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Sample records for ground caribou rangifer

  1. Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) behaviour after recent fire events; integrating caribou telemetry data with Landsat fire detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Fire regimes are changing throughout the North American boreal forest in complex ways. Fire is also a major factor governing access to high-quality forage such as terricholous lichens for barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Additionally, fire alters forest structure which can affect barren-ground caribou's ability to navigate in a landscape. Here, we characterize how the size and severity of fires are changing across five barren-ground caribou herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. Additionally, we demonstrate how time since fire, fire severity, and season result in complex changes in caribou behavioural metrics estimated using telemetry data. Fire disturbances were identified using novel gap-free Landsat surface reflectance composites from 1985 to 2011 across all herd ranges. Burn severity was estimated using the differenced normalized burn ratio. Annual area burned and burn severity were assessed through time for each herd and related to two behavioural metrics: velocity and relative turning angle. Neither annual area burned nor burn severity displayed any temporal trend within the study period. However, certain herds, such as the Ahiak/Beverly, have more exposure to fire than other herds (i.e. Cape Bathurst had a maximum forested area burned of less than 4 km(2) ). Time since fire and burn severity both significantly affected velocity and relative turning angles. During fall, winter, and spring, fire virtually eliminated foraging-focused behaviour for all 26 years of analysis while more severe fires resulted in a marked increase in movement-focused behaviour compared to unburnt patches. Between seasons, caribou used burned areas as early as 1-year postfire, demonstrating complex, nonlinear reactions to time since fire, fire severity, and season. In all cases, increases in movement-focused behaviour were detected postfire. We conclude that changes in caribou behaviour immediately postfire are primarily driven by

  2. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  3. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  4. The status of Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

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    R. Farnell

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the population trends as well as research and management programs for woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon. Most herds are stable although not all are counted regularly and systematic monitoring of herds remains an essential need. Over the past decade the Southern Lakes, Aishihik, and Finlayson herds have been well studied and provide valuable models for guiding Yukon management programs. Over harvest and the spread of agriculture, forestry and mining are ongoing human activities are of concern to caribou managers.

  5. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  6. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

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    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  7. Observation of Arctic island barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus migratory movement delay due to human induced sea-ice breaking

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    Mathieu Dumond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The seasonal migration of the Dolphin and Union caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus herd between Victoria Island and the mainland (Nunavut/Northwest Territories, Canada relies on the formation of sea-ice that connects the Island to the mainland from late-October to early-June.  During an aerial survey of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in October 2007 on southern Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, we documented the short-term effects of the artificial maintenance of an open water channel in the sea-ice on caribou migratory movements during staging along the coast.

  8. Influence of In-Situ Oil Sands Development on Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Movement.

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    Tyler Muhly

    Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas

  9. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

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    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    in future studies on reindeer and caribou responses towards various anthropogenic activities. Although cumulative effects from human activities are likely, it remains difficult to separate these from natural variations in Rangifer habitat use and demography. Habitat avoidance towards various human infrastructures and activities is reported, but most studies reporting relatively far (4-25 km avoidance distances relied on measurements of range properties and animal distribution recorded on 1-2 days annually in winter to induce a potential response from the animals and lack important environmental variables and/or alternative hypothesises. This methodology should be improved in order to enable identification of correlation versus causation. Studies relying on animal behaviour measurements can more correctly identify and test responses to various stimuli while also controlling for degree of domestication and other various environmental variables, but only in a limited time and spatial scale. Furthermore, such studies may not necessarily capture potential population consequences from disturbances. Thus, there are important weaknesses in the two leading methodologies (measuring animal behaviour and indirectly mapping regional/population movements and habitat use through measurements of range properties. To best study Rangifer’s responses towards anthropogenic infrastructure and activities, we propose that the two methodologies be combined and supplied with modern GPS/telemetry.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Rein og caribous reaksjon på forskjellige menneskelige aktiviteter og installasjoner Vi adresserer spørsmålet om hvordan menneskelig aktivitet og infrastruktur påvirker rein/caribous (Rangifer tarandus atferd og områdebruk og gjennomgår publiserte arbeider basert på aktuelle metoder. Antropogene aktiviteter har direkte effekt på reinens atferd via hørsel, syn og lukt; alle er viktige for deres risikovurdering. Kortsiktige indirekte reaksjonsmønstre, slik

  10. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

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    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  11. Protostrongylid nematodes in caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces of Newfoundland

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    Murray W. Lankester

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Two species of protostrongylid nematodes with dorsal-spined, first-stage larvae, are present in caribou and moose of Newfoundland. Elaphostrongyius rangiferi Mitskevich, 1958, a parasite introduced from Scandinavia, causes periodic epizootics of a severe neurological disease in caribou. Sick animals exhibiting signs of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylosis (CSE were particularly noticeable in central Newfoundland each winter between 1981 and 1985. Those collected for examinarion were mostly male calves. The disease again became prominent in caribou on the Avalon Peninsula in the winters of 1996 and 1997; it may have spread to that isolated part of the province as recently as 1990. E. rangiferi was also found in moose but no cases of neurologic disease have been reported in this host. Parelapbostrongylus andersoni Prestwood, 1972, was found in caribou, both in central Newfoundland and on the Avalon Peninsula. Moose may also be infected. Of 1407 terrestrial gastropod intermediate hosts examined, 9 (0.6% contained infective, third-stage, protostrongylid larvae resembling those of E. rangiferi and P. andersoni which are indistinguishable. The small dark slug, Deroceras laeve, dominated gastropod collections and was the only species infected.

  12. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

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    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  13. The Porcupine herd of barren ground caribou

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the porcupine herd of the barren ground caribou. The report covers the short history, the winter range, migration route, phenology, movements and...

  14. Climate and management interact to explain the decline of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Jasper National Park

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    Mark Bradley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou in the southern portion of Jasper National Park have declined from an estimated 435 in the mid 1970s to a population estimate of 87 in the fall of 2009. We examined the available historical information to determine why caribou have declined. We compared three main hypotheses for caribou decline in JNP: human disturbance, climate change, and wildlife management. We used historical human use statistics, climate data, and animal abundance information to weigh the evidence for these competing hypotheses over two time scales. Caribou decline could not be attributed to changes in climate over the long-term, or an increase in human use (our proxy for disturbance. Caribou decline was attributed to a combination of climate and wildlife management. Recovery of caribou in Jasper National Park will likely be contingent on managing the interaction between the predator/prey dynamic and climate change.

  15. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

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    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1977-80 a large scale research program was carried out in West Greenland to study caribou ecology and population dynamics. Papers dealing with feeding ecology, range condition, calf mortality, and behaviour have been published elsewhere (Strandgaard 1980; Holt 1980; Clausen et al. 1980; Thing & Clausen 1980; Thing 1980; Roby 1980; Thing 1981; Roby & Thing 1982; Thing & Thing 1982. The present study deals with some dynamic parameters in the Sisimiut herd (Fig. 1, viz. group size, sex and age composition, calf/cow ratio, calf increment, and annual recruitment. Caribou in the Sisimiut region are mainly found in very small groups of one to five animals in most seasons. Aggregations of more than 50 animals are rarely seen except in the calving and summer seasons (Fig. 2. A distinct annual cycle is apparent in the mean group size with a steady increase from a mid winter minimum of 1.4 caribou/group towards a maximum of almost 25 caribou/group in the post-calving season (Fig. 3. The absence of important predators (especially wolves and the fact that winter food resources in the region have been depleted seem to reduce group size. Consequently, Sisimiut caribou are characterized year round by forming very small groups as compared to most other wild Rangifer populations. Caribou cows (females 2 years + make up approx. 50% of the herd, while bulls (males 2 years + average only 10% (Fig. 4. The number of bulls in the herd shows a significant decline caused by a selective hunting pressure as well as natural winter mortality (Fig. 5. The rut takes place in October during the fall migration from the inland ranges adjacent to the Inland Ice towards the coast line. The cows are apparently served mainly by 1 1/2 and 2 year old bulls. Despite scarcity of adequate food on the winter ranges there is a high calf production. This is probably explained by excellent forage conditions on the inland range prior to and during the calving season (May - June

  16. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

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    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  17. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  18. THIAFENTANIL-AZAPERONE-XYLAZINE AND CARFENTANIL-XYLAZINE IMMOBILIZATIONS OF FREE-RANGING CARIBOU (RANGIFER TARANDUS GRANTI) IN ALASKA, USA.

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    Lian, Marianne; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Bentzen, Torsten W; Demma, Dominic J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-04-28

    Carfentanil-xylazine (CX) has been the primary drug combination used for immobilizing free-ranging ungulates in Alaska, US since 1986. We investigated the efficacy of a potential new drug of choice, thiafentanil (Investigational New Animal Drug A-3080). Captive trials indicated that thiafentanil-azaperone-medetomidine could provide good levels of immobilization. However, field trials conducted in October 2013 on free-ranging caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti) calves showed the combination too potent, causing three respiratory arrests and one mortality. The protocol was revised to thiafentanil-azaperone-xylazine (TAX), with good results. The induction time was not significantly different between the two combinations. However, the recovery time was significantly shorter for the TAX group than for the CX group. A physiologic evaluation was performed on 12 animals immobilized on CX and 15 animals on TAX. Arterial blood was collected after induction and again after 10 min of intranasal oxygen supplements (1 L/min). Both groups had significant increases in partial pressure of arterial oxygen after oxygen treatment. There was a concurrent significant increase in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in both groups. Rectal temperature increased significantly in both groups during the downtime, which is consistent with other studies of potent opioids in ungulates. On the basis of our results, we found TAX to be a potential alternative for the current CX protocol for immobilizing free-ranging caribou calves via helicopter darting.

  19. Adapting sampling plans to caribou distribution on calving grounds

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    Michel Crête

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1988, the size of the two caribou herds in northern Québec was derived by combining estimates of female numbers on calving grounds in June and composition counts during rut in autumn. Sampling with aerial photos was conducted on calving grounds to determine the number of animals per km2, telemetry served to estimate the proportion of females in the census area at the time of photography in addition to summer survival rate, and helicopter or ground observations were used for composition counts. Observers were able to detect on black and white negatives over 95 percent of caribou counted from a helicopter flying at low altitude over the same area; photo scale varied between = 1:3 600 and 1:6 000. Sampling units covering less than 15-20 ha were the best for sampling caribou distribution on calving grounds, where density generally averaged » 10 individuals-km"2. Around 90 percent of caribou on calving grounds were females; others were mostly yearling males. During the 1-2 day photographic census, 64 to 77 percent of the females were present on the calving areas. Summer survival exceeded 95 percent in three summers. In autumn, females composed between 45 and 54 percent of each herd. The Rivière George herd was estimated at 682 000 individuals (± 36%; alpha = 0.10 in 1988. This estimate was imprecise due to insufficiens sample size for measuring animal density on the calving ground and for determining proportion of females on the calving ground at the time of the photo census. To improve precision and reduce cost, it is proposed to estimate herd size of tundra caribou in one step, using only aerial photos in early June without telemetry.

  20. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, B.I.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Fredholm, Merete

    2002-01-01

    samples were collected, which included samples from caribou of four different regions and samples from two different reindeer herds. Based on the genetic variation of the five markers, our results shows that the caribou and the reindeer populations in the six regions sampled are genetically differentiated...... within each group and the two subspecies are differentiated from each other. A likely explanation for the genetic isolation of the populations investigated is that natural barriers (glaciers and wide fjords) exists in the area. Furthermore we found that introduced Norwegian domestic reindeer hybridized...

  1. The effect of temporal sampling regime on the characterization of home range for female boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Labrador, Canada

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    Alexandre L. Vignault Rasiulis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the influence of temporal sampling regime on the characteristics of individual female caribou home ranges and to explore implications of these findings to the conservation of caribou. The study population was 24 adult female caribou monitored for between 4 and 11 consecutive years between 1986 and 2009 from the Red Wine Mountain (RWM and Lac Joseph (LJ herds of boreal caribou in Labrador. We evaluated the influence of length of the monitoring period on the size of home ranges and fidelity of caribou to their ranges by measuring the percent overlap of multi-annual ranges on the total time period a caribou was collared and by calculating displacement between centroids of annual and multi-annual ranges for a given caribou. We found that the size of the range increased with each additional year of monitoring—initially at a rate greater than 20% per year, and then more slowly until an asymptote was reached after 7 years. The distance ratio declined with an increase in the monitoring interval until after approximately 6 years of monitoring. Finally, we evaluated trade-offs between monitoring interval and sample size by measuring the proportion of the total herd range captured by multi-annual ranges for given monitoring interval and sample size combinations. Caribou with the longest monitoring interval inevitably captured the greatest portion of the range at each given sample size. Only monitoring intervals of 4 years or greater captured more than 65% of the herd range even when sample size was doubled for shorter monitoring intervals. Our results suggest that long term monitoring is important when defining the extent of caribou ranges.

  2. Predation and caribou populations

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    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  3. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

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    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  4. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  5. Discovery and description of the "davtiani" morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus (Trichostrongyloidea: Ostertagiinae) abomasal parasites in muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, and caribou, Rangifer tarandus, from the North American Arctic: implications for parasite faunal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Arthur; Pilitt, Patricia A; Kutz, Susan J

    2012-04-01

    Collections to explore helminth diversity among free-ranging ungulates in the North American Arctic revealed the occurrence of a third male, or " davtiani ," morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus . Designated as T. boreoarcticus forma (f.) minor B, the males occurred with T. boreoarcticus f. major and T. borearcticus f. minor A in endemic populations of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus wardi) and barrenground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) on Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, and in muskoxen and Peary caribou ( Rangifer tarandus pearyi ) on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. These specimens differ from conspecific morphotypes in the structure of the genital cone and Sjöberg's organ. Relative to T. boreoarcticus f. minor A, specimens of T. boreoarcticus f. minor B are consistently smaller, and mean dimensions for the bursa and spicules do not overlap. The robust spicules are similar in form, particularly in the relative length of the dorsal and ventral processes, but mean total length is substantially less in specimens of T. boreoarcticus f. minor B. Differences that distinguish the minor morphotypes of T. boreoarcticus parallel those demonstrated for the T. trifurcata and T. davtiani morphotypes in association with T. circumcincta sensu stricto. New host and geographic records include the 3 morphotypes of T. boreoarcticus in muskoxen and Peary caribou from Banks Island and in barrenground caribou from Victoria Island. Recognition of the ubiquitous nature of cryptic species emphasizes the need to effectively develop and use our collections-based resources and museum archives to build a robust understanding of the biosphere. Field inventory should include provisions for integrative approaches that preserve specimens suitable for comparative morphology, multi-faceted molecular investigations, and population genetics.

  6. 8000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian Barrenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Gordon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are the common thread running through thousands of years of cultural evolution in northern mainland Canada. From the earliest Indian traditions, through the Pre-Dorset and Dene cultural evolution, up to historic times, the vast herds of migratory Barrenland caribou provided food, clothing and shelter. They determined the human cycle -- seasonal migrations, seasonal levels of fitness, and season of procreation. Caribou even permeated Dene mythology and supernatural beliefs. Within the Beverly caribou (R. t. groenlandicus range in the Canadian Barrenlands, investigation of 1002 archaeological sites points to long-term stability of human band and caribou herd interaction. Caribou bone and hunting tools occur in multiple levels, the earliest to 8000 years, based on 131 radiocarbon dates. Through time, specific hunting bands aligned with specific migratory barren-ground caribou herds. This relationship helps to explain observed archaeological and ethnological differences within different caribou ranges for these hunting bands. In general, biological evidence concurs with ethnographic and archaeological evidence. But short-term variations in migration routes between northern boreal forest, taiga and tundra may have followed changes in herd size and environment, e.g., unfavorable snow and ice conditions or forest fires. However, such influences were not discernible archaeologically.

  7. Demographic characteristics of circumpolar caribou populations: ecotypes, ecological constraints, releases, and population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, F.F.; T.L. Hillis

    1998-01-01

    Data on the status of caribou {Rangifer tarandus) herds throughout the circumpolar region during the last 20 years were obtained from the literature and personal communication with researchers. Information was analysed in relation to ecotype (insular, montane, barren-ground, and woodland/forest), population status (increasing, stable, decreasing), herd size, human impact, and temporal change in number. The data support the conclusions (1) that each ecotype is exposed to different ecological c...

  8. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition and nitrogen excretion in caribou

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    Ray Case

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, urinary Nt-methylhistidine to creatinine ratios, serum urea nitrogen concentrations (SUN mg/dl, and serum Nt-methylhistidine concentrations were compared with physical measures of body composition in adult female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus from the Bathurst and Southampton Island herds during late winter. Body weight and UUC were used to estimate urinary urea nitrogen (urea-N excretion in free ranging caribou. Only mean UUC reflected differences in fat reserves between populations. None of the biochemical indicators were directly related to body composition. However, elevated UUC were only observed in caribou with depleted fat reserves as demonstrated by low kidney fat index (KFK40 and/or reduced femur marrow fat (FMF<80. UUC greater than 0.25 were indicative of undernourished animals with depleted fat reserves. SUN and UN -MHC showed no clear relationship with fat reserves. The mean estimated daily urea-N excretion for adult female caribou in late winter was extremely low (0.11+0.01SE g urea-N/day, n=76, range=0.011-0.510. The results of my study suggest that UUC can be used to detect nutritionally stressed caribou with depleted fat reserves on lichen winter ranges.

  9. The relationship between food intake and predation risk in migratory caribou and implications to caribou and wolf population dynamics

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    Douglas C. Heard

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hypothesis that spring migration in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus enhances access to high quality food, reduces predation risks or both. We related our findings to the hypothesis that one of the consequences of migration is that prey populations cannot be regulated by predation because predators are unable to respond numerically to changes in abundance of migratory prey. In the Northwest Territories, migration to calving grounds by pregnant cows reduced the risk of predation on neonates. Wolf (Canis lupus densities on calving grounds averaged only 22% of winter range densities because most wolves denned near tree line. The quality and quantity of food that was available to cows that migrated to calving grounds was lower than for bulls and other caribou that lagged far behind the pregnant cows during spring migration. Fecal nitrogen levels were higher in bulls than in cows in late May and early June but there were no differences in mid or late June. Areas occupied by bulls in late May had a greater biomass of live sedges than on the calving ground in early June. It appears that although food in July is abundant and nutritious, insect harassment prevents efficient feeding. Body fat reserves in both sexes declined to almost zero by mid-July, the lowest level of the year. Insect numbers declined in August and body fat levels increased to the highest level of the year by early September. Because the timing of caribou's return to the hunting ranges of tree line denning wolves was related to caribou density, our data were inconsistent with the suggested consequence of migration. Tree line denning by wolves and density-dependent changes in caribou migration suggests a mechanism for population regulation in caribou and wolves. We suggest that the process is as follows; when caribou numbers increase, some density-dependent factor causes range expansion in August (e.g., competition for food causing caribou to return earlier to

  10. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kent Brown; W. James Rettie; Bob Wynes; Kim Morton

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis o...

  11. Analysis of forest stands used by wintering woodland caribou in Ontario

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    K. Antoniak

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Two summers' field surveys at 9 locations in northwestern Ontario showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou wintering areas supported jack pine and black spruce stands with low tree densities (mean 1552 trees/ ha, 39% of a fully stocked stand, low basal areas (mean 14.14 m2/ha, low volumes (mean 116 mVha, 68% of Normal Yield Tables and short heights (95% of stands 12 m or less. Ecologically, most sights were classed V30. Significantly more lichen (averaging 39% lichen ground cover was found on plots used by caribou. Three measured areas showed few shrubs, possibly enhancing escape possibilities and reducing browse attractive to moose. An HIS model predicted known locations of caribou winter habitat from FRI data with 76% accuracy. Landsat imagery theme 3 (open conifer produced 74% accuracy. Combining these methods permitted prediction of all 50 test sites. The low volumes of timber found in caribou wintering areas suggest that setting aside reserves for caribou winter habitat would not sacrifice as much wood product value as might at first appear.

  12. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

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    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  13. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D C; S.J. Barry; G. Alaie

    1996-01-01

    We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus). Species of lichens attained peak biomass at diffe...

  14. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

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    Katherine L. Parker

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  15. Eimeria rangiferis (Protozoa: Eimeriidae reported from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland

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    Karl Skírnisson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the native Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus south of the Godthaabs fjord (Nuup Kangerlua fjord in West Greenland have mixed with semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer (R. t. tarandus imported in 1952 from Finnmark Norway and released onto the range of the Ameralik caribou population. Fecal samples from three calves of the Ameralik caribou population were examined for the presence of nematode eggs and eimerid oocysts. Two distinct nematode egg types were observed: the first, Nematodirella longissimespiculata, was found in all calves, while the second, a strongylid nematode, was detected in one calf. The coccidian eimerid Eimeria rangiferis was identified in all calves. This host-specific eimerid is found in Icelandic feral reindeer, which were also imported from Finnmark Norway. We suggest that Finnmark reindeer were the source of Eimeria rangiferis observed in Ameralik caribou today. There are three possible origins for the presence of N. longissimespiculata in Ameralik, 1 arrival with colonizing caribou from North America within the past 4000 years, 2 the 1952 introduction of semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer, or 3 the current immigration of muskoxen.

  16. Aerial survey of barren-ground caribou at Adak and Kagalaska Islands, Alaska in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Uncertainty surrounded the caribou population trend since the 2005 survey for several reasons. First, reported hunter harvest rates returned to or exceeded pre‐naval...

  17. Wolf and barren ground caribou relationship, headwaters of the Gulkana and Susitna Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The caribou population in the area south of the Alaska Range, extending north and east to the Wrangell Mountains and embracing sane 9, 000 square miles of varying...

  18. Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: Effects of fire and snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Saperstein

    1996-01-01

    Both long- and short-term consequences should be considered when examining the effects of fire on the foraging behavior of caribou. Post-fire increases in protein content, digestibility, and availability of E. vaginatum make burned tussock tundra an attractive feeding area for caribou in late winter. These benefits are likely short-lived, however. Lowered availability of lichens and increased relative frequency of bryophytes will persist for a much longer period.

  19. Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: Effects of fire and snow

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    Lisa Saperstein

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Both long- and short-term consequences should be considered when examining the effects of fire on the foraging behavior of caribou. Post-fire increases in protein content, digestibility, and availability of E. vaginatum make burned tussock tundra an attractive feeding area for caribou in late winter. These benefits are likely short-lived, however. Lowered availability of lichens and increased relative frequency of bryophytes will persist for a much longer period.

  20. Caribou conservation and recovery in Ontario: development and implementation of the Caribou Conservation Plan

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    Ted (E.R. Armstrong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range of Ontario’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (forest-dwelling ecotype has receded northward substantially over many decades, leading to its current Threatened designation. Ontario released its Caribou Conservation Plan (CCP in the fall of 2009. This policy responded to public input and recommendations from the Ontario Woodland Caribou Recovery Team and the Caribou Science Review Panel, and outlines conservation and recovery actions to conserve and recover caribou. Within an adaptive management framework, the CCP builds upon a recent history of managing at large landscape scales in Ontario to implement a range management approach as the basis for recovery actions. These commitments and actions include enhanced research and monitoring, improved caribou habitat planning at the landscape scale, an integrated range analysis approach using advanced assessment tools to evaluate thresholds of habitat amount, arrangement and disturbance, the assessment of probability of persistence, consideration of cumulative effects, meeting forest management silvicultural performance requirements, consideration of caribou recovery implications when managing other wildlife, an initial focus on the southern edge of caribou distribution where threats are most significant, improved outreach and stewardship, and consideration of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge in recovery actions. Implementation of the CCP signifies a long-term provincial commitment to caribou recovery, initially focusing on identified priorities within the CCP.

  1. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

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    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  2. Seasonal Climate Variation and Caribou Availability: Modeling Sequential Movement Using Satellite-Relocation Data

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    Craig Nicolson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Livelihood systems that depend on mobile resources must constantly adapt to change. For people living in permanent settlements, environmental changes that affect the distribution of a migratory species may reduce the availability of a primary food source, with the potential to destabilize the regional social-ecological system. Food security for Arctic indigenous peoples harvesting barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti depends on movement patterns of migratory herds. Quantitative assessments of physical, ecological, and social effects on caribou distribution have proven difficult because of the significant interannual variability in seasonal caribou movement patterns. We developed and evaluated a modeling approach for simulating the distribution of a migratory herd throughout its annual cycle over a multiyear period. Beginning with spatial and temporal scales developed in previous studies of the Porcupine Caribou Herd of Canada and Alaska, we used satellite collar locations to compute and analyze season-by-season probabilities of movement of animals between habitat zones under two alternative weather conditions for each season. We then built a set of transition matrices from these movement probabilities, and simulated the sequence of movements across the landscape as a Markov process driven by externally imposed seasonal weather states. Statistical tests showed that the predicted distributions of caribou were consistent with observed distributions, and significantly correlated with subsistence harvest levels for three user communities. Our approach could be applied to other caribou herds and could be adapted for simulating the distribution of other ungulates and species with similarly large interannual variability in the use of their range.

  3. Movements of boreal caribou in the James Bay lowlands

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    Megan E. Hazell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the movements and home range of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus in the James Bay lowlands, northern Ontario. Our preliminary study involves the use of GPS collars with Argos satellite system uplink to monitor movements of caribou and 10 animals were collared in December 2004. Animals appeared to have reduced rates of daily movement starting approximately in mid to late December and stretching until late February. Similarly, most animals appeared to have very reduced rates of movement from the beginning of May to the end of June indicating that this is their calving period (includes both parturition as well as the period immediately after parturition. Thus the over-wintering range was assumed to be where the animals were from mid-December to late February and the calving range was defined as the area they were in from the beginning of May to the end of June. Individual home-ranges were typically large, the mean 90% kernel home range for 2004 - 2007 was 41 579 km2. Over wintering areas and calving areas were small when compared to annual home-range size and reflect the reduced rates of movement during these time periods. Female caribou show site fidelity to calving grounds, using the same core areas year after year. However, the same level of site fidelity was not observed in over-wintering areas. The caribou in the James Bay lowlands display behaviours that are characteristic of both the forest-tundra and forest-forest ecotypes which may warrant the reconsideration of the validity of proposed ecotypes with respect to protection under species-at-risk legislation.

  4. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Robert D. Hayes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus predation rate (P annual on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2*Dp. In our model we assumed that wolves killed adult caribou at a constant rate (Kdaily, 0.08 caribou wolf1 day1 based on our studies and elsewhere; that wolf density (W doubled to 6 wolves 1000 km2-1 on all seasonal ranges; and that the average area occupied by the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH in eight seasonal life cycle periods (Dp was two times gteater than the area described by the outer boundaries of telemetry data (Ap /1000 km2. Results from our model projected that wolves kill about 7600 adult caribou each year, regardless of herd size. The model estimated that wolves removed 5.8 to 7.4% of adult caribou as the herd declined in the 1990s. Our predation rate model supports the hypothesis of Bergerud that spacing away by caribou is an effective anti-predatory strategy that greatly reduces wolf predation on adult caribou in the spring and summer.

  5. Effect of adverse weather on neonatal caribou survival — a review

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    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationship between adverse weather and neonatal caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. survival in North America by examining the available literature and our own findings. The viewpoint that adverse weather on the calving ground can result in major losses of newborn barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus calves is largely unsupported. Published reports of calf mortality caused by adverse weather are questionable because causes of death were rarely determined by postmortem examinations. Circumstantial evidence associated with the small samples of dead calves does not support published assumptions that the mortality was weather related, or that high losses due to adverse weather are common events. The applicability of results from physiological testing are questionable, because the calves were restrained and the behaviour of unrestrained animals was ignored in the conclusions drawn from the tests. The relationship between adverse weather and calf mortality is more speculation than documentation yet often has been uncritically cited. In our view, healthy newborn barren-ground caribou are well adapted physiologically and behaviourally to cope with all but the most severe adverse weather.

  6. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

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    David L. Euler

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  7. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

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    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  8. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

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    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  9. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

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    D.C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus. Species of lichens attained peak biomass at different periods after fire - as early as 40-60 years for Cladonia spp. to > 150 years for Cladina rangiferina and Cetraria nivalis. Biomass of the primary "caribou lichen", Cladina mitis, increased rapidly from 21-30 years after fire to 41-50 years and attained maximum biomass at 81-90 yeats in the west and 41-60 years in the east. However, total lichen biomass increased with age of forest to 100-150 years because biomass of Stereocaulon spp. did not peak until after 100 years. The biomass of "caribou lichens" {Cladina spp. and Cetraria nivalis stabilized after 61-80 years in the west and 41-60 years in the east. The biomass of terrestrial lichen species can be predicted from their cover. Caribou lichen abundance apparently was only one of several factors that caused caribou to use stands 151-250 years after fire more than othet age classes.

  10. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

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    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended: In 1980 the caribou (Rangifer tarandus on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands represented a healthy geographic population of an Arctic-island caribou ecotype on the southern tier of Canadian Arctic Islands. Those caribou exhibited complex patterns of seasonal range occupancy, involving annual seasonal migrations between and among the three islands and Boothia Peninsula (Miller et al., 1982, 2005; Miller, 1990. A large segment of the population migrated annually from the islands to Boothia Peninsula in early winter, wintered there, and then returned to the islands in the following late winter and spring. There is no evidence for large-scale emigration of caribou anywhere in the study area (Gunn et al., 2006. Caribou on Boothia Peninsula occur as two distinct ecotypes that are genetically different from the Arctic-island ecotype that occurred on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. Both the Boothia Peninsula ecotype and the Mainland ecotype calve mostly on northern Boothia Peninsula, northwest and northeast sections respectively (Gunn et al., 2000. After summering on the peninsula, most individuals of both ecotypes migrate south of the Boothia Isthmus onto adjacent mainland areas (Gunn et al., 2000. As a result, there were about the same number of caribou wintering on Boothia Peninsula when migrant caribou from Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands wintered there, as in summer when the migrant Arctic-island caribou had returned to Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands and the migrant Boothia Peninsula and Mainland caribou ecotypes had returned from their winter ranges farther south on the mainland to their calving areas and summer ranges on Boothia Peninsula. We treat both caribou ecotypes on Boothia Peninsula as just one geographic population for our assessment. The Arctic-island caribou ecotype on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands declined about 98% from the

  11. Managing for Caribou Survival in a Partitioned Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Cumming

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management guidelines for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario need to be re-examined in light of the finding that caribou partition habitat with moose (Alces alces, partly to find virtual refuges from predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus. Forest-wide guidelines seem inappropriate for a species that is widely scattered and little known. Management should concentrate on and around currently used virtual refuges to ensure their continued habitability. Cutting these areas may force the caribou into places with higher densities of predators; winter use of roads might bring poachers, increased wolf entry, and accidents. A proposal for 100 km2 clear-cuts scheduled over 60+ years across the forest landscape would probably minimize moose/wolf densities in the long run as intended, but because of habitat partitioning might forfeit any benefits to caribou in the short-term. Sharply reducing moose densities near areas where caribou have sought refuge might incline wolves to switch to caribou. Cutting beyond caribou winter refuge areas should aim at maintaining current moose densities to prevent wolves from switching prey species. Operations level manipulation of the forest around each wintering area should provide winter habitat for the future, while treatment replications with controls across the whole forest would provide reliable knowledge about which approaches work best. The remainder of the forest should be managed to maintain suitable densities of all other species.

  12. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  13. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  14. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

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    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  15. Rangifer and human interests

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    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  16. Slow recovery of lichen on burned caribou winter range in Alaska tundra: potential influences of climate warming and other disturbance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi Jandt; Kyle Joly; C. Randy Meyers; Charles. Racine

    2008-01-01

    Lichen regeneration timelines are needed to establish sound fire management guidelines for caribou (Rangifer tarandus) winter range. Paired burned and unburned permanent vegetative cover transects were established after 1981, 1977, and 1972 tundra fires in northwestern Alaska to document regrowth of tundra vegetation including caribou forage...

  17. Wolf predation in the Burwash caribou herd, southwest Yukon

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    David A. Gauthier

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of wolf predation as a proximate mortality factor influencing caribou herd growth was assessed in the Burwash herd (400 animals in the southwest Yukon between 1980 - 1982. Ten to 14 wolves in two packs preyed primarily on caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces with disproportionate consumption of caribou (relative to available biomass in the rut and winter periods. Wolf predation was responsible for 72% of total annual mortality in 1980 - 1981 and 46% in 1981 - 1982. Losses due to human harvest varied between 7 to 13%. Additional limited data on climatic factors and winter forage indicated forage-climate were not major proximate mortality factors in 1980 - 1981, but that early-calving climate may have been a factor in increased calf mortality in 1982.

  18. Habitat partitioning between woodland caribou and moose in Ontario: the potential role of shared prédation risk

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    H.G. Cumming

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mechanisms of coexistence for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Akes alces preyed upon by gray wolves (Canis lupus in northern Ontario. Autocorrelation analysis of winter track locations showed habitat partitioning by caribou and moose. Numbers of Delaunay link edges for moose-wolves did not differ significantly from what would be expected by random process, but those for caribou-wolves were significantly fewer. Thus, habitat partitioning provided implicit refuges that put greater distances between caribou and wolves, presumably decreasing predation on the caribou. Yet, direct competition cannot be ruled out; both apparent and direct competition may be involved in real-life situations. A synthesis including both explanations fits ecological theory, as well as current understanding about caribou ecology.

  19. Groups versus individuals in the determination of caribou distribution

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    K. R. Whitten

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus habitat selection based on group analyses have led to erroneous conclusions. Convenient designations such as «male-» or «female-dominated» group encompass a wide array of possible sizes and compositions which change continuously and erratically. Whenever individuals of at particular sex/age class can occur in more than one group type, and/or whenever groups within a type vary in size, an analysis based on groups alone is fallacious. Data must be based on individual caribou for most, if not all, determinations of distribution.

  20. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  1. Managing fire for woodland caribou in Jasper and Banff National Parks

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    Landon Shepherd

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in Jasper (JNP and Banff National Parks (BNP have declined since the 1970s, coincident with reduced fire activity in both parks, relative to historic levels. Some researchers have suggested that long periods without fire may cause habitat deterioration for woodland caribou, primarily by reducing available lichen forage. We examined winter habitat selection by woodland caribou at coarse and fine scales based on GPS-derived telemetry data and used models that included stand origin (decade, topography, and several stand structure variables that are related to time since fire, to explore relationships among caribou, lichen, and fire history. Based on the relationships illustrated by the models, we assessed how fire management could be applied to caribou conservation in JNP and BNP. At a coarse scale, caribou selected old forest (> 75 years in landscapes that have likely experienced less frequent wildfire. While the abundance of Cladonia spp. influenced caribou use at fine scales, a preference for areas with older trees within stands was also significant. We conclude that short-term habitat protection for woodland caribou in JNP and BNP likely requires fire exclusion from caribou range.

  2. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  3. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  4. Calving photocensus of the Rivière George Caribou Herd and comparison with an independent census

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    Serge Couturier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical photographs of the calving grounds have been used since 1984 to estimate the caribou (Rangifer tarandus population of the Rivière George Caribou Herd (RGCH in Northern Québec and Labrador. In spite of large confidence intervals, the 1984 and 1988 estimates suggested that the herd stabilized at more than 650 000 caribou (fall estimate including calves making the RGCH the largest caribou herd in the world. Between 1984 and 1990, studies suggested that the former rapid growth of the herd deteriorated the calving and summer habitats. This poor habitat quality affected physical condition, pregnancy rate and calf survival. It was important to have a valid estimate of the herd size and a photocensus was done in June 1993. Contrary to previous censuses, a slightly different sampling design was applied in 1993. Two methods were used to estimate the number of females in the June population. In the first method, the number of females was derived from the estimated number of calves on the photographs and from the June female/calf ratio. The second method was used in the previous census and is based on the number of adults on the photos and on the June female/adult ratio. It is suggested that the first method of estimating female abundance in June is better due to sampling problems associated with a strong adult sex segregation during calving. From the first method, the herd size in October 1993 was estimated at 583 829 adults (±33.79% and at 749 869 caribou including calves (±33.15% while the second method provided estimates of 764 221 adults (±23.55% and 981 565 caribou including calves (±22.64%. It was possible to compare those population estimates with an independent census. In July 1993, an oblique photocensus of the post-calving aggregations was conducted by Russell et al. (1996. A new analysis of their raw data provided an estimate of 608 384 adults (±14.35%. Both estimates from the June and July photocensus were combined. From the

  5. Scent marking by male caribou: an experimental test of rubbing behavior

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    Craig A. Adams

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied scent marking by adult male caribou (Rangifer tarandus during rut in September 1998 at the Large Animal Research Station in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. We used an experimental approach involving two captive groups of two males each to test for effects of social status, tree size, texture, and scent on rubbing behavior by caribou. Dominant males did not rub more often or for a longer duration than subordinates. Caribou rubbed trees with smaller diameters more often than large-diameter trees. Males preferred trees with bark for rubbing to those trees with their bark removed prior to the experiment. Caribou exhibited no preference for posts with pine-oil applied compared with posts without that aromatic scent. We hypothesize that rubbing of trees by male caribou is related to synchronization or priming of estrus in females, but more research is needed to test that potential function of scent marking.

  6. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

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    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  7. Ground-water quality in Bannock, Bear Lake, Caribou, and part of Power counties, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.R.; Norvitch, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The 103 wells sampled during the study establish a quasi-network that could be resampled in the future to document and analyze changes in ground-water quality in the southeastern Idaho study area. The main aquifers are categorized as alluvium of Quaternary age, basalt of Quaternary and (or) Tertiary age, rocks of the Salt Lake Formation of Tertiary age, and undifferentiated bedrock of pre-Tertiary age. Dissolved solids, hardness, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and chloride concentrations in the ground waters ranged from 165 to 1,690; 78 to 1,700; 0 to 29; and 1.9 to 360 milligrams per liter, respectively. The areal distributions of these constituents are shown on maps. The range and median values of these same constituents are tabulated by aquifer occurrence. Some of the most mineralized and hardest waters occur in the basalt aquifer near travertine deposits (or terraces), which are composed of calcium carbonate precipitates from mineral springs. For irrigation purposes, all the waters are classified as having low-sodium hazard. Most have medium- to high-salinity hazard. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues

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    Ted (E.R Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.

  9. Inferring parturition and neonate survival from movement patterns of female ungulates: a case study using woodland caribou

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of animal movement data have primarily focused on understanding patterns of space use and the behavioural processes driving them. Here, we analyzed animal movement data to infer components of individual fitness, specifically parturition and neonate survival. We predicted that parturition and neonate loss events could be identified by sudden and marked changes in female movement patterns. Using GPS radio-telemetry data from female woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), we devel...

  10. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  11. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

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    David R. Klein

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  12. Status of woodland caribou in western north America

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    E. Janet Edmonds

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of current population size and trends of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in seven jurisdictions in western North America shows a wide range of situations. A total maximum population estimate of woodland caribou west of the Ontario/Manitoba border is 61 090. Of 44 herds or populations described in this review: 14 are stable; two are stable to slightly decreasing; four are decreasing; four are increasing; and 22 are of unknown status. Caribou are classified as a threatened species in Alberta and as an endangered species in Washington/Idaho. The decline of caribou in North America following settlement (Bergerud, 1974 has continued along the southern edge of woodland caribou distribution. Direct loss of habitat to logging, mines and dams continued throughout the I960s, 1970s and 1980s. The secondary effects of these habitat changes, (i.e. increased roads leading to increased hunting and poaching, and increased early succession habitat leading to increased alternate prey/predator densities has led in some cases to the total loss or decreased size of local herds. Three ecotypes of woodland caribou are described and their relative distribution delineated. These ecotypes live under different environmental conditions and require different inventory and management approaches. Woodland caribou herds in northern B.C., Yukon and N.W.T. generally are of good numbers and viable (stable or increasing, and management primarily is directed at regulating human harvest and natural predation to prevent, herd declines. Land use activities such as logging or energy development are not extensive. Managers in southern caribou ranges stress the need for a better understanding of caribou population stability within mixed prey/predator regimes; how habitat changes (eg. through logging affect these regimes; and how to develop effective land use guidelines for resource extraction that can sustian caribou populations and maintain resource industries

  13. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

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    Boyan V. Tracz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  14. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

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    Dale R. Seip

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  15. Winter habitat use by female caribou in relation to wildland fires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Dale, B.W.; Collins, W.B.; Adams, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    The role of wildland fire in the winter habitat use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has long been debated. Fire has been viewed as detrimental to caribou because it destroys the slow-growing climax forage lichens that caribou utilize in winter. Other researchers argued that caribou were not reliant on lichens and that fire may be beneficial, even in the short term. We evaluated the distribution of caribou relative to recent fires (<50 years old) within the current winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in east-central Alaska. To address issues concerning independence and spatial and temporal scales, we used both conventional very high frequency and global positioning system telemetry to estimate caribou use relative to recent, known-aged burns. In addition, we used two methods to estimate availability of different habitat classes. Caribou used recently burned areas much less than expected, regardless of methodologies used. Moreover, within burns, caribou were more likely to use habitat within 500 m of the burn perimeter than core areas. Methods for determining use and availability did not have large influences on our measures of habitat selectivity.

  16. Metagenomic survey for viruses in Western Arctic caribou, Alaska, through iterative assembly of taxonomic units.

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    Anita C Schürch

    Full Text Available Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae.

  17. Metagenomic Survey for Viruses in Western Arctic Caribou, Alaska, through Iterative Assembly of Taxonomic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Anita C.; Schipper, Debby; Bijl, Maarten A.; Dau, Jim; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Schapendonk, Claudia M. E.; Raj, V. Stalin; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Tryland, Morten; Smits, Saskia L.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-)emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae. PMID:25140520

  18. Analysis of the standing age distribution and age-specific recruitment rate of the George River and Beverly barren-ground caribou populations

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    M. Taylor

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary advantage of the standing age distribution of a population is that it can be sampled. Analysis of the age frequencies for estimates of survival rates and determinations of population status by life table construction depend heavily on assumption that require additional data to evaluate. The analysis of age structures for the George River (Messier et al., 1988 and Beverly (Thomas and Barry, 1990a,b caribou herd was reviewed. An alternativ method of estimating age specific survival rates was explored. The dependence of the life tables produced by the analysis of Messier et al. (1988 and Thomas and Barry (1990a,b on tenuous and untestable assumptions regarding population growth rate over the life span of the oldest animals, stability of the standing age distribution, and constancy of life table parameters was emphasized. Although the life tables produced by Messier et al. (1988 for the George River herd and Thomas and Barry (1990a,b for the Beverly herd are probably the best available for barren-ground caribou, they should be used with caution, particularly for management decisions.

  19. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

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    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  20. Towards a Caribou Habitat Management Strategy for Northwestern Ontario: Running the Gauntlet

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    Gerald D. Racey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A management strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat is being developed in northwestern Ontario. This strategy is based upon a set of draft Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Woodland Caribou Habitat. These guidelines recommend maintaining a sustainable supply of winter habitat within large tracts of old forest, protecting calving areas and minimizing human disturbance. Due to the large temporal and spatial scale of caribou habitat management, an ecosystem-based approach is recommended. Public response to the strategy shows a strong dichotomy between environmental and utilitarian values among all the major stakeholder groups. The major issues raised by the public include security of industrial wood supply, quality of the knowledge base, level of awareness of caribou, economic impacts on remote communities, concern about environmental impacts and silvicultural know-how. The government is responding to these concerns as the strategy evolves. Current emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the public, training resource managers in caribou biology, management and habitat planning, implementing interim habitat management prescriptions and studying the potential impact on wood supply. The final direction for a northwestern Ontario strategy to conserve woodland caribou habitat has yet to be decided, although a commitment has been made to strive for the conservation of woodland caribou populations and their habitat.

  1. Structures for caribou management and their status in the circumpolar north

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    D.R. Klein

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus in Canada, Alaska, and Russia that winter in northern coniferous forests and summer in tundra of the Arctic have provided a sustainable source of meat and other products for indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Several different administrative structures for management of large caribou herds have emerged throughout the circumpolar North. In Russia under the previous Soviet government, the herd of the Taimyr Region, numbering around 500 000 caribou, was managed under a harvest quota system for both subsistence use by indigenous people and commercial sale of meat and skins. In North America, as indigenous peoples have gained increasing political empowerment, systems for caribou management have been undergoing change. Establishment of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board in Canada, with majority representation from users of the resource, provides a model and a test of the effectiveness of a comanagement system. The Western Arctic Herd in northwestern Alaska, numbering close to 500 000 caribou, has been managed under the traditional American system of game management, with user advisory groups, but with management decisions resting with a statewide Board of Game, whose major representation is from sport-hunting interests. The Porcupine Caribou Herd, which is shared by the United States and Canada, is the focus of an international agreement, in principle designed to assure its continued productivity and well-being. The diversity of systems for caribou management in the circumpolar North provides an opportunity for comparing their effectiveness.

  2. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

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    W. Kent Brown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis of habitat availability, we examined patterns of habitat selection by 16 individual female caribou during five seasons annually over two years. We did not detect significant differences in habitat selection patterns among seasons. Caribou showed significant preferences for both bogs and fens with low to moderate tree cover relative to marshes, uplands, heavily forested wetlands, water, and areas of human use. The wetland classification system appears to have value for broad-scale planning of industrial activity on caribou range. More-detailed descriptions of vegetation, especially understory species, are required to refine this system for operational-level forest harvest planning.

  3. Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario

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    Audrey J. Magoun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine past distribution and relative abundance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE of Ontario, we reviewed past HPE-wide winter systematic aerial surveys, partial winter systematic surveys, summer photographic surveys, incidental observations of caribou, and other sources of information from the period 1950—2003. We conducted new HPE-wide aerial surveys in February 2003 and 2004 to evaluate current distribution patterns. From this information, we defined 9 core wintering areas in the HPE and differentiated between 3 catego¬ries of relative abundance. Wintering areas for the January—March period have changed relatively little over the past 45 years. Summer distribution of caribou along the Hudson Bay coast apparently shifted or expanded from the area west of the Severn River to the central and eastern portions of the coast since the 1980s, and caribou observations have become much more common in the area east of the Winisk River since 1998. Because major resource development activities in the HPE are proposed and some are imminent, we recommend additional caribou surveys to document current caribou population identity, size, and distribution, and research projects to better define caribou wintering areas, calving areas, and movement patterns in the HPE.

  4. Woodland caribou range occupancy in northwestern Ontario: past and present

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    G.D. Racey

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A zone of continuous woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou distribution is defined for northwestern Ontario. This zone establishes a benchmark for measuring the success of future management of habitat and conservation of populations. Inventory of key winter, summer and calving habitats reaffirms the concept of a dynamic mosaic of habitat tracts that supports caribou across the landscape. The historical range recession leading to this current distribution has been associated with resource development, fire and hunting activities over the past 150 years, and numerous attempts at conservation over the last 70 years. The decline was apparently phased according to several periods of development activity: i early exploitation in the early to mid-1800s; ii isolation and extirpation of southern populations due to rapid changes in forest use and access between 1890 and 1930; and iii further loss of the southernmost herds due to forest harvesting of previously inaccessible areas since the 1950s. Lessons learned from history support current conservation measures to manage caribou across broad landscapes, protect southern herds, maintain caribou habitat as part of continuous range, maintain large contiguous tracts of older forest and ensure connectivity between habitat components.

  5. Preliminary analysis of habitat utilization by woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario using satellite telemetry

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    T.L. Hillis

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Locational data collected over a one year period from 10 female woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, collared with Argos satellite collars in northwestern Ontario, Canada were superimposed on supervised Landsat images using Geographical Information System (GIS technology. Landscape parameters, land cover classifications, and drainage were utilized to create the basemap. Using ARCVIEW software, all digital fixes from collared caribou with information of date, time, and activity status were overlain on the basemap to facilitate a preliminary analysis of habitat use in this species. Results supported the conclusions (1 that woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario select habitats containing high to moderate conifer cover and avoided disturbed areas and shrub-rich habitats, (2 that seasonal changes in habitat utilization occurs in females of this species, and (3 that satellite telemetry technology can be employed in the boreal forest ecosystem to assess habitat utilization by large ungulate species.

  6. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

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    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  7. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

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    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  8. Wildlife Co-management defined: The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board

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    Donald C. Thomas

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of indigenous and scientific forms of wildlife data gathering and conservation/management reveals similarities and differences. The two systems are needed to effectively manage wildlife in northern Canada, particularly migratory, trans-boundary species. The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board brought multi-jurisdictional caribou users and managers together to co-manage two large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlan-dicus. The advisory Board's principal duties and responsibilities are communication and to maintain the two herds at population levels that will meet user needs. Goals, objectives, and principles are set out in a management plan. Board activities are structured in 15 action plans under major categories of communication, supply of caribou, use of caribou, and habitat. Board successes are attributed to use of the plan to guide actions; to the Chairmen and vice-Chairmen; to the quality of founding members and their continuity; to effective vehicles of communication such as a newspaper, radio, video, and community meetings; to a spirit of cooperation; and to high caribou numbers because of high productivity combined with poor accessibility. Problem areas include technical limitations, members' decreasing powers and increasing turnover, inadequate communication of Board objectives and activities within the communities, and accountability. Future challenges include the management of caribou shortages, obtaining better herd data, and the need for more intensive management as user populations grow.

  9. Population ecology of two woodland caribou herds in the southern Yukon

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    Richard Farnell

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1980's, the Aishihik herd of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou declined from approximately 1500 to 583 animals. During the same period a nearby herd, the Wolf Lake Herd increased from approximately 664 to 1249 animals. This paper compares aspects of the ecology of these two herds to determine how these relationships conform to a general model of caribou population ecology described by Seip (1992. Comparisons include caribou demographic characteristics and distribution patterns, predator densities, abundance of alternate prey, human hunting and snow depth on caribou winter range. Ecological differences between herds were apparent in the ratio of prime bulls to cows, the abundance of moose (Alces alces, the occurrence of coyotes (Canis latrans, late winter snow conditions, and access to hunting. We hypothesize that the Wolf Lake herd was able to grow because wolves {Canis lupus preyed mainly on the relatively abundant moose population. A highly clumped winter caribou distribution may have further reduced the impact of wolf predation on the Wolf Lake herd. In contrast, the decline of the Aishihik herd was accompanied by a relative scarcity of moose, few prime aged caribou bulls probably due to a more liberal trophy harvest, and wider late-winter dispersion that offered wolves greater access to caribou. The decline may have been exaggerated by the peak in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus cycle which may have temporarily improved wolf pup survival. We suspect that moose are normally the primary prey of wolves in the Yukon and that a decline in moose eventually results in their being too scarce to offer an economical prey choice, prompting a prey switch to caribou. Results of our analyses conform incompletely to Seip's (1992 model for woodland caribou population ecology, particularly because the Wolf Lake herd prospered where moose were relatively abundant.

  10. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

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    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  11. Perinatal mortality in caribou from the Porcupine herd, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1989 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calving season on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA), 61 calf carcasses were examined for cause of death and associated pathology. Dead calves were located by low-level aerial searches with two fixed-wing aircraft and a helicopter over high density calving areas between the Hulahula and Aichilik rivers. Primary diagnoses included emaciation (39%), malnutrition (8%), stillbirth (21%), trauma (16%), other primary causes (7%), and undetermined causes (8%). Twenty calves had contributory renal tubular degeneration. The findings indicate that factors contributing to nutritional deprivation in calves were the major cause of neonatal mortality; however, factors affecting stillbirth, abortion, or the urogenital system may have major effects on neonatal caribou and warrant further investigation.

  12. 13th North American Caribou Workshop, 25-28 October 2010, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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    Rolf Egil Haugerud (editor in chief

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 13th North American Caribou Workshop which was held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, was a great success with more than 400 participants: people from Canada, the United States, Norway and Greenland, representatives from co-management and resource management boards across North America, First Nations, Inuit and Inuvialuit, governmental and non-governmental organisations, private companies, researchers, students and youth. The theme of the Workshop was Sustaining Caribou and their Landscapes – Knowledge to Action and the intent of the organizers was twofold: first, to provide participants with the opportunity to share scientific and traditional knowledge on different subspecies and ecotypes of Rangifer across the circumpolar North, the particularities of the different landscapes and land use management issues; second, to explore innovative ways to transfer knowledge to action, ensuring the long-term persistence of Rangifer throughout its range through the development of better governance structures, sound policies and effective communication.

  13. Caribou and Man

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    Serge Couturier

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available From April 23 to 27, 2001, more than 230 caribou experts migrated to the 9th North American Caribou Workshop, held at the tree-line in the Inuit town of Kuujjuaq, Nunavik, Québec. This community of about 1800 people near Ungava Bay was chosen over larger cities in southern Québec following a survey of potential workshop participants. Holding the conference in such a particularly appropriate location was made possible by the sustained efforts of the Organizing and Scientific Committees, by the help of the sponsors, and, above all, by the tremendous support of the people of Kuujjuaq. Keeping in mind the importance of caribou to the local people and the fact that development and other fast-growing human activities have today reached the North—for many southerners, the last frontier—the theme chosen for the 9th North American Caribou Workshop was also particularly appropriate: Caribou and Man.

  14. Impacts of human activity on reindeer and caribou: The matter

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    Ingunn Vistnes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of human activity and infrastructure development on reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus have been studied for decades and have resulted in numerous debates among scientists, developers and indigenous people affected. Herein, we discuss the development within this field of research in the context of choice of spatial and temporal scale and concurrent trends in wildlife disturbance studies. Before the 1980s, the vast majority of Rangifer disturbance studies were behavioural studies of individual animals exposed directly to potential disturbance sources. Most of these local studies reported few and short-term impacts on Rangifer. Around the mid 1980s focus shifted to regional scale landscape ecology studies, reporting that reindeer and caribou reduced the use of areas within 5 km from infrastructure and human activity by 50-95%, depending on type of disturbance, landscape, season, sensitivity of herds, and sex and age distribution of animals. In most cases where avoidance was documented a smaller fraction of the animals, typically bulls, were still observed closer to infrastructure or human activity. Local-scale behavioural studies of individual animals may provide complementary information, but will alone seriously underestimate potential regional impacts. Of 85 studies reviewed, 83% of the regional studies concluded that the impacts of human activity were significant, while only 13% of the local studies did the same. Traditional ecological knowledge may further increase our understanding of disturbance effects.Effekter av menneskelig aktivitet på rein og caribou: Betydningen av valg av skalaAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effektene av menneskelig aktivitet og utbygging på rein og caribou (Rangifer tarandus har vært studert i flere tiår og har resultert i utallige debatter mellom forskere, utbyggere og berørt urbefolkning. I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi utviklingen innenfor dette forskningsfeltet i forhold til valg av

  15. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  16. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Magdalena eLarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linneus 1758 includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies and North America (caribou subspecies. Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2 closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the

  17. Effects of environmental features and sport hunting on caribou migration in northwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullman, Timothy J; Joly, Kyle; Ackerman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ungulate movements are influenced by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, which may affect connectivity between key resource areas and seasonal ranges. In northwestern Alaska, one important question regarding human impacts on ungulate movement involves caribou (Rangifer tarandus) response to autumn hunting and related aircraft activity. While concerns have been voiced by local hunters about the influence of transporter aircraft and non-local sport hunters, there has been little quantitative analysis of the effects of hunter activity on caribou movement. We utilized a novel spatial dataset of commercial aircraft landing locations and sport hunter camps in and around Noatak National Preserve to analyze resource selection of caribou in autumn for non-local hunting activity and environmental features. We combined step selection functions with randomized shortest paths to investigate whether terrain ruggedness, river width, land cover, and hunting activity (in the form of aircraft landings and sport hunter camps) facilitated or impeded caribou movement. By varying a parameter in the randomized shortest path models, we also explored the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation in movement behavior exhibited by traveling caribou. We found that caribou avoided rugged terrain and areas with more river, forest, and tall shrubs while selecting for areas dominated by tussock tundra and dwarf shrubs. Migration of caribou through Noatak does not appear to be inhibited by sport hunting activity, though this does not preclude the possibility of temporary effects altering availability of caribou for individual hunters. Caribou exhibited exploratory movement, following predictions of a random walk model. This behavior may facilitate the location of remaining patches of high-quality forage prior to the onset of winter, especially during mild autumns. Understanding animal movement behavior is fundamental to protecting critical areas of connectivity and to informing management

  18. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P fires, forage lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Developing a woodland caribou habitat mosaic on the Ogoki-Nakina North Forests of northwestern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ogoki-North Nakina Forests consist of (10 638 km2 unroaded boreal forest approximately 400 km northeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario (lat 50°- 51°31'N, long 86°30'- 89°W. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou inhabit discrete portions within these forests based on minimal current and past historical data. As part of the Forest Management Planning process, for the period 1997-2097, a woodland caribou habitat mosaic has been developed to coordinate present and future forest management activities with the retention and development of current and future woodland caribou habitat. Several criteria including, past fire history, forest structure, age, species composition, proximity to current road access and location of existing and potential caribou habitat, helped identify and delineate 50 mosaic harvest blocks. Each harvest block will be logged in one of five 20 year periods over a 100 year rotation (1997¬2097. The harvest blocks have been developed to simulate a pattern of past wildfire history in an area that has not been subjected to past forest management activities, while managing for woodland caribou, a locally featured species.

  20. Vigilance and foraging behaviour of female caribou in relation to predation risk

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    Pernille S. Bøving

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus was investigated during the calving season on ranges in Alaska and West Greenland with the purpose of determining whether investment in vigilance behaviour differed between areas with and without natural predators of caribou. Female caribou in Alaska foraged in larger groups, displayed a higher rate of vigilance during feeding, spent less time feeding and, when lying, more often adopted a vigilant posture (with head up than did female caribou in West Greenland. Moreover, a predation-vulnerable posture of lying down flat was observed in West Greenland but not in Alaska. Within Alaska, females with calves spent more time searching the environment than did those without calves. Finally, the amount of time individuals spent searching declined more gradually with group size in Alaska than in West Greenland, suggesting that what caribou perceive as a predator-safe threshold differs in the two areas. These results indicate that caribou, like several other species of ungulates, show behavioural adaptations to the risk of prédation which are relaxed when this risk is reduced.

  1. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

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    Chris J. Johnson

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  2. Mentasta Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mentasta caribou herd is located in southeast mainland Alaska and Western Yukonn Territory. This small herd has declined from a high Of approximately 3,100...

  3. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

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    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  4. Conservation of Peary caribou based on a recalculation of the 1961 aerial survey on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

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    Frank L. Miller

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of 25 845 Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi on the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI in the Canadian High Arctic in summer 1961 is the only nearly range-wide 'benchmark' for the past number of caribou. No variances or confidence intervals were calculated for this estimate and no estimates were calculated for Peary caribou on the three major islands of Ellesmere, Devon, and Axel Heiberg. We reexamined the 1961 raw data by grouping the QEI into five island-complexes ('eco-units' and calculating, for each unit, the estimated number of caribou and the standard error, and the 95% confidence interval of the estimate, using a 'bootstrap' technique with 100 000 replications. Our goal was to provide an ecological basis for evaluating subsequent changes in numbers rather than relying on single-island evaluations. Our bootstrap reanalysis produced an estimate of 28 288 ± 2205 SE with a 95% CI of 20 436—37 031 Peary caribou on the QEI in summer 1961. Substantial differences in density were apparent among the five eco-units, with about a 50-fold difference from 0.01 caribou • km-2 in the Eastern eco-unit to 0.5 caribou • km-2 in the Northwestern eco-unit. The 1961 findings, with our subsequent reexamination, are crucial to any evaluation of trends for the number of Peary caribou on the QEI and the relative importance of individual eco-units for these animals. These findings also allow a more accurate evaluation of the magnitude of the subsequent decline of Peary caribou on the QEI during the last four decades and may help predict future potential levels for caribou in each of the five eco-units.

  5. The influence of variable snowpacks on habitat use by mountain caribou

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    Trevor A. Kinley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia subsist for most of the winter on arboreal hair lichen, mostly Bryoria spp. Foraging occurs mainly in old subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests near treeline. Here, the lower limit of Bryoria in the canopy is dictated by snowpack depth because hair lichens die when buried in snow. Bryoria is often beyond the reach of caribou in early winter, prompting caribou to move downslope to where lichen occurs lower in the canopy and other foraging modes are possible. Snowpacks are normally deep enough by late winter that caribou can reach Bryoria where it is most abundant, at high elevations. Extending this to inter-annual comparisons, Bryoria should be less accessible during late winter of low-snow years following normal winters, or of normal to low-snow years after deep-snow winters. We hypothesized that when maximum snowpack in late winter is low relative to the deepest of the previous 5 years, mountain caribou will use lower elevations to facilitate foraging (“lichen-snow-caribou” or LSC hypothesis. We tested this with late-winter data from 13 subpopulations. In the dry climatic region generally and for minor snowfall differences in wet and very wet regions, caribou did not shift downslope or in fact were at higher elevations during relatively low-snow years, possibly reflecting the ease of locomotion. The LSC hypothesis was supported within wet and very wet regions when snowpacks were about 1 m or more lower than in recent years. Elevation declined by 300 m (median to 600 m (25th percentile for snowpack differences of at least 1.5 m. Greater use of lodgepole pine and western hemlock stands sometimes also occurred. Management strategies emphasizing subalpine fir stands near treeline should be re-examined to ensure protection of a broader range of winter habitats used by caribou under variable snowpack conditions.

  6. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

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    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  7. Status, population fluctuations and ecological relationships of Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands: Implications for their survival

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    Frank L. Miller

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi was recognized as 'Threatened' by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada in 1979 and 'Endangered' in 1991. It is the only member of the deer family (Cervidae found on the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI of the Canadian High Arctic. The Peary caribou is a significant part of the region's biodiversity and a socially important and economically valuable part of Arctic Canada's natural heritage. Recent microsatellite DNA findings indicate that Peary caribou on the QEI are distinct from caribou on the other Arctic Islands beyond the QEI, including Banks Island. This fact must be kept in mind if any translocation of caribou to the QEI is proposed. The subspecies is too gross a level at which to recognize the considerable diversity that exists between Peary caribou on the QEI and divergent caribou on other Canadian Arctic Islands. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada should take this considerable diversity among these caribou at below the subspecies classification to mind when assigning conservation divisions (units to caribou on the Canadian Arctic Islands. In summer 1961, the first and only nearly range-wide aerial survey of Peary caribou yielded a population estimate on the QEI of 25 845, including about 20% calves. There was a strong preference for range on the western QEI (WEQI, where 94% (24 363 of the estimated caribou occurred on only 24% (ca. 97 000 km2 of the collective island-landmass. By summer 1973, the overall number of Peary caribou on the QEI had decreased markedly and was estimated at about 7000 animals. The following winter and spring (1973-74, the Peary caribou population declined 49% on the WQEI. The estimated number dropping to <3000, with no calves seen by us in summer 1974. Based on estimates from several aerial surveys conducted on the WQEI from 1985 to 1987, the number of Peary caribou on the QEI as a whole was judged to be 3300-3600 or only

  8. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Lindgren, Michael A.; Schmidt, Jennifer I.; Rupp, T. Scott; Adams, Layne G.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (−21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (−11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  9. An isotopic approach to measuring nitrogen balance in caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Adams, L.G.; Farnell, R.G.; Parker, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional restrictions in winter may reduce the availability of protein for reproduction and survival in northern ungulates. We refined a technique that uses recently voided excreta on snow to assess protein status in wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in late winter. Our study was the first application of this non-invasive, isotopic approach to assess protein status of wild caribou by determining dietary and endogenous contributions of nitrogen (N) to urinary urea. We used isotopic ratios of N (??15N) in urine and fecal samples to estimate the proportion of urea N derived from body N (p-UN) in pregnant, adult females of the Chisana Herd, a small population that ranged across the Alaska-Yukon border. We took advantage of a predator-exclosure project to examine N status of penned caribou in April 2006. Lichens were the primary forage (>40%) consumed by caribou in the pen and ?? 15N of fiber tracked the major forages in their diets. The ??15N of urinary urea for females in the pen was depleted relative (-1.3 ?? 1.0 parts per thousand [??], x?? ?? SD) to the ??15N of body N (2.7 ?? 0.7??). A similar proportion of animals in the exclosure lost core body mass (excluding estimates of fetal and uterine tissues; 55%) and body protein (estimated by isotope ratios; 54%). This non-invasive technique could be applied at various spatial and temporal scales to assess trends in protein status of free-ranging populations of northern ungulates. Intra- and inter-annual estimates of protein status could help managers monitor effects of foraging conditions on nutritional constraints in ungulates, increase the efficiency and efficacy of management actions, and help prepare stakeholders for potential changes in population trends. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

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    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS.

  12. Refugial origin and postglacial colonization of holarctic reindeer and caribou

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    Knut H. Røed

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification and colonization of reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus was assessed from analysis of both proteins, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. I demonstrate that the current subspecies designations are not compatible with the differentiation at these markers, suggesting that the morphological differences among extant subspecies did not evolve in separate glacial refugia. Thus, morphological differences among extant subspecies probably evolved as adaptive responses to post-glacial environmental changes. An exception to this is the North American woodland caribou, where all three marker systems support a subspecies-specific refugium as the ancestral origin of these animals. Three major mtDNA haplogroups reported, represent three separate origins of the species during the last glaciation. The most influential origin has contributed to the gene pool of all extant subspecies, suggesting the existence of a large and continuous glacial population ranging across extensive areas of tundra in Eurasia and Beringia. The North American tundra forms (R.t. granti and groenlandicus and the arctic forms (R.t platyrhynchus, R.t pearyi and R.t eogroenlandicus almost exclusively comprise haplotypes of such an origin. Another small and isolated refugium seems to have arisen in western Eurasia in close connection to the extensive ice sheet that covered Fennoscandia. The two Eurasian subspecies R.t. tarandus and R.t. fennicus appear to have a diphyletic origin as both the putatively small and isolated Eurasian refugium and the large Beringia refugium have contributed to their gene pools. A third distinct and geographically well-defined refugial area was probably located south to the extensive North American continental ice sheet from where the ancestors of the present North American woodland caribou (R.t. caribou likely originated.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Systematisk inndeling og kolonisering av rein (Rangifer tarandus ble bestemt ved

  13. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

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    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  14. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  15. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

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    Elena S. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

  16. Increases in body weight and nutritional status of transplanted Alaskan caribou

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    Patrick Valkenburg

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Body weight and natality rate in ungulates can be useful indices to nutririon, bur they may also be influenced by genetic and climatic factors. Because caribou {Rangifer tarandus granti are distributed as discrete populations of metapopulations (i.e., herds that are usually reproductively isolated from each other for unknown periods, it is difficult to separate the influence of genetics and nutrition on body weight, especially where historical data are lacking. To help elucidate the influence of nutrition on potential variation in body weight and natality of caribou in Alaska, we reviewed data for body weight and natality in 5 populations which resulted from Transplants to previously ungrazed ranges, or to areas where reindeer and caribou had been absent for many decades. In 2 of 5 populations body weight increased significantly, and likely increased in the other 3 populations, but data were insufficient. Natality rate increased in all 5 populations, proportion of fecund yearlings was high and 3 of the 5 newly established herds increased at about the maximum biological potential for the species (lambda=1.35. In the Adak transplant, a lactating yearling was documented. These 5 transplanted populations provide additional evidence that body weight and natality rate in Alaskan caribou are sensitive to changes in population density and relatively short-term (i.e., 10 years increases in grazing pressure independenr of climate and genetics.

  17. Caribou-induced changes in species dominance of lichen woodlands: an analysis ofplant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stéphane; Payette, Serge

    2004-03-01

    Plant communities in northern Quebec-Labrador, Canada have been severely grazed and trampled since the early 1980s by the increasingly large George River caribou herd (GRCH). To evaluate changes in species dominance associated with caribou disturbance, we compared past and present ground vegetation from 14 lichen woodlands. Plant remains from superficial organic horizons indicate that ground vegetation was largely dominated by lichens (especially Cladina) before the onset of caribou disturbance. In enlargments of aerial photos taken before 1975 (i.e., prior to maximum size of the GRCH), all sites were free of caribou trails and were dominated by a continuous lichen (Cladina) carpet. Principal components analysis showed that partial or complete destruction of the Cladina-dominated lichen carpet was the most striking change in ground vegetation. Severe trampling degraded superficial organic horizons, subsequently exposing mineral soil in heavily used sites. With reduced caribou activity in the 1990s, exposed ground was colonized by crustose lichens and Cladonia. Sites that faced severe grazing but light trampling were recolonized mainly by small podetia of Cladina stellaris sprouting from the lichen litter. However, patterns of post-caribou disturbance lichen succession differed from those of post-fire succession, because species from different successional stages are present at the same time in a stand and also because caribou can modify the successional trajectory at any time.

  18. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

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    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  19. A Cooperative Industry - Government Woodland Caribou Research Program in Northeastern Alberta

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    Blair Rippin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of large scale logging and increasingly intensive petroleum exploration and development in northeastern Alberta prompted the establishment of a cooperative research program to investigate various aspects of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou biology. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop an effective plan that will ensure the long term survival of caribou while allowing for renewable and non-renewable resource development. There are three parts to the program. Part I began early in 1991 and makes use of conventional radio telemetry as a means of recording various parameters of general caribou biology. The study area encompasses approximately 4000 km2 of low relief, boreal mixedwood forest. Preliminary results from 2500 radio locations (involving 50 individuals indicate that woodland caribou inhabiting the study area are non-migratory and are strongly associated with some of the more scarce peatland forest types present in the area. Investigations to document the basic biology and ecology will continue for another two years. Part II began in early 1993 as a part of a two-year investigation into the disturbance effects of petroleum exploration and development on caribou movements and behaviour. One objective of this study is to develop a predictive model useful in determining the cumulative effects of varying intensities of disturbance on caribou. Part III began in early 1994 with a proposed three-year investigation to determine the mechanism of spatial and temporal separation of caribou and moose in the study area. These relationships may indicate the means by which caribou minimize the impact of wolf predation on their populations in northeastern Alberta. Results will be applied to industrial land use and specifically to large scale forest harvesting planned for the area. The research program is supported through cooperative funding contributed by 24 petroleum companies, 1 forest company, 2 peat companies and

  20. Vegetation characteristics of forest stands used by woodland caribou and those disturbed by fire or logging in Manitoba

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    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in an area known as the Kississing-Naosap caribou range in west central Manitoba. The vegetation characteristics of areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging were measured in order to develop a model to estimate habitat quality from parameters collected during stan¬dard resource inventories. There was evidence that habitat index values calculated using a visual score-sheet index could be used as the basis to relate parameters commonly collected during resource inventories to habitat suitability. Use of this model to select long and short-term leave areas during forest management planning could potentially mitigate some of the negative impacts of forest harvesting. Abundance of arboreal lichen and wind-fallen trees were important predictor variables in the suitability model, but their inclusion did not explain more variance in habitat suitability than models that did not include them. Extreme post-fire deadfall abundance may play a role in predator-prey dynamics by creating habitat that is equally unsuitable for all ungulates, and thus keeping both moose and caribou densities low.

  1. A synthesis of scale-dependent ecology of the endangered mountain caribou in British Columbia, Canada

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    Robert Serrouya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou that live in highprecipitation, mountainous ecosystems of southeastern British Columbia and northern Idaho. The distribution and abundance of these caribou have declined dramatically from historical figures. Results from many studies have indicated that mountain caribou rely on old conifer forests for several life-history requirements including an abundance of their primary winter food, arboreal lichen, and a scarcity of other ungulates and their predators. These old forests often have high timber value, and understanding mountain caribou ecology at a variety of spatial scales is thus required to develop effective conservation strategies. Here we summarize results of studies conducted at three different spatial scales ranging from broad limiting factors at the population level to studies describing the selection of feeding sites within seasonal home ranges of individuals. The goal of this multi-scale review is to provide a more complete picture of caribou ecology and to determine possible shifts in limiting factors across scales. Our review produced two important results. First, mountain caribou select old forests and old trees at all spatial scales, signifying their importance for foraging opportunities as well as conditions required to avoid alternate ungulates and their predators. Second, relationships differ across scales. For example, landscapes dominated by roads and edges negatively affect caribou survival, but appear to attract caribou during certain times of the year. This juxtaposition of fine-scale behaviour with broad-scale vulnerability to predation could only be identified through integrated multi-scale analyses of resource selection. Consequently we suggest that effective management strategies for endangered species require an integrative approach across multiple spatial scales to avoid a focus that may be too narrow to maintain viable

  2. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  3. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

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    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  4. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  5. Explaining geographic gradients in winter selection of landscapes by boreal caribou with implications under global changes in Eastern Canada.

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    Julien Beguin

    Full Text Available Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1 climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2 road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3 an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution.

  6. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C

    2016-04-01

    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  7. Kenai Peninsula Caribou Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Caribou were extirpated from the Kenai Peninsula by 1912 and reintroduced via transplants from the Nelchina Herd in the mid 1960s and again in the mid 1980s. The...

  8. Modeling Regional Dynamics of Human-Rangifer Systems: a Framework for Comparative Analysis

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    Matthew Berman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of interaction between wild and domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus; caribou in North America can help explain observed social-ecological dynamics of arctic hunting and husbandry systems. Different modes of hunting and husbandry incorporate strategies to mitigate effects of differing patterns of environmental uncertainty. Simulations of simple models of harvested wild and domestic herds with density-dependent recruitment show that random environmental variation produces cycles and crashes in populations that would quickly stabilize at a steady state with nonrandom parameters. Different husbandry goals lead to radically different long-term domestic herd sizes. Wild and domestic herds are typically ecological competitors but social complements. Hypothesized differences in ecological competition and diverse human livelihoods are explored in dynamic social-ecological models in which domestic herds competitively interact with wild herds. These models generate a framework for considering issues in the evolution of Human-Rangifer Systems, such as state-subsidized herding and the use of domestic herds for transportation support in hunting systems. Issues considered include the role of geographic factors, markets for Rangifer products, state-subsidized herding, effects of changes in husbandry goals on fate of wild herds, and how environmental shocks, herd population cycles, and policy shifts might lead to system state changes. The models also suggest speculation on the role of geographic factors in the failure of reindeer husbandry to take hold in the North American Arctic. The analysis concludes with suggested empirical strategies for estimating parameters of the model for use in comparative studies across regions of the Arctic.

  9. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  10. Characterizing Variation of Isotopic Markers in Northern Alaskan Caribou Forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSomeren, L.; Barboza, P. S.; Gustine, D. D.; Parrett, L. S.; Stricker, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic markers in feces and tissues are a potential tool for monitoring the importance of feeding areas for migratory herbivores such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Many of these techniques are currently limited by gaps in our knowledge of how these isotopic signatures vary over the landscape. We collected seven species of preferred caribou forages along a latitudinal gradient in the summer ranges of the Central Arctic (9 sites) and Teshekpuk Lake (4 sites) caribou herds during 2011 and 2012. We analyzed forages at peak protein content and at the end of the season to characterize temporal, species-specific, and spatial variation in isotopic markers. The availability of C and N was measured by digestion in vitro. Isotopic signatures of digested samples were used to calculate fractionation that would bias the isotopic signature of feces. The range of values for isotopes (all values ‰) of nitrogen (δ15N -9.5 - +4.3), and sulfur (δ34S -3.6 - +15.5) were greater than those for carbon (δ13C -30.5 - -24.9). Small declines in forage δ13C with latitude (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and S. richardsonii [all P Sedges (Carex and Eriophorum) were significantly higher in δ15N than Salix spp. and other dicots (2.0 × 1.1 vs. -2.9 × 2.2; P < 0.01). For Salix spp., δ15N was consistent over the season and between years. Fractionation of δ15N in early season forages was 0.2 × 1.8 and not related to N availability (60% × 17%). For S. pulchra, δ34S may indicate usage of coastal habitats over foothills because δ34S was higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills (11.1 × 3.3 and 3.1 × 2.6; P < 0.01). Isotopic ratios in N and S show the greatest promise for tracking diet and location of migratory caribou whereas the narrow range in δ13C is affected by species, season and location.

  11. Comparative response of Rangifer tarandus and other northern ungulates to climatic variability

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    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the factors influencing life history traits and population dynamics, attention is increasingly being given to the importance of environmental stochasticity. In this paper, we review and discuss aspects of current knowledge concerning the effect of climatic variation (local and global on population parameters of northern ungu¬lates, with special emphasis on reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We also restrict ourselves to indirect effects of climate through both forage availability and quality, and insect activity. Various authors have used different weather variables; with sometime opposite trends in resulting life history traits of ungulates, and few studies show consistent effects to the same climatic variables. There is thus little consensus about which weather variables play the most sig¬nificant role influencing ungulate population parameters. This may be because the effects of weather on ungulate pop¬ulation dynamics and life history traits are scale dependent and it is difficult to isolate climatic effects from density dependent factors. This confirms the complexity of the relationship between environment and ecosystem. We point out limits of comparability between systems and the difficulty of generalizing about the effect of climate change broadly across northern systems, across species and even within species. Furthermore, insect harassment appears to be a key climate-related factor for the ecology of reindeer/caribou that has been overlooked in the literature of climatic effects on large herbivores. In light of this, there is a need for further studies of long time series in assessing effects of climate variability on reindeer/caribou.

  12. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

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    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  13. Summer resource selection and identification of important habitat prior to industrial development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska.

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    Ryan R Wilson

    Full Text Available Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004-2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars. Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd's range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help

  14. Using ultrasound measurements of rump fat to assess nutritional condition of woodland caribou in northern British Columbia, Canada

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    David D. Gustine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Body reserves (fat and protein of cervids are important to the reproductive success of individuals, and therefore may limit productivity of populations. We used a portable ultrasound machine to measure thickness of rump fat for 39 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou captured in the winters (January–February of 2003 and 2004. We compared thickness of rump fat between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals in the Besa-Prophet drainage of northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-eight of the 39 females captured in British Columbia were adults and 34 of the adult caribou were pregnant (89.5 ± 5.1%, x– ± binomial SE. Pregnant individuals had more rump fat (0.60 ± 0.067 cm than nonpregnant animals (0.20 ± 0.029 cm. Recognizing that deposition and mobilization of fat vary with age and possibly across the winter season, ultrasonography can be used as a non-invasive technique in the field to assist in estimating body fat of caribou.

  15. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

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    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  17. The effects of human land use on the winter habitat of the recovering Carcross woodland caribou herd in suburban Yukon Territory, Canada

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    Rob Florkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcross woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou numbers are increasing as a result of an intensive management and recovery program initiated in 1993. In the last 13 years, three overlapping First Nation land claim agreements were settled resulting in a complicated array of private and public land management authorities on this winter range, situated in the Whitehorse periphery. Twelve years of VHF radio-collar data (1994-2005 and 5 years of GPS radio-collar data (2000-2005 for female caribou were assessed to determine winter concentration areas and important winter habitats. We contrasted locations from 11 GPS radio-collared caribou with land cover classes, derived from classified Landsat 7 imagery, to evaluate the distribution and abundance of preferred habitats within this winter range. We found significant use of Open Needle Leaf lichen vegetation classes and avoidance of the relatively more abundant Closed Needle Leaf class. Our resource selection function model validated the preference for Open Needle Leaf Lichen and determined that caribou were spaced significantly further from an estimate of the human Zone of Influence (ZOI than was expected from random locations. While our assessment determined that 64% of the winter range was located outside of either private lands or land influenced by human activity, key winter vegetation classes were under-represented within this area. If caribou are to successfully recover on this landscape and persist through time it is essential to manage, through meaningful participation among land management authorities, the remaining caribou habitat for environmental rather than human consumptive values.

  18. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

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    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  19. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

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    Shane P. Mahoney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  20. Estimating Size and Trend of the North Interlake Woodland Caribou Population Using Fecal-DNA and Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Peter N; Arnason, Arni Neil; Manseau, Micheline; Cross, Dale; Whaley, Kent; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    A critical step in recovery efforts for endangered and threatened species is the monitoring of population demographic parameters. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the use of fecal-DNA based capture-recapture methods to estimate population sizes and population rate of change for the North Interlake woodland caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Manitoba, Canada. This herd is part of the boreal population of woodland caribou, listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (2003) and the provincial Manitoba Endangered Species Act (2006). Between 2004 and 2009 (9 surveys), we collected 1,080 fecal samples and identified 180 unique genotypes (102 females and 78 males). We used a robust design survey plan with 2 surveys in most years and analysed the data with Program MARK to estimate encounter rates (p), apparent survival rates (ϕ), rates of population change (λ), and population sizes (N). We estimated these demographic parameters for males and females and for 2 genetic clusters within the North Interlake. The population size estimates were larger for the Lower than the Upper North Interlake area and the proportion of males was lower in the Lower (33%) than the Upper North Interlake (49%). Population rate of change for the entire North Interlake area (2005-2009) using the robust design Pradel model was significantly trends, which correspond to trends observed in other fragmented populations of woodland caribou along the southern part of their range. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the applicability and success of non-invasive genetic sampling in monitoring populations of woodland caribou. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

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    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  2. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary, E-mail: mary.gamberg@gmail.com [Gamberg Consulting, 708 Jarvis St., Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2J2 (Canada); Cuyler, Christine [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels < 200 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. - Highlights: • Caribou tissue contaminant profiles may reflect different diets. • Low hepatic copper may result in copper depletion in pregnant caribou. • High hepatic mercury may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. • Hepatic mercury is negatively correlated with body condition in caribou cows. • Metal levels in tissues are not a health concern to people consuming caribou.

  3. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  4. The Fortymile caribou herd: novel proposed management and relevant biology, 1992-1997

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    Rodney D. Boertje

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, international Fortymile Planning Team wrote a novel Fortymile caribou herd {Rangifer tarandus granti Management Plan in 1995 (Boertje & Gardner, 1996: 56-77. The primary goal of this plan is to begin restoring the Fortymile herd to its former range; >70% of the herd's former range was abandoned as herd size declined. Specific objectives call for increasing the Fortymile herd by at least 5-10% annually from 1998-2002. We describe demographics of the herd, factors limiting the herd, and condition of the herd and range during 1992-1997. These data were useful in proposing management actions for the herd and should be instrumental in future evaluations of the plan's actions. The following points summarize herd biology relevant to management proposed by the Fortymile Planning Team: 1. Herd numbers remained relatively stable during 1990-1995 (about 22 000-23 000 caribou. On 21 June 1996 we counted about 900 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of increased pregnancy rates in 1996. On 26 June 1997 we counted about 2500 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of recruitment of the abundant 1996 calves and excellent early survival of the 1997 calves. The Team deemed that implementing management actions during a period of natural growth would be opportune. 2. Wolf (Canis lupus and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos predation were the most important sources of mortality, despite over a decade of the most liberal regulations in the state for harvesting of wolves and grizzly bears. Wolves were the most important predator. Wolves killed between 2000 and 3000 caribou calves annually during this study and between 1000 and 2300 older caribou; 1200-1900 calves were killed from May through September. No significant differences in annual wolf predation rates on calves or adults were observed between 1994 and early winter 1997. Reducing wolf predation was judged by the Team to be the most manageable way to help hasten or stimulate

  5. Fractal measures of female caribou movements

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    Steven H. Ferguson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding caribou movement during short-term searches for specific habitats, potential mates, and refugia against predators can help resolve ecological questions on how individual caribou perceive their environment. We used measures of fractal dimension and standardized pathlength to compare the movement pathways of female caribou. Satellite telemetry locations were collected over a 2-year study, March 1994 to mid-May 1996, for a caribou population in central Saskatchewan living in the southern boreal forest. Female caribou displayed more random searching behaviour during winter and more regular dispersal movements during early winter/spring and autumn periods. Females with a calf showed no difference in movement pattern (fractal dimension relative to females without a calf but their standardized path length was shorter. We discuss the advantages of using fractal dimension as a measure of the tortuosity of movement pathways and how changes in fractal dimension over a range of scales can define domains of consistent ecological processes.

  6. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies

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    Mark Hebblewhite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou populations are considered threatened in Alberta and have declined in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks of Banff and Jasper despite protection from factors causing caribou populations to decline outside of parks. Recent research emphasizes the importance of the numeric response of wolves to moose in moose-caribou-wolf systems to caribou persistence. Moose are rare in the Canadian Rockies, where the dominant ungulate prey for wolves is elk. Few studies have explored wolf-elk dynamics and none have examined implications for caribou. We used data collected in Banff to estimate the numeric response of wolves to elk from 1985 to 2005. Because no caribou kill-rate data exist for the Rockies, we explore the consequences of a range of hypothetical kill-rates based on kill-rates of alternate prey collected from 1985 to 2000 in Banff. We then multiplied the numeric response of wolves by the estimated caribou kill-rates to estimate the wolf predation response on caribou as a function of elk density. Caribou predation rates were inversely density dependent because wolf numbers depend on prey species besides caribou in multiple prey species systems. We then combined this simple wolf-elk-caribou model with observed demographic and population estimates for Banff and Jasper caribou from 2003-2004 and solved for the critical kill-rate thresholds above which caribou populations would decline. Using these critical kill-rate thresholds, Jasper caribou are likely to persist when wolf densities are below 2.1 - 4.3 wolves/1000km2 and/or when elk densities are below 0.015- 0.033 elk/km2. Thresholds for Banff caribou persistence are much lower because of inverse density dependence. Future research is needed on some of the necessary assumptions underlying our modeling including multi-prey wolf numeric responses, wolf kill-rates of caribou, caribou mortality by other predators, and spatial aspects of wolf-elk-caribou dynamics.

  7. Obligate larval inhibition of Ostertagia gruehneri in Rangifer tarandus? Causes and consequences in an Arctic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoar, Bryanne M; Eberhardt, Alexander G; Kutz, Susan J

    2012-09-01

    Larval inhibition is a common strategy of Trichostrongylidae nematodes that may increase survival of larvae during unfavourable periods and concentrate egg production when conditions are favourable for development and transmission. We investigated the propensity for larval inhibition in a population of Ostertagia gruehneri, the most common gastrointestinal Trichostrongylidae nematode of Rangifer tarandus. Initial experimental infections of 4 reindeer with O. gruehneri sourced from the Bathurst caribou herd in Arctic Canada suggested that the propensity for larval inhibition was 100%. In the summer of 2009 we infected 12 additional reindeer with the F1 and F2 generations of O. gruehneri sourced from the previously infected reindeer to further investigate the propensity of larval inhibition. The reindeer were divided into 2 groups and half were infected before the summer solstice (17 June) and half were infected after the solstice (16 July). Reindeer did not shed eggs until March 2010, i.e. 8 and 9 months post-infection. These results suggest obligate larval inhibition for at least 1 population of O. gruehneri, a phenomenon that has not been conclusively shown for any other trichostrongylid species. Obligate inhibition is likely to be an adaptation to both the Arctic environment and to a migratory host and may influence the ability of O. gruehneri to adapt to climate change.

  8. Nunivak Island caribou reindeer report 1929

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1925 the Biological Survey established a crossbreeding experiment with reindeer and caribou on Nunivak Island by castrating the male reindeer and turning ten...

  9. Winter range drift in the George River Caribou Herd: a response to summer forage limitation?

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    Isabelle Schmelzer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Space use by the George River caribou herd (GRCH changes in correspondence with migration patterns. The traditional range of this herd encompasses an area of approximately 900 000 km2. Range use is seasonal and includes travel to traditional calving grounds. Winter range use however, is more variable. The GRCH has grown rapidly from 5000 animals in 1954 to approximately 775 000 in 1993. Beginning in the mid 1980s, the calving and summer range habitats of the GRCH have deteriorated, resulting in a decline in physical condition and subsequent poor calf survival and low pregnancy rates. We assessed the importance of the winter range as a food source compensating for poor summer range quality through an evaluation of winter range drift and use intensity. We hypothesized that if winter ranges provide a compensatory source of forage, then George River caribou should avoid sites heavily used during the previous winter at a population level. Winter ranges for the GRCH were calculated using 4300 caribou locations obtained 1986-2000. We found that in spite of a doubling in net range area, the size of annual winter ranges did not increase, indicating the occurrence of range drift. Further, George River caribou exhibited avoidance of wintering areas at several spatial scales. Avoidance occurred across a use threshold, where the degree of use (or density during the previous winter determined the level of avoidance during the subsequent winter. As the spatial scale decreased, the degree of avoidance increased. Caribou significantly avoided areas used the previous winter at spatial scales below and including 245 km2 (corresponding to a 75% use distribution. Results suggest winter foraging allows caribou suspend the effects of density-dependent summer forage limitation on herd productivity. As such, analysis of GRCH population trends should be considered in light of both summer and winter range resources.

  10. Introduction to the Population Ecology of North American Caribou

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    Dale R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergerud has discussed how major differences in caribou density across North America appear to be related to the impact of wolf (Canis lupus predation, and the strategies used by caribou to avoid wolves. Caribou living in areas without wolves usually occur at high densities and are regulated by competition for food. In this session, we asked the presenters to discuss the population ecology of different caribou herds in North America and to evaluate if they fit the general model.

  11. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

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    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  12. Evaluation of satellite collar sample size requirements for mitigation of low-level military jet disturbance of the George River caribou herd

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    Robert D. Otto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife radio-telemetry and tracking projects often determine a priori required sample sizes by statistical means or default to the maximum number that can be maintained within a limited budget. After initiation of such projects, little attention is focussed on effective sample size requirements, resulting in lack of statistical power. The Department of National Defence operates a base in Labrador, Canada for low level jet fighter training activities, and maintain a sample of satellite collars on the George River caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd of the region for spatial avoidance mitiga¬tion purposes. We analysed existing location data, in conjunction with knowledge of life history, to develop estimates of satellite collar sample sizes required to ensure adequate mitigation of GRCH. We chose three levels of probability in each of six annual caribou seasons. Estimated number of collars required ranged from 15 to 52, 23 to 68, and 36 to 184 for 50%, 75%, and 90% probability levels, respectively, depending on season. Estimates can be used to make more informed decisions about mitigation of GRCH, and, generally, our approach provides a means to adaptively assess radio collar sam¬ple sizes for ongoing studies.

  13. Range overlap and individual movements during breeding season influence genetic relationships of caribou herds in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2012-01-01

    North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds commonly exhibit little nuclear genetic differentiation among adjacent herds, although available evidence supports strong demographic separation, even for herds with seasonal range overlap. During 1997–2003, we studied the Mentasta and Nelchina caribou herds in south-central Alaska using radiotelemetry to determine individual movements and range overlap during the breeding season, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to assess levels of genetic differentiation. Although the herds were considered discrete because females calved in separate regions, individual movements and breeding-range overlap in some years provided opportunity for male-mediated gene flow, even without demographic interchange. Telemetry results revealed strong female philopatry, and little evidence of female emigration despite overlapping seasonal distributions. Analyses of 13 microsatellites indicated the Mentasta and Nelchina herds were not significantly differentiated using both traditional population-based analyses and individual-based Bayesian clustering analyses. However, we observed mtDNA differentiation between the 2 herds (FSTM = 0.041, P

  14. Population dynamics of the Kaminuriak caribou herd, 1968 - 1985

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    Douglas C. Heard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kaminuraik caribou herd apparently declined from about 120 000 animals in 1950 to 63 000 in 1968. Beginning in 1968 documentation of herd trend was based on the estimate of the number of breeding (pregnant and post-partum females on the calving ground during the birth peak. It appeared as if we understood the basic population processes responsible for the decline when we correctly predicted a drop from 14 800 breeding females in 1977 to 13 000 in 1980. However a three-fold increase, to 41 000 breeding females in 1982, and continued growth thereafter, was unanticipated. Most of that increase must have resulted from an immigration of cows to the herd's traditional calving ground around Kaminuriak Lake, although increased birth rates, and increased survival rates also contributed to herd growth. Immigrant cows probably came from the northeastern mainland of the NWT

  15. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  16. Decrease of lichens in Arctic ecosystems: the role of wildfire, caribou, reindeer, competition and climate in north-western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; Randi R. Jandt; David R. Klein

    2009-01-01

    We review and present a synthesis of the existing research dealing with changing Arctic tundra ecosystems, in relation to caribou and reindeer winter ranges. Whereas pan-Arctic studies have documented the effects on tundra vegetation from simulated climate change, we draw upon recent long-term regional studies in Alaska that have documented the actual, on-the-ground...

  17. Woodland caribou persistence and extirpation in relic populations on Lake Superior

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    Arthur T. Bergerud

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended: The hypothesis was proposed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America had declined due to wolf predation and over-hunting rather than from a shortage of winter lichens (Bergerud, 1974. In 1974, two study areas were selected for testing: for the lichen hypothesis, we selected the Slate Islands in Lake Superior (36 km2, a closed canopy forest without terrestrial lichens, wolves, bears, or moose; for the predation hypothesis, we selected the nearby Pukaskwa National Park (PNP where terrestrial lichens, wolves, bears, and moose were present. Both areas were monitored from 1974 to 2003 (30 years. The living and dead caribou on the Slates were estimated by the ‘King census’ strip transect (mean length 108±9.3 km, extremes 22-190, total 3026 km and the Lincoln Index (mean tagged 45±3.6, extremes 15-78. The mean annual population on the Slate Islands based on the strip transects was 262±22 animals (extremes 104-606, or 7.3/km2 (29 years and from the Lincoln Index 303±64 (extremes 181-482, or 8.4/km2 (23 years. These are the highest densities in North America and have persisted at least since 1949 (56 years. Mountain maple (Acer spicatum interacted with caribou density creating a record in its age structure which corroborates persistence at relatively high density from c. 1930. The mean percentage of calves was 14.8±0.34% (20 years in the fall and 14.1±1.95% (19 years in late winter. The Slate Islands herd was regulated by the density dependent abundance of summer green foods and fall physical condition rather than density independent arboreal lichen availability and snow depths. Two wolves (1 wolf/150 caribou crossed to the islands in 1993-94 and reduced two calf cohorts (3 and 4.9 per cent calves while female adult survival declined from a mean of 82% to 71% and the population declined ≈100 animals. In PNP, caribou/moose/wolf populations were estimated by aerial surveys (in some years assisted by telemetry

  18. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

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    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  19. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of North America: new host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in moose and caribou

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    Verocai Guilherme G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca cervipedis is a filarioid nematode of cervids reported from Central America to boreal regions of North America. It is found primarily in subcutaneous tissues of the legs, and is more commonly known as ‘legworm’. Blackflies are intermediate hosts and transmit larvae to ungulates when they blood-feed. In this article we report the first records of O. cervipedis from high latitudes of North America and its occurrence in previously unrecognized host subspecies including the Yukon-Alaska moose (Alces americanus gigas and the Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti. Methods We examined the subcutaneous connective tissues of the metacarpi and/or metatarsi of 34 moose and one caribou for parasitic lesions. Samples were collected from animals killed by subsistence hunters or animals found dead in the Northwest Territories (NT, Canada and Alaska (AK, USA from 2005 to 2012. Genomic DNA lysate was prepared from nematode fragments collected from two moose. The nd5 region of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Subcutaneous nodules were found in 12 moose from the NT and AK, and one caribou from AK. Nematodes dissected from the lesions were identified as Onchocerca cervipedis based on morphology of female and male specimens. Histopathological findings in moose included cavitating lesions with multifocal granulomatous cellulitis containing intralesional microfilariae and adults, often necrotic and partially mineralized. Lesions in the caribou included periosteitis with chronic cellulitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and abundant granulation associated with intralesional adult nematodes and larvae. Sequences of the nd5 region (471bp, the first generated for this species, were deposited with Genbank (JN580791 and JN580792. Representative voucher specimens were deposited in the archives of the United States National Parasite Collection. Conclusions The geographic range of O

  20. Climatic changes and caribou abundance in northern Québec over the last century

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    Michel Crête

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The temperature increase observed in the Northern hemisphere during the first half of this century was also detectable in Québec; it affected both summer and winter. In northern Québec, warmer summers stimulated growth and favored range expansion of trees and shurbs. Based on black spruce krummholz height and water level in lakes, the warmer period was also characterized by greater snowfall and deeper snow cover. This period of deep snow coincided with apparent caribou scarcity. Three hypotheses were explored to relate increased temperature with caribou decline: 1 destruction of winter habitat due to high frequency of forest fires, 2 increased energy cost to obtain forage in deep snow and 3 delayed melting of snow on calving grounds that shortened the time to raise calves. The combined effect of the 3 mechanism could explain caribou scarcity, particularly for the Rivière George herd whose calving ground becomes snow free in late June. Ways to test the third hypothesis are proposed.

  1. Lichens, wildfire, and caribou on the taiga ecosystem of northcentral Canada

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    Don Miller

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial lichens are unique organisms that are pioneers on bare sand and rock, survive desiccation and reproduce both sexually and asexually. They compete poorly with dense, aggressive vascular flora. Wildfires require organic matter as fuels, are the driving force in perpetuation of the Taiga Ecosystem in a heterogeneous environment and, if left alone, are self controlling. Caribou wintering on the Taiga are dependent on: (1 a terricolous lichen forage supply for most of the winter, (2 a heterogeneous environment to cope with predators and the changing nival environment, and (3 natural wildfires to supply these needs. Wildlife control on the Taiga winter range is not recommended as a management tool for barren-ground caribou.

  2. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

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    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  3. Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet?

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    A.T. Bergerud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of food, weather and predation are compared between sedentary and migratory caribou herds. Sedentary herds disperse (space out at calving time while the cows of migratory herds move in masse (space away to calving grounds to reduce predation risk. The sedentary ecotype calves on ranges near open water if tree cover is present or in rugged topography in the absence of tree cover. The migratory ecotype aggregates on calving grounds located on alpine mountain plateaus or on the tundra north of the Arctic tree line. The two herds with the greatest densities in North America, the sedentary Slate Islands Herd and the migratory George River Herd both had changes in abundance that followed summer food problems. The hypothesis that winter lichen supplies determine abundance and set the carrying capacity is rejected. Lichens are not a necessary food for caribou. A review of the mortality of young calves documented in the past 30 years provides no support for the hypothesis that hypothermia is a common mortality problem. Young calves documented can be born inviable at birth if their dams are severely malnourished. The migratory caribou in North America reached peak numbers in the 1980s after wolf populations were heavily harvested in the 1970s. The sedentary ecotype is frequently regulated by wolf predation that affects both recruitment (R and the mortality of adults (M. The balance between R/M schedules commonly occurs when R (calves represents, about 15% of the herd and when numbers (prorated to the area of the dispersed annual range approximate 0.06 caribou/km2. Population limitation of migratory herds by predation has occurred in the NWT and in several herds in Alaska but only when wolf densities were > 6.5/1000 km2. Wolf predation halted the growth of the George River Herd in 1980 but then wolves contracted rabies and the herd again increased and degraded spring/summer ranges. The reduced summer phytomass resulted in lower birth rates and

  4. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

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    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  5. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

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    Valerius Geist

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are surrounded by myths that tell of their relationship to humans. In our Anglo-American culture reindeer and caribou are rather deficient in this respect. However, reindeer feature prominently in the rise of modern humans and the demise of Neanderthal man early in the Upper Paleolithic. The colonization by humans of the periglacial environments during the last glaciation depended on the rich periglacial megafauna, Rangifer included. Archeological sites of the European Upper Paleolithic show that reindeer were the most important food source. The Upper Paleolithic, characterized by exceptional physical development and health of people, as well as by the first flowering of art, extended from Spain to Crimea with surprisingly little cultural change for some 25 000 years. While the cave paintings express an infatuation with dangerous game (woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, giant deer, cave lions, bears etc, the archeological sites indicate that reindeer was the staple food. Reindeer play a minor role in cave art. Neither this art, nor archeological sites, show any evidence of warfare. It is hypothesized that during a mid-glacial interstadial modern people entered Europe having developed a highly successful system of hunting reindeer using interception based on the discovery of chronologic time. This led to a first flowering of culture based on a rich economy, but also to additional hunting mortality of the periglacial mega-herbivores that Neanderthal

  6. Nikander's Thesis: Studies on the exocrine ducts of the pancreas and the liver in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

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    Sven Nikander

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is based on the following papers, which will be referred to in the next by their Roman numerals:I Nikander, S. 1990. On the anatomy and topography of the pancreas and the pancreatic duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 25-29.II Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 3-8.III Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Histochemical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 9-15.IV Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 17-23.V Nikander, S. & Rahko, T. 1990. Ultra-structure of granulated cells in the bile duct of reindeer. Rangifer Special Issue No. 3: 363-367.

  7. A PCR-based assay for discriminating Cervus and Rangifer (Cervidae) antlers with mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun; Ryuk, Jin-Ah; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Go Ya; Seo, Doo Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2012-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating Rangifer antlers from true Cervus antlers using agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and allelic discrimination. Specific primers labeled with fluorescent tags were designed to amplify fragments from the mitochondrial D-loop genes for various Cervus subspecies and Rangifer tarandus differentially. A 466-bp fragment that was observed for both Cervus and Rangifer antlers served as a positive control, while a 270-bp fragment was specifically amplified only from Rangifer antlers. Allelic discrimination was used to differentiate between Cervus and Rangifer antlers, based on the amplification of specific alleles for both types of antlers. These PCR-based assays can be used for forensic and quantitative analyses of Cervus and Rangifer antlers in a single step, without having to obtain any sequence information. In addition, multiple PCR-based assays are more accurate and reproducible than a single assay for species-specific analysis and are especially useful in this study for the identification of original Cervus deer products from fraudulent Rangifer antlers.

  8. The state of knowledge of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper provides an assessment of the state of knowledge of the Porcupine Caribou Herd and its habitat, drawing on analogy with other studies where necessary. The...

  9. Management plan for the Chisana caribou herd 2010-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chisana caribou herd (CCH) is a small international herd occurring in Yukon and Alaska on the Klutlan Plateau and near the headwaters of the White River. During...

  10. Towards a protocol for community monitoring of caribou body condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Kofinas; Phil Lyver; Don Russell; Robert White; Augie Nelson; Nicholas Flanders

    2003-01-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is central to the sustainability of subsistence resources of indigenous communities. For caribou, Arctic indigenous people's most important terrestrial subsistence resource, body condition is a useful measure because it integrates many ecological factors that influence caribou productivity and is recognized by biologists and hunters as meaningful. We draw on experience working with indigenous communities to develop a body condition monitoring protocol for harve...

  11. Laparoscopic-Assisted Cryptorchidectomy in an Adult Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy is reported in a novel species, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. The procedure was performed in an 8-year-old adult positioned in dorsolateral oblique recumbency, with an open approach midline subumbilical placement of the primary 10 mm optical port and carbon dioxide insufflation at 12 mmHg. Three 5 mm instrument ports were inserted under visualization in the left caudal abdomen as the retained testicle was localized to the internal inguinal ring. A 5 mm flexible organ retractor was used to assist in localizing the retained testicle. This procedure provided a less invasive alternative to open laparotomy. The authors are unaware of any published reports of laparoscopy in reindeer, or of laparoscopic assisted cryptorchidectomy in deer species.

  12. A health assessment and calfhood mortality study of the northern Alaska Peninsula caribou herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northern Alaska Peninsula caribou herd (NAP) has declined by 79% since 1993, however the reasons for the decline are not well documented. The NAP caribou are an...

  13. Herd size, distribution, harvest, management issues, and research priorities relevant to caribou herds in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available There are presently about 960 000 caribou in 32 herds in Alaska, including 4 herds shared with Yukon and Northwest Territories. Since complete population data were last published in the mid-1980s, Alaska's caribou population has doubled in size, largely from increases in the Western Arctic and Mulchatna herds. The number of recognized herds has increased by 6, largely because of increased use of radiotelemetry to inventory small caribou herds in inaccessible areas, and transplanting caribou to unoccupied ranges. About 33 000 caribou are harvested annually in Alaska, mostly from the Western Arctic, Mulchatna, and Nelchina herds. The primary wildlife management problem in Alaska for caribou and other species is the lack of clear management authority among state and federal agencies. Research priorities include work on the influence of short-term and long-term weather trends on nutritional ecology of caribou, and predation mitigation including sterilization, translocation, and diversionary feeding of wolves during the caribou calving period.

  14. Evaluating the impacts of wildland fires on caribou in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.; Collins, William

    2002-01-01

    Caribou are found throughout the boreal forests of interior Alaska, a region subject to chronic and expansive wildland fires. Fruticose lichens, if available, constitute the majority of the winter diet of caribou throughout their range and are common in mature boreal forests but largely absent from early successional stages. Fire, the dominant ecological driving force, increases vegetative diversity and productivity across the landscape but may reduce the availability of caribou winter forage for decades.Increasingly, wildland fire regimes are influenced by humans seeking to reduce fire hazards or mitigate the effects of years of fire suppression. Consequently, biologists have debated the importance of forage lichens to the dynamics of caribou populations, and land managers have questioned the importance of fire regime to wintering caribou. To better understand the impacts of wildland fire on caribou, we are simultaneously investigating the relationships between fire history, caribou movements, forage lichen availability, and caribou nutritional performance on their winter range.

  15. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  16. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangjfer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (less than or equal to 0.3/km(2)) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females greater than or equal to 14 years old. Females greater than or equal to 2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (greater than or equal to 14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P less than or equal to 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at die time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the precious year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate

  17. Modeling growth of mandibles in the Western Arctic caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay M. Ver Hoef

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared growth curves for ramus length and diastema length from two autumn collections of mandibles of male Western Arctic Herd caribou in Alaska. We were primarily interested in determining if growth curves of caribou mandibles differed between caribou born during 1959-1967, after the herd had been high for several years and was probably declining in size, and those born during 1976-1988, when the herd was increasing in size. To compare these growth curves, we used a nonlinear model and used maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. We found that growth rates were similar between periods, but intercepts and variances of growth curves differed. From this we infer that calves were smaller in autumn during the 1960s and that significant compensatory growth did not occur later in life.

  18. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  19. The diagnosis of early pregnancy and missed abortion in European and Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus and Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata Ringberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone levels in peripheral plasma from a total of 38 pregnant an non-pregnant Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer (R. tarandus tarandus and R. t. platyrhyncbus, respectively, were measured 5 to 6 times between November and May, and the size of 18 corresponding fetuses determined. The serum levels of progesterone were similar in the two subspecies, and increased from 1.5 nmol/1 (non-pregnant level to 10—30 nmol/1 in November in pregnant animals. A maximum of 40—80 nmol/1 was reached in April whereafter the levels declined as time of delivery (beginning of June approached. Animals with «missed» abortions had progesterone levels in serum of 5—6 nmol/1 in November. The size of the fetuses in November (average 3.7 and 30.7 mm makes delayed implantation in reindeer unlikely.Tidlig diagnostisering av drektighet og skjult abort i europeisk rein og Svalbardrein (Rangifer tarandus tarandus og Rangifer tarandus platyrhuncus.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Progesteron er det viktigste drektighetshormon hos pattedyr, og allerede tidlig i drektighetsperioden kan man hos en rekke arter påvise en økning i konsentrasjonen av dette hormon i blodet. Det har vært diskutert om det samme var tilfelle hos rein. Hvis det var så, ville det være mulig ved hjelp av en enkelt blodprøve på høsten å bestemme om dyret var drektig eller ei, og således ha et bedre grunnlag for å velge ut simler for slakt. Formålet med de forsøkene som er beskrevet i denne artikkel var derfor å måle progesteron-verdiene i blodet hos drektige og ikke-drektige simler for å se om de førstnevnte hadde høyere nivå, og dernest å se om det var en sammenheng mellom fosterets størrelse og progesteron-nivået. Til forsøkene ble det brukt tretti V2—2V2 år gamle simler fra reineier John Nordfjells flokk på Røros, samt åtte Svalbard-rein simler. Fra de norske rein ble blodprøver og fostre samlet under slaktning d. 26. november 1979, og fra Svalbard-reinen ble det

  20. Co-management of the migratory caribou herds in northern Québec: The perspective of the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gougeon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people have a long relationship with caribou, and caribou - especially the large migratory herds- cross aboriginal territories and jurisdictional boundaries. These two points are key to understanding the intricacies and complexities of managing caribou.

  1. Towards a protocol for community monitoring of caribou body condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kofinas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective ecological monitoring is central to the sustainability of subsistence resources of indigenous communities. For caribou, Arctic indigenous people's most important terrestrial subsistence resource, body condition is a useful measure because it integrates many ecological factors that influence caribou productivity and is recognized by biologists and hunters as meaningful. We draw on experience working with indigenous communities to develop a body condition monitoring protocol for harvested animals. Local indigenous knowledge provides a broad set of caribou health indicators and explanations of how environmental conditions may affect body condition. Scientific research on caribou body condition provides a basis to develop a simple dichotomous key that includes back fat, intestinal fat, kidney fat and marrow¬fat, as measures of body fat, which in autumn to early winter correlates with the likelihood of pregnancy. The dichotomous key was formulated on "expert knowledge" and validated against field estimates of body composition. We compare local indigenous knowledge indicators with hunter documented data based on the dichotomous key. The potential con¬tribution of community body condition monitoring can be realized through the continued comparative analysis of datasets. Better communication among hunters and scientists, and refinement of data collection and analysis methods are recommended. Results suggest that specific local knowledge may become generalized and integrated between regions if the dichotomous key is used as a generalized (semi-quantitative index and complemented with other science and community-based assessments.

  2. Fire in the range of the Western Arctic Caribou Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; T. Scott Rupp; Randi R. Jandt; F. Stuart Chapin

    2009-01-01

    Wildfire is the dominant ecological driver in boreal forest ecosystems. Although much less is known, it also affects tundra ecosystems. Fires effectively consume fruticose lichens, the primary winter forage for caribou, in both boreal and tundra ecosystems. We summarize 1950-2007 fire regime data for northwestern Alaska and subregions. We also identified meteorological...

  3. Digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, K; Boye, M; Bergsjø, B; Bondal, H; Isaksen, K; Agerholm, J S

    2010-07-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were generally restricted to one foot and the disease incidence was highest in calves. Single limbs from 20 animals and six whole carcasses were submitted for laboratory examination. Gross lesions were characterized by swelling of the fetlock to coronary band area and cutaneous sinus tracts with sparse discharge of pus. Subcutaneous tissue was inflamed and oedematous with focal necrosis. Tendons, tendon sheaths, joints and periosteum of the digital bones were often affected. Animals shot during winter showed severe chronic periostitis and osteomyelitis and necrotizing deforming arthritis. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by deep ulcers with centrally located necrotic tissue, bordered by a zone of oedema and intense inflammation with granulation tissue and fibrosis. Necrosis, suppurative inflammation and oedema were found in the synovial membranes, tendons and tendon sheaths. Digital bone lesions were characterized by necrosis, fibrosis and extensive bone proliferation. Vasculitis and thrombosis were common in all lesions. Elongate filamentous gram-negative bacteria in necrotic lesions from all animals were identified as Fusobacterium necrophorum by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. F. necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F. necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers.

  4. Annual re-habituation of calving caribou to oilfields in northern Alaska : implications for expanding development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, S.P.; Ballard, W.B. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources Management

    2008-07-15

    Studies have suggested that calving caribou are rehabituated to human activities related to the petroleum industry over time as well as annually after Spring migrations. This study used predictor variables of annual and Spring snowmelt indices to evaluate caribou responses to human activities. Response variables included calf percentage and sighting rates of calving caribou along a high traffic road system from 1982 to 1990, and again from 2000 to 2002. Local calf percentages were considered. Caribou density was evaluated by aerial surveys. Results of the study showed no evidence of habituation to human activities over longer periods of time. An analysis of post hoc models showed a slight tolerance response. However, calving caribou were under-represented near the road system. The behavioural adaptability of calving caribou suggested that a no-hunt policy is appropriate. It was concluded that habitat selection and forage availability must also be considered when interpreting avoidance behaviour. 92 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. The Scandinavian Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) after the last glacial maximum: time, seasonality and human exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik Brinch; Aaris Sørensen, Kim; Mühldorff, Rudi

    2006-01-01

    Antlers and bones of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most frequently found vertebrate remains from the Late Glacial deposits of Southern Scandinavia. The Danish collection now consists of more than 350 specimens and of these 47 have been radiocarbon dated extending the range of occurrence...

  6. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  7. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that Rangifer

  8. The caribou of the northern Yukon Territory: A history of man's interest in them with special reference to wildlife biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a DRAFT report on the caribou of the northern Yukon territory. This report specifically examines the relationship humans have with caribou. History of...

  9. DISCOVERY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE “DAVTIANI” MORPHOTYPE FOR TELADORSAGIA BOREOARCTICUS (TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA: OSTERTAGIINAE) ABOMASAL PARASITES IN MUSKOXEN, OVIBOS MOSCHATUS AND CARIBOU, RANGIFER TARANDUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections to explore helminth diversity among free-ranging ungulates in the North American Arctic revealed the occurrence of a third male, or “davtiani,” morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus. Designated as T. boreoarcticus foma (f.) minor B, these males occurred with T. boreoarcticus f. majo...

  10. Workshop: Conserving woodland caribou in the managed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hamilton et al.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held August 19 to foster discussion and debate on issues related to conservation of woodland caribou in the managed forest. Six panelists were invited to make brief presentations on their points of view on this subject. They were Don Thomas (Canadian Wildlife Service; Hartley Multimaki (Buchanan Forest Products; Colin Edey (NOVA Corporation; Jerry English (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources - retired; Dale Seip (British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Harold Cumming (Lakehead University - retired.

  11. The implications of environmental variability on caribou demography: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Random environmental influences, such as snow cover, are widely regarded as an integral feature of caribou population dynamics. We conducted computer simulations to explore the ramifications of such stochastic variability for caribou demography. We devised 4 models with increasing levels of complexity: Model 1, density-independence under different levels of stochasticity and r; Model 2, non-linear effect of snow cover on r; Model 3, non-linear effect of snow cover on r and stochasticity as a function of population size; and Model 4, non-linear effect of snow cover on r, stochasticity as a funciton of population size, and density-dependence according to the logistic equation. The results of Model 1 indicated that nearly all caribou populations subject only to environmental vagaries experienced either extincition or irruption. Model 2 revealed that non-linear effect of snow cover depressed the realised r as a function of population size. Finally, Model 4 suggested long-term population as previously reported in literature, but with reduced chance of overshooting K under moderate to high environmental variability.

  12. 76 FR 13976 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authorities in... Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Caribou-Targhee National Forests' Eastern Idaho...

  13. Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gjerde

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Mature muscle cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from Rangifer tarandus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The long and slender cysts were located within skeletal muscle cells, and were bounded by a unit membrane, the cyst membrane. The cysts were provided with closely spaced flexible, hairlike surface processes, measuring up to 12.6 |im in length and 0.3 to 0.6 \\lm in diameter. The projections had a smooth surface, whereas the cyst membrane formed numerous hexagonally packed vesicular invaginations between the bases of the projections. The cyst membrane was reinforced by an underlying thin layer of electron-dense material, except at the points where it was invaginated. Cyst ground substance formed a thin layer at the periphery of the cysts, filled the core of the projections, and formed thin septa that divided the interior of the cysts into numerous compartments. Most compartments contained a large number of tightly packed cystozoites, whereas a few metrocytes were forund in each of a few compartments at the periphery of the cysts. Some of the cystozoites multiplied by endodyogeny. The metrocytes displayed a vacuolation of their cytoplasm. The cysts of S. rangi were similar in surface morphology to the sarcocysts of certain other Sarcocystis species reported from other intermediate hosts.Ultrastrukturen til cyster av Sarcocystis rangi frå skjelettmuskulaturen hos rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Muskelcyster av S. rangi frå rein vart undersøkt ved transmisjonselektronmikroskopi. Dei lange cystene låg intracellulært i skjelettmuskelceller, og var avgrensa av ein elementærmembran, cystemembranen. Cystene var utstyrt med talrike hårliknande overflateprosessar, som strekte seg langsetter cysteoverflata. Prcsessane var opptil 12.6 Hm lange, og målte 0.3 til 0.6 \\lm i diameter. Prosessane hadde ei glatt overflate, medan cystemembranen danna talrike regelmessige ordna, små invaginasjonar innimellom basis av prosessane

  14. Caribou Co-Management Needs From Research: Simple questions - Tricky answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Urquhart

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, northern Canada has experienced a substantial increase in government reliance on advisory co-management organizations to manage caribou populations. Such groups, which are usually composed of government and local representatives, constantly require information about caribou upon which to base their recommendations. However, the standard 'scientific' approach to obtaining and presenting such information is in many cases no longer appropriate. In order to readjust the scientific focus on caribou research so that it is better attuned to co-management, this paper examines the role that research plays in the Canadian management of the Porcupine Caribou Herd as practiced by the Porcupine Caribou Management Board - a co-management advisory organization with a majority of native representatives.

  15. Population, movements and seasonal distribution of the Kilbuck Caribou Herd, southwest Alaska: Progress report, Kilbuck Caribou study, September 1985-May 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report covers work done on the Kilbuck Caribou herd in southwest Alaska from September of 1985 to May of 1988. The study area is described, as well as...

  16. Effects of industrial development on the predator-prey relationship between wolves and caribou in northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A. R. C. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-30

    The influence of timber harvesting, combined with development of the oil and natural gas industry and the resulting environmental changes on predator-prey relationship between wolves and caribou in northeastern Alberta are investigated. To establish the level of influence, two ways of predator-prey relationship were studied: (1) spatial distribution of caribou in relation to alternative prey, commonly moose, which is assumed to reduce the level of wolf predation experienced by caribou populations, and (2) the development of linear corridors which has been hypothesized to increase predation pressure on caribou. With respect to spatial separation it was found that the selection of fen/bog complexes by caribou and the selection of well-drained habitats by moose and wolves resulted in spatial separation, reducing, but not totally eliminating predation pressure on caribou from wolves. Regarding the effect of linear corridors, radio monitoring established that caribou mortalities attribued to wolf predation were higher among caribou that were closer to linear corridors than among caribou that were farther from corridors than random points. These and other related observations led to the conclusion that timber harvesting and increased industrial activity in and near caribou ranges could have significant effect on caribou population dynamics by increasing predation. Managaement implications of these results and various remedial options are discussed. refs. figs.

  17. The effect of fire on spatial separation between wolves and caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh S. Robinson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire management is an important conservation tool in Canada’s national parks. Fires can benefit some species, while others may be negatively impacted. We used GPS and VHF collar data for 47 wolves from 12 separate packs and 153 caribou from 5 separate herds, and resource selection analysis to model the effects of fire on these species’ habitat and potential interactions. Resource selection modeling showed that wolves select for burned areas and areas close to burns, presumably due to the presence of primary prey (i.e., elk and moose, while caribou avoid burns. Fire reduced the amount of high quality caribou habitat (a direct effect, but also increased the probability of wolf-caribou overlap (an indirect effect. We delineated a spatial index of caribou “safe zones” (areas of low overlap with wolves, and found a positive relationship between the proportion of a herd’s home range represented by “safe zone” in winter and population size (P = 0.10, n=4. While currently-planned prescribed fires in Banff and Jasper reduced the amount of quality caribou habitat by up to 4%, they reduced the area of “safe zones” by up to 7%, varying by herd, location, and season. We suggest that conservation managers should account for the indirect, predator-mediated impacts of fire on caribou in addition to direct effects of habitat loss.

  18. Use of satellite telemetry to evaluate movements of caribou within subsistence hunting areas in northern Alaska

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    Alexander K. Prichard

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou from the Teshekpuk Herd (TH are an important subsistence resource for residents of Inupiaq villages in northern Alaska. In recent years the use of satellite telemetry has increased the understanding of the herd's annual movements and interactions with other herds. Most caribou of the TH are within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPRA throughout the year. The northeastern portion of NPRA has undergone two lease sales for oil and gas exploration, and lease sales are tentatively scheduled for the central/northwest portion of the NPRA in 2004. During 1990—1999, the movements of 27 caribou from the TH were tracked using satellite collars. We evaluated the proportion of time caribou were available to Inupiaq hunters by incorporating maps depicting subsistence-use areas for each of seven Inupiaq villages, and then examining seasonal and annual movements of caribou relative to those areas. By combining caribou locations with subsistence hunting areas, we were able to explore spatial and temporal patterns in caribou availability to subsistence hunters. This information is useful for managers to set appropriate hunting regulations and for devising sensible alternatives and mitigation of likely petroleum development in NPRA.

  19. Distribution and abundance of caribou on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1984-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the caribou distribution and abundance data through the fall of 1989. Results of a literature review prior to preparation of the Refuge...

  20. Modeling energy and reproductive costs in caribou exposed to low flying military jet aircraft

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    B.R. Luick

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We used simulation modeling to estimate the effect of low-flying military jet aircraft on the productivity of caribou. The base model (CARIBOU, CWS Whitehorse, Yukon Territory uses daily intake and expenditure of energy to assess the condition of female caribou throughout the annual cycle. The activity budget of the model caribou was adjusted based on field observations of responses to noise disturbance. A subroutine was added that predicted the likelihood of conception based on fall body fat weight. Caribou responses to overflights were evaluated by equipping free-ranging caribou with radio collars and activity sensors that could distinguish between resting and active periods. Collared animals were exposed to 110 overflights by A-10, F-15 and F- 16 jet aircraft during late-winter, post-calving and the insect season. Noise exposure levels for individual animals either were measured directly with collar-mounted dosimeters or were estimated based on the proximity of the caribou to the aircraft during the overflight. A Time-averaged Sound Level (LT was calculated from the total daily noise exposure for each animal and linear regression was used to evaluate the influence of daily noise exposure on daily hours spent resting. Results of these analyses then were used to modify the time budgets in the CARIBOU model. That is, if time spent resting declined, then time spent in the two rest classes (lying and standing were proportionately redistributed into the three active classes (foraging, walking and running. Model simulations indicated that caribou increased forage intake in response to increased noise exposure, but it also predicted that increased noise exposure would cause a reduced accumulation of body fat. Because body fat in fall has successfully been used to predict the probability of pregnancy (see Gerhart et al, 1993, this relationship was used in the model. Preliminary model simulations indicate that increased noise exposure decreases the

  1. 8th North American Caribou Workshop, 20-24 April 1998, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada.

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    R.E. Haugerud (ed. in chief

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and forty people attended the 8th North American Caribou Workshop. Attendees brought perspectives from government and private sector research, management, industry, boards, councils and First Nations. As well, the involvement of colleagues from Norway, Finland, Greenland and Russia diversified these proceedings. Over 60 papers covering broad areas of caribou resource interests were given in both the plenary and poster sessions.

  2. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  3. Experimental moose reduction lowers wolf density and stops decline of endangered caribou

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    Robert Serrouya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of moose into southern British Columbia caused the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou due to their shared predators, a process commonly referred to as apparent competition. Using an adaptive management experiment, we tested the hypothesis that reducing moose to historic levels would reduce apparent competition and therefor recover caribou populations. Nested within this broad hypothesis were three specific hypotheses: (1 sport hunting could be used to substantially reduce moose numbers to an ecological target; (2 wolves in this ecosystem were primarily limited by moose abundance; and (3 caribou were limited by wolf predation. These hypotheses were evaluated with a before-after control-impact (BACI design that included response metrics such as population trends and vital rates of caribou, moose, and wolves. Three caribou subpopulations were subject to the moose reduction treatment and two were in a reference area where moose were not reduced. When the moose harvest was increased, the moose population declined substantially in the treatment area (by 70% but not the reference area, suggesting that the policy had the desired effect and was not caused by a broader climatic process. Wolf numbers subsequently declined in the treatment area, with wolf dispersal rates 2.5× greater, meaning that dispersal was the likely mechanism behind the wolf numerical response, though reduced recruitment and starvation was also documented in the treatment area. Caribou adult survival increased from 0.78 to 0.88 in the treatment area, but declined in the reference. Caribou recruitment was unaffected by the treatment. The largest caribou subpopulation stabilized in the treatment area, but declined in the reference area. The observed population stability is comparable to other studies that used intensive wolf control, but is insufficient to achieve recovery, suggesting that multiple limiting factors and corresponding management tools must be

  4. Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah A; Lecomte, Nicolas; Schaefer, James A; Olsen, Steffen M; Swingedouw, Didier; Côté, Steeve D; Pellissier, Loïc; Yannic, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both continental and Peary caribou, even after accounting for the possible effect of sea surface. Sea ice has thus been an effective corridor for Peary caribou, promoting inter-island connectivity and population mixing. Using a time series of remote sensing sea-ice data, we show that landscape resistance in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has increased by approximately 15% since 1979 and may further increase by 20-77% by 2086 under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Under the persistent increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, reduced connectivity may isolate island-dwelling caribou with potentially significant consequences for population viability.

  5. Mineral nutrition and alimentary pools in muskoxen and caribou on the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland

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    Hans Staaland

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Minerals (Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg and crude protein concentrations as well as total contents were measured throughout the alimentary tract of muskoxen and caribou from Angujaatorfiup Nunaa range, Søndre Strømfjord area in West Greenland. The muskoxen had significantly higher K concentrations in the caecum and proximal colon than the caribou. Caribou collected during the summer season had the highest Mg concentrations throughout the alimentary tract. In both species water, Na, K and CI concentrations decreased through the distal part of the alimentary system whereas Ca, Mg, P and crude protein concentrations increased. The muskoxen had relatively larger mineral pools and total content in the omasum than the caribou, and the caribou relatively larger mineral pools (except K and CI and total content in the caecum. Higher concentrations of Mg in the alimentary tract of the caribou than the muskoxen during the summer could also indicate that the caribou feed more on herbs with high concentrations of Mg. The data does also indicate that both the caribou and the muskoxen are living in an area where high intakes of minerals from both vegetation and mineral licks are possible. Based on the present study the muskoxen is apparently a typical grazer whereas the caribou is more like a concentrate selector.

  6. Fall sex/age composition, body condition, disease screening and collaring of northern and southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds, 1998 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on a study of the population dynamics and health of the Northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd and the Southern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd.

  7. Caribou calf mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.; Singer, F.J.; Dale, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    Calf mortality is major component of caribou population dynamics, but little is known about the timing or causes of calf losses, or of characteristics that predispose calves to mortality. During 1984-87, we radiocollared 226 calves (less than or equal to 3 days old) in the Denali Caribou Herd (DCH), an unhunted population utilized by a natural complement of predators, to determine the extent, timing, and causes of calf mortality and to evaluate influences of year, sex, birthdate, and birth mass on those losses. Overall, 39% of radio-collared calves died as neonates (less than or equal to 15 days old), and 98% of those deaths were attributed to predation. Most neonatal deaths (85%) occurred within 8 days of birth. Few deaths occurred after the neonatal period (5, 10, and 0% of calves instrumented died during 16-30, 31-150, and greater than 150 days of age, respectively). Survival of neonates was lower (P = 0.038) in 1985, following a severe winter, than during the other 3 years. In years other than 1985, calves born during the peak of calving (approx 50% of the total, born 5-8 days after calving onset) experienced higher (P less than 0.001) neonatal survival than did other calves. Grizzly bears, wolves, and unknown large predators (i.e., grizzly bears or wolves) accounted for 49, 29, and 16% of the neonatal deaths, respectively. The rate of bear-caused mortalities declined (P less than 0.001) with calf age, and bears killed few calves greater than 10 days old. Wolf predation was not related (P greater than 0.05) to calf age and peaked 10 days after onset of calving. Grizzly bear and wolf predation on neonates during the calving season was a limiting factor for the DCH.

  8. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

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    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available During March to May 2000, 48 carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were collected on winter pastures and calving grounds from two herds in western Finnmark and two herds in eastern Finnmark, northern Norway. The animals were autopsied and blood and tissue samples were collected for serology (alphaherpes- and pestivirus; virus neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; parapoxvirus; B2L gene investigations. Autopsy revealed that 39 of 48 animals (81% had died of emaciation. Parapoxvirus-specific DNA was detected in samples from 6 of 48 animals (12.5%; liver, parotid salivary gland and/or pulmonary lymph nodes. A DNA sequence of 376 base pairs from a PCR amplicon obtained from a liver sample from one animal showed 98-99% identity with orf virus strain Orf-11 and reindeer parapoxvirus isolates from Norway and Finland (1992 and 1994, 92-93% similarity with pseudocowpoxvirus and 87% similarity with bovine papular stomatitis virus. Alphaherpes- and pestivirus antibodies were detected in 10% and 33% of the animals, respectively. These results indicates that parapoxvirus, presumably orf-virus, is present among reindeer also in Finnmark, although contagious ecthyma has never been reported in reindeer in this important reindeer herding area. Furthermore, they show that herpes- and pestiviruses are still endemic in reindeer herds in Finnmark. The nature of these viruses and their impact on reindeer health and reproduction and reindeer herding economy should be further addressed, as well as the possibility that these viruses may be transferred between reindeer and domestic animals in this region.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I løpet av perioden mars-mai 2000 ble 48 reinsdyrkadavre (Rangifer tarandus tarandus samlet inn fra vinterbeiter og kalvingsområder fra to flokker i Vest-Finnmark og to i Øst-Finnmark, Norge. Dyrene ble obdusert, og blod og vevsprøver ble samlet for påvisning av antistoffer mot

  9. Simulating the influences of various fire regimes on caribou winter habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, T.S.; Olson, M.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Joly, Kyle; Henkelman, J.; Collins, W.B.; Starfield, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Caribou are an integral component of high-latitude ecosystems and represent a major subsistence food source for many northern people. The availability and quality of winter habitat is critical to sustain these caribou populations. Caribou commonly use older spruce woodlands with adequate terrestrial lichen, a preferred winter forage, in the understory. Changes in climate and fire regime pose a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of this important winter habitat. Computer simulations performed with a spatially explicit vegetation succession model (ALFRESCO) indicate that changes in the frequency and extent of fire in interior Alaska may substantially impact the abundance and quality of winter habitat for caribou. We modeled four different fire scenarios and tracked the frequency, extent, and spatial distribution of the simulated fires and associated changes to vegetation composition and distribution. Our results suggest that shorter fire frequencies (i.e., less time between recurring fires) on the winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in eastern interior Alaska will result in large decreases of available winter habitat, relative to that currently available, in both the short and long term. A 30% shortening of the fire frequency resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the area burned annually and an associated 41% decrease in the amount of spruce-lichen forest found on the landscape. More importantly, simulations with more frequent fires produced a relatively immature forest age structure, compared to that which currently exists, with few stands older than 100 years. This age structure is at the lower limits of stand age classes preferred by caribou from the Nelchina herd. Projected changes in fire regime due to climate warming and/or additional prescribed burning could substantially alter the winter habitat of caribou in interior Alaska and lead to changes in winter range use and/or population dynamics. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. 6th North American Caribou Workshop 1-4 March 1994, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada and George River Caribou Workshop, 27-29 January 1994, Labrador City, Labrador, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceedings of the Sixth North American Caribou Workshop (NACW and the proceedings of the George River Caribou Workshop (GRCW. The Sixth NACW was attended by over 200 people. Papers from the GRCW (with asterix are interspersed where appropriate with the papers from NACW.

  11. Caribou: mon pays blanc. Serie: Villes Franco-Americaines de la Nouvelle - Angleterre (Caribou, My Snowy Country. Collection: French-American Cities of New England, Vol. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipyn, Michel

    This text is the second in a series of materials dealing with cities in New England having a distinct Franco-American presence. The text and supporting audio-visual materials present an overview of the city of Caribou, Maine, as seen through the eyes of its people. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date, culturally valid Franco-American…

  12. Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative: can local knowledge inform caribou management?

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    Don E. Russell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE While quantitative analyses have traditionally been used to measure overall caribou herd health, qualitative observational data can also provide timely information that reflects what people on the land are observing. The Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op (ABEKC monitors ecological change in the range of the Porcupine Caribou Herd (PCH. The community-based monitoring component of the Co-op’s mandate involves the gathering of local knowledge through interviews with local experts in a number of communities.We analyzed the responses to interviews collected during 2000–2007 related to caribou availability, harvest success, meeting needs and caribou health during fall and spring. Interviews revealed 1 caribou greater availability during the survey period, 2 an increasing trend in the proportion of harvesters that met their needs 3 no trend in animals harvested or proportion of successful hunters and 4 improving overall caribou health throughout the period.There was no population estimate for the herd between 2001 and 2010. In 2001, 123,000 caribou were estimated in the herd. Based on an estimated 178,000 in 1989, a declining trend of ~ 3% annually occurred at least until 2001. In the interim agencies and boards feared the herd continued to decline and worked towards and finalized a Harvest Management Plan for the herd. In contrast, from the Co-op interviews all indications suggested improving herd conditions throughout most of the decade. A successful survey in 2010 determined the herd had grown to 169,000 animals. We conclude that the community-based interviews provided a valid, unique information source to better understand caribou ecology and express community perceptions of overall herd status and could provide a valuable contribution to management decision making.  We recommend that ABEKC results become standard input into Porcupine Caribou harvest management decisions and serve as a

  13. Terje Skogland; Life history charcteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in relation to their food resources; ecological effects and behavioral adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    The thesis Life history characteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) is approved for the Phil.dr's degree at the University of Oslo. The dissertation took place in Oslo November 9. 1985.

  14. Terje Skogland; Life history charcteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. in relation to their food resources; ecological effects and behavioral adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Life history characteristics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. is approved for the Phil.dr's degree at the University of Oslo. The dissertation took place in Oslo November 9. 1985.

  15. Prey specialization and morphological conformation of wolves associated with woodland caribou and moose

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    David M.A. Wiwchar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of wolves associated with woodland caribou in late succession boreal coniferous forests north of the commercial cut line and those associated with moose in early succession boreal deciduous forests south of the commercial cut line were studied in Ontario. Socalled “moose-wolves” could readily be distinguished from “caribouwolves” in both genders using a few morphological measurements. Wolves associated with woodland caribou were significantly smaller in most measurements, and increased in size within seven years post-harvest as moose totally replaced caribou in the ecosystem. Whether this change in wolf morphology is related to micro-evolutionary change, the migration of larger “moose-wolves” into the area, or both, remains unclear.

  16. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

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    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  17. Distribution and habitat use of the Bluenose caribou herd in mid-winter

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    D. R. Carruthers

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The mid-winter distribution and densities of the Bluenose caribou herd were compared with previous surveys over six years and were similar in all years except 1981 when exceptionally mild weather prevailed. Differences in group size, distribution and habitat use between sexes were noted in 1983. Caribou were distributed disproportionately to availability of vegetation types and used lakes significantly more than expected based on their occurrence. Male groups used conifer cover more than did female-calf groups which used open areas (lakes, fens, bogs more than males. Cow-calf groups chose areas with a higher small lake density compared to lake density generally available. Generally caribou preferred habitat between 200 and 300 m in elevation with high densities of lakes less than 1 km2 in size. Snow depths and hardness were greater in most unoccupied habitats than in occupied habitats. Wolves were associated with high densities of cow/calf groups.

  18. Trade-offs between wood supply and caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario

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    Daniel McKenney

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou habitat management in northwestern Ontario is a complex spatial problem. The Strategic Forest Management Model (SFMM, a linear programming PC-based planning tool being developed in Ontario, was used to examine the impacts of alternative management strategies on caribou habitat. The management alternatives investigated included the cessation of timber management and maximising the present value of wood production without any explicit concern (in the model for caribou. Three major findings are worth noting: 1 trying to maintain prime caribou habitat within active Forest Management Units will come at a cost to wood supply but the cost will depend on the absolute amount of area affected and the spatial configuration of that land in relation to mills. The cost of maintaining caribou habitat in one management unit at a level about 25 000 hectares is roughly $324 000 per year (about 3 cents for each Ontario resident. The imposition of an even-flow constraint on wood production is in fact potentially more costly; 2 Given the region is heavily dominated by spruce aged 90 years and over, forest succession and fire disturbance will likely cause large declines in prime caribou habitat in the near to medium term (20 to 40 years even if no timber harvesting occurs; 3 The complexities of the trade-offs in this resource management problem highlight the limitations of any single modelling tool to satisfactorily address all issues. Planners need to take advantage of a wide range of analytical techniques to quantify the issues and formulate integrated policies.

  19. Population Ecology of Caribou Populations without Predators: Southampton and Coats Island Herds

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    Jean-Pierre Quellet

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the ecology of two caribou populations inhabiting predator-free northern islands, Coats and Southampton Island. Findings are analyzed in light of the hypothesis that in absence of prédation or high human harvest, food competition results in delayed puberty, reduced calf production, increased winter starvation of caribou and regulates populations at high densities (>2 km-2. Caribou were hunted to extinction on Southampton Island (Northwest Territories, Canada by mid-century. In 1967, 48 caribou were captured on neighbouring Coats Island and released on Southampton Island. Southampton Island is characterized by a high per capita winter food availability in summer and in winter. The population on Southampton Island has been increasing at a rapid rate of growth since re-introduction (Lamba=1.27. Fast population growth was possible because females invested early in reproduction and over winter survival rate was high. The population on Coats Island is also characterized by high per capita food availability in summer but low food availability in winter. The population size has undergone some marked fluctuations, abrupt declines followed by relatively rapid recovery and, contrary to predictions, densities were always less than 1 km-2. Low population densities on Coats Island result primarily from low food availability. This review suggests that in the absence of prédation or high human harvest competition for food regulates caribou population abundance. However, caribou numbers can fluctuate markedly among years because inter-annual variation of weather conditions affects forage accessibility in winter. This review also emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between factors that determine absolute population density and variation in density among years (in our case probably plant production and winter weather conditions which influence forage accessibility from the regulatory factors, processes that stop population

  20. Using movement behaviour to define biological seasons for woodland caribou

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    Tyler D. Rudolph

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mammals are strongly influenced by seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Studies of animal space use behaviour are therefore inherently seasonal in nature. We propose an individual-based quantitative method for identifying seasonal shifts in caribou movement behaviour and we demonstrate its use in determining the onset of the winter, spring dispersal, and calving seasons. Using pooled data for the population we demonstrate an alternate approach using polynomial regression with mixed effects. We then compare individual onset dates with population-based estimates and those adopted by expert consensus for our study area. Distributions of individual-based onset dates were normally distributed with prominent modes; however, there was considerable variation in individual onset times. Population-based estimates were closer to the peaks of individual estimates than were expert-based estimates, which fell outside the onetailed 90% and 95% sample quantiles of individually-fitted distributions for spring and winter, respectively. Both expertand population-based estimates were later for winter and earlier for both spring and calving than were individual-based estimates. We discuss the potential consequences of neglecting to corroborate conventionally used dates with observed seasonal trends in movement behaviour. In closing, we recommend researchers adopt an individual-based quantitative approach and a variable temporal window for data set extraction.

  1. Radiocesium in Canadian Arctic Beluga and Caribou Before and After the Fukushima Accident of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Pellerin, Eric; Bergman, Lauren; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Genovesi, Linda; Cooke, Michael; Todd, Bonnie; Sandles, Diane; Whyte, Jeff [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, AL6302D, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Whitehorse, Yukon (Canada); Loseto, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Wang, X. [Environment Canada, Burlington Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, northern Canadians expressed concerns about the levels of radioactive contaminants in important traditional foods. Therefore, a study has been conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou and beluga whales. The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years and is chemically similar to potassium, thereby easily accumulating in plants and animals. Cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's-60's and during nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. Previous studies have been made on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou and beluga whales taken before and after the Fukushima accident were freeze dried, homogenized, and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration in the samples. To determine the efficiency of the detectors for the different sized samples, physical calibration standards were used and virtual simulations were also performed. A comparison of the caribou samples from before and after the accident has indicated no increase in radioactivity as a result of the Fukushima accident. Results are consistent with pre-Fukushima levels for these caribou. No Cs-137 was found in the pre-Fukushima beluga whale samples, even if all the measurements were combined into one spectrum. In the individual post-Fukushima beluga whale samples, Cs-137 was also not found. However, when the post-Fukushima beluga whale measurements were combined, an insignificant amount of radioactive Cs-137 was found. The amount of this Cs-137 was about 200 times smaller than the natural radioactive potassium in the samples. Most likely the

  2. Bathymetry and capacity of Blackfoot Reservoir, Caribou County, Idaho, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, surveyed the bathymetry and selected above-water sections of Blackfoot Reservoir, Caribou County, Idaho, in 2011. Reservoir operators manage releases from Government Dam on Blackfoot Reservoir based on a stage-capacity relation developed about the time of dam construction in the early 1900s. Reservoir operation directly affects the amount of water that is available for irrigation of agricultural land on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and surrounding areas. The USGS surveyed the below-water sections of the reservoir using a multibeam echosounder and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) equipment at full reservoir pool in June 2011, covering elevations from 6,090 to 6,119 feet (ft) above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The USGS used data from a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) survey performed in 2000 to map reservoir bathymetry from 6,116 to 6,124 ft NAVD 88, which were mostly in depths too shallow to measure with the multibeam echosounder, and most of the above-water section of the reservoir (above 6,124 ft NAVD 88). Selected points and bank erosional features were surveyed by the USGS using RTK-GPS and a total station at low reservoir pool in September 2011 to supplement and verify the LiDAR data. The stage-capacity relation was revised and presented in a tabular format. The datasets show a 2.0-percent decrease in capacity from the original survey, due to sedimentation or differences in accuracy between surveys. A 1.3-percent error also was detected in the previously used capacity table and measured water-level elevation because of questionable reference elevation at monitoring stations near Government Dam. Reservoir capacity in 2011 at design maximum pool of 6,124 ft above NAVD 88 was 333,500 acre-ft.

  3. 76 FR 13345 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls... Resource Advisory Committee will meet Friday, March 25, 2011 in Idaho Falls, Idaho for a business meeting... Headquarters Office, 1405 Hollipark Drive, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. Evaluating the effects of nutrition, disease, and predation on calf recruitment in the northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd is an important subsistence and recreational hunting resource in the southwest Alaska region. This herd has declined by...

  5. Insights into integrating cumulative effects and collaborative co-management for migratory tundra caribou herds in the Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Anne Gunn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many migratory mammals are facing threats. In northern Canada, large annual ranges expose migratory caribou to an array of human activities, including industrial exploration and development. Recognition that responses to human activities can accumulate for caribou is long-standing, but is heightened by recent declines in caribou abundance. For example, since the mid-1990s, the Bathurst herd has declined by approximately 90%, leading to severe harvest restrictions. More mines are being proposed and developed across the herd's annual range, raising questions about cumulative effects. Despite progress on assessment techniques, aboriginal groups are expressing strong concerns and frustration about gaps in responsibilities for who should monitor, mitigate, and manage cumulative effects. The core of the concern is sustainability and the related trade-offs between industrial developments relative to continued access to healthy caribou for harvesting. We offer insights into how these concerns can be addressed by building on existing concepts (adaptive management and approaches (herd management.

  6. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and post-calving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  7. Endocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstad, E; Veiberg, V; Säkkinen, H; Dahl, E; Kindahl, H; Holand, O; Beckers, J F; Eloranta, E

    2005-04-01

    The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E2 and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer.

  8. The reintroduction of boreal caribou as a conservation strategy: A long-term assessment at the southern range limit

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    Martin-Hugues St-Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal caribou were extirpated from the Charlevoix region (Québec in the 1920s because of hunting and poaching. In 1965, the Québec government initiated a caribou reintroduction program in Charlevoix. During the winters of 1966 and 1967, a total of 48 boreal caribou were captured, translocated by plane, and released within enclosures; only their offspring (82 individuals were released in the wild. Between 1967 and 1980, a wolf control program was applied to support caribou population growth. The caribou population, however, remained relatively stable at 45–55 individuals during this period. During the 1980s, the population grew slowly at a rate of approximately 5% each year to reach a peak of 126 individuals in 1992. At that time, Bergerud & Mercer (1989 reported that the Charlevoix experiment was the only successful attempt at caribou reintroduction in the presence of predators (in North America. Afterwards, the population declined and since then it has been relatively stable at about 80 individuals. Here we reviewed the literature regarding the ecology and population dynamics of the Charlevoix caribou herd since its reintroduction, in an attempt to critically assess the value of reintroduction as a conservation tool for this species. Indeed, the Charlevoix caribou herd is now considered at very high risk of extinction mostly because of its small size, its isolation from other caribou populations, and low recruitment. The Charlevoix region has been heavily impacted by forestry activities since the early 1980s. Recent studies have indicated that these habitat modifications may have benefited populations of wolves and black bears—two predators of caribou—and that caribou range fidelity may have exposed caribou to higher predation risk via maladaptive habitat selection. As females are ageing, and females and calves suffer high predation pressure from wolves and bears respectively, we suggest that the future of this reintroduced herd is in

  9. 15th North American Caribou Workshop, 12-16 May 2014, Whitehorse, Canada

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    Birgitta Åhman (editor in chief

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 15th North American Caribou Workshop (NACW was held from 12-16 May 2014, in the traditional territories of the Kwanlin Dün First Nation and the Ta’an Kwäch’än Council, in Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. This biennial meeting is the largest technical conference of its kind dealing specifically with caribou biology and management. The first NACW was held in Whitehorse over three decades ago in 1983, and 13 subsequent workshops have been held across North America until now. With nearly 400 delegates from Canada, the United States, Norway, and Greenland attending the 2014 conference, it is evident that this “North American” gathering has truly become an international event. Furthermore, delegates attending this 15th NACW represented federal, provincial, territorial, state and First Nation governments, academia, non-governmental organizations, co-management boards and councils, private consultants, and industry,  creating a relatively unique conference setting bringing together a variety of perspectives and concerns. The breadth of the participants in terms of geography, expertise and affiliation resulted in a rich base of human capacity to discuss issues related to caribou conservation and management. Given that it had been nearly three decades since the inception of this workshop, and with its return to the location of the first NACW, the organizing committee felt it was a fitting opportunity to look back and assess what had been achieved with respect to caribou conservation and management. As such, the theme of the 15th NACW was “Caribou Conservation and Management: What’s Working?”  The opening session of the conference focussed on invited presentations explicitly addressing this question, and included topics on structured decision making, forest management, harvest monitoring, carnivore management, regional land use planning and management, and aboriginal perspectives on a long-term collaborative caribou recovery program in the

  10. Theileriosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) associated with a potentially novel Theileria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bridget C; Holman, Patricia; Berent, Linda M

    2012-12-01

    A 5-year-old male neutered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from Missouri was presented with a 3-week history of anorexia, respiratory distress, lethargy, and weight loss. Blood smear review revealed that a small percentage of RBCs contained small (1-2 μm in length) pleomorphic piroplasms (signet ring, rod- or pear-shaped, and elongate forms) with an eccentric magenta nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm. Nested PCR to specifically amplify a portion of the piroplasm small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was performed on DNA extracted from an EDTA specimen of whole blood. Subsequent sequence analyses showed similarity between the reindeer hemoparasite and Theileria spp SSU rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank database, with highest similarity to those of a Theileria sp in a White-tailed deer from North Texas (AY735132, AY735133). The reindeer and North Texas Theileria sp are genetically distinct from, albeit closely related to, the White-tailed deer Theileria sp (subsequently referred to as T cervi). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of Theileria of this genotype in a reindeer. Historically, T tarandirangiferis infection was found with associated mortality in reindeer in Russia, but reports predate molecular characterization. Hence, the relationship of T tarandirangiferis with either T cervi or this agent remains unknown. T cervi is not typically pathogenic in White-tailed deer in the US unless the animal is immune-compromised by stress or disease; however, mortality from T cervi infection in reindeer has been reported.

  11. Rumen function in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus after sub-maintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

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    Anna Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to ascertain how different feeding strategies affect the rumen function of reindeer after nutritional deprivation. Rumen adaptation to various diets, after restricted feeding, was studied in 44 eight-month-old semi-domesticated female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. All animals were initially fed a simulated winter diet based on lichens (lichen diet. A control group, continuously offered the lichen diet ad libitum, was compared to four groups of reindeer that were first restrictively fed (half the ad libitum ration for eight days followed by one day without feed. The rumen content of restrictively fed animals had higher pH, lower dry matter content and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, a changed composition of VFAs, and lower counts of bacteria compared to that of the control group. The effect was less dramatic than previously reported for reindeer starved for several days. On day 10, the four restrictively fed groups were introduced to different diets. One group was re-fed the lichen diet ad libitum and did not differ from the control group when the experiment ended after five weeks of feeding. Two groups were fed grain-based reindeer feed (pellets combined with either lichens or grass silage, and one group was fed silage with a gradually increased addition of pellets. Diarrhoea and so called “wet belly” occurred initially in the three latter groups. After five weeks of feeding, the reindeer in the three pellet-fed groups had an altered composition of VFAs and higher counts of protozoa, and also tended to have higher total VFA concentration in the rumen, compared to the control animals and those re-fed the lichen diet. Only small changes were observed in the size of rumen papillae and these could be associated with energy intake. Protozoa decreased over time on the lichen diet. This study confirmed that rumen function was significantly affected by a relatively short period of restricted feed intake

  12. Mapping forest stand complexity for woodland caribou habitat assessment using multispectral airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, B.; Woods, M.

    2014-11-01

    The decline of the woodland caribou population is a result of their habitat loss. To conserve the habitat of the woodland caribou and protect it from extinction, it is critical to accurately characterize and monitor its habitat. Conventionally, products derived from low to medium spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as land cover classification and vegetation indices are used for wildlife habitat assessment. These products fail to provide information on the structure complexities of forest canopies which reflect important characteristics of caribou's habitats. Recent studies have employed the LiDAR system (Light Detection And Ranging) to directly retrieve the three dimensional forest attributes. Although promising results have been achieved, the acquisition cost of LiDAR data is very high. In this study, utilizing the very high spatial resolution imagery in characterizing the structural development the of forest canopies was exploited. A stand based image texture analysis was performed to predict forest succession stages. The results were demonstrated to be consistent with those derived from LiDAR data.

  13. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds

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    Patrick Valkenburg et al.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.

  14. Assessing the length of the post-disturbance recovery period for woodland caribou habitat after fire and logging in west-central Manitoba

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    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the habitat characteristics of areas used by woodland caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging in the Naosap caribou range in west-central Manitoba. The population inhabiting this area is currently considered to be of high conservation concern. The purpose was to determine how long after disturbance forests again resembled caribou habitat and whether there were differences in the recovery period between fire disturbed and logged areas. Sample transects were located in areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging. Previously, it was shown that variables positively associated with habitat suitability in this region were species composition (presence of black spruce, an index of arboreal lichen abundance and tree size, while variables negatively associated with habitat suitability were deadfall abundance and species composition (presence of trembling aspen. It was hypothesized that if disturbed sites had become suitable caribou habitat, then they should be statistically indistinguishable from sites used by caribou based on these variables. Using cluster analysis, it was found that 2 statistical clusters showed the highest level of agreement with sampling clusters, with 88% of plots used by caribou classified into one cluster, and 74% of disturbed plots classified into the other. Although a small proportion (12% of disturbed plots resembled used plots, 30 years (the age of the oldest disturbed plot was not enough time, in general, for forest to return to conditions resembling caribou habitat in this region.

  15. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus feeding on lichens and mushrooms: traditional ecological knowledge among reindeer-herding Sami in northern Sweden

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    Berit Inga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed in four reindeer-herding districts (Sami villages in northern Sweden. Reindeer herding Sami, born in 1950 or earlier, were interviewed about reindeer foraging behaviour on lichens and mushrooms, especially relating to non-summer grazing habits, and about characteristics of a good winter feeding ground. The informants claimed that lichens are preferably grazed in the wintertime, but that they also may be eaten in the summertime when the weather is cold and humid. Mushrooms were chosen in the autumn months August and September, but according to some informants mushrooms may also be eaten during late autumn (from Oct. when frozen and under the snow. The reindeer herders had different names for lichens, which in general terms describe their appearance and habitat. For mushrooms they only used one Sami name. Ground lichens preferred by reindeer are Cladonia species, while the nitrogen-fixing lichen species such as Nephroma arcticum and Stereocaulon pascale were said not to be preferred by the reindeer. Snow conditions are very important, and the less snow (and the softer it is, the better. Habitats where reindeer herders know from experience that snow conditions tend to be problematic, e.g. in moist and open areas with small trees, are used early in the winter (Oct.–Jan., before too much snow has accumulated. A good winter grazing area should have lichens. It is preferably a dry pine (Pinus sylvestris forest heath with large, old and wide-crowned trees to shelter the ground from snow and thereby ease the cratering by reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Renens (Rangifer tarandus tarandus bete av lavar och svampar: Traditionell ekologisk kunskap bland renskötande samer i norra Sverige Studien genomfördes i fyra renskötseldistrikt (samebyar i norra Sverige. Totalt 22 renskötande samer, födda 1950 eller tidigare, blev intervjuade om renens betande av lavar och svampar, renens vinterbete och om vad som karakt

  16. Pathology of acute and subchronic nitrate poisening in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

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    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of nitrate poisoning by forest fertilizers to reindeer was studied. The post mortem picture differed with substance, dose and time of exposure. Animals that died from acute ammonium nitrate intoxication had lesions similar to those found in acute ammonium and nitrate poisoning in sheep and cattle, without developing methaemoglobinemia. The animal that died from acute sodium nitrate poisoning probably died from acute collapse of the blood pressure without developing methaemoglobinemia and without any significant post mortem lesions. Animals dead of subchronic sodium nitrate poisoning all developed methaemoglobinemia. Animals dead within 24 hours only revealed subserous haemorrhages in the pleura and haemorrhages in musculus longissimus costarum and musculus longissimus dorsi. Similar pleural and muscular haemorrhages were also found in animals that died 60 - 200 hours after exposure but in these animals were also found what is considered common lesions in connection with nitrate/nitrite posoning; i.e. discolorated and poorly clotted blood, cardiac hamorrhages etc. The constant finding of these pleural and muscular haemorrhages may indicate almost pathognomonic lesions, in reindeer, in connection with nitrate poisoning of subchronic and chronic nature. The two animals that died from voluntarily drinking ammonium-nitrate dissolved in water developed lesions indicative of a combined effect of ammonium and nitrate poisoning. Patologin vid akut och subkronisk nitratforgiftning hos ren (Rangifer tarandus L Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Patologin vid nitratforgiftning, orsakad av skogsgodselmedel, hos ren har undersokts. Obduktionsbilden varierade med godselmedel, dosering och exponeringstid. Djuren som dog av akut ammoniumnitratforgiftning uppvisade likartade forandringar som ses vid akut ammonium-och nitratforgiftning hos får och notkreatur. Inget av djuren utvecklade methaemoglobinemi. Det djur som dog av akut

  17. Mapping caribou habitat north of the 51st parallel in Québec using Landsat imagery

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    Stéphanie Chalifoux

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images and vegetation typology, based on lichens as the principal component of caribou winter diet, was developed to map caribou habitat over a large and diversified area of Northern Québec. This approach includes field validation by aerial surveys (helicopter, classification of vegetation types, image enhancement, visual interpretation and computer assisted mapping. Measurements from more than 1500 field sites collected over six field campaigns from 1989 to 1996 represented the data analysed in this study. As the study progressed, 14 vegetation classes were defined and retained for analyses. Vegetation classes denoting important caribou habitat included six classes of upland lichen communities (Lichen, Lichen-Shrub, Shrub-Lichen, Lichen-Graminoid-Shrub, Lichen-Woodland, Lichen-Shrub-Woodland. Two classes (Burnt-over area, Regenerating burnt-over area are related to forest fire, and as they develop towards lichen communities, will become important for caribou. The last six classes are retained to depict remaining vegetation cover types. A total of 37 Landsat TM scenes were geocoded and enhanced using two methods: the Taylor method and the false colour composite method (bands combination and stretching. Visual inter¬pretation was chosen as the most efficient and reliable method to map vegetation types related to caribou habitat. The 43 maps produced at the scale of 1:250 000 and the synthesis map (1:2 000 000 provide a regional perspective of caribou habitat over 1200 000 km2 covering the entire range of the George river herd. The numerical nature of the data allows rapid spatial analysis and map updating.

  18. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

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    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  19. Disentangling woodland caribou movements in response to clearcuts and roads across temporal scales.

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    David Beauchesne

    Full Text Available Although prey species typically respond to the most limiting factors at coarse spatiotemporal scales while addressing biological requirements at finer scales, such behaviour may become challenging for species inhabiting human altered landscapes. We investigated how woodland caribou, a threatened species inhabiting North-American boreal forests, modified their fine-scale movements when confronted with forest management features (i.e. clearcuts and roads. We used GPS telemetry data collected between 2004 and 2010 on 49 female caribou in a managed area in Québec, Canada. Movements were studied using a use--availability design contrasting observed steps (i.e. line connecting two consecutive locations with random steps (i.e. proxy of immediate habitat availability. Although caribou mostly avoided disturbances, individuals nonetheless modulated their fine-scale response to disturbances on a daily and annual basis, potentially compromising between risk avoidance in periods of higher vulnerability (i.e. calving, early and late winter during the day and foraging activities in periods of higher energy requirements (i.e. spring, summer and rut during dusk/dawn and at night. The local context in which females moved was shown to influence their decision to cross clearcut edges and roads. Indeed, although females typically avoided crossing clearcut edges and roads at low densities, crossing rates were found to rapidly increase in greater disturbance densities. In some instance, however, females were less likely to cross edges and roads as densities increased. Females may then be trapped and forced to use disturbed habitats, known to be associated with higher predation risk. We believe that further increases in anthropogenic disturbances could exacerbate such behavioural responses and ultimately lead to population level consequences.

  20. An integrated assessment of Porcupine caribou seasonal distribution, movements, and habitat preferences for regional land use planning in northern Yukon Territory, Canada

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    John L. Ryder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to improve understanding of Porcupine caribou herd distribution, movements, and habitat preferences to assist with developing a regional land use plan for the North Yukon Planning Region, Yukon Territory. Three different methods were used to identify current and historical patterns of caribou distribution and habitat preferences within the region to prioritize conservation areas. Two of the approaches focused on incorporating information on caribou distribution and migrations from scientific and local knowledge, while the third focused on identifying and mapping habitats suitable for supporting caribou. Local knowledge dating back to the 1930s and two decades of satellite telemetry data confirmed that most of the planning region is used by the Porcupine caribou herd and highlighted areas of concentrated use. Maps of suitable winter habitat derived from expert opinion ratings of habitat use did not agree with the other information sources. The local knowledge and satellite telemetry analyses were used to identify spatially explicit priority areas for caribou conservation and the results were applied to develop conservation recommendations for a draft regional land use plan. The plan will be submitted to government approval bodies for review in the spring of 2007. The success in implementing conservation strategies for the Porcupine caribou herd will be reviewed and evaluated following adoption of a final approved plan.

  1. Variations in plant forage quality in the range of the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Jill Johnstone

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding potential impacts of vegetation change on caribou energetics requires information on variations in forage quality among different plant types and over time. We synthesized data on forage quality (nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber and dry matter digestibility for 10 plant growth forms from existing scientific literature and from field research in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. These data describe forage quality of plant species in habitats found within the summer and winter range of the Porcupine caribou herd in northwestern Canada and northern Alaska, U.S.A. We compared mean levels of summer forage quality among growth forms and, where possible, estimated seasonal changes in forage quality. Preferred forage groups (deciduous shrubs, forbs, and cottongrass flowers had higher nitrogen and digestibility, and lower fiber content, than other growth forms. Nitrogen concentration in green biomass peaked at the onset of the growing season in forbs and deciduous shrubs, whereas graminoids reached peak nitrogen concentrations approximately 15-30 days after growth initiation. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF of green biomass differed among growth forms, but did not show strong seasonal changes. IVDMD and NDF concentrations were correlated with nitrogen concentrations in studies that had paired sampling.

  2. Toward the Restoration of Caribou Habitat: Understanding Factors Associated with Human Motorized Use of Legacy Seismic Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Karine E.; Anderson, Meghan; MacNearney, Doug; Cranston, Jerome; Stenhouse, Gordon; Finnegan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Populations of boreal and southern mountain caribou in Alberta, Canada, are declining, and the ultimate cause of their decline is believed to be anthropogenic disturbance. Linear features are pervasive across the landscape, and of particular importance, seismic lines established in the 1900s (legacy seismic lines) are slow to regenerate. Off-highway vehicles are widely used on these seismic lines and can hamper vegetative re-growth because of ongoing physical damage, compaction, and active clearing. Restoration of seismic lines within caribou range is therefore a priority for the recovery of threatened populations in Alberta, but a triage-type approach is necessary to prioritize restoration and ensure conservation resources are wisely spent. To target restoration efforts, our objective was to determine factors that best explained levels of off-highway vehicles use on seismic lines intersecting roads. We investigated the relative importance of local topography, vegetation attributes of seismic lines, and broad-scale human factors such as the density of infrastructures and the proximity to recreation campsites and towns to explain the observed levels of off-highway vehicles use. We found that off-highway vehicles use was mainly associated with local topography and vegetation attributes of seismic lines that facilitated ease-of-travel. Broad-scale landscape attributes associated with industrial, recreation access, or hunting activities did not explain levels of off-highway vehicles use. Management actions aimed at promoting natural regeneration and reduce ease-of-travel on legacy seismic lines within caribou ranges can be beneficial to caribou recovery in Alberta, Canada, and we therefore recommend restrictions of off-highway vehicles use on low vegetation, dry seismic lines in caribou ranges.

  3. ANWR progress report number FY84-12: Calving distribution, initial productivity and neonatal mortality of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the calving distribution, initial productivity and neonatal mortality of the porcupine caribou herd in 1983. Topics covered include productivity,...

  4. Modelling of radiocesium transfer in the lichen-reindeer/caribou-wolf food chain

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    D. F. Holleman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contaminate radiocesium (cesium-137 has been shown to be of value as a marker in food selection and intake studies. Its greatest potential value as a food marker is in the subarctic/arctic regions, particularly in the lichen to reindeer/caribou to wolf food chain. A kinetic model describing the movement of radiocesium through the food chain has been developed using the SAAM computer program and is presented here. The program has been written so that the various paramenters affecting the transfer of radiocesium in the food chain can be altered more realistically to describe the system being modeled. The values of the parameters as given in this example are realistic for interior Alaska, however caution should be exercised in the application of the present results to regions that may be vastly different from the Alaskan interior without first evaluating the parameters and assumptions of the model.

  5. Variation in blood selenium and serum vitamin E in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus described by location, husbandry, and season

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    Karyn Bischoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are important livestock for arctic and subarctic herders, including those in North America, but as climate change affects traditional herding practices, alternative methods of rearing (such as captive rearing will likely become common. Proper nutrition is critical in livestock production, but there is minimal information available on circulating nutrient concentrations in reindeer, who are adapted to a unique climate. This study looks at 2 important antioxidants. Blood and serum were taken from female reindeer from three herds:  a free-ranging herd from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska (AK, during the summer, and two captive herds (one in Fairbanks, AK and one in Upstate New York (NY during the summer and winter. Selenium (Se and vitamin E concentrations were described stratified on season (when possible, location, and management practices (captive or free range. Herd mean values across seasons for Se ranged from 2.42 to 4.88 µmol/L. Herd mean values across seasons for vitamin E ranged from 5.27 to 6.89 µmol/L.

  6. Growth and relationship of live weight to body measurements in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

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    Mauri Nieminen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of live weight from measurements of body dimensions is useful in many management activities with domestic animals. In present study live weight was measured from 2932 female and 1037 male semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. during different seasons in 1969-85. The age of reindeer varied between 1 day and 14 yrs. Back length (along back from second spinous process to base of tail and chest girth (just behind front legs were taken also from 1490 female and 510 male reindeer. The growth of reindeer from birth to adulthood was cumulative consisting of a rapid weight accretion during summers followed by a weight loss or stasis during winters. The mathematical analyses of the growth based on exponential solutions gave average values for growth of female and male reindeer. Body weight of females increased until the age of 4.5 yrs and that of males until the age of 5.5 yrs. During winter and spring body weight of hinds decreased 10 to 15 kg and that of stags 30 to 50 kg in different age groups. Significant linear regressions were found between live weight and back length (r = 0.809 and 0.892, live weight and chest girth (r = 0.860 and 0.872 and live weight and combined body measure (back length + chest girth (r = 0.877 and 0.941 and live weight and body volume (r = 0.905 and 0.954, respectively in female and male reindeer. Exponential regressions gave, however, the best estimations of live weight with combined body measure.

  7. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.

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    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L. and their nutritional value for humans. The results could be useful in updating the Norwegian Food Composition Database, whose current data on reindeer is limited. Study design: Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods: Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n=31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and total lipids were studied. Results: As expected, reindeer meat was found to be lean (2% total lipid, thus it is a good source of low-fat meat. The meat was also found to be a good source of vitamin B12, docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 in most of the nutrient levels between meat and the rest of the studied reindeer tissues were observed. In most cases, the liver, tallow and bone marrow had higher nutritional values when compared to meat. Liver had the highest concentrations of vitamin A, all vitamin B types, vitamin C, iron, selenium and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3. Additionally, liver was the only edible tissue that contained vita-mins B9 and C. The vast majority of the vitamin concentrations in liver, tallow and bone marrow were significantly correlated with the concentrations in meat (p<0.05. Conclusions: The studied tissues from reindeer demonstrated that reindeer is a valuable food source that could meet or contribute to the consumers’ nutritional recommended daily allowance (RDA.

  8. Flexible mating tactics and associated reproductive effort during the rutting season in male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliana PINTUS; Stefania UCCHEDDU; Knut H RED; Javier Prez GONZALZ; Juan CARRANZA; Mauri NIEMINEN; ystein HOLAND

    2015-01-01

    Polygynous males can change their mating tactics across their lifetime, but information is scarce on the flexibility of this trait within a given season and the relative costs and benefits of using different tactics. Here, we monitored individually marked male reindeerRangifer tarandus and classified their mating tactics as harem-defense, sneaking, or mixed. The costs of the male reproductive effort were assessed using both direct (i.e. percentage of body mass lost) and indirect measures (i.e. activity patterns such as feeding, standing, and walking), while mating group size and reproductive success were recorded as mating ef-fort benefits. Our results show that reindeer males may switch between the harem-defense and sneaking tactics throughout the same breeding season, providing further support to the notion that reproductive tactics are flexible in ungulates. The costs and benefits of male mating effort vary according to the mating tactic, reaching the highest values in harem-holders and the lowest values in sneaking males. Moreover, males who switched between the sneaking tactic and the harem-defence tactic tended to achieve higher mating success than males who consistently used the least costly tactic. Indeed, all harem-holders successfully sired offspring, whereas only two out of three mixed-tactic males sired one calf, and sneaking males did not sire any calves. In conclusion, our results show that reindeer males can modulate their mating efforts during the same breeding season by switching between the most costly harem-defense tactic and the least costly sneaking tactic, suggesting individual solutions to the balance between reproductive effort and mating opportunities [Current Zoology 61 (5): 802–810, 2015].

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics in the response of woodland caribou and moose to the passage of grey wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latombe, Guillaume; Fortin, Daniel; Parrott, Lael

    2014-01-01

    Predators impact prey populations not only by consuming individuals, but also by altering their behaviours. These nonlethal effects can influence food web properties as much as lethal effects. The mechanisms of nonlethal effects include chronic and temporary anti-predator behaviours, the nature of which depends on the spatial dynamics of predators and the range over which prey perceive risk. The relation between chronic and ephemeral responses to risk determines predator-prey interactions, with consequences that can ripple across the food web. Nonetheless, few studies have quantified the spatio-temporal scales over which prey respond to predation threat, and how this response varies with habitat features. We evaluated the reaction of radio-collared caribou and moose to the passage of radio-collared wolves, by considering changes in movement characteristics during winter and summer. We used an optimization algorithm to identify the rate at which the impact of prior passage of wolves decreases over time and with the predator's distance. The spatial and temporal scales of anti-predator responses varied with prey species and season. Caribou and moose displayed four types of behaviour following the passage of wolves: lack of response, increased selection of safe land cover types, decreased selection of risky cover types and increased selection of food-rich forest stands. For example, moose increased their avoidance of open conifer stands with lichen in summer, which are selected by wolves in this season. Also in winter, caribou increased their selection of conifer stands with lichen for nearly 10 days following a wolf's passage. This stronger selection for food-rich patches could indicate that the recent passage of wolves informs caribou on the current predator distribution and reveals the rate at which this information become less reliable over time. Caribou and moose used anti-predator responses that combine both long- and short-term behavioural adjustments. The

  10. Forage chemistry and the digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern Norway and on South Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chemical and botanical analyses of the reticulo-rumen content (RR and the fill of the digestive system were carried out in free-living Norwegian reindeer {Rangifer t. tarandus on South Georgia (SG in summer (mean body mass (BM = 74 kg, n - 10, and in northern Norway in late summer (NS (mean BM = 77 kg, n = 6 and winter (NW (mean BM = 60 kg, n = 11. The RR of SG reindeer contained mainly grasses, while grasses dominated in NS reindeer and woody plants and lichens in NW reindeer. Mean ruminal plant cell-wall contents (CWC comprised 37% of organic dry matter (OM in SG reindeer and 50 and 69% in NS and NW reindeer, respectively. The high CWC in NW reindeer was due to high intake of lichens containing as much as 45% hemi-cellulose. Mean ruminal content of lignin was as low as 5% of OM in SG reindeer, which was different (P < 0.05 from NS (14% and NW reindeer (15%, respectively. The mean total gastro-inresrinal tract (GIT (fill and tissue weight was 27% of BM in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (18% of BM and NW reindeer (22% of BM, respectively. Wet weight RR content was 14.5% of BM in SG reindeer, not different from NS (12.2% of BM and NW reindeer (14.2% of BM. The ratio between the wet weight content of the distal fermentation chamber (DFC and the RR wet weight content was 1:10 in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (1:14 and NW reindeer (1:14. We did not find any significant differences between the intestinal lengths of the groups investigated. It was concluded that the degree of fill of the different parts of GIT in reindeet seems to be related to the lignin content of plants eaten and not only of seasonal changes in appetite and availability of plants. Our data stress the fact that reindeer are highly adaptable to a wide range of different dietary plants, even in the southern hemisphere.

  11. Modeling the behavior of an ungauged catchment using alternative datasets: a case study of the Caribou catchment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Geneviève; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Chesnaux, Romain

    2017-04-01

    The modelling of ungauged catchments is a long standing problem in hydrology and there is still no general consensus regarding the best practices to adopt in a variety of situations. In addition to flood and drought forecasting, there are other interests of modelling the hydrological behaviour of a catchment, whether it is gauged or not. For instance, estimation of groundwater recharge can be performed through an integrated modeling of the catchment. In this study, the WaSim model is used to model the hydrology of the Caribou River catchment located in the province of Quebec, in Canada. Since this catchment includes an important aquifer that is used both for drinking water, industrial and potential agricultural purposes, an accurate recharge assessment is important and is the long-term objective of the project. The WaSim model was chosen due to its very versatile soil sub-model features which allow to simulate subsurface flows and calculate the groundwater recharge as an output variable. Since the Caribou River is ungauged, alternative means of calibrating the free parameters of WaSim had to be implemented. The implementation of a calibration protocol that can get the most out of the few available data is a secondary objective and is the subject of this presentation. First, a « twin » gauged catchment is selected for its physiographic and hydro-climatic similarities with the Caribou River catchment. Streamflow series from this « twin » catchment are then transferred and used jointly with the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) algorithm (Tolson and Shoemaker 2007) to obtain a raw calibration of the WaSim model parameters. This initial calibration can be further refined using two available datasets: (1) snow water equivalent data interpolated on a 10 km by 10 km grid and (2) a short and discontinuous time series of streamflow obtained using the land-surface scheme of the environmental multiscale atmospheric model (GEM) at Environment and Climate Change Canada

  12. Different methods of preparing rumen and caecum content from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus for the analyses of minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Different methods were used for preparation of samples of rumen and caecum content from reindeer. The mineral contents of the samples were compared. Rumen and caecum samples from three reindeer were centrifuged at sampling and the fluid was stored frozen. Further preparation of these samples caused a gradient in mineral concentration at centrifugation, varying between samples. This procedure consequently gave no reliable results. Hence, three methods of preparing total rumen content after freezing were compared: centrifugation, wet and dry ashing (after drying. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were analysed. The mineral analyses of rumen fluid, 41 compared to total rumen content, gave divergent results for the different minerals, depending on solubility. Wet ashing and dry ashing gave approximately the same results. Considering these results, analyses of minerals in samples of total rumen or caecum content is recommended, rather than analyses in fluid samples. The samples should be frozen or dried immediately at collection, and later be used for either wet or dry ashing.Olika metoder vid preparering av vom- och blindtarmsinnhåll från ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus för analys av mineraler.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Prov av vom- och blindtarmsinnehåll från ren preparerades på olika sätt och mineralåmnesinnehållet i proverna jämfördes. Vom- och blindtarmsprover från tre renar centrifugerades vid provtagningen och vätskan frystes. Vid vidare preparering av de fryslagrade vätskeproverna, uppstod vid centrifugering en gradient i fråga om mineralhalt. Denna var olika fôr olika prover. Detta tillvagagångssatt gav således inte tillförlitliga resultat. På grund härav jämfördes tre metoder fôr preparering av fryslagrat totalt vominnehåll: centrifugering samt våt- och torrföraskning (efter torkning. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu och Zn analyserades. Mineralanalyserna på vomvätska, jämfört med analyserna på totalt

  13. Are warbles and bots related to reproductive status in West Greenland caribou?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In March-April 2008-09, using CARMA protocols, 81 cows and 16 calves were collected in West Greenland from two caribou populations; Akia-Maniitsoq (AM and Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut (KS. In both populations, warble larvae numbers were highest in calves and higher in non-pregnant than pregnant cows. Nose bots showed no relationship with pregnancy or lactation; KS calves had higher nose bot loads than cows, a pattern not observed in AM. Pregnant cows had more rump fat than non-pregnant cows. KS cows lacking rump fat entirely had the highest warble burdens. We observed lactating pregnant cows with moderate larval burdens. Projected energy cost of the heaviest observed combined larvae burdens was equivalent to 2-5 days basal metabolic rate (BMR for a cow, and 7-12 days BMR for a calf. Foregone fattening in adult cows with average burdens was 0.2 to 0.5 kg, but almost doubled with the heaviest infestations to 0.4 and 0.8 kg. Average burdens in calves resulted in forgone fattening of about 0.5 kg, with peak costs equivalent to 0.7 and 1.1 kg fat for AM and KS calves respectively. Although modest, these projected energy costs of hosting larvae for cows support the negative relationship between rump fat and larvae burden. For calves, hosting high burdens of warble larvae could affect winter survival, specifically those weaned normally in October or in early winter. Harmful effects of oestrid larvae burdens may remain subtle but clearly cumulative in relation to seasonal forage availability and incidence of other parasites.

  14. Calf mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in the Finnish reindeer-herding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} During 1999-2008 calf mortality was studied in six reindeer-herding cooperatives in Northern Finland, where 3942 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were equipped with radio mortality collars. The calves were weighed and earmarked mostly at 2-5 days of age, or at 2-8 weeks of age. Altogether 460 dead radio-collared calves were found from calving in May until winter round-ups in October-January. In northern mountain herding cooperatives, the average mortality of calves varied between 7-12%. On average, 39-54% of calves found dead were attributed to predation. Golden eagles killed 0-3.5% of calves in different years and areas in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives. Golden eagles were responsible for 33-43% of the cases and 84-93% of all identified predation. Most calves killed by golden eagles were found in July-August and in open areas. Calves killed by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.01 lighter than those not predated. No predation occurred in the Poikajärvi cooperative, but the annual mortality of calves varied between 0-35% in cooperatives near the Russian border. In Oivanki cooperative brown bears killed on average 2% of the radio-collared calves. Most predation (87% occurred at the end of May and in early June. In the Kallioluoma cooperative, predator-killed calves found

  15. Łeghágots'enetę (learning together: the importance of indigenous perspectives in the identification of biological variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean L. Polfus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using multiple knowledge sources to interpret patterns of biodiversity can generate the comprehensive species characterizations that are required for effective conservation strategies. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus display substantial intraspecific variation across their distribution and in the Sahtú Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, three caribou types, each with a different conservation status, co-occur. Caribou are essential to the economies, culture, and livelihoods of northern indigenous peoples. Indigenous communities across the north are insisting that caribou research be community-driven and collaborative. In response to questions that arose through dialogue with five Sahtú Dene and Métis communities, we jointly developed a research approach to understand caribou differentiation and population structure. Our goal was to examine caribou variation through analysis of population genetics and an exploration of the relationships Dene and Métis people establish with animals within bioculturally diverse systems. To cultivate a research environment that supported łeghágots'enetę "learning together" we collaborated with Ɂehdzo Got'ı̨nę (Renewable Resources Councils, elders, and an advisory group. Dene knowledge and categorization systems include a comprehensive understanding of the origin, behaviors, dynamic interactions, and spatial structure of caribou. Dene people classify tǫdzı "boreal woodland caribou" based on unique behaviors, habitat preferences, and morphology that differ from ɂekwę́ "barren-ground" or shúhta ɂepę́ "mountain" caribou. Similarly, genetic analysis of material (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA from caribou fecal pellets, collected in collaboration with community members during the winter, provided additional evidence for population differentiation that corresponded to the caribou types recognized by Dene people and produced insights into the evolutionary

  16. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-05-07 (NODC Accession 7800391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER from 07 May 1978. Data were collected as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring,...

  17. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-06-02 to 1978-06-03 (NCEI Accession 7800532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER from 02 June 1978 to 03 June 1978. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  18. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-05-22 to 1978-05-23 (NCEI Accession 7800456)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER from 22 May 1978 to 23 May 1978. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  19. Of reindeer and man, modern and Neanderthal: A creation story founded on a historic perspective on how to conserve wildlife, woodland caribou in particular

    OpenAIRE

    Valerius Geist

    2003-01-01

    A review of successful systems of wildlife conservation, the North American included, suggests that broad public support and determined effort by volunteers is essential for wildlife conservation. Since North American wildlife conservation is the only large-scale system of sustainable natural resource use, and exemplifies the great economic and cultural benefits of a renewable resource held in common, its lessons may be profitably applied to Rangifer conservation. Animals that have value are ...

  20. The recent record of climate on the range of the George River Caribou Herd, Northern Québec and Labrador, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Records from permanent meteorological stations in and around the range of the George River Caribou Herd have been analyzed for the 1950-1991 period in order to identify climatic factors potentially influencing the numbers, condition, and distribution of caribou. Winter conditions identified include a significant temperature decrease over the period and some years of extreme snowfall. Spatial variations in snow cover may be responsible for shifts in winter range. Indications are that summer climate has not varied significantly, but spring and summer conditions may not have been particularly favourable for plant productivity in the summer range of females and calves. Climatological observations more representative of the summer range are needed for a better understanding of ecological relationships there.

  1. Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium oocysts in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Northern Finland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschfalk A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specific aim of this study was to assess the faecal shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to deduce the potential risk to human health through modern reindeer herding. In total, 2,243 faecal samples of reindeer from northern regions of Finland and Norway were examined for potentially enteropathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter species, Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Yersinia species and parasites (Cryptosporidium species in accordance with standard procedures. Escherichia coli were isolated in 94.7%, Enterococcus species in 92.9%, Yersinia species in 4.8% of the samples and Campylobacter species in one sample only (0.04%. Analysis for virulence factors in E. coli and Yersinia species revealed no pathogenic strains. Neither Salmonella species nor Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. The public health risk due to reindeer husbandry concerning zoonotic diseases included in this study has to be considered as very low at present but a putative epidemiological threat may arise when herding conditions are changed with respect to intensification and crowding.

  2. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-03-23

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

  3. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungbae; Han, Donguk; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Sangkyu

    2014-01-01

    To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH) database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs) explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp.) and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia) were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  4. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  5. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12) ≥ endosulfan sulfate (10-11) > ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7) ≥ pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6) > α-endosulfan (8.3-9.3) > chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2)  = 0.90, p = 0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation.

  6. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  7. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  8. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Allaye-Chan

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight, and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight. Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2 when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a "conventional" radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau.

  9. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  10. Proof of Concept: Development of Snow Liquid Water Content Profiler Using CS650 Reflectometers at Caribou, ME, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, Carlos L.; Muñoz, Jonathan; Lakhankar, Tarendra; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Romanov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The quantity of liquid water in the snowpack defines its wetness. The temporal evolution of snow wetness’s plays a significant role in wet-snow avalanche prediction, meltwater release, and water availability estimations and assessments within a river basin. However, it remains a difficult task and a demanding issue to measure the snowpack’s liquid water content (LWC) and its temporal evolution with conventional in situ techniques. We propose an approach based on the use of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and CS650 soil water content reflectometers to measure the snowpack’s LWC and temperature profiles. For this purpose, we created an easily-applicable, low-cost, automated, and continuous LWC profiling instrument using reflectometers at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) in Caribou, ME, USA, and tested it during the snow melt period (February–April) immediately after installation in 2014. Snow Thermal Model (SNTHERM) LWC simulations forced with CREST-SAFE meteorological data were used to evaluate the accuracy of the instrument. Results showed overall good agreement, but clearly indicated inaccuracy under wet snow conditions. For this reason, we present two (for dry and wet snow) statistical relationships between snow LWC and dielectric permittivity similar to Topp’s equation for the LWC of mineral soils. These equations were validated using CREST-SAFE in situ data from winter 2015. Results displayed high agreement when compared to LWC estimates obtained using empirical formulas developed in previous studies, and minor improvement over wet snow LWC estimates. Additionally, the equations seemed to be able to capture the snowpack state (i.e., onset of melt, medium, and maximum saturation). Lastly, field test results show advantages, such as: automated, continuous measurements, the temperature profiling of the snowpack, and the possible categorization of its state. However, future work

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter: e0127586

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Joly; Samuel K Wasser; Rebecca Booth

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  13. Advancing the match-mismatch framework for large herbivores in the Arctic: Evaluating the evidence for a trophic mismatch in caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry; Adams, Layne; Griffith, Brad; Whitten, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic “mismatches” between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970–2013), and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011–13). Despite advanced thaw dates (7−12 days earlier), increased growing season lengths (15−21 days longer), and consistent parturition dates, we found no decline in forage quality and therefore no evidence within this dataset for a trophic mismatch at peak parturition or peak lactation from 1977 to 2011–13. In Arctic ungulates that use stored capital for reproduction, reproductive demands are largely met by body stores deposited in the previous summer and autumn, which reduces potential adverse effects of any mismatch between food availability and timing of parturition. Climate-induced effects on forages growing in the summer and autumn ranges, however, do correspond with the demands of female caribou and their offspring to gain mass for the next reproductive cycle and winter. Therefore, we suggest the window of time to examine the match-mismatch framework in Arctic ungulates is not at parturition but in late summer-autumn, where the multiplier effects of small changes in forage quality are amplified by forage abundance, peak forage intake, and resultant mass gains in mother-offspring pairs. PMID:28231256

  14. Advancing the match-mismatch framework for large herbivores in the Arctic: Evaluating the evidence for a trophic mismatch in caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry; Adams, Layne G.; Griffith, Brad; Cameron, Raymond; Whitten, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic “mismatches” between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970–2013), and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011–13). Despite advanced thaw dates (7−12 days earlier), increased growing season lengths (15−21 days longer), and consistent parturition dates, we found no decline in forage quality and therefore no evidence within this dataset for a trophic mismatch at peak parturition or peak lactation from 1977 to 2011–13. In Arctic ungulates that use stored capital for reproduction, reproductive demands are largely met by body stores deposited in the previous summer and autumn, which reduces potential adverse effects of any mismatch between food availability and timing of parturition. Climate-induced effects on forages growing in the summer and autumn ranges, however, do correspond with the demands of female caribou and their offspring to gain mass for the next reproductive cycle and winter. Therefore, we suggest the window of time to examine the match-mismatch framework in Arctic ungulates is not at parturition but in late summer-autumn, where the multiplier effects of small changes in forage quality are amplified by forage abundance, peak forage intake, and resultant mass gains in mother-offspring pairs.

  15. Analysis of Au-Ag Mineralization in the Caribou Base-Metal VMS Deposit, New Brunswick; Examination of Micro-Scale Inter- and Intra-Sulphide Distribution and Its Relation to Geometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wright

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caribou Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit located in northeast New Brunswick represents a significant base-metal resource in the Bathurst Mining Camp. Zinc, Pb and Cu are the primary resources that are being extracted from this deposit; however, Au and Ag are important by-products that could help offset costs. This study used mineral liberation analysis supported further by in situ laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods to document variations in Au and Ag distribution between and within sulphide minerals. The variations in Ag and Au distribution provide critical inputs to the optimization of mineral processing design. The greatest influence on Au recovery at Caribou is the proportion of Au hosted in arsenopyrite and pyrite; consequently, considerable Au will report to the tailings. Silver recovery at Caribou is highly affected by the proportion of Ag hosted in galena and tetrahedrite-tennantite. Proximal to the vent complex, Ag values are primarily hosted in galena, whereas further from the vent complex, Ag values are likely primarily hosted in tetrahedrite-tennantite. Galena Ag values will report mostly to the Pb concentrate, while tetrahedrite-tennantite Ag values will report to the Cu concentrate.

  16. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  17. Relative contribution of decreased productivity and survival to recent changes in the demographic trend of the Rivière George Caribou Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crête

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivière George caribou herd (RGCH was numerically low during the middle part of the century but apparently erupted in the sixties and the seventies. Puberty was early and pregnancy rate was high among RGCH females from 1973 until the mid-eighties when fecundity decreased significantly, in particular among sub-adults; productivity remained low in 1992. Autumn calf:female ratios reflected this trend in pregnancy, exceeding 50 calves: 100 cows between 1973 and 1983, but dropping thereafter progressively to a low of 24 in 1992. In 1993, this ratio rebounded back to 42. Annual adult survival rate of radio-collared females was high (0.95 at the beginning of the monitoring in 1984, but exhibited a variable but declining trend until 1992. Simulations were conducted to estimate the demographic trend of the RGCH between 1984 and 1992, using annual survival rates of radio-collared animals and annual autumn calffemale ratios to estimate calf production. Age structure played a minor role in estimating the finite rate of increase (Lamda. According to the simulations, the RGCH increased in size until 1987, and showed a slight decrease thereafter. The herd should have decreased by 12-15% between 1988 and 1993, according to the simulations. Productivity first caused a decline in Lamda, but in recent years decreased survival contributed slightly more than productivity to the reduction in Lamda. Estimation of the herd size by means of aerial censuses in 1976, 1984, 1988 and 1993 suggested a similar pattern in demographic trend, differences being statistically meaningless. We speculated on the future of the RGCH, that could have erupted after many decades of unfavourable weather. The herd will exhibit a rapid descent to low numbers if wolves show a numerical response to current caribou abundance, or if lichen availability on the winter range decreases due to competition with the adjacent and increasing Rivière aux Feuilles herd; otherwise it will exhibit

  18. Concentrations and Geographical Variations of Selected Toxic Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. in Mid- and Northern Norway: Evaluation of Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat samples (n = 100 from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni and vanadium (V in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS, whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05. Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC. Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  20. Oral narratives: reconceptualising the turbulence between Indigenous perspectives and Eurocentric scientific views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, R.

    2016-06-01

    Mitigating the borders that exist between scientific cultures can be a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to look at the differences and similarities that occur in language use when two scientific cultures communicate in the same forum on a topic of mutual concern. The results provide an opportunity to share knowledge of an Indigenous culture that relies on barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) as a way of life in Northern Canada. Analysis of language use led to the identification of framework categories that can be used to increase awareness in different perspectives of science knowledge. Reconceptualization of the narratives presented can be used to calm the turbulence that exists between Indigenous People and other cultures and provides an opportunity for science educators to incorporate Indigenous ways of knowing into the classroom. It was found that autobiographical approaches in particular could provide an opening for cultural borders to be lessened.

  1. Differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Fritz, Julia; Günther, Detlef; Hattendorf, Bodo; Hummel, Jürgen; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. We investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) on different diets. The distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rumen fluids suggested that the rumen contents were more stratified in muskoxen than moose. Correspondingly, as in previous studies, the species differed in the ratio of mean retention times of small particles to fluids in the reticulorumen, which was highest in cattle (2.03) and muskoxen (1.97-1.98), intermediate in reindeer (1.70) and lowest in moose (0.98-1.29). However, the ratio of large to small particle retention did not differ between the species, indicating similarity in the efficiency of the particle sorting mechanism. Passage kinetics of the two largest particle classes did not differ, indicating that particle retention is not a continuous function of particle size but rather threshold-dependent. Overall, the results suggest that fluid flow through the forestomach differs between ruminant species. A lower relative fluid passage, such as in moose, might limit species to a browse-based dietary niche, whereas a higher relative fluid passage broadens the dietary niche options and facilitates the inclusion of, or specialization on, grass. The function of fluid flow in the ruminant forestomach should be further investigated.

  2. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  3. Capturing migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife using camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Remote photography, using camera traps, can be an effective and noninvasive tool for capturing the migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife. We deployed 14 digital cameras along a 104-kilometer longitudinal transect to record the spring migrations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) in the Alaskan Arctic. The cameras recorded images at 15-minute intervals, producing approximately 40,000 images, including 6685 caribou observations and 5329 ptarmigan observations. The northward caribou migration was evident because the median caribou observation (i.e., herd median) occurred later with increasing latitude; average caribou migration speed also increased with latitude (r2 = .91). Except at the northernmost latitude, a northward ptarmigan migration was similarly evident (r2 = .93). Future applications of this method could be used to examine the conditions proximate to animal movement, such as habitat or snow cover, that may influence migration phenology.

  4. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  5. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  6. 我国驯鹿 Rangifer tarandus 的种群分布、数量及致危原因%Current Distribution,Population Trends and Causes of Decline of Reindeer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾治; 孟凡露; 王朋; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    2012年7月至2013年8月间,在大兴安岭对我国驯鹿 Rangi f er tarandus开展了野外调查,以确定其分布及种群数量波动,并分析其致危原因.结果表明:我国驯鹿仅分布于大兴安岭西北麓的内蒙古根河地区(E 121°11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′),其分布区与我国鄂温克族聚居区完全重叠.我国现存驯鹿种群718头,分布于12个彼此隔离的种群,各驯鹿种群数量分布极不均匀,每个种群由9~240头驯鹿组成,大部分种群呈典型小种群状态,其平均种群大小仅为59.83头(±18.42, n=12);驯鹿分布生境的海拔区间为700~926 m ,平均海拔为813.67 m (±21.72 m , n=12);小种群及相关的近交衰退、生境丧失及适宜性下降、管理政策不合理、高强度的生态旅游和盗猎及天敌捕杀是制约我国驯鹿种群发展的主要因素.%The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is an endangered species distributed in the sub‐arctic region in the northeastern part of China .To determine the current status of the population and the distribution pat‐terns of reindeer ,this study was conducted in the Great Xing’Anling of China during July 2012 to August 2013 .The results showed that the reindeer in China only occurs in Genhe area of Inner Mongolia (E 121° 11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′) ,where has been the dwelling region of Ewenki people .There were 718 reindeer in 12 populations in 2013 with the population range from 9 to 240 and the average population size of 59.83 ( ± 18.42 ,n=12) ,which indicated that the most reindeer populations in China were small popula‐tions .The preferred habitats of reindeer locates from 700 to 926 m with the average of 813.67 m (± 21.72 , n=12) .Small populations and the related inbreeding ,habitat loss and degradation ,management policy ,in‐tensive tourism and poaching and the predation have been the main factors influencing the population increase

  7. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  8. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  9. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  11. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  12. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  13. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  14. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  15. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  16. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  17. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  18. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  19. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  20. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  1. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  2. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  3. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  4. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  5. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  6. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  7. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  8. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  9. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  10. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  11. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  12. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  13. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  14. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  15. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  16. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  17. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  18. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  19. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  20. Bayesian Networks for Modeling Dredging Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) winter forage employing active adaptive management techniques . Oceans and estuaries Expert elicitation and...entrained with sediment and removed from the site. Fast-moving, surface-dwelling species tend to re-colonize disturbed habitats more easily than sessile ...PCT_OC has less effect. Therefore, BSAF and LIPIDS are carried forward for further analysis and the other variables are dropped from consideration

  1. Designing as middle ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors...... in a network of humans and non-humans, highlighting that design objects and the designer as an authority are constructed throughout this endeavour. The illustrative case example is drawn from product development in a rubber valve factory in Jutland in Denmark. The key contribution to a general core of design...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  2. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  3. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  4. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  5. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  6. Partial migration as a response to ground icing events in a high arctic ungulate

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration – a phenomenon where only part of a population performs annual migrations, is common in ungulates. Despite partial migration being well documented, little is known about the annual partial migration frequency in ungulates and if individuals perform the same strategy (migratory or stationary) every year. Additionally, few studies have investigated if variations in weather conditions have an impact on the degree of partial migration. The endemic Svalbard reindeer (Rangife...

  7. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  8. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  9. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  10. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  11. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  12. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  13. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  14. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  15. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  16. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  17. Serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in Alaskan wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L

    1983-10-01

    Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (Rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (Alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). Antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (Ursus americanus). Antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou. Antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were found in sera of eight of 17 (47%) Dall sheep and two of 39 (6%) moose. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus antibodies were detected in sera of six of 67 (9%) caribou. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies were found in sera of two of 67 (3%) caribou. Parainfluenza 3 virus antibodies were detected in sera of 14 of 21 (67%) bison (Bison bison). Antibodies to Q fever rickettsia were found in sera of 12 of 15 (80%) Dall sheep. No evidence of prior exposure to bluetongue virus was found in Dall sheep, caribou, moose, or bison sera.

  18. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  19. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  20. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  1. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  2. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...... experimental results from crushing tests of aluminium hull girder components with realistic full-scale scantlings. A comparison with existing simplified calculation procedures for ductile metallic structures show that these procedures cannot be used to predict the crushing behaviour of the fore body of high......The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...

  3. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  4. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  5. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  6. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  7. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  8. 应用等效纬度-海拔模型进行地温及多年冻土制图%Ground Temperature and Permafrost Mapping Using an Equivalent Latitude/Elevation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a method for permafrost mapping in discontinuous permafrost regions based on equivalent latitude/elevation concept in interior Alaska. In winter months, study site has a strong temperature inversion in air up to 700 m elevation. Air temperature data and the effects of slope, aspect and elevation were used to create an equivalent latitude/elevation model. This model was well correlated with mean annual surface temperature (0.79). In this watershed, the thawing index (It≈1 400 ℃*days) at the ground surface and snow depth do not vary greatly from south facing to north facing slopes. The primary controlled factor that determines the mean annual surface temperature was the winter surface temperature. The permafrost stability is effectively controlled by the freezing index. We determined 37.5% of Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed has unstable or thawing permafrost. At least 2.1% of the permafrost in this watershed may have disappeared in the last 90 years due to climate warming. This method makes it possible to evaluate the permafrost stability in the present, past and future.

  9. Using social-ecological systems theory to evaluate large-scale comanagement efforts: a case study of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tyson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Comanagement efforts are increasingly tasked with overseeing natural resource governance at a large scale. I examine comanagement of subsistence harvesting in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR of the western Canadian Arctic, using a social-ecological systems framework. In doing so, this study joins a growing list of research that reviews design principles commonly found in successful small-scale commons management and applies them to a large resource area. This research uses the management of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas and barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus as case studies in understanding the management framework of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, as each species is important in Inuvialuit culture and is actively managed and monitored. Comanagement bodies in the study area display many of the institutional design principles that are characteristic of successful social-ecological systems. Particularly mentionable are the presence of well-organized nested enterprises and a strong incorporation of local knowledge and monitoring. This supports the application of institutional design principles in large-scale analyses of resource management. However, due to the network of policy and management outside the ISR that influences each species, this research suggests that in cases of wide-ranging resource bases, these types of analyses may be better suited to evaluating broad management networks rather than discrete governing regions.

  10. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  11. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  12. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  13. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  14. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  15. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral..., circuit breaker, or fuse in the neutral conductor of the bus-tie feeder connecting the emergency... that aluminum grounding conductors must not be used....

  16. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  17. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  18. PRION PROTEIN GENES IN CARIBOU FROM ALASKA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Happ, George M; Huson, Heather J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Kennedy, Lorna J

    2007-01-01

    .... Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected with substitutions at residues 2 (V-->M), 129 (G-->S), 138 (S-->N), 146 (N-->N), and 169 (V-->M). The 138N codon had been previously reported only in prion pseudogenes of other cervids...

  19. New caribou crisis – then and now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Ruttan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The reported decline of the Bathurst herd has caused considerable concern and has raised rumours of a “crisis” in which there is a possibility of extinction. This paper reflects on relevant lessons learned from the officially declared “crisis” of population decline in 1955/56 and a second crisis of overpopulation identified by the author a decade later.

  20. Design analysis for grounding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, P.P.M.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Pinkster, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 a series of six grounding experiments has been carried out with a 600 Tonne inland water way tanker. At the how of the vessel test sections could be fitted, which were run into an artificial rock. The design of the support structures for the test sections and for the rock required the predic

  1. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  2. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...

  3. The Envisat-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  4. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  5. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  6. Grounded action: achieving optimal and sustainable change

    OpenAIRE

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.; Toni A. Gregory, Ed. D.

    2005-01-01

    Grounded Action ist eine Anwendung und Erweiterung der Grounded Theory mit dem Ziel, Interventionen, Programme, Handlungsmodelle etc. zu entwerfen und zu implementieren. Der Grounded Action-Ansatz wurde konzipiert, um der Komplexität und Multidimensionalität von organisatorischen und sozialen Problemstellungen angemessen begegnen zu können. Die Grounded Theory als Strategie der datengegründeten Theorieentwicklung wird insoweit ausgeweitet, als es im Rahmen von Grounded Action um das Entwickel...

  7. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  8. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  9. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.;

    2010-01-01

    of pus. Subcutaneous tissue was inflamed and oedematous with focal necrosis. Tendons, tendon sheaths, joints and periosteum of the digital bones were often affected. Animals shot during winter showed severe chronic periostitis and osteomyelitis and necrotizing deforming arthritis. Microscopically, skin...

  10. Variation in gestation length among captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, J E; Shipka, M P

    2009-07-15

    An estimated 90% of reindeer females are mated in a 10- to 21-d interval and give birth in an equally synchronized manner. Reported gestation length in reindeer is highly variable (range, 203 to 240 d), almost twice the reindeer estrous cycle length. Previously, we identified a significant, negative relationship between gestation length and conception date in a small group of reindeer. In the current study, the negative relationship was investigated in a switchback design, where reindeer were divided into two groups synchronized for early and late mating over a 2-yr trial. Regression analysis of 11 paired observations produced a negative (Pgestation length and conception date (slope= -0.31). Dam weight at breeding and prior to parturition, calf birth weight, and calf sex were not significant variables in the regression. Regression analysis of a larger data set from two University of Alaska Fairbanks reindeer herds, where conception date (verified by systemic progesterone) and gestation length were recorded (historical data set), supported previous conclusions (n=70; slope= -0.37; Pgestation length, there was a positive relationship (r(2)=0.19; P=0.014) between male birth weight and gestation length in the larger data set. The negative relationship between conception date and gestation length enhanced calving synchrony, though the limits of gestation plasticity and underlying mechanisms are not clear. The potential role of photoperiod on early embryonic development is discussed.

  11. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  12. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  13. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  14. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  15. Ground state of 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Steven C.; Wiringa, R. B.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    A variational method is used to study the ground state of 16O. Expectation values are computed with a cluster expansion for the noncentral correlations in the wave function; the central correlations and exchanges are treated to all orders by Monte Carlo integration. The expansion has good convergence. Results are reported for the Argonne v14 two-nucleon and Urbana VII three-nucleon potentials.

  16. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  17. Middle Ground on Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    effective and practical solution that the community embraced. E. THE MIDDLE GROUND Because of the current political environment , more outside the...was made to expire once the NICS was up and running.52 James Brady passed away in 2014 due to complications from the brain damage he suffered as a...readily available means. For example, poisoning is the most common method of suicide in China because pesticides and herbicides that can be deadly are

  18. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  19. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  20. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  1. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) under conditions where the ground coupling of the antenna is potentially compromised is investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of increasing the distance between the antennae...

  2. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mills

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. They also discuss Charmaz's landmark work on constructivist grounded theory relative to her positioning of the researcher in relation to the participants, analysis of the data, and rendering of participants' experiences into grounded theory. Grounded theory can be seen as a methodological spiral that begins with Glaser and Strauss' original text and continues today. The variety of epistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are located at various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlying ontologies.

  3. Classification of artificial (man-made) ground

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, M.S.; McMillan, A.A.; Powell, J H; Cooper, A.H.; Culshaw, M.G.; Northmore, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The legacy inherited from anthropogenic processes needs to be addressed in order to provide reliable and up-to-date ground information relevant to development and regeneration in the urban environment. The legacy includes voids as well as anthropogenic deposits (artificial ground). Their characteristics derive from former quarrying and mining activities, industrial processes creating derelict ground, variably consolidated made ground, and contaminated groundwater and soils. All need to be sys...

  4. Grounded for life: creative symbol-grounding for lexical invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Tony; Al-Najjar, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    One of the challenges of linguistic creativity is to use words in a way that is novel and striking and even whimsical, to convey meanings that remain stubbornly grounded in the very same world of familiar experiences as serves to anchor the most literal and unimaginative language. The challenge remains unmet by systems that merely shuttle or arrange words to achieve novel arrangements without concern as to how those arrangements are to spur the processes of meaning construction in a listener. In this paper we explore a problem of lexical invention that cannot be solved without a model - explicit or implicit - of the perceptual grounding of language: the invention of apt new names for colours. To solve this problem here we shall call upon the notion of a linguistic readymade, a phrase that is wrenched from its original context of use to be given new meaning and new resonance in new settings. To ensure that our linguistic readymades - which owe a great deal to Marcel Duchamp's notion of found art - are anchored in a consensus model of perception, we introduce the notion of a lexicalised colour stereotype.

  5. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  6. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1409 - Ground limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ground limestone. 184.1409 Section 184.1409 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1409 Ground limestone. (a) Ground limestone consists essentially... classifying of naturally occurring limestone. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  8. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  9. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where...

  10. 49 CFR 234.249 - Ground tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tests. 234.249 Section 234.249 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.249 Ground tests. A test for grounds on each energy...

  11. 49 CFR 236.107 - Ground tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tests. 236.107 Section 236.107...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.107 Ground tests. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a test for grounds on each energy bus furnishing power to circuits,...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... connected to the grounding bus in the distribution panelboard or disconnecting means. (2) In the electrical... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.809 Grounding. (a) General. Grounding of both electrical and nonelectrical metal parts in a manufactured home shall...

  13. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  14. Polarimetry from the Ground Up

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, C U

    2008-01-01

    Ground-based solar polarimetry has made great progress over the last decade. Nevertheless, polarimetry is still an afterthought in most telescope and instrument designs, and most polarimeters are designed based on experience and rules of thumb rather than using more formal systems engineering approaches as is common in standard optical design efforts. Here we present the first steps in creating a set of systems engineering approaches to the design of polarimeters that makes sure that the final telescope-instrument-polarimeter system is more than the sum of its parts.

  15. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  16. "Naturalist Inquiry" und Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  17. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  18. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  19. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  20. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  1. The grounding of temporal metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  2. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  3. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  4. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles

    2003-09-01

    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  5. Science, values, and common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human workers, and the humane treatment of animals. I also propose that there are fundamental differences between improvement motivated by profit and improvement motivated by ethical values. Positive moral change is sometimes revolutionary, although it is often a matter of promoting positive incremental changes and keeping one's attention on the effects of actions and attitudes. In conclusion, I suggest that in animal agriculture, positive change can be brought about by "getting closer" to the objects of scientific research, including nonhuman animals, by paying more attention to their welfare.

  6. DynaMax+ ground-tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, Brandon; Gader, Paul; Wilson, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for performing ground-tracking using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Ground-tracking involves identifying the air-ground interface, which is usually the dominant feature in a radar image but frequently is obscured or mimicked by other nearby elements. It is an important problem in landmine detection using vehicle-mounted systems because antenna motion, caused by bumpy ground, can introduce distortions in downtrack radar images, which ground-tracking makes it possible to correct. Because landmine detection is performed in real-time, any algorithm for ground-tracking must be able to run quickly, prior to other, more computationally expensive algorithms for detection. In this investigation, we first describe an efficient algorithm, based on dynamic programming, that can be used in real-time for tracking the ground. We then demonstrate its accuracy through a quantitative comparison with other proposed ground-tracking methods, and a qualitative comparison showing that its ground-tracking is consistent with human observations in challenging terrain.

  7. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  8. Simple system for locating ground loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P M

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100 kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  9. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  10. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  11. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  12. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  13. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-15

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  14. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  15. Grounded cognition: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2010-10-01

    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive science, shifting from relatively minor status to increasing importance. Nevertheless, researchers wonder whether grounded mechanisms lie at the heart of the cognitive system or are peripheral to classic symbolic mechanisms. Although grounded cognition is currently dominated by demonstration experiments in the absence of well-developed theories, the area is likely to become increasingly theory driven over the next 30 years. Another likely development is the increased incorporation of grounding mechanisms into cognitive architectures and into accounts of classic cognitive phenomena. As this incorporation occurs, much functionality of these architectures and phenomena is likely to remain, along with many original mechanisms. Future theories of grounded cognition are likely to be heavily influenced by both cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience, and also by developmental science and robotics. Aspects from the three major perspectives in cognitive science-classic symbolic architectures, statistical/dynamical systems, and grounded cognition-will probably be integrated increasingly in future theories, each capturing indispensable aspects of intelligence.

  16. Grounded Theory Approach in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Venkat Pulla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology in producing sound theoretical basis for practice. Selected narratives from the author’s recent studies are used to explain the processes of Grounded Theory methodology.

  17. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  18. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  19. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  20. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  1. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  2. Infrasound from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  3. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  4. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  5. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  6. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  7. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  8. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1. Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136. The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result is methodological confusion and an often unconscious remodelling of the original methodology (Glaser, 2003. Given the various interpretations and approaches that have been popularised under the rubric of grounded theory, this paper addresses the important distinction between grounded theory as a general methodology and its popularisation as a qualitative research method. The paper begins with a brief overview of grounded theory’s origins and its philosophical foundations then continues by addressing the basic distinction between abstract conceptualisation as employed in classic grounded theory and the conceptual description approach as adopted by many qualitative researchers. The paper continues with a brief overview of the criteria for judging the quality of classic grounded theory and concludes by detailing its methodological principles.

  9. Design of ground segments for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Guy

    1994-01-01

    New concepts must be implemented when designing a Ground Segment (GS) for small satellites to conform to their specific mission characteristics: low cost, one main instrument, spacecraft autonomy, optimized mission return, etc. This paper presents the key cost drivers of such ground segments, the main design features, and the comparison of various design options that can meet the user requirements.

  10. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  11. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  12. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  13. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  14. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  15. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  16. ECRB ALCOVE AND NICHE GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Keifer

    1999-05-09

    The purpose of the analysis is to provide design bases for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) alcove and niche ground support drawings. The objective is to evaluate the ESF Alcove Ground Support Analysis (Ref 5.1) to determine if the calculations technically bound the ECRB alcoves and to address specific differences in the conditions and constraints.

  17. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  18. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  19. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding...

  20. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  1. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  2. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  3. Optimization of a ground coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D.; Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative analytical project has optimized a horizontal ground coil heat pump system for the Pittsburgh climate. This is the first step in the exploration of several advanced designs including various ground coil devices and advanced heat pump components. The project made use of new and existing design tools to simulate system performance and determine first cost. The system life cycle cost was minimized while constraining the system to meet the design day cooling load using a function minimizing program. Among the system parameters considered were: air-to-refrigerant frontal area, air-to-refrigerant fin pitch, air-to-refrigerant air flowrate, compressor displacement, liquid-to-refrigerant coil length, liquid-to-refrigerant coil diameter, ground coil fluid flowrate, ground coil length, and ground coil depth.

  4. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  5. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...

  6. A New Method of Grounding Grid Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to equalize the electric potential distribution of the grounding grid surface, and improve the safety level of the grounding grid, method for optimal arrangement of conducts in the grounding grid is proposed in this paper. The calculation results about maximum touch voltages and mesh potentials show that the method can reduce touch voltage and equilibrium surface potential. It is shown that the design of the grounding grid is related to not only the soil environment, but also the rectangular shape. Comparing with other methods, the method proposed in the paper can reduce maximum touch voltage about 12%. This method also can be applied in a uniform and non-uniform soil, rectangular and square grounding grids. The optimize effect meets the related standards of the power industry.

  7. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our......In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... discussion to the potential value of grounded theory research to the field of entrepreneurship and thus the need in this field of further grounded theory....

  8. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  9. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  10. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  11. Acknowledgements; Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 180 people attended the 10th North American Caribou Workshop which was held immedi¬ately following the annual meeting of the Northwest Section of The Wildlife Society. Participants came from Canada, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States (primarily Alaska. Over 80 papers and posters were presented and about 25% of those are published here in this special edition of Rangifer. Many of the papers, including the keynote address by Dr. Gunter Weller, concerned climate change and global warming.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P

    2005-10-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the United States by the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies (NAT 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (Bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (Alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (Canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (Ursus americanus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in bison and caribou. The total absence of N. caninum antibodies in black bears indicates that bears are not a host for N. caninum and that there is no cross-reactivity between the NAT and the modified agglutination test (MAT) for Toxoplasma gondii, because more than 80% of black bears in eastern United States have MAT antibodies at a 1:25 serum solution.

  13. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews PhD

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the latest in a family of Grounded Theory books by Glaser that continue to build on previous work and make the methodology much more explicit. Its purpose is quite simply to provide Grounded Theory researchers with a set of procedures that can be followed to generate a Formal Grounded Theory (FGT. Despite several chapters in previous books that deal with generating formal grounded theory it has been given scant attention by researchers and this book aims to reverse this. It brings together and synthesises these previous writings in one book and seeks to specify much more clearly what is meant by a formal grounded theory. As with other more recent books by Glaser, this one is based on data in that the procedures outlined are come from previously generated formal grounded theories. However, Glaser cautions that this is based on limited data since not many FGTs exist yet and as more are generated, the method will become more explicit. The book has been eagerly anticipated by grounded theorists and it does not disappoint.

  14. Ground Bounce Noise Reduction in Vlsi Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available : Scaling of devices in CMOS technology leads to increase in parameter like Ground bounce noise, Leakage current, average power dissipation and short channel effect. FinFET are the promising substitute to replace CMOS. Ground bounce noise is produced when power gating circuit goes from SLEEP to ACTIVE mode transition. FinFET based designs are compared with MOSFET based designs on basis of different parameter like Ground bounce noise, leakage current and average power dissipation. HSPICE is the software tool used for simulation and circuit design.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  16. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  17. Langevin equation path integral ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Steve; Schmidt, Matthew; Ing, Christopher; Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2013-08-15

    We propose a Langevin equation path integral ground state (LePIGS) approach for the calculation of ground state (zero temperature) properties of molecular systems. The approach is based on a modification of the finite temperature path integral Langevin equation (PILE) method (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 124104) to the case of open Feynman paths. Such open paths are necessary for a ground state formulation. We illustrate the applicability of the method using model systems and the weakly bound water-parahydrogen dimer. We show that the method can lead to converged zero point energies and structural properties.

  18. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  19. Using temporary dye marks to estimate ungulate population abundance in southwest Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the protocols of two mark-resight abundance surveys, using temporary dye-marks, for the Aishihik woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae populations (herds in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada. We also provide recommendations based on experiences from these surveys for biologists and managers considering this approach. The Aishihik woodland caribou herd was the focus of intensive management in the 1990s aimed at recovering the herd. Following recovery activities, a target size of 2000 animals was determined and the Champagne-Aishihik Traditional Territory Community-Based Wildlife Management Plan recommended an estimate of the herd’s size be completed before the year 2013. We used an aerial mark-resight approach to estimate the herd’s size in March 2009. Caribou (n = 59 were marked from a helicopter with temporary dye, delivered via a CO2-powered rifle. Two independent resighting sessions were subsequently carried out via helicopter. The herd was estimated at 2044 animals (90% CI: 1768 – 2420 with an overall resighting rate of 0.47. The mean annual growth rate (λ of the herd from 1997 – 2009 was 1.05 (SE = 0.01. The Aishihik wood bison herd was estimated at 1151 (90% CI: 998 – 1355. Our study suggests that ungulates temporarily marked with dye can be successfully used to obtain statistically sound population estimates.

  20. Changes in vegetative cover on Western Arctic Herd winter range from 1981 to 2005: potential effects of grazing and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Western Arctic Herd, estimated at 490 000 caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in 2003, is at its highest level in 30 years. Twenty permanent range transects were established in the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in 1981 to assess the impacts of grazing. These transects were revisited in 1995 and 1996 (1995/96. Only 18 of the transects were re-located, so an additional 7 transects were established in 1996. In 2005, all 25 remaining transects were revisited. Lichen coverage dropped by a relative 45.1% between 1981 and 1995/96 and by an additional relative 25.6% between 1995/96 and 2005. There was a significant decline in primary forage lichens between 1995/96 and 2005. Caribou use was greater in areas with high lichen abundance. Graminoid cover increased by a relative 118.4% from 1981 to 1995/96 and again by a relative 26.1% from 1995/96 to 2005. Shrub cover increased during the study whereas forb cover declined. The decline in lichen abundance on the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd over 24 years is an index of caribou habitat condition. The observed changes in vegetation cover can be attributed to caribou grazing, fire, and possibly global climate change. Continued declines in lichen cover could lead to population declines within the herd, range shifts, or both.

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.402 - Ground resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ground resistance of electronic equipment such as span line repeaters, carrier terminal equipment... Protection Grounding Fundamentals,” for a comprehensive discussion of ground resistance measurements. (d... electronic equipment, the ground resistance shall not exceed 25 ohms. Where the measured ground...

  3. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77.701-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground...

  4. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  5. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  6. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  7. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  8. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  9. 3D Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    GPiR (ground-penetrating imaging radar) is a new technology for mapping the shallow subsurface, including society’s underground infrastructure. Applications for this technology include efficient and precise mapping of buried utilities on a large scale.

  10. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  11. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  12. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  13. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  14. (AJST) EFFECTS OF GROUND INSULATION AND GREENHOUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific ... and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Biogas ... the effect of ground insulation on biogas production. ..... Methane Generation from Human, Animal.

  15. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  17. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  18. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  19. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  20. [Thoughts regarding researchers utilizing Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Joséte Luzia; da Silva, Laura Johanson; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with the objective to present the characteristics of researchers who use the Grounded Theory method, and outline the development of aptitudes for the researcher to become a Grounded Theoretician. The theoretical discussion was based on the frameworks of this methodology and supported by the literature. The article presents the main demands of qualitative studies using Grounded Theory, and important behaviors, attitudes and characteristics developed by the researchers. It is concluded that learning about Grounded Theory involves more than operationalizing a group of procedures and techniques. It also involves facing challenges to change one's attitude as a researcher and develop new ways of thinking and researching, gathering knowledge based on data to form a theory.

  1. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  2. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Sun

    2004-07-09

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).

  3. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  4. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  5. On the ground state of metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1978-01-01

    A proposed liquid ground state of metallic hydrogen at zero temperature is explored and a variational upper bound to the ground state energy is calculated. The possibility that the metallic hydrogen is a liquid around the metastable point (rs = 1.64) cannot be ruled out. This conclusion crucially hinges on the contribution to the energy arising from the third order in the electron-proton interaction which is shown here to be more significant in the liquid phase than in crystals.

  6. A global approach to ground state solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study radial solutions of semilinear Laplace equations. We try to understand all solutions of the problem, regardless of the boundary behavior. It turns out that one can study uniqueness or multiplicity properties of ground state solutions by considering curves of solutions of the corresponding Dirichlet and Neumann problems. We show that uniqueness of ground state solutions can sometimes be approached by a numerical computation.

  7. A global approach to ground state solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We study radial solutions of semilinear Laplace equations. We try to understand all solutions of the problem, regardless of the boundary behavior. It turns out that one can study uniqueness or multiplicity properties of ground state solutions by considering curves of solutions of the corresponding Dirichlet and Neumann problems. We show that uniqueness of ground state solutions can sometimes be approached by a numerical computation.

  8. A numerical model for ground temperature determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczur, M.; Polepszyc, I.; Biernacka, B.; Sapińska-Śliwa, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ground surface temperature and the temperature with respect to depth are one of the most important issues for geotechnical and environmental applications as well as for plants and other living organisms. In geothermal systems, temperature is directly related to the energy resources in the ground and it influences the efficiency of the ground source system. The ground temperature depends on a very large number of parameters, but it often needs to be evaluated with good accuracy. In the present work, models for the prediction of the ground temperature with a focus on the surface temperature at which all or selected important ground and environmental phenomena are taken into account have been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model may result in a similar temperature variation, yet at a very low depth and for specific cases only. A detailed analysis shows that taking into account different types of pavement or a greater depth requires more complex and advanced models.

  9. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  10. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  11. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  12. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  13. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  14. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  15. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  16. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tang

    2000-01-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

  17. Ground as a possible heat pump source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. [Padova Univ. (Germany). Dipt. di Tecnica e Gestione die Istemi Industriali

    2001-06-01

    Heat pumps are devices that can increase the thermal level of heat taken from an available source. Their performances are usually very sensible to the temperatures. This is the reason why sources different from the outside air are welcome, since that source is thermally unfavourable. The ground is a possible very favourable source: temperature variations are damped in the ground so much the more deeper one descends. The variations are also delayed, so that in the coldest period one can find equality very good thermal levels. The two main used systems are: horizontal tubes at a depth between 0.8 and 1.5m and vertical tubes. This last technology has gained an increasing popularity with depths which are sometimes deeper than 100m. It interests a large volume of ground with a comparatively small surface area. It is a technology already widespread in Switzerland (where more than 15.000 ground heat pumps were installed in these years), Germany and Austria. It could be a very favourable technology also in Italy and other mediterranean countries both for the presence of good thermal levels underground with excellent characteristics of heat exchange and for the possible use of the ground as a suitable summer thermal sink. (orig.)

  18. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  19. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  20. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

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    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.