicity of their respective degradation products. PMID:29565832

  18. Malian children with moderate acute malnutrition who are treated with lipid-based dietary supplements have greater weight gains and recovery rates than those treated with locally produced cereal-legume products: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial. (United States)

    Ackatia-Armah, Robert S; McDonald, Christine M; Doumbia, Seydou; Erhardt, Juergen G; Hamer, Davidson H; Brown, Kenneth H


    Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), defined as weight-for-length z score between -3 and -2 or midupper arm circumference between 11.5 and 12.5 cm, affects ∼33 million children aged health centers in rural Mali were randomly assigned to provide to 1264 MAM children aged 6-35 mo one of 4 dietary supplements containing ∼500 kcal/d for 12 wk: 1) ready-to-use, lipid-based supplementary food (RUSF); 2) special corn-soy blend (CSB++); 3) locally processed, fortified flour (Misola); or 4) locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). In total, 1178 children (93.2%) completed the study. The adjusted mean (95% CI) change in weight (kg) from baseline was greater with RUSF than with the locally processed blends and was intermediate with CSB++ [1.16 (1.08, 1.24) for RUSF, 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) for CSB++, 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) for Misola, and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for LMF; P < 0.001]. For length change, RUSF and CSB++ differed significantly from LMF. Sustained recovery rates were higher with RUSF (73%) than with Misola (61%) and LMF (58%), P < 0.0001; CSB++ recovery rates (68%) did not differ from any of the other groups. RUSF was more effective, but more costly, than other dietary supplements for the treatment of MAM; CSB++ yielded intermediate results. The benefits of treatment should be considered in relation to product costs and availability. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Polyphenols in Raw and Cooked Cereals/Pseudocereals/Legume Pasta and Couscous. (United States)

    Carcea, Marina; Narducci, Valentina; Turfani, Valeria; Giannini, Vittoria


    Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers' quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has been partially or totally replaced by other vegetable flours. Besides dietary fibre, these raw materials might be an interesting source of phytochemicals. In this work, 16 commercial samples of pasta and four samples of couscous representative of the new products and made of refined and wholegrain flours of different species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes were analysed for free, hydrolysable bound and total polyphenol content by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Analyses were repeated on cooked samples to assess the quantity of polyphenols ingested by the consumers. The raw legume and pseudocereal products had a total polyphenol content higher than most cereal products (up to 1743.4 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry weight). Wholegrain products had higher contents than refined products. The free fraction underwent up to 46% loss with cooking, probably because of solubility in water. The water absorption of pasta and couscous during cooking was in a ratio of 2:3, resulting in higher dilution of polyphenols in the cooked couscous.

  20. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains. (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y


    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  1. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  2. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes


    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  3. Enriched products of cereals for food of women during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Alekseeva


    Full Text Available Now the question of the organization of the healthy and good nutrition of pregnant women is particularly acute. Food is a factor of the genetic program of development. Defective food leads an arrest of development and functional maturing of bodies and systems of a fruit. The most vulnerable are the intelligence, mentality, system of immunity, digestive tract and kidneys, endocrine system. In this aspect the cake of germs of wheat (WGC and a fine egg shell are of interest. The purpose of researches was development of compounding and technologies of the porridges enriched with paste on the basis of cake of germs of wheat and a fine egg shell. The paste received after hydration of mix WGC and a fine egg shell, at the same time was applied preparation of prototypes of porridges it keeps almost completely biologically active agents of initial components. The fine egg shell is a source of natural calcium which is extremely important for full development of a fruit and normal functioning of an organism of future mother. The calcium which is contained in an egg shell is almost completely acquired by an organism. During pregnancy the need for calcium considerably increases as salts of this element are necessary for formation of bone, nervous, cardiovascular systems of a fruit, ensuring normal coagulability of blood of the child and a basis for formation of teeth. Besides calcium, the egg shell contains enough ascorbic acid which is necessary for the full-fledged growth and development of a fruit.

  4. Productivity Problems and Remedies for Cereals Farming in Sivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut


    Full Text Available Yörede, tarımsal işletmelerde sermaye ve teknik bilginin yetersiz oluşu, tarımla uğraşan nüfusun yaşlı ve eğitim düzeyinin düşüklüğü, yeterince teknik eleman olmayışına bağlı olarak tarımsal kuruluşların tarımsal yayım faaliyetleri konusunda yetersiz kalması ve zaman zaman iklim koşullarında yaşanan olumsuzluklar tahıl üretimi ve verimliliğini ekonomik olarak olumsuz etkilemektedir. Ayrıca, ilde monokültür tahıl tarım alanlarında yüksek oranda nadas uygulanması, sertifikalı tohumluk kullanımının yetersiz olması, toprak işleme ve tohum yatağı hazırlığındaki yanlışlıklar, kışlık ekimlerin geciktirilmesi ya da yüksek oranda yazlık ekim yapılması (özellikle arpada, yüksek maliyet nedeniyle kimyasal gübre kullanımındaki yetersizlikler, tahıllar konusunda bilimsel araştırma eksikliği ve yabancı ot mücadelesinin zamanında yapılmaması tahıl verimlerini pratikte uygulanan yada uygulanamayan sebeplerden dolayı önemli ölçüde sınırlamaktadır. Sivas’ta tahıl tarımında yüksek verim elde etmek için gerek ekonomik ve gerekse teorik bu eksiklikler mutlaka giderilmelidir.

  5. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals. (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L


    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  6. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.


    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  7. Breakfast cereal consumption and subjective reports of health. (United States)

    Smith, A P


    The aim of the present study was to attempt to replicate and extend a recent result which showed that breakfast cereal consumption was associated with better mental health. The general population sample studied here (262 volunteers aged between 21 and 85 years, mean age: 60.9 years) was older than the sample in the previous study. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal every day reported better mental and physical health than those who consumed it less frequently. This association was still present when demographic factors, indicators of lifestyle, such as smoking, or other aspects of diet were covaried. Further research is now required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this robust association between daily breakfast cereal consumption and well-being.

  8. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René


    of EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. The outcome of a successful NIRS calibration will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...... value, the prediction error has to be compared with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value is above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it is possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply...

  9. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino


    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  10. Synthesis, Acidity Constants and Tautomeric Structure of the Diazonium Coupling Products of 2-(Benzylsulfanyl-7H-purin-6-one in Its Ground and Excited States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A. Saad


    Full Text Available A series of new 8-arylhydrazono-2-(benzylsulfanyl-7H-purin-6-ones 6 were synthesized, their electronic absorption spectra in different organic solvents of varying polarities were investigated and their acid dissociation constants in both the ground and excited states were determined spectrophotometrically. The tautomeric structures of such products were elucidated by spectral analyses and correlation of their acid dissociation constants with the Hammett equation. The results indicated that the studied compounds 6 exist predominantly in the hydrazone tautomeric form 6A in both the ground and excited states.

  11. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257. (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S


    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage.

  12. Effects of alkoxy alkyl mercury derivative on hens in a feed test with disinfected cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, O; Kalliokoski, P K


    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of feeding hens cereal that had been disinfected with either methoxyethyl mercury chloride or methoxyethyl mercury silicate. Two groups of hens were fed the grain and the results were compared. Both disinfectants decreased egg production and consumption of the feed. Two-thirds of the hens lost weight in the methoxyethyl mercury silicate test. The hens were not weighed in the other test. Estimated intakes of Hg were 2.5 mg for methoxyethyl mercury chloride and 0.45 mg for methoxyethyl mercury silicate.

  13. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops. (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland


    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  14. Status of Irradiation Control of Insects in Grain; Radiodesinsection des Cereales; Sostoyanie bor'by s hasekomymi-vreditelyami zerna putem oblucheniya; Radiodesinsectacion de Cereales Almacenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, P. B. [Rentokil Laboratories Ltd., East Grinstead, Sussex (United Kingdom)


    Research into the uses of ionizing radiations for the control of insects infesting stored foodstuffs has demonstrated the technical feasibility of irradiation for the treatment of grain. Studies in radiation entomology have established the susceptibilities of the principal grain storage insects and the extent to which environmental factors may modify the efficacy of treatment. Investigations into chemical and physical properties of irradiated grain have shown no adverse effects on organoleptic and manufacturing properties at the dose level required for disinfestation. Work on the wholesomeness of irradiated grain has shown no loss in nutritional adequacy, with the result that clearance has been given in the United States for the human consumption of irradiated wheat and wheat products. Engineering considerations suggest that irradiation is an economic competitor to chemical methods for the treatment of grain at large exporting or collecting centres. With bulk storage and automated conveying systems now established as the most expedient method of handling grain between producers and consumers, it can be wisely predicted that implementation of radiation disinfestation into the grain handling industry will follow in the foreseeable future. Information on infestation problems and the grain-handling industries of various countries is used to illustrate the likely future potential of irradiation for the treatment of grain on an international scale. (author) [French] Les recherches sur l'emploi des rayonnements ionisants pour la desinsection des denrees alimentaires emmagasinees ont demontre qu'il est techniquement possible d'utiliser l'irradiation pour le traitement des cereales. Les etudes de radioentomologie ont permis d'etablir les sensibilites des principaux insectes infestant les cereales stockees et la mesure dans laquelle les-facteurs inherents au milieu ambiant peuvent modifier l'efficacite du traitement. Les recherches sur les proprietes chimiques et physiques

  15. Adult polyphagous coleopterans overwintering in cereal boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, W; Steenberg, T


    . Generally the mortality was low in autumn and mid-winter, not exceeding 5%. A more pronounced post-winter mortality of up to 30% was observed at the end of hibernation. Only a negligible number were infected by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus. Infection experiments...... with B, bassiana isolates from Sitona lineatus, Tachyporus hypnorum and three species of ground beetles showed a similarly low susceptibility of B. lampros and A. dorsale to B. bassiana and, although Tachyporus spp. showed a distinct mycophagy and a significantly higher mortality, this could...

  16. Comparison of monthly nighttime cloud fraction products from MODIS and AIRS and ground-based camera over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E) (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.


    Cloud detection nowadays is primarily achieved by the utilization of various sensors aboard satellites. These include MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra, and AIRS with products that include nighttime cloud fraction. Ground-based instruments are, however, only secondary to these satellites when it comes to cloud detection. Nonetheless, these ground-based instruments (e.g., LIDARs, ceilometers, and sky-cameras) offer significant datasets about a particular region's cloud cover values. For nighttime operations of cloud detection instruments, satellite-based instruments are more reliably and prominently used than ground-based ones. Therefore if a ground-based instrument for nighttime operations is operated, it ought to produce reliable scientific datasets. The objective of this study is to do a comparison between the results of a nighttime ground-based instrument (sky-camera) and that of MODIS Aqua and MODIS Terra. A Canon Powershot A2300 is placed ontop of Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E) and is configured to take images of the night sky at 5min intervals. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted to grayscale format. Thresholding technique is used to screen pixels with cloud and pixels without clouds. If the pixel value is greater than 17, it is considered as a cloud; otherwise, a noncloud (Gacal et al., 2016). This algorithm is applied to the data gathered from Oct 2015 to Oct 2016. A scatter plot between satellite cloud fraction in the area covering the area 14.2877N, 120.9869E, 14.7711N and 121.4539E and ground cloud cover is graphed to find the monthly correlation. During wet season (June - November), the satellite nighttime cloud fraction vs ground measured cloud cover produce an acceptable R2 (Aqua= 0.74, Terra= 0.71, AIRS= 0.76). However, during dry season, poor R2 values are obtained (AIRS= 0.39, Aqua & Terra = 0.01). The high correlation during wet season can be attributed to a high probability that the camera and satellite see the same clouds

  17. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid. (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E


    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  18. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  19. Impact of selected antagonistic fungi on Fusarium species – toxigenic cereal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Popiel


    Full Text Available Fusarium-ear blight is a destructive disease in various cereal-growing regions and leads to significant yield and quality losses for farmers and to contamination of cereal grains with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol and derivatives, zearalenone and moniliformin. Fusarium pathogens grow well and produce significant inoculum on crop resiudues. Reduction of mycotoxins production and pathogen sporulation may be influenced by saprophytic fungi, exhibiting antagonistic effect. Dual culture bioassays were used to examine the impact of 92 isolates (belonging to 29 fungal species against three toxigenic species, i.e. Fusarium avenaceum (Corda Saccardo, F. culmorum (W.G.Smith Saccardo and F. graminearum Schwabe. Both F.culmorum and F. graminearum isolates produce trichothecene mycotoxins and mycohormone zearalenone and are considered to be the most important cereal pathogens worldwide. Infection with those pathogens leads to accumulation of mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA in grains. Fusarium avenaceum isolates are producers of moniliformin (MON and enniatins. Isolates of Trichoderma sp. were found to be the most effective ones to control the growth of examined Fusarium species. The response of Fusarium isolates to antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates varied and also the isolates of Trichoderma differed in their antagonistic activity against Fusarium isolates. The production of MON by two isolates of F. avenaceum in dual culture on rice was reduced by 95% to 100% by T. atroviride isolate AN 35. The same antagonist reduced the amount of moniliformin from 100 μg/g to 6.5 μg/g when inoculated to rice culture contaminated with MON, which suggests the possible decomposition of this mycotoxin.

  20. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in–store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Methods Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. Results 29.8% (n = 67 of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158 were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = −4.28 (280.8, p < .001. Conclusions Breakfast cereal manufacturers need to consider reformulation of their breakfast cereals to improve their healthfulness and supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  1. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo


    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  2. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)


    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  3. Colour and shape analysis techniques for weed detection in cereal fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, A.J; López, F; Benlloch, J.V.


    . The proposed methods use colour information to discriminate between vegetation and background, whilst shape analysis techniques are applied to distinguish between crop and weeds. The determination of crop row position helps to reduce the number of objects to which shape analysis techniques are applied....... The performance of algorithms was assessed by comparing the results with a human classification, providing an acceptable success rate. The study has shown that despite the difficulties in accurately determining the number of seedlings (as in visual surveys), it is feasible to use image processing techniques......Information on weed distribution within the field is necessary to implement spatially variable herbicide application. This paper deals with the development of near-ground image capture and processing techniques in order to detect broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops under actual field conditions...

  4. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  5. Processing, Valorization and Application of Bio-Waste Derived Compounds from Potato, Tomato, Olive and Cereals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fritsch


    Full Text Available The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed.

  6. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  7. Rhizobium as a crop enhancer and biofertilizer for increased cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization ... new insights into recent development of rhizobia-cereal interaction. .... which caused changes in root morphology and physiology that resulted in .... Andrews M, James EK, Cummings SP, Zavalin AA, Vinogradova LV,. McKenzie BA ...

  8. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh


    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  9. Cultivation with deliberation: cereals and their growing conditions in prehistory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreslerová, Dagmar; Kočár, Petr; Chuman, T.; Pokorná, Adéla


    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 513-526 ISSN 0939-6314 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : prehistory * arable farming * soils * archaeobotany * cereals Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.


    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  11. Behavior of cereal's varieties in the presence of Heterodera avenae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of cereals varieties (Ofanto, Waha and Vitron for durum wheat; Anza and HD1120 for bread wheat and Saida with Acsad for barly) were tested towards Heterodera avenae. The analysis of the variance reveals that the nematode has an effect on the development of durum wheat for the number of ear per ...

  12. Determinants of rural household marketed surplus for cereal crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supply of cereal crops to the market (market surplus). The study utilized cross sectional data obtained through multistage random sampling method. Ordinary least square method was used for the analysis. Finding revealed that the quantity of food crops reserved for home consumption by households increased their ...

  13. Triticale: the birth of a new cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N


    Hybrid triticale combines the high production and high market value of wheat and the disease and drought resistance of rye. The development of colchicine, which can sometimes double chromosomes, enabled the production of fertile plants. The use of triticale as a significant staple crop is spreading throughout the Third World countries, where it thrives on small, marginal plots as well as in large fields. Although used primarily as cattle feed, ethanol production is under consideration. As world population grows, triticale could help to combat famine. (DCK)

  14. Plastid Transformation in the Monocotyledonous Cereal Crop, Rice (Oryza sativa) and Transmission of Transgenes to Their Progeny


    Lee, Sa Mi; Kang, Kyungsu; Chung, Hyunsup; Yoo, Soon Hee; Xu, Xiang Ming; Lee, Seung-Bum; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Daniell, Henry; Kim, Minkyun


    The plastid transformation approach offers a number of unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering, transgene containment, and a lack of gene silencing and position effects. The extension of plastid transformation technology to monocotyledonous cereal crops, including rice, bears great promise for the improvement of agronomic traits, and the efficient production of pharmaceutical or nutritional enhancement. Here, we report a promising step towards stab...

  15. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary


    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  16. Copper content in cereals grown in the model condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo


    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates thought the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Trace element as copper is one of the most efficient antioxidants in the body, often referred to as an element of beauty. It acts as a powerful catalyst for many enzymes and vitamins, through which already small amounts affects many activities in the body (strengthens immunity, reduces levels of histamine. It accumulates in the barley, beans, cucumber, nuts or milk and so on. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added at various doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly cooper and mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of cooper by seed follows barley ˂ oat ˂ wheat. Even though that the barley is characterized by the highest accumulation of cooper in the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level specified by The Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic (CA SR. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by cooper, that the high content of cooper in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  17. Synthesis, Acidity Constants and Tautomeric Structure of the Diazonium Coupling Products of 2-(Benzylsulfanyl)-7H-purin-6-one in Its Ground and Excited States


    Darwish, Elham S.; Mosselhi, Mosselhi A.; Altalbawy, Farag M.; Saad, Hosam A.


    A series of new 8-arylhydrazono-2-(benzylsulfanyl)-7H-purin-6-ones 6 were synthesized, their electronic absorption spectra in different organic solvents of varying polarities were investigated and their acid dissociation constants in both the ground and excited states were determined spectrophotometrically. The tautomeric structures of such products were elucidated by spectral analyses and correlation of their acid dissociation constants with the Hammett equation. The results indicated that t...

  18. Conceptualising the management of packaging within new product development:a grounded investigation in the UK fast moving consumer goods industry


    Simms, Chris; Trott, Paul


    Purpose- The purpose of this study is to: (i) contribute to existing models of new product development (NPD), and provide new understanding of how a new product’s packaging is managed and integrated into the NPD process of fast moving consumer goods firms; and (ii) build on prior research suggesting that firms lack a pipeline of new packaging innovations by uncovering the factors that influence this pipeline issue. Design/methodology/approach- A grounded theory methodology was adopted. Resear...

  19. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals – Implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte


    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long...... knowledge on their structure, function, and implication in cereal processing, agriculture and nutrition. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry...

  20. Survey of T-2/HT-2 toxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vasilj, Višnja; Kudumija, Nina; Petrović, Danijela; Vilušić, Milica; Škrivanko, Mario


    The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of T-2/HT-2 toxins in different unprocessed cereals (n=201), as well as in marketed cereal-based products (n=58), feed components (n=191) and feedstuffs (n=91) coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The number of positive samples of unprocessed cereals for food production (>LOD) ranged from 30.4% in barley to 68.8% in oat whereas for feed components ranged from 26.9% in wheat to 86.1% in oat. The maximal values found in unprocessed oat and oat-based feed components were 304.2μg/kg and 521.0μg/kg, respectively. As for final products, the highest T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in oat flakes (89.4μg/kg) and calf feed (129.3μg/kg). Despite of the increased T-2/HT-2 concentrations found in some of the samples, the obtained values were unanimously lower than the indicative levels given as recommendations above which further investigations should be necessary performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycological analysis of cereal samples and screening of Fusarium strains' ability to form deoxynivalenole (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins--a pilot study. (United States)

    Kłyszejko, Adriana; Kubus, Zaneta; Zakowska, Zofia


    Filamentous fungi are cosmopolitan microorganisms found in almost all environments. It should be pointed out that occurance of moulds on food or feed may cause health disorders in humans and animals. Mycoflora appears as a source of toxic methabolites, mycotoxins, which hepatotoxic, genotoxic, nefrotoxic and carcinogenic abilities were already proven in several studies. Hense mycological analysis of cereal grains raises as an important manner in evaluation of food and feed health features. Among the most frequent cereal contaminants Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium strains are mentioned. Due to their ability to grow on cereals during both its field growth and storage, Fusarium moulds occure to be an important contamination factors in food and feed industry. In this study Fusarium strains isolates from wheat and maize were examined in order to recognize their abilities to produce two toxins: zearalenon (ZEA) and deoxynivalenole (DON). Mycological analysis shown differentiation within fungal microflora occuring in samples of different storage conditions, where Fusarium strains represented aproximately 20-70% of all mould species present. In purpose of Fusarium strains species evaluation, isolates were mycologically analysed. In the second step of the project, toxicological screening of isolates was performed using Thin Liquid Chromatography (TLC) evaluating toxigenic potential of single strains' production of ZEA and DON. This data gives the possibility of pointing the most toxigenic strains and also shows differentiations in their occurance in cereals. This paper presents introductory research data, which can be useful in recognition of cereal contamination with moulds and their toxic methabolites.

  2. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Anderson, P H; Kruger, W D; Phillipson, B E; Gluckman, R A; Block, P C; Upson, B M


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease. Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg of folic acid daily, approximating the increased daily intake that may result from the FDA's enrichment policy, increased plasma folic acid by 31 percent (P=0.045) but decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine by only 3.7 percent (P= 0.24). However, cereals providing 499 and 665 microg of folic acid daily increased plasma folic acid by 64.8 percent (Pine by 11.0 percent (Pine levels. Further clinical trials are required to determine whether folic acid fortification may prevent vascular disease. Until then, our results suggest that folic acid fortification at levels higher than that recommended by the FDA may be warranted.

  3. Rich nutrition from the poorest - cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia. (United States)

    Nout, M J Rob


    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization.

  4. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti


    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  5. Xerophiles and other fungi associated with cereal baby foods locally produced in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady A. Ismail


    Full Text Available Fifty samples from five baby food products mainly made of cereal flour(s were analyzed. The moisture contents of these products were between 11.14% and 11.9%, a level below 14.0%, the recommended level for safe storage of cereal grains and their products. The mycological analysis was carried out using the dilution plate method and two isolation media (DG18 for isolation of xerophilic fungi and DRBC for fungi in general. A total of 80 species related to 37 genera in addition to some unidentified fungal and yeast species were recorded on both media from the five products. The products were contaminated abundantly by xerophilic fungi which were occurring in 88% of food samples and accounting for 18.1% of the total CFU as recorded on DG18. The highest contamination level by xerophiles was registered in Mwebaza rice porridge (a component of rice flour and the lowest in Mukuza (a product of maize, soyabean and sorghum flours. 11 xerophilic species were recorded of which Aspergillus and Eurotium (4 species each were the predominant giving rise to 9.1% and 8.9% of the total CFU, with A. wentii, A. candidus, E. cristatum and E. repens were the most contaminating species. Of the fungi recorded other than xerophiles, species of Aspergillus (particularly A. flavus followed by A. niger, Penicillium (P. citrinum, P. oxalicum, Fusarium (F. solani, F. tricinctum, Cladosporium (C. sphaerospermum and yeasts were the most predominant. Contamination of such foods is a matter of health hazard as these foods are for babies. So, the use of fresh, well-dried and uncontaminated flours for production of such foods is recommended.

  6. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.


    toxin may again be released after hydrolysis in the digestive tracts of animals and humans. Today, our knowledge of the occurrence of these compounds in cereal grains is limited. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of DON, deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  8. Cooked meat products made of coarsely ground pork: the main bacterial strains of bacterial flora, their heat resistance and effect on spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Petäjä


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial flora of the surface layer and the core of meat products made of coarsely ground pork at the moment of spoilage when stored at 7°C or 4°C. The dominating strains were isolated, their heat resistance was studied in APT-broth, on APT-agar and in coarsely ground cured pork, and their growth after heating and effect on spoilage were followed in coarsely ground cured pork. The first signs of spoilage appeared in the surface layer of the products. The strains were coccoid lactic acid bacteria with counts ranging from 3,5 to 7.8 log cfu (colony forming units/g. They survived only accidentally after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth. The core of the products contained only coccoid lactic acid bacteria or only pseudomonads or both as the main bacterial strains. The counts ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 log cfu/g. Most of the strains isolated from the core survived after heating for 30 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth in at least three tests out of six. The most noticeable result of the study was the occurence of heat-resistant pseudomonads in the core. It must be pointed out that all pseudomonads found survived after heating for 60 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth, and often after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork (core 72°C. The cfu number of the two most heat-resistant streptococcus strains decreased only 1 log unit over 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork. The numbers of inoculated pseudomonads decreased but those of streptococci rose by a maximum of 1 log unit when the experimental porks were kept at 4°C after heating. This indicates that streptococci and pseudomonads probably do not constitute a serious spoilage factor in cooked meat products, but spoilage is generally effected by bacteria which have contaminated the surface layer of the products after heat treatment.

  9. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.


    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  10. Multi-scale trade-off analysis of cereal residue use for livestock feeding vs. soil mulching in the Mid-Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.; Delmotte, S.; Corbeels, M.; Herrera, J.M.; Tittonell, P.A.


    Cereal residues represent a major resource for livestock feeding during the dry season in southern Africa. When kept on the soil surface instead of feeding them to livestock, crop residues can contribute to increasing soil fertility and maintaining crop productivity in the short- and the long-term.

  11. Order of 17 May 1985 on treatment by ionizing radiation of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Order fixes the licensing conditions for the sale of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds for use in dairy products, whose microbial decontamination was obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma-rays or electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 MeV. (NEA) [fr

  12. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Priebe, Marion G; McMonagle, Jolene R


    In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were excluded if RTEC were used during hypocaloric diets, if RTEC were eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC, milk and fruit. Observational studies were excluded when "breakfast cereals" were not defined or their definition included cooked cereals. From cross-sectional studies only data concerning energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status were used. From 4727 identified citations 64 publications met the inclusion criteria of which 32 were cross-sectional studies, eight prospective studies and 24 randomized controlled trials. Consumption of RTEC is associated with a healthier dietary pattern, concerning intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat and micronutrients, however total sugar intake is higher. Persons consuming RTEC frequently (≥ 5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc. Evidence from prospective studies suggests that whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine. One of the review's strengths is its thorough ex/inclusion of studies. Limitations are that results of observational studies were based on self-reported data and that many studies were funded by food-industry. Consumption of RTEC, especially of fiber

  13. Plastid transformation in the monocotyledonous cereal crop, rice (Oryza sativa) and transmission of transgenes to their progeny. (United States)

    Lee, Sa Mi; Kang, Kyungsu; Chung, Hyungsup; Yoo, Soon Hee; Xu, Xiang Ming; Lee, Seung-Bum; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Daniell, Henry; Kim, Minkyun


    The plastid transformation approach offers a number of unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering, transgene containment, and a lack of gene silencing and position effects. The extension of plastid transformation technology to monocotyledonous cereal crops, including rice, bears great promise for the improvement of agronomic traits, and the efficient production of pharmaceutical or nutritional enhancement. Here, we report a promising step towards stable plastid transformation in rice. We produced fertile transplastomic rice plants and demonstrated transmission of the plastid-expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) and aminoglycoside 3'-adenylyltransferase genes to the progeny of these plants. Transgenic chloroplasts were determined to have stably expressed the GFP, which was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses. Although the produced rice plastid transformants were found to be heteroplastomic, and the transformation efficiency requires further improvement, this study has established a variety of parameters for the use of plastid transformation technology in cereal crops.

  14. Influence of agricultural practices on fusarium infection of cereals and subsequent contamination of grain by trichothecene mycotoxins. (United States)

    Edwards, Simon G


    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot in maize are significant diseases across the world. Infection can not only result in reduced yield as a result of shrunken grains but also result in reduced milling and malting quality and the contamination of grains with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are hazardous to animal and human health. Therefore, guidelines and legislation are in place, or under consideration, in most countries to protect consumers and animal welfare. As fusarium mycotoxins are produced within the growing crop, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect mycotoxin contamination of grain. Such information could then be used to determine guidelines on "Good Agricultural Practice" (GAP) to minimise the mycotoxin contamination of cereal products. Evidence is provided to show the importance of choice of cultivar, crop rotation, soil cultivation, fertiliser and the chemical and biological control of insects, weeds and fungi.

  15. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada. (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal


    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqiang Li


    Full Text Available The balanced supply and demand of the cereal is essential for achieving economic sustainable development in China. The wheat and products, the rice (including the milled equivalent, and the maize and products are three main cereals in China, the three cereals but the rice (including the milled equivalent in China were enerally seriously comparatively insufficient before 1997, and then became fully sufficient. The co-integrative test demonstrated that there existed long-term equilibrium between balance of supply and demand and influencing factors, and the correcting coefficient was about 2.2 percent. As for balance degree of supply and demand, increase of machinery cost, daily-average labor price and indirect cost would improve it, increase of fertilizer expenditure and labor-input quantity would deteriorate it at short-term. The Granger causality test implied that balance of supply and demand owned interactive effect with laborer-input quantity, but not with the other cost. The highlight of this article was evaluating hypothesis of “Who will feed China” and influencing factors from perspective of the cost, achieving that the above hypothesis was not a real problem in China.

  17. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi


    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  18. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Naveena, B M


    Effects of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat stored at 4+/-1 degrees C was evaluated. Five treatments evaluated include: control (only meat), MS (meat+2% salt), KRP (meat+2% salt+2% kinnow rind powder), PRP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate rind powder) and PSP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate seed powder). Addition of salt resulted in reduction of redness scores. Lightness increased in control and unchanged in others during storage. Redness scores declined and yellowness showed inconsistent changes during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (PPRP>KRP>control>MS. Therefore, these powders have potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimize the auto-oxidation and salt induced lipid oxidation in raw ground goat meat. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A


    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  20. Genetics of cereal adaptation to the man-made habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.


    The wild progenitor species of all cereals are known with various degrees of certainty. Wild and cultivated taxa of the same species cross and their hybrids are generally fertile. This allows for a study of the genetics of domestication. A survey of the literature, however, reveals few such studies. The adaptation to disturbed habitats is genetically complex, and colonizing ability seems to have been a prerequisite for successful domestication. Natural seed dispersal is controlled by one to several linked genes, and behaves genetically as an overall dominant over loss of efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. Apical dominance, synchronized tillering, and increase in fecundity are complex, recessive genetic traits associated with cereal domestication. Racial evolution resulted from conscious selection by man and involves numerous loci. (author). 43 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk. (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B


    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Adjustment of Weed Hoeing to Narrowly Spaced Cereals

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    Jannis Machleb


    Full Text Available Weed hoeing can be successfully performed in wide row crops, such as sugar beet, maize, soybean and wide spaced cereals. However, little experience is available for hoeing in narrow cereal row spaces below 200 mm. Yet, mechanical weed control can pose an alternative to herbicide applications by reducing the herbicide resistant populations present in the field. In this experiment, it was investigated whether hoeing is feasible in cereals with 150 and 125 mm row spacings. The trial was set up at two locations (Ihinger Hof and Kleinhohenheim in southwest Germany. Three different conventional hoeing sweeps, a goosefoot sweep, a no-till sweep and a down-cut side knife were adjusted to the small row widths, and hoeing was performed once with a tractor and a standard hoeing frame which was guided by a second human operator. The average grain yield, crop and weed biomass, and weed control efficacy of each treatment were recorded. The goosefoot and no-till sweep were tested at driving speeds of 4 and 6 km·h−1. The down-cut side knife was applied at 4 km·h−1. The results indicate that hoeing caused no yield decrease in comparison to a conventional herbicide application or manual weeding. The highest yield with a mechanical treatment was recorded for the no-till sweeps at both trial locations. Hoeing was performed successfully in narrowly spaced cereals of 150 and 125 mm, and the weed control efficacy of the mechanical treatments ranged from 50.9% at Kleinhohenheim to 89.1% at Ihinger Hof. Future experiments are going to focus on more distinct driving speeds ranging from 2 to 10 km·h−1 and performing more than one pass with the hoe. Additionally, combining the mechanical weeding tools with a camera-steered hoeing frame could increase accuracy, allow for higher working speeds and substitute the second human operator guiding the hoe.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... ... of this nematode. Key words: Nematode; Heterodera; cereals; varieties; behaviour. .... L'essai est mené à l'air libre en conditions extérieures à raison de 08 répétitions pour les témoins et 08 ..... cyst nematode populations from north Africa and Asia . Nematology ... Research 2008, 6 (Special issue), 81-87.

  4. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Trematerra

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (or IPM is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal chain are reported.

  5. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain


    Pasquale Trematerra; Maria Lodovica Gullino


    Integrated Pest Management (or IPM) is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal ...

  6. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C


    Full Text Available cultivated fish (Naylor et al., 2000). Therefore, considerable amounts of resources are currently being used worldwide to evaluate the nutritional quality and possible health implications of alternative plant-based feed- stuffs with the potential... and storage. All of this needs to be implemented without excessive costs, as the feed costs usually make up around 40–75% of the total running cost of rearing fish (Young and Muir, 2000). As the challenges for utilising legume and cereal protein sources...

  7. Alternative futures for world cereal and meat consumption. (United States)

    Rosegrant, M W; Leach, N; Gerpacio, R V


    Fundamental changes in the global structure of food demand will lead to an extraordinary increase in the importance of developing countries in global food markets. Economic growth in developing countries is changing consumption patterns, with slower growth (and in many countries actual declines) in per capita food consumption of grains and rapidly growing per capita and total meat consumption, combined with induced growth in cereal feed consumption. The present paper examines the hypothesis, suggested by some researchers, that high-meat diets in developed countries limit improvement in food security in developing countries. These analysts argue that reduced meat consumption in developed countries would release cereals from livestock feed to food for poorer populations, thus improving food security in developing countries. Using the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA) global food projections model, the international model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (see Rosegrant et al. 1995), we first analyse the implications for future global cereal and meat supply and demand resulting from changes in global income, population growth and other structural changes, then simulate alternative scenarios to examine the effect of large reductions in meat consumption in developed countries on food consumption and food security in developing countries. The paper shows that while the long-term prospects for food supply, demand and trade indicate a strengthening of world cereal and livestock markets, the improvement in food security in the developing world will be slow, and changes in the dietary patterns in developed countries are not an effective route to improvement in food security in developing countries.

  8. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years. (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B


    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl


    A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean-up) in ser......A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean...... monitored m/z 168--> 150 (glyphosate) and 170-->152 (internal standard 2- 13 (CN)-N-15-glyphosate) for quantification. The mean recovery was 85% ( n =32) at spiking levels from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1) . From 1998 to 2001, from the analysis of about 50 samples per annum, a reduction in the glyphosate residues...... was observed owing to a Danish trade decision not to use grain with glyphosate residues for milling or bread production....

  10. Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wachowska


    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins contaminate grains. Several dozen toxic compounds produced by fungal pathogens have been identified to date. Type B trichothecenes—deoxynivalenol, its acetyl derivatives and nivalenol (produced mainly by F. graminearum and F. culmorum—are most commonly detected in cereal grains. “T-2 toxin” (produced by, among others, F. sporotrichioides belongs to type-A trichothecenes which are more toxic than other trichothecenes. Antagonistic bacteria and fungi can affect pathogens of the genus Fusarium via different modes of action: direct (mycoparasitism or hyperparasitism, mixed-path (antibiotic secretion, production of lytic enzymes and indirect (induction of host defense responses. Microbial modification of trichothecenes involves acetylation, deacetylation, oxidation, de-epoxidation, and epimerization, and it lowers the pathogenic potential of fungi of the genus Fusarium. Other modifing mechanisms described in the paper involve the physical adsorption of mycotoxins in bacterial cells and the conjugation of mycotoxins to glucose and other compounds in plant and fungal cells. The development of several patents supports the commercialization and wider application of microorganisms biodegrading mycotoxins in grains and, consequently, in feed additives.

  11. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing. (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus


    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  12. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours. (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T


    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  13. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity. (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham


    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Nutritional quality and labelling of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals: the contribution of the French observatory of food quality. (United States)

    Goglia, R; Spiteri, M; Ménard, C; Dumas, C; Combris, P; Labarbe, B; Soler, L G; Volatier, J L


    To assess developments in the nutritional quality of food products in various food groups in France, an Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) was created in 2008. To achieve its aims, Oqali built up a new database to describe each specific food item at the most detailed level, and also included economic parameters (market share and mean prices). The objective of this paper is to give a detailed analysis of the monitoring of the ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs) sector in order to show the benefits of the Oqali database. Analysis was limited to products with nutritional information on labels. Packaging was provided by manufacturers or retailers, or obtained by buying products in regular stores. Economic parameters were obtained from surveys on French food consumption and data from consumer purchase panels. The breakfast cereal sector was divided into 10 categories and 5 types of brand. Oqali has developed anonymous indicators to describe product characteristics for each category of RTEBC and each type of brand by cross-referencing nutritional values with economic data. Packaging-related data were also analysed. The major nutritional parameters studied were energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, fibre and sodium. Analysis was performed on the basis of descriptive statistics, multivariate statistics and a Kruskal-Wallis test. For the RTEBC, there is large variability in nutrient content throughout the sector, both within and between product categories. There is no systematic relation between brand type and nutritional quality within each product category, and the proportion of brand type within each product category is different. Nutritional labels, claims and pictograms are widespread on packages but vary according to the type of brand. These findings form the basis for monitoring developments in the nutritional composition and packaging-related data for breakfast cereals in the future. The final objective is to expand the approach

  15. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  16. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine. (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F


    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH 3 -N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  17. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.


    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  18. The contribution of breakfast cereals to the nutritional intake of the materially deprived UK population. (United States)

    Holmes, B A; Kaffa, N; Campbell, K; Sanders, T A B


    Breakfast is an important source of micronutrients in the diet and its consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes. The present analysis investigated the contribution that breakfast cereals make to the nutrient intakes of the materially deprived (low income) UK population. Data for 3728 respondents aged 2 years and over from the UK Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003-2005) were analysed. Nutrient intakes of consumers and non-consumers of breakfast cereal were compared. Breakfast cereals were consumed by 49% of men, 58% of women, 80% of boys and 80% of girls, and median intakes were: 35, 25, 29 and 21 g/d, respectively. Consumers of breakfast cereals had higher intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), iron and zinc than non-consumers. Breakfast cereal consumption was also related to higher intakes of calcium, attributable to higher milk consumption. The intake of wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals was associated with a higher intake of non-starch polysaccharides. Intakes of niacin, biotin, calcium and zinc were higher but that of vitamin B(6) was lower among consumers of exclusively wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals compared with consumers of other breakfast cereals. There were no significant differences observed in intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars according to type of breakfast cereal consumed. Breakfast cereals make a significant contribution to the micronutrient intake of the low-income UK population.

  19. Evidence that acidification-induced declines in plant diversity and productivity are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil properties in a semi-arid steppe (United States)

    Chen, Dima; Lan, Zhichun; Bai, Xue; Grace, James B.; Bai, Yongfei


    Anthropogenic acid deposition–induced soil acidification is one of the major threats to biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services. Few studies, however, have explored in detail how above-ground changes in plant species richness and productivity resulting from soil acidification are mediated by effects on below-ground biota and soil properties.

  20. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites. (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David


    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Above‐ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy‐covariance sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario


    Attempts to combine biometric and eddy‐covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. We assessed above‐ground biomass changes at five long‐term EC forest stations based on tree‐ring width...... and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site‐specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO2 fluxes between 1997 and 2009. Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible...

  2. Performance evaluation and phylogenetic characterization of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors using ground tire and pet as support materials for biohydrogen production. (United States)

    Barros, Aruana Rocha; Adorno, Maria Angela Tallarico; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Maintinguer, Sandra Imaculada; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz


    This study evaluated two different support materials (ground tire and polyethylene terephthalate [PET]) for biohydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing glucose (4000 mg L(-1)). The AFBR, which contained either ground tire (R1) or PET (R2) as support materials, were inoculated with thermally pretreated anaerobic sludge and operated at a temperature of 30°C. The AFBR were operated with a range of hydraulic retention times (HRT) between 1 and 8h. The reactor R1 operating with a HRT of 2h showed better performance than reactor R2, reaching a maximum hydrogen yield of 2.25 mol H(2)mol(-1) glucose with 1.3mg of biomass (as the total volatile solids) attached to each gram of ground tire. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of particle samples revealed that reactor R1 favored the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria such as Clostridium, Bacillus, and Enterobacter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bee community as a source of energy in the production of food, honey-plants in the ecosystem of Croatian Forests' hunting grounds. (United States)

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Beuk, Darko; Jumić, Vlado; Tusek, Tatjana; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda; Tolusić, Zdravko; Skrivanko, Mario; Konjarović, Anastazija; Aladić, Krunoslav; Cupurdija, Edita


    In addition to the process of photosynthesis, the bee community is the main source of energy in food production, honey-plants used by game and people in the hunting grounds ecosystem. It is a well-known fact that thousands of plant species depend on the presence of bee communities (pollination, fertilization). In this paper we studied the presence of the bee community in the hunting grounds of Croatian Forests, and their influence on the number of game (wild pigs), as well as the quality of honey, honey plants in the hunting grounds used by people and game. We established the total number of game (wild boars). The honey quality parameters were determined using the Harmonised methods of the European Honey (Bogdanov et al., 1997) and the pollen analysis by were conducted according to Harmonised methods of melissopalynology (Von der Ohe et al., 2004). Research results indicate that the presence of the bee community influences the number of wild boars from 3-18%, and the quality of honey is in line with the European and world standards. The SAS/STAT package was used for the statistical analysis (SAS Institute Inc., 2000). The significance of the differences among the groups was determined by Duncan test.

  4. Traditional Cereal Food as Container of Probiotic Bacteria “Lb. rhamnosus GG”: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Gharbi Yahyaoui


    Full Text Available This research paper aims at optimizing three parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG to improve a traditional cereal food “Bsissa” in order to elaborate a new probiotic fermented breakfast cereal. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and the optimal fermentation conditions were liquid to solid ratio: 1.2 (vw−1, fermentation time: 12 h, and sucrose concentration: 10.48 g (100 g DM−1. Under these conditions, the viable LGG cells, the free amino nitrogen content, and the total acidity were obtained to be 9.1 log10⁡(cfu g-1, 12.95 (mg g−1, and 6.46 (μmol g−1, respectively. After three weeks of refrigerated storage, the viability of LGG in the fermented Bsissa was 8.23 log10⁡(cfu g-1. This study shows a new possibility to make an acceptable nonfermented dairy product based mainly on cereals, leguminous plants, spices, and aromatic herbs, which are suitable substrates able to support the high probiotic viability.

  5. The global importance of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera spp.) on wheat and international approaches to its control. (United States)

    Nicol, J M; Elekçioğlu, I H; Bolat, N; Rivoal, R


    The Cereal Cyst Nematodes (CCNs) are a group of several closely related species which have been documented to cause economic yield loss on rainfed wheat production systems in several part of the world including North Africa, West Asia, China, India, Australia, America and several countries in Europe. The most commonly reported species is Heterodera avenae, however there are at least two other species H. filipjevi and H. latipons are implicated. It is well appreciated that plants under water and nutrient stress suffer greater yield loss. Control of CCNs requires maintaining nematode populations below economic thresholds. Chemicals are not environmentally sustainable or economic and the major emphasis on control has been with host genetic resistance applied with other integrated pest managent options. Unfortunately due to the number of species and pathotype variation genetic control of Cereal Cyst Nematode with plant resistance is complex. Turkey is one of the top ten wheat producers in the world and has identified these nematode as a major biotic constraint in their rainfed wheat systems. In 2001 a new joint intiative was established between CIMMYT International, the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and (Ukurova University in Adana to understand i) the distribution of cereal nematodes on wheat; ii) assess the economic importance and improve our understanding of the population dynamics iii) culture, screen and assess known sources of resistance and identify new sources to both groups of nematodes; iv) integrate new sources of resistance into bread wheat cultivars for Turkey and International germplasm using conventional and molecular tools; v) investigate other integrated control options such as rotation and different wheat management strategies and finally vi) capacity build scientists to work in this important area. Some highlights of this work will be presented and the newly formed ICCNI - International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initative introduced.

  6. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.


    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  7. Increasing millet production in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia, which has put the emphasis on cash crops and cereals ... aims to increase production and consumption of minor ... practices. They will then develop sustainable agriculture tool kits to help farmers to increase millet production in these.

  8. Model for transfer of cesium and strontium to domestic animal products as a consequence of accidental deposition on ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.


    In the study the contamination of domestic animal products (milk, beef, pork) and grain is predicted applying a compartment model approach to simulate the dynamic behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere after an accidental atmospheric deposition. Further, the radionuclide intakes into human body by consumption of the contaminated domestic animal products and the arising internal doses, are studied. The contamination of domestic animal products and grain are predicted by considering three representative deposition cases. The considered deposition timepoints are: spring (1st of May), summer (1st of July) and autumn (1st of September). The nuclides considered are 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr. (18 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.)

  9. The Strategic Exercise of Options Using Government Subsidies: An Analysis of Production Subsidies for the Ground Source Heat Pump (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hau; Li, Jia-Hsun; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Hsieh, Jing-Chzi; Liao, Pin-Chao


    This study utilizes consolidation investment theory to incorporate with business strategies and government subsidy to develop a strategic exercise of options model. This empirical investigation examines the ground source heat pump (GSHP) government subsidy program, which is part of China’s 12th Five Year Plan. The developed model is applied to explain the behaviours of business investment with regard to strategic investment timing, option values, and the influence of government subsidies in duopolistic real-world investment decisions. The results indicate that subsidy policy can reduce the differences of investment timing among GSHP investors and has clearly evidenced the positive benefit–cost ratio of government subsidy, which facilitates China’s GSHP industry development.

  10. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.


    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  11. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.


    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  12. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior. (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Ustjanauskas, Amy; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brownell, Kelly D


    To test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk. Using an experimental design, we randomly assigned children (n = 91) who were attending summer day camp to receive a breakfast that included either the choice of 1 of 3 high-sugar cereals (high-sugar condition) or low-sugar cereals (low-sugar condition), as well as low-fat milk, orange juice, bananas, strawberries, and sugar packets. Participants served themselves and completed a background questionnaire after eating. Researchers measured the amount and calories consumed of each food. In both conditions, children reported "liking" or "loving" the cereal they chose. Children in the low-sugar cereal condition consumed, on average, slightly more than 1 serving of cereal (35 g), whereas children in the high-sugar condition consumed significantly more (61 g) and almost twice the amount of refined sugar in total (24.4 vs 12.5 g). Milk and total calories consumed did not differ significantly between conditions, but children in the low-sugar condition were more likely to put fruit on their cereal (54% vs 8%) and consumed a greater portion of total calories from fresh fruit (20% vs 13%). Compared with serving low-sugar cereals, high-sugar cereals increase children's total sugar consumption and reduce the overall nutritional quality of their breakfast. Children will consume low-sugar cereals when offered, and they provide a superior breakfast option.

  13. The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A. Flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut (United States)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Matsuyama, A.


    The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10 8 of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively.

  14. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco


    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  15. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Klaus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to

  16. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content. (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón


    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium ( p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the "less healthy" cereals ( n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  17. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast


    Rolls, Barbara J.; Meengs, Jennifer S.; Roe, Liane S.


    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for four weeks during 2011-2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or th...

  18. Carotenoids in staple cereals: Metabolism, regulation, and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shengnan zhai


    Full Text Available Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grain. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1 seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, PSY (phytoene synthase, LCYB (β-cyclase and LCYE (ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, HYDB (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and CCDs (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and OR (orange conditioning sequestration sink; (2 pro-vitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3 QTLs for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and ten gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be benefitical in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for vitamin A biofortification.

  19. Rhizosphere Biological Processes of Legume//Cereal Intercropping Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Yuan-yuan


    Full Text Available Intercropping, a sustainable planting pattern, was widely used in the wordwide. It not only has the advantages of yield and nutrient acquisition, but also can ensure food security and reduce the risk of crop failures. The majority of intercropping systems involve legume//cereal combinations because of interspecific facilitation or complementarity. The rhizosphere is the interface between plants and soil where there are interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and affect the uptake of nutrients, water and harmful substances. The rhizosphere biologi-cal processes not only determine the amount of nutrients and the availability of nutrients, but also affect crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Hence, this paper summarized the progress made on root morphology, rhizosphere microorganisms, root exudates and ecological ef-fect in the perspective of the rhizosphere biological process,which would provide theoretical basis for improving nutrient availability, remov-ing heavy metals, and plant genetic improvements.

  20. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail:; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)


    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  1. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals


    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L


    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  2. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, Mihaela; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia


    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species

  3. Exergy and Exergoeconomic Model of a Ground-Based CAES Plant for Peak-Load Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Manfrida


    Full Text Available Compressed Air Energy Storage is recognized as a promising technology for applying energy storage to grids which are more and more challenged by the increasing contribution of renewable such as solar or wind energy. The paper proposes a medium-size ground-based CAES system, based on pressurized vessels and on a multiple-stage arrangement of compression and expansion machinery; the system includes recovery of heat from the intercoolers, and its storage as sensible heat in two separate (hot/cold water reservoirs, and regenerative reheat of the expansions. The CAES plant parameters were adapted to the requirements of existing equipment (compressors, expanders and heat exchangers. A complete exergy analysis of the plant was performed. Most component cost data were procured from the market, asking specific quotations to the industrial providers. It is thus possible to calculate the final cost of the electricity unit (kWh produced under peak-load mode, and to identify the relative contribution between the two relevant groups of capital and component inefficiencies costs.

  4. Modeling below-ground biomass to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal forest product (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine J. Small; Simon J. Bonner; Elizabeth B. Hiebert


    Non-timber forest products, particularly herbaceous understory plants, support a multi-billion dollar industry and are extracted from forests worldwide for their therapeutic value. Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of...

  5. Peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid and grounds for working our regulations of its safe production and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.К. Vlasenko


    Full Text Available Our research object was hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid applied as plants growth regulator which was synthe-sized with an original technology by Bioorganic Chemistry Institute of Belarus National Academy of science. Our research goal was to determine peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by this new plants protector on experimental models in vivo/in vitro and to give grounds for hygienic standards of its contents in various media which were to provide its safe production and application. We conducted our research with the use of toxicological, physiological, hematological, biochemical, immu-nologic, cytogenetic, cytological, and statistical methods. We were the first to perform toxicological assessment of this new plants growth regulator under different regimes, doses and ways of introduction into laboratory animals' bodies and it helped us to detect its toxicometric parameters and peculiarities of its biological effects which became apparent through skin-resorptive and cumulative properties, irritating impacts on mucous tunics, moderate reproductive toxicity without sub-stantial signs of gonadotropic, mutagenic, and allergenic impacts on a body. We detected that toxic impacts exerted by the examined substance on a body was combined with membrane-tropic and cytotoxic effects. We determined criteria and limit-ing parameters of hazardous effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the course of a chronic experiment, and it gave us grounds for fixing allowable daily dose for a man and for working out a number of regulations on the sub-stance contents in environmental objects (working area air, water, and soil, in food raw materials, and in food products (grain, rape, rape and linen oil. The obtained results were used as a basis for fixing 9 hygienic standards and were used for the state registration of this plant growth regulator; it will provide its safe production and application in agriculture.

  6. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar


    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  7. An eco-friendly, quick and cost-effective method for the quantification of acrylamide in cereal-based baby foods. (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı


    The presence of acrylamide in cereal-based baby foods is a matter of great concern owing to its possible health effects. Derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of the most common methods to quantify acrylamide. However, it requires the use of toxic chemicals and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop an eco-friendly, rapid and inexpensive method for the determination of acrylamide in cereal-based baby foods. The method involves defatting with n-hexane, extraction into water, precipitation of proteins, bromination, extraction into ethyl acetate and injection into a GC/MS system. The effects of defatting, precipitation, treatment with triethylamine, addition of internal standard and column selection were reviewed. A flow chart for acrylamide analysis was prepared. To evaluate the applicability of the method, 62 different cereal-based baby foods were analyzed. The levels of acrylamide ranged from not detected (below the limit of detection) to 660 µg kg(-1). The method is more eco-friendly and less expensive because it consumes very little solvent relative to other methods using bromine solutions and ethyl acetate. In addition, sample pre-treatment requires no solid phase extraction or concentration steps. The method is recommended for the determination of trace acrylamide in complex cereal-based baby food products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Distribution of Ds-like sequences in genomes of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinin, A.V.; Salina, E.A.; Shumnii, V.K.; Svitashev, S.K.


    It has been suggested that insertions of Ds-elements may alter the effectiveness of transcription or translation of the genetic loci and the normal processing of introns and exons, and that they may impair coding frames, etc. The object of the present study was to determine the frequency of occurence of DNA sequences similar to the Ds-controlling elements of mazie (Ds-like sequences) among other representatives of cereals. The conservative feature of the primary structure of transposons from different eukaryotic species served as a basis in this investigation. By means of the ''nick-translation'' reaction with the aid of DNA-polymerase I (alpha- 32 P) dCTP or TTP was introduced into the Ds-element. The specific radioactivity of the preparations obtained was 5 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 8 cpm/gamma. From the results obtained, it is suggested that the genomes of cereals examined contain a collection of Ds-like sequences. The Ds-element may have a significant effect on gene expression in the presence of Ac-like or other sequences, which undergo transposition

  9. Heavy metals in cereals and pulses: health implications in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md


    This research was conducted to evaluate the concentration of seven common heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in cereals and pulses and associated health implications in Bangladesh. USEPA deterministic approaches were followed to assess the carcinogenic risk (CR) and noncarcinogenic risk which was measured by target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI). Total THQ values for As and Pb were higher than 1, suggesting that people would experience significant health risks if they ingest As and Pb from cereals and pulses. However, the estimated HI value of 1.7 × 10(1) (>1) elucidates a potential noncarcinogenic risk to the consumers. Also, the estimation showed that the carcinogenic risk of As (5.8 × 10(-3)) and Pb (4.9 × 10(-5)) exceeded the USEPA accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of As and Pb with nutritional deficiency of essential elements for Bangladeshi people is a matter of concern.

  10. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  11. Production of Ionospheric Perturbations by Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and the Recovery of the Lower Ionosphere (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid


    The fact that lightning/thunderstorm activities can directly modify the lower ionosphere has long been established by observations of the perturbations of very low frequency (VLF) signals propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. These perturbations are known as early VLF events [Inan et al., 2010, JGR, 115, A00E36, 2010]. More recently discovered transient luminous events caused by the lightning/thunderstorm activities only last ~1-100 ms, but studies of the early VLF events show that the lightning ionospheric effects can persist much longer, >10s min [Cotts and Inan, GRL, 34, L14809, 2007; Haldoupis et al., JGR, 39, L16801, 2012; Salut et al., JGR, 117, A08311, 2012]. It has been suggested that the long recovery is caused by long-lasting conductivity perturbations in the lower ionosphere, which can be created by sprites/sprite halos which in turn are triggered by cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning [Moore et al., JGR, 108, 1363, 2003; Haldoupis et al., 2012]. We recently developed a two-dimensional fluid model with simplified ionospheric chemistry for studying the quasi-electrostatic effects of lightning in the lower ionosphere [Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012]. The model chemistry captures major ion species and reactions in the lower ionosphere. Additional important features of the model include self-consistent background ion density profiles and full description of electron and ion transport. In this talk, we present the simulation results on the dynamics of sprite halos caused by negative CG lightning. The modeling results indicate that electron density around 60 km altitude can be enhanced in a region as wide as 80 km. The enhancement reaches its full extent in ~1 s and recovers in 1-10 s, which are on the same orders as the durations of slow onset and post-onset peaks of some VLF events, respectively. In addition, long-lasting electron and ion density perturbations can occur around 80 km altitude due to negative halos as well as positive halos, which can explain

  12. Protein crop production at the northern margin of farming: to boost or not to boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio


    Full Text Available Global changes in food demand resulting from population growth and more meat-intensive diets require an increase in global protein crop production, not least as climate change and increasing scarcity of fresh water could restrict future production. In contrast to many other regions, in Finland climate change could open new opportunities through enabling more diverse cropping systems. It is justified to re-enquire whether the extent and intensity of protein crop production are optimized, resources are used efficiently and sustainably, cropping systems are built to be resilient and whether ecological services that protein crops provide are utilized appropriately. This paper aims to analyze in a descriptive manner the biological grounds for sustainable intensification of protein crop production in Finland. Production security is considered by evaluating the effects of and likelihood for constraints typical for northern conditions, examining historical and recent crop failures and estimating ecosystem services that more extensive introduction of protein crops potentially provide for northern cropping systems now and in a changing climate. There is an evident potential to expand protein crop production sustainably to a couple of times its current area. In general, variability in protein yields tends to be higher for protein crops than spring cereals. Nevertheless, protein yield variability was not necessarily systematically higher for Finland, when compared with other European regions, as it was for cereals. Protein crops provide significant ecological services that further support their expanded production. By this means protein self-sufficiency remains unrealistic, but increased production of protein crops can be achieved. The expansion of rapeseed and legumes areas also seems to be economically feasible. From the economic viewpoint, an increase in domestic protein supply requires that farmers have economic incentives to a cultivate protein

  13. Ground-level ozone in the Pearl River Delta and the roles of VOC and NO(x) in its production. (United States)

    Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Liuju; Wang, Boguang


    In many regions of China, very rapid economic growth has been accompanied by air pollution caused by vehicle emissions. In one of these regions, the Pearl River Delta, the variations of ground-level ozone and its precursors were investigated. Overall, the ambient concentrations of NO(2) increased quickly between 1995 and 1996, but then slightly decreased due to stringent nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission controls. Nonetheless, ambient NO(2) levels in the Pearl River Delta remained high. The regional average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 290 ppbC in summer and 190 ppbC in autumn. Local emissions and long-distance transportation of pollutants play important roles in the regional distribution of VOCs. Ambient O(3) production is significant in urban areas and also downwind of cities. The relative incremental reactivities (RIRs), determined by an observation-based model, showed that ground-level ozone formation in the Guangzhou urban area is generally limited by the concentrations of VOCs, but there are also measurable impacts of NO(x).

  14. Prediction of CP and starch concentrations in ruminal in situ studies and ruminal degradation of cereal grains using NIRS. (United States)

    Krieg, J; Koenzen, E; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Schenkel, H; Rodehutscord, M


    Ruminal in situ incubations are widely used to assess the nutritional value of feedstuffs for ruminants. In in situ methods, feed samples are ruminally incubated in indigestible bags over a predefined timespan and the disappearance of nutrients from the bags is recorded. To describe the degradation of specific nutrients, information on the concentration of feed samples and undegraded feed after in situ incubation ('bag residues') is needed. For cereal and pea grains, CP and starch (ST) analyses are of interest. The numerous analyses of residues following ruminal incubation contribute greatly to the substantial investments in labour and money, and faster methods would be beneficial. Therefore, calibrations were developed to estimate CP and ST concentrations in grains and bag residues following in situ incubations by using their near-infrared spectra recorded from 680 to 2500 nm. The samples comprised rye, triticale, barley, wheat, and maize grains (20 genotypes each), and 15 durum wheat and 13 pea grains. In addition, residues after ruminal incubation were included (at least from four samples per species for various incubation times). To establish CP and ST calibrations, 620 and 610 samples (grains and bag residues after incubation, respectively) were chemically analysed for their CP and ST concentration. Calibrations using wavelengths from 1250 to 2450 nm and the first derivative of the spectra produced the best results (R 2 Validation=0.99 for CP and ST; standard error of prediction=0.47 and 2.10% DM for CP and ST, respectively). Hence, CP and ST concentration in cereal grains and peas and their bag residues could be predicted with high precision by NIRS for use in in situ studies. No differences were found between the effective ruminal degradation calculated from NIRS estimations and those calculated from chemical analyses (P>0.70). Calibrations were also calculated to predict ruminal degradation kinetics of cereal grains from the spectra of ground grains

  15. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods-A SUSFOOD Project. (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Brennan, Charles; Turner, Charlotta; Günther, Edeltraud; Campbell, Grant; Hernando, Isabel; Struck, Susanne; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis


    This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  16. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm


    Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  17. Stabilization of cereal markets by flexible use of cereals for bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, G.


    This report addresses the question if it is possible to stabilize the grain market and the grain price by means of variation in the deployment of grain for producing bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The time horizon of this study is 2020, taking into account the blending obligation for biofuels of minimal 10% in the Eu-27. A basic scenarios and several alternative scenarios are developed by means of an economic calculation model. In the alternative scenarios more or less grain is used for own production of bio-ethanol in the Eu-27. The variation depends on the volume of the grain production compared to the basic scenario. The effect of the additional own production of bio-ethanol on the grain price is subsequently addressed. [nl

  18. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini


    Full Text Available Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling. Also organic production systems can benefit from continuous monitoring focusing on crop management and stress detection, but few studies have evaluated applications with this objective. In this study, ground-based and UAV spectrometers were compared in the context of organic potato cultivation. Relatively accurate estimates were obtained for leaf chlorophyll (RMSE = 6.07 µg·cm−2, leaf area index (RMSE = 0.67 m2·m−2, canopy chlorophyll (RMSE = 0.24 g·m−2 and ground cover (RMSE = 5.5% using five UAV-based data acquisitions, from 43 to 99 days after planting. These retrievals are slightly better than those derived from ground-based measurements (RMSE = 7.25 µg·cm−2, 0.85 m2·m−2, 0.28 g·m−2 and 6.8%, respectively, for the same period. Excluding observations corresponding to the first acquisition increased retrieval accuracy and made outputs more comparable between sensors, due to relatively low vegetation cover on this date. Intercomparison of vegetation indices indicated that indices based on the contrast between spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared, like OSAVI, MCARI2 and CIg provided, at certain extent, robust outputs that could be transferred between sensors. Information sampling at plot level by both sensing solutions resulted in comparable discriminative potential concerning advanced stages of late blight incidence. These results indicate that optical

  19. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.


    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are

  20. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars


    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...

  1. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.


    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  2. Digesta characteristiscs and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed cereal grains that differ in viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Veld, ter M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.


    Inclusion of cereal grains in fish diets may induce changes in digesta characteristics with possible consequences for fish performance. Especially viscosity characteristics of the dietary ingredients may induce these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary cereal grains

  3. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.


    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a

  4. Cereal Foods and Health : New results and science-based nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, S.; Ashwell, M.; Kamp, J.W. van der


    Recent epidemiological studies, in populations with higher intakes of whole grain, have extended and confirmed the evidence from previous findings showing an association between whole grain cereal or cereal fibre consumption and prevention of several non-communicable diseases. Although the results

  5. Heating and dehydration of grain and cereals at a combined energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Zverev


    Full Text Available The paper dwells on the development of experimental dependencies of heating and dehydration of grain and cereals when varying the irradiance, ambient temperature in the heat treatment zone and the initial moisture content of product, and the development of the mathematical models for heating and dehydration of some grains and cereals. The grain was heated on the laboratory equipment with quartz halogen linear infrared emitters. The irradiance on the working surface in the treatment zone was determined by calculation using a specially developed program. The ambient temperature was determined by a thermocouple thermometer placed in a ceramic tube. The grain temperature was estimated as average by weight by a thermocouple thermometer after its transfer into a thermally insulated container. The following dependencies have been obtained: 1 - Temperature dependence of the heating time for different heating modes and initial moisture content. 2 - Dependence of moisture content on the heating time under different conditions and initial moisture content. 3 - Dependence of moisture content on a temperature under different conditions and constant initial humidity. The models of the heat-moisture exchange and dehydration processes have been created, and the model parameters K0 and KT of the temperature dependence of some grains have been identified, as well as their dependence on moisture content and treatment modes has been evaluated. It has been established that this model describes adequately the process of dehydration to an extent limited by the upper temperature value of grain not much more than 100 ºС. Within not limited to the upper temperature value of grain not much more than 100 ºС. From the presented graphs and earlier obtained results for barley and millet, it can be assumed that the model describes adequately experimental data on the small-sized (3 - 5 mm objects.

  6. Biological characterization of fenpicoxamid, a new fungicide with utility in cereals and other crops. (United States)

    Owen, W John; Yao, Chenglin; Myung, Kyung; Kemmitt, Greg; Leader, Andrew; Meyer, Kevin G; Bowling, Andrew J; Slanec, Thomas; Kramer, Vincent J


    The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross-resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq™ active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC 50 , 0.051 mg L -1 ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z. tritici to UK-2A, a 15-fold stronger inhibitor of Z. tritici growth (EC 50 , 0.0033 mg L -1 ). Strong fungicidal activity of fenpicoxamid against driver cereal diseases was confirmed in greenhouse tests, where activity on Z. tritici and Puccinia triticina matched that of fluxapyroxad. Due to its novel target site (Q i site of the respiratory cyt bc1 complex) for the cereals market, fenpicoxamid is not cross-resistant to Z. tritici isolates resistant to strobilurin and/or azole fungicides. Across multiple European field trials Z. tritici was strongly controlled (mean, 82%) by 100 g as ha -1 applications of fenpicoxamid, which demonstrated excellent residual activity. The novel chemistry and biochemical target site of fenpicoxamid as well as its lack of cross-resistance and strong efficacy against Z. tritici and other pathogens highlight the importance of fenpicoxamid as a new tool for controlling plant pathogenic fungi. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua) (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  8. Maintenance of safety and quality of refrigerated ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef product (meatball) by combining gamma irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging. (United States)

    Gunes, Gurbuz; Ozturk, Aylin; Yilmaz, Neriman; Ozcelik, Beraat


    Meatballs were prepared by mixing ground beef and spices and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enteritidis before packaged in modified atmosphere (3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂) or aerobic conditions. The packaged samples were irradiated at 0.75, 1.5, and 3 kGy doses and stored at 4 °C for 21 d. Survival of the pathogens, total plate count, lipid oxidation, color change, and sensory quality were analyzed during storage. Irradiation at 3 kGy inactivated all the inoculated (approximately 10⁶ CFU/g) S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes cells in the samples. The inoculated (approximately 10⁶ CFU/g) E. coli O157:H7 cells were totally inactivated by 1.5 kGy irradiation. D¹⁰-values for E. coli O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes were 0.24, 0.43, and 0.41 kGy in MAP and 0.22, 0.39, and 0.39 kGy in aerobic packages, respectively. Irradiation at 1.5 and 3 kGy resulted in 0.13 and 0.36 mg MDA/kg increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) reaching 1.02 and 1.49 MDA/kg, respectively, on day 1. Irradiation also caused significant loss of color and sensory quality in aerobic packages. However, MAP effectively inhibited the irradiation-induced quality degradations during 21-d storage. Thus, combining irradiation (3 kGy) and MAP (3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂) controlled the safety risk due to the potential pathogens and maintained qualities of meatballs during 21-d refrigerated storage. Combined use of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can maintain quality and safety of seasoned ground beef (meatball). Seasoned ground beef can be irradiated at 3 kGy and packaged in MAP with 3% O₂ + 50% CO₂ + 47% N₂ gas mixture in a high barrier packaging materials. These treatments can significantly decrease risk due to potential pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enteritidis in the product. The MAP would reduce the undesirable effects of

  9. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted


    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...... wheat, barley and rye whereas non-Triticeae cereals such as maize and rice have very little MGPA. Recent studies have determined the evolutionary relationships of phytases in Triticeae and non-Triticeae and highlighted the importance of the purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhys). In the Triticeae...

  10. Control of long-term transfer of {sup 137}Cs to grass and cereal grain in Swedi Chernobyl affected areas, 1986 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Haak, E. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Science


    In 1986 the {sup 137}Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident was relatively high in three counties of North Sweden and in two counties of East-Mid Sweden, designated X, Y, Z and U/C respectively. In these counties an investigation of {sup 137}Cs fallout comprised a large number of farms, most of the farms on grass site and some on cereal site. The ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs varied largely, and was on average higher in X-county than in Y- and U/C- counties and lowest on Z-county. Transfer of {sup 137}Cs to crops was determined every year until 1996, and later every third year up to 2003. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs was higher to pasture grass than to ley grass and much lower to cereal grain. For all the three crops the transfer was higher on organic soils than on mineral soils. K-fertilization decreased the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs as did ploughing and harrowing the ley grass and cereal sites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva


    Full Text Available The paper dwells on basic legal and sub-legislative documents issued in the EU, the USA, Canada, by the WTO and Codex Alimentarius Commission which provide control of consumer products safety on the basis of assessing risks for consumers' life and health. Risk-oriented surveillance is shown as a system which makes for lower loads on business but still provides systemic control over most hazardous products. The EU legislation fixes the right to perform supranational control over state control systems existing in the EU member states in terms of their relevance and legitimacy. This supranational control is supported by organizational structures and regulatory and methodological documents. National control systems are systematically reviewed and analyzed in order to secure their conformity to supranational regulatory acts, to detect any cases of non-compliance, and to spread the best practices. Risk analysis reviews and results are open and discussable. As a result of products hazards assessment their turnover can be limited, or they can be withdrawn from the market, or additional information on hazards or risks they may cause is to be provided for consumers. Public and constantly operating systems of informing about hazardous goods are well-developed. International experience and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented surveillance over consumer products can be and should be applied in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU countries. The Eurasian Economic Union countries fix orientation at observing consumer goods safety principles in their legislation. There are also legal grounds for and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented approach to products manufactures. But it is necessary to further develop a products classification system as per consumer health risk parameters. And this task requires working out unified approaches to classification of both eatable and non-eatable products. It seems relevant to develop a public analytical database of risk

  12. Disruption of the GABA shunt affects mitochondrial respiration and virulence in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. (United States)

    Bönnighausen, Jakob; Gebhard, Daniel; Kröger, Cathrin; Hadeler, Birgit; Tumforde, Thomas; Lieberei, Reinhard; Bergemann, Jörg; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Bormann, Jörg


    The cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum threatens food and feed production worldwide. It reduces the yield and poisons the remaining kernels with mycotoxins, notably deoxynivalenol (DON). We analyzed the importance of gamma-aminobutanoic acid (GABA) metabolism for the life cycle of this fungal pathogen. GABA metabolism in F. graminearum is partially regulated by the global nitrogen regulator AreA. Genetic disruption of the GABA shunt by deletion of two GABA transaminases renders the pathogen unable to utilize the plant stress metabolites GABA and putrescine. The mutants showed increased sensitivity against oxidative stress, GABA accumulation in the mycelium, downregulation of two key enzymes of the TCA cycle, disturbed potential gradient in the mitochondrial membrane and lower mitochondrial oxygen consumption. In contrast, addition of GABA to the wild type resulted in its rapid turnover and increased mitochondrial steady state oxygen consumption. GABA concentrations are highly upregulated in infected wheat tissues. We conclude that GABA is metabolized by the pathogen during infection increasing its energy production, whereas the mutants accumulate GABA intracellularly resulting in decreased energy production. Consequently, the GABA mutants are strongly reduced in virulence but, because of their DON production, are able to cross the rachis node. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.O.


    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  14. Presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the continuum of surface and ground water used in drinking water production. (United States)

    Ahkola, Heidi; Tuominen, Sirkku; Karlsson, Sanja; Perkola, Noora; Huttula, Timo; Saraperä, Sami; Artimo, Aki; Korpiharju, Taina; Äystö, Lauri; Fjäder, Päivi; Assmuth, Timo; Rosendahl, Kirsi; Nysten, Taina


    Anthropogenic chemicals in surface water and groundwater cause concern especially when the water is used in drinking water production. Due to their continuous release or spill-over at waste water treatment plants, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are constantly present in aquatic environment and despite their low concentrations, APIs can still cause effects on the organisms. In the present study, Chemcatcher passive sampling was applied in surface water, surface water intake site, and groundwater observation wells to estimate whether the selected APIs are able to end up in drinking water supply through an artificial groundwater recharge system. The API concentrations measured in conventional wastewater, surface water, and groundwater grab samples were assessed with the results obtained with passive samplers. Out of the 25 APIs studied with passive sampling, four were observed in groundwater and 21 in surface water. This suggests that many anthropogenic APIs released to waste water proceed downstream and can be detectable in groundwater recharge. Chemcatcher passive samplers have previously been used in monitoring several harmful chemicals in surface and wastewaters, but the path of chemicals to groundwater has not been studied. This study provides novel information on the suitability of the Chemcatcher passive samplers for detecting APIs in groundwater wells.

  15. The Development and Delivery of On-Demand RADARSAT Constellation Mission Ground Deformation Products Based on Advanced Insar Technology (United States)

    Samsonov, S. V.; Feng, W.


    InSAR-based mapping of surface deformation (displacement) has proven valuable to a variety of geoscience applications within NRCan. Conventional approaches to InSAR analysis require significant expert intervention to separate useful signal from noise and are not suited to the address the opportunities and challenges presented by the large multi-temporal SAR datasets provided by future radar constellations. The Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation (CCMEO) develops, in support of NRCAN and Government of Canada priorities a framework for automatic generation of standard and advanced deformation products based on Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology from RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) Synthetic Aperture Radar data. We utilize existing processing algorithms that are currently used for processing RADARSAT-2 data and adapt them to RCM specifications. In addition we develop novel advanced processing algorithms that address large data sets made possible by the satellites' rapid revisit cycle and expand InSAR functionality to regional and national scales across a wide range of time scales. Through automation the system makes it possible to extend the mapping of surface deformation to non-SAR experts. The architecture is scalable and expandable to serve large number of clients and simultaneously address multiple application areas including: natural and anthropogenic hazards, natural resource development, permafrost and glacier monitoring, coastal and environmental change and wetlands mapping.

  16. Angular Normalization of Ground and Satellite Observations of Sun-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence for Assessing Vegetation Productivity (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; He, L.; Chou, S.; Ju, W.; Zhang, Y.; Joiner, J.; Liu, J.; Mo, G.


    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured from plant canopies originates mostly from sunlit leaves. Observations of SIF by satellite sensors, such as GOME-2 and GOSAT, are often made over large view zenith angle ranges, causing large changes in the viewed sunlit leaf fraction across the scanning swath. Although observations made by OCO-2 are near nadir, the observed sunlit leaf fraction could still vary greatly due to changes in the solar zenith angle with latitude and time of overpass. To demonstrate the importance of considering the satellite-target-view geometry in using SIF for assessing vegetation productivity, we conducted multi-angle measurements of SIF using a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an automated rotating system over a rice field near Nanjing, China. A method is developed to separate SIF measurements at each angle into sunlit and shaded leaf components, and an angularly normalized canopy-level SIF is obtained as the weighted sum of sunlit and shaded SIF. This normalized SIF is shown to be a much better proxy of GPP of the rice field measured by an eddy covariance system than the unnormalized SIF observations. The same normalization scheme is also applied to the far-red GOME-2 SIF observations on sunny days, and we found that the normalized SIF is better correlated with model-simulated GPP than the original SIF observations. The coefficient of determination (R2) is improved by 0.07±0.04 on global average using the normalization scheme. The most significant improvement in R2 by 0.09±0.04 is found in deciduous broadleaf forests, where the observed sunlit leaf fraction is highly sensitive to solar zenith angle.

  17. Treeline advances and associated shifts in the ground vegetation alter fine root dynamics and mycelia production in the South and Polar Urals. (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel A; Andreyashkina, Nelly I; Devi, Nadezhda M; Göransson, Hans; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Trubina, Marina R; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Wilmking, Martin; Hagedorn, Frank


    Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2 mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8 m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.

  18. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita


    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  19. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel


    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  20. Valorization of cereal based biorefinery byproducts: reality and expectations. (United States)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed; Diels, Ludo; De Wever, Heleen; Pant, Deepak


    The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local discharge requirements and to minimize net water consumption. The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved. In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process.