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Sample records for ground beef inoculated

  1. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  2. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  3. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-11-01

    The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.

  4. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  5. Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K; Miller, M F; Loneragan, G H; Brashears, M M

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log CFU/g) and low (1.0 log CFU/g) inoculation doses was evaluated at various processing steps, including the following: (i) in trim just after treatment application, (ii) in ground beef just after grinding, (iii) in ground beef 24 h after refrigerated storage, (iv) in ground beef 5 days after refrigerated storage, and (v) in ground beef 30 days after frozen storage. All antimicrobial treatments reduced the pathogens on the trim inoculated with the lower inoculation dose to nondetectable numbers in the trim and in the ground beef. There were significant reductions of both pathogens in the trim and in the ground beef inoculated with the high inoculation doses. On the trim itself, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 1.5 to 2.0 log cycles, with no differences among all treatments. In the ground beef, the organic acids were more effective in reducing both pathogens than the acidified sodium chlorite immediately after grinding, but after 1 day of storage, there were no differences among treatments. Overall, in the ground beef, there was a 2.5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1.5-log reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium that was sustained over time in refrigerated and frozen storage. Very few sensory differences between the control samples and the treated samples were detected by a consumer panel. Thus, antimicrobial treatments did not cause serious adverse sensory changes. Use of these antimicrobial treatments can be a promising intervention available to ground beef processors who currently have few interventions in their process.

  6. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  7. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in U. S. retail ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Miller, Markus F; Loneragan, Guy H; Brooks, J Chance; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are the leading cause of STEC-associated infections in humans in the United States. In the United States, these organisms are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef products and in intact beef destined to be made into or used in nonintact raw beef products. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the burden of the six serogroups of non-O157 STEC in ground beef obtained from retail stores across the United States. A convenience sample of commercial ground beef products (n = 1,129) were purchased from retail stores in 24 states from October 2011 to May 2012. The samples had various lean/fat proportions, muscle group of origin (chuck, round, sirloin, or not specified), and packaging types. For each ground beef sample, 25 g was inoculated in 225 ml of modified tryptic soy broth, stomached for 1 min, and then incubated at 41°C for 18 ± 2 h. These enrichment cultures were then screened for stx, eae, and O group genes using a commercially available, closed-platform PCR-based method. The potential positive samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation and plated on modified Rainbow agar. Morphologically typical colonies were subjected to latex agglutination and PCR determination of stx and eae genes. Nine (0.8%) of the ground beef samples were potentially positive for at least one STEC serogroup after PCR screening. The serogroups detected by PCR assay were O26 (four samples), O103 (four samples), O145 (three samples), O45 (two samples), and O121 (one sample). No STEC isolates belonging to these serogroups were recovered from the sample cultures. The current research provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates among commercial ground beef products and information regarding the potential sources of contamination from different parts of beef trims destined for ground beef production.

  8. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

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    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  9. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  10. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzoni, G M; Fratamico, P M; Boccia, F; Bagi, L K; Kim, G-H; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. Ground beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were stored at 4°C for 72 h, followed by screening with the IQ-Check and BAX System kit (MLG) methods that employ different enrichment media. STEC and S. Typhimurium were detected after 12 and 18 h and their presence was confirmed by colony isolation. Both methods were able to detect STEC in ground beef after 12 h of enrichment in samples inoculated with low levels of the pathogen. STEC and S. Typhimurium can be detected and isolated in co-inoculated ground beef samples. The IQ-Check methods are comparable to the MLG methods for detection of STEC and simultaneous detection of STEC and S. Typhimurium in seeded ground beef after a short enrichment time, thus the IQ-Check method can be useful for the food industry for rapid detection of these pathogens. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing.

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    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are regularly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 STEC isolates, including the "big six" serovars, O104 and O157:H7. STEC isolates included those isolated from animals and environmental sources in addition to those associated with illness in humans. Individual STEC were inoculated into 80% lean ground beef and treated with HPP (350 MPa, 4 °C, up to 40 min). The mean D10 was 9.74 min, with a range of 0.89-25.70 min. The D10 of the STEC involved in human illness was 9.25 vs. 10.40 min for those not involved in human illness (p > 0.05). The presence or absence of genes encoding virulence factors (e.g. Shiga toxin 1 or 2, intimin, or enterohemolysin) had no effect on the HPP D10 (p > 0.05). The high D10 of some STEC involved in human illness should be considered in selecting HPP processing parameters for ground beef. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of STEC resistance to HPP. Risk assessors and the food industry can use this information to provide safer meat products to consumers.

  13. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

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    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  15. Microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of beef trim and ground beef treated with acetic acid, lactic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, or sterile water in a simulated commercial processing environment to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Brashears, M M; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the effectiveness of acetic and lactic acids (2% and 5%), acidified sodium chlorite (1000ppm), and sterile water in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in inoculated beef trim in a simulated processing environment. Samples were collected to assess microbial characteristics at three processing points. Results from this study indicate that all treatments, including sterile water, reduced pathogen concentrations (P<0.05) of both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in ground beef up to 0.5 and 0.6 log by 24h, respectively. In some cases, there were no significant differences between the antimicrobial treatments and the sterile water using this application method. Triangle sensory test results of non-inoculated beef indicated there were no differences (P<0.05) in the means of correct responses between controls or antimicrobial treatments at 6 or 24h. While interventions are important for beef trim, use of the interventions must be validated under industry conditions to ensure proper effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  17. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  18. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  19. Salmonella spp. in lymph nodes of fed and cull cattle: Relative assessment of risk to ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground beef products have been implicated as the vehicle for the transmission of Salmonella in a number of outbreaks. Although carcass surface interventions have proven effective, Salmonella contamination in ground beef still occurs. Recent studies indicate that deep tissue lymph nodes (DTLNs) may b...

  20. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

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    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  1. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef Using the GeneDisc Real-Time PCR System

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    Pina eFratamico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 and certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. GeneDisc real-time PCR assays were evaluated for detection of the stx1, stx2, eae, and ehx genes and a gene that identifies the O157 serogroup followed by a second GeneDisc assay targeting serogroup-specific genes of STEC O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157. The ability to detect the STEC serogroups in ground beef samples artificially inoculated at a level of ca. 2-20 CFU/25 g and subjected to enrichment in mTSB or BPW was similar. Following enrichment, all inoculated ground beef samples showed amplification of the correct set of target genes carried by each strain. Samples inoculated with STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, and isolation was achieved by plating onto Rainbow agar O157. Colonies were confirmed by PCR assays targeting stx1, stx2, eae, and serogroup-specific genes. Thus, this work demonstrated that GeneDisc assays are rapid, sensitive, and reliable and can be used for screening ground beef and potentially other foods for STEC serogroups that are important food-borne pathogens worldwide.

  2. Decreased dosage of acidified sodium chlorite reduces microbial contamination and maintains organoleptic qualities of ground beef products.

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    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Shackelford, Steven D; Fahle, Rick; Biela, Timothy; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2004-10-01

    Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) spray was evaluated at decreased dosages and application rates to determine its efficacy for reducing bacterial contamination on boneless beef trimmings used for production of raw ground beef products while maintaining desirable consumer qualities in the finished ground beef products. Two different applications of ASC (600 ppm applied at a rate of 1.3 oz/lb and 300 ppm applied at a rate of 1 oz/lb) were used to treat boneless beef trimmings before grinding. The effect of ASC treatment on 50/50 lean beef trimmings was greater than on 90/10 trimmings. ASC at 600 ppm reduced both the aerobic plate counts (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) by 2.3 log CFU/g on 50/50 trimmings, whereas treatment with 300 ppm ASC reduced APC and EBC of 50/50 trimmings by 1.1 and 0.7 log CFU/g, respectively. Ground beef formulations of 90/10 and 73/27 were produced from the treated boneless beef trim and packaged in chubs and in modified atmosphere packaging. The efficacy of ASC spray treatment to inhibit APC and EBC over the shelf life of each ground beef product was monitored. The APC and EBC in ground beef chubs were reduced by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/g until day 20. The APC and EBC for products in modified atmosphere packaging were reduced 1.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g throughout their shelf life. Both decreased dosages of ASC were equally effective on 90/10 lean ground beef, but the 300 ppm ASC treatment was slightly better at reducing the EBC of 73/27 ground beef. The organoleptic qualities (color, odor, and taste) of the ground beef products treated with 300 ppm ASC were found to be superior to those treated with 600 ppm ASC. Our results indicated that decreased dosages of ASC reduce contamination and lengthen the shelf life of ground beef. Furthermore, the 300 ppm ASC treatment reduced bacterial counts while maintaining desirable organoleptic ground beef qualities.

  3. Effect of inoculum size, bacterial species, type of surfaces and contact time to the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated to non-inoculated beef fillets via food processing surfaces.

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    Gkana, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Grounta, A; Koutsoumanis, K; Nychas, G-J E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated beef fillets to non-inoculated ones, through food processing surfaces. Three different levels of inoculation of beef fillets surface were prepared: a high one of approximately 10(7) CFU/cm(2), a medium one of 10(5) CFU/cm(2) and a low one of 10(3) CFU/cm(2), using mixed-strains of Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fillets were then placed on 3 different types of surfaces (stainless steel-SS, polyethylene-PE and wood-WD), for 1 or 15 min. Subsequently, these fillets were removed from the cutting boards and six sequential non-inoculated fillets were placed on the same surfaces for the same period of time. All non-inoculated fillets were contaminated with a progressive reduction trend of each pathogen's population level from the inoculated fillets to the sixth non-inoculated ones that got in contact with the surfaces, and regardless the initial inoculum, a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g between inoculated and 1st non-inoculated fillet was observed. S. Typhimurium was transferred at lower mean population (2.39 log CFU/g) to contaminated fillets than E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g), followed by L. monocytogenes (3.12 log CFU/g; P CFU/g) enhanced the transfer of bacteria to subsequent fillets compared to other materials (2.66 log CFU/g for SS and PE; P < 0.05). Cross-contamination between meat and surfaces is a multifactorial process strongly depended on the species, initial contamination level, kind of surface, contact time and the number of subsequent fillet, according to analysis of variance. Thus, quantifying the cross-contamination risk associated with various steps of meat processing and food establishments or households can provide a scientific basis for risk management of such products.

  4. Effects of vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging in combination with irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

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    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Larson, Elaine M; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Lu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties by combining irradiation with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Fresh ground beef patties were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 5 log CFU/g. Single patties, packaged with vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP (99.6% CO(2) plus 0.4% CO), were irradiated at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. The D(10)-value for this pathogen was 0.47 ± 0.02 kGy in vacuum and 0.50 ± 0.02 kGy in MAP packaging. Irradiation with 1.5 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 to 3.3 log, while 0.5 and 1.0 kGy achieved reductions of 0.7 to 1.0, and 2.0 to 2.2 log, respectively. After irradiation, the numbers of survivors of this pathogen on beef patties in refrigerated storage (4°C) did not change significantly for 6 weeks. Temperature abuse (at 25°C) resulted in growth in vacuum-packaged patties treated with 0.5 and 1.5 kGy, but no growth in MAP packages. This study demonstrated that combining irradiation with MAP was similar in effectiveness to irradiation with vacuum packaging for control of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties during refrigerated storage. However, high-CO(2) MAP appeared to be more effective after temperature abuse.

  5. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

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    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  6. Detection of Ricin Contamination in Ground Beef by Electrochemiluminescence Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Brandon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor, grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food matrices. A monoclonal antibody-based method was developed for detecting and quantifying ricin in ground beef, a complex, fatty matrix. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/g for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL method and 1.5 ng/g for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The detection of nanogram per gram quantities of ricin spiked into retail samples of ground beef provides approximately 10,000-fold greater sensitivity than required to detect a toxic dose of ricin (>1 mg in a 100 g sample.

  7. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  8. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on raw ground beef

    OpenAIRE

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado; Edith G. Gonzalez-Mondragon; Alma Yadira Salazar-Govea; Joaquin T. Santiago-Castro; Juana Ramirez-Andrade

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) were carried out using water (IE) and ethanol (EtOHE) as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants), CIE (meat with infusion of epazote), CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote) and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution). The characteristics ...

  9. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( brand disclosure. Increased ( branded product that received increased ( brand and product information, few consumers find differences in eating quality among ground beef treatments; however, when consumers are aware of the brand, fat level, and subprimal blend prior to sampling, these factors have a large impact on consumer eating satisfaction.

  10. Proteolytic Characterization of Trimmed Beef Fermented Sausages Inoculated by Indonesian Probiotics: Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus IIA-2B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nurul Afiyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis is one of the most important biochemical changes affecting proteins during the ripening and preservation of fermented beef sausages. In this study, proteolytic activities of two Indonesian probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus IIA-2B4 used as starters in trimmed beef are investigated. IIA-2B4 used as starters in trimmed beef are investigated. L. plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus displayed remarkable proteolytic activities against milk casein substrate, in which the activity of L. plantarum IIA-2C12 is higher than that of L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. Similar evidences were observed when proteolytic activities of both strains were visualized by using SDS-Page against meat sarcoplasmic proteins. The differences in the number of proteases encoded by the genomes of both starters might account for these differences. The activities of both strains were slightly reduced upon storage at room temperature for 28 days due to decreasing of the amount of substrate and or stability of proteases. In addition, we found also that the sausage inoculated by L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 tends to produce more aromatic amino acids than that of L. plantarum IIA-2C12. This might differently contribute to flavor (especially aroma of both sausages. Altogether, this is, to our knowledge, first evidences for the proteolytic activity of L. acidophilus strain towards muscle proteins during sausage fermentation.

  11. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  12. Effects of irradiation on trans fatty acids formation in ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, M.S. E-mail: msavoy@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-filho, Jorge

    2002-03-01

    In order to give the consumer the assurance that meat processed by irradiation is a safe product, a great deal of research has been developed in the world. The effect of irradiation on the hygienic quality of meat and meat products is considered as related to the control of meat-borne parasites of humans; elimination of pathogens from fresh meat and poultry; and elimination of pathogens from processed meat. Lipid oxidation and associated changes are the major causes of the quality deterioration of meat during storage. Irradiation of lipids induces the production of free radicals, which react with oxygen, leading to the formation of carbonyls, responsible for alterations in food nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Trans fatty acids are present in ground beef and can also be formed during its processing. Interestingly, the trans fatty acids, due to their chemical and physical characteristics, show more resistance to the oxidizing process. This property motivated us to investigate the level of the trans fatty acids, as well as the level of oxidation in irradiated ground beef. Irradiation of ground beef was performed by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The applied radiation doses were 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0 kGy. Lipid peroxidation in terms of TBA number and carbonyl content was monitored during storage. The sample characteristics and trans fatty acids composition were measured, following irradiation and after 60 and 90 days of storage at -10 deg. C.

  13. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  14. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO 2; MAP : 60% O 2-30% CO 2-10% N 2 and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D10 values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D10 values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  15. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO{sub 2}; MAP : 60% O{sub 2}-30% CO{sub 2}-10% N{sub 2} and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D{sub 10} values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D{sub 10} values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  16. Fiber-Optic Biosensor Employing Alexa-Fluor Conjugated Antibody for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Ground Beef in Four Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody which is specific forE. coli O157:H7. A polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiberwaveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction that served as a capture antibody. AnAlexa Fluor 647 dye-labeled antibody to E. coli O157:H7 was used to detect cells andgenerate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635 nm laser-lightfrom an Analyte-2000. Fluorescent molecules within several hundred nanometers of thefiber were excited by an evanescent wave, and a portion of the emission light fromfluorescent dye transmitted by the fiber and collected by a photodetector at wavelengths of670 to 710 nm quantitatively. This immunosensor was specific for E. coli O157:H7compared with multiple other foodborne bacteria. In addition, the biosensor was able todetect as low as 103 CFU/ml pure cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in culture broth.Artificially inoculated E. coli O157:H7 at concentration of 1 CFU/ml in ground beef couldbe detected by this method after only 4 hours of enrichment.

  17. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  18. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  19. Microbiological Testing Results of Boneless and Ground Beef Purchased for the National School Lunch Program, 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerscher, Darin R; Lutz, Terry L; Whisenant, Stephen J; Smith, Kerry R; Morris, Craig A; Schroeder, Carl M

    2015-09-01

    The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) purchases boneless and ground beef for distribution to recipients through federal nutrition assistance programs, including the National School Lunch Program, which represents 93% of the overall volume. Approximately every 2,000 lb (ca. 907 kg) of boneless beef and 10,000 lb (ca. 4,535 kg) of ground beef are designated a "lot" and tested for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, standard plate count organisms (SPCs), E. coli, and coliforms. Any lot of beef positive for E. coli O157:H7 or for Salmonella, or any beef with concentrations of organisms exceeding critical limits for SPCs (100,000 CFU g(-1)), E. coli (500 CFU g(-1)), or coliforms (1,000 CFU g(-1)) is rejected for purchase by AMS and must be diverted from federal nutrition assistance programs. From July 2011 through June 2014, 537,478,212 lb (ca. 243,795,996 kg) of boneless beef and 428,130,984 lb (ca. 194,196,932 kg) of ground beef were produced for federal nutrition assistance programs. Of the 230,359 boneless beef samples collected over this period, 82 (0.04%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 924 (0.40%) were positive for Salmonella, 222 (0.10%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 69 (0.03%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 123 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Of the 46,527 ground beef samples collected over this period, 30 (0.06%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 360 (0.77%) were positive for Salmonella, 20 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 22 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 17 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Cumulatively, these data suggest beef produced for the AMS National School Lunch Program is done so under an adequate food safety system, as indicated by the low percentage of lots that were pathogen positive or exceeded critical limits for indicator organisms.

  20. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on raw ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. were carried out using water (IE and ethanol (EtOHE as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants, CIE (meat with infusion of epazote, CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution. The characteristics determined for both IE and EtOHE before being added to the meat were pH, antioxidant activity (AA, total polyphenols (TP and total flavonoids (TF. The antioxidant effect on the ground beef was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method and instrumental color. EI showed the highest TF content. Meat with IE and EtOHE treatments had lower TBARS values than control meat, and higher of L* and b* values, which indicate greater clarity in both treatments. In conclusion, under these conditions, epazote has potential as a natural antioxidant in order to extend the shelf life of meat and meat products.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman El Abed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89% of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μg/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15–80 mm and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01.

  2. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Nariman; Kaabi, Belhassen; Smaali, Mohamed Issam; Chabbouh, Meriem; Habibi, Kamel; Mejri, Mondher; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Ben Hadj Ahmed, Sami

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89%) of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid) with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μ g/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15-80 mm) and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w) essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01).

  3. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  4. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne in irradiated ground beef heated in a water bath or cooked on commercial grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of heat-shocked and non heat-shocked spores of the virulence-attenuated Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis was evaluated at select temperatures in irradiated, raw ground beef (25% fat) heated in a water bath or cooked using two different commercial grills. For the former, 3-g ...

  5. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.

  6. Evaluation of the Most Current and Effective Methods in the Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins in Ground Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal origin, leads to the accumulation of dioxins in the human body. The exposures of the general human population to dioxins and the specific issues of a risk assessment of dioxin pose serious concerns in public environmental and nutritional health. This paper reviews the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. The sources of contamination of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef are first reviewed to form a basis for a clear understanding of the health implications of chlorinated dioxins in the human food chain and why it is necessary to monitor the level of dioxins in animal food products, especially ground beef. The methods of collection, sampling, and processing of ground beef, and the methods of sample clean up prior to the analysis, are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the new techniques that are available and that might be effective in the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. Among these new methods and techniques are: the synergistic combination of ELISA/GC/MS, direct sample introduction to /GC/MS-MS, automated clean-up method, and the supercritical fluid extraction methods. The possible treatments of results from each method and technique are discussed and their respective efficiencies are compared. Finally, quality control and quality assurance parameters are evaluated for levels of accuracy, reproducibility, and precision.

  7. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Trigui, Mohamed; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Damak, Mohamed; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-07-15

    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and the protective effects of Ceratonia siliqua pods essential oil (CsEO), a food and medicinal plant widely distributed in Tunisia. Twenty five different components were identified in the CsEO. Among them, the major detected components were: Nonadecane, Heneicosane , Naphthalene, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutylester, Heptadecane, Hexadecanoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Phenyl ethyl tiglate, Eicosene, Farnesol 3, Camphor, Nerolidol and n-Eicosane. The antimicrobial activity of CsEO was evaluated against a panel of 13 bacteria and 8 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that CsEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested species. In addition, the inhibitory effect of this CsEO was evaluated in vivo against a foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, experimentally inoculated in minced beef meat (2×10(2) CFU/g of meat) amended with different concentrations of the CsEO and stored at 7 °C for 10 days. The antibacterial activity of CsEO in minced beef meat was clearly evident and its presence led to a strong inhibitory effect against the pathogens at 7 °C. On the other hand, the cytotoxic effects of the essential oil against two tumoral human cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 were examined by MTT assay. The CsEO showed an inhibition of both cell lines with significantly stronger activity against HeLa cells. The IC(50) values were 210 and 800 μg/ml for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Overall, results presented here suggest that the EO of C. siliqua possesses antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  10. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers.

  11. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  12. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  13. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  14. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayouni, El Akrem; Chraief, Imed; Abedrabba, Manaf; Bouix, Marielle; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Mohammed, Hammami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-07-31

    The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), beta-thujone (18.40%), alpha-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and alpha-phellandrene (35.86%), beta-phellandrene (29.3%), beta-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene (5.43%) and alpha-pinene (5.22%) in S. molle oil. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of both studied EOs. For this purpose, paper disc-diffusion method and broth microdilution test were used. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied (gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast). These activities remained stable after six months, and decreased approximately by 20% after one year of storage of the EOs at 4 to 7 degrees C. On comparing the efficiency of both EOs, S. officinalis EO exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the majority of strains and especially against Candida albicans (two fold more active according to the inhibition zones values). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 4.5 mg/ml and 72 mg/ml on nutrient broth. The particular chemotype of each EO may be involved in its specific antimicrobial behaviour. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EOs were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens belonging to Salmonella genus, experimentally inoculated (10(3) CFU/g) in minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations of the EO and stored at 4 to 7 degrees C for 15 days. Although the antibacterial activities of both EOs in minced beef meat were clearly evident, their addition had notable effects on the flavour and taste of the meat at concentrations more than 2% for S. molle and 1.5% for S. officinalis. One solution to

  15. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont BAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O2...

  16. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.

  17. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  18. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Lactic Acid and Citric Acid Blend against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Carcass Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Adler, Jeremy M; Belk, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Studies were conducted to (i) determine whether inoculants of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli biotype I effectively served as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Salmonella when prerigor beef carcass tissue was treated with a commercially available blend of lactic acid and citric acid (LCA) at a range of industry conditions of concentration, temperature, and pressure; (ii) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of LCA; and (iii) investigate the use of surrogates to validate a hot water and LCA sequential treatment as a carcass spray intervention in a commercial beef harvest plant. In an initial laboratory study, beef brisket tissue samples were left uninoculated or were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on the adipose side with E. coli O157:H7 (5-strain mixture), non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (12-strain mixture), Salmonella (6-strain mixture), or nonpathogenic E. coli (5-strain mixture). Samples were left untreated (control) or were treated with LCA, in a spray cabinet, at one of eight combinations of solution concentration (1.9 and 2.5%), solution temperature (43 and 60°C), and application pressure (15 and 30 lb/in(2)). In a second study, the E. coli surrogates were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on beef carcasses in a commercial facility to validate the use of a hot water treatment (92.2 to 92.8°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2)) followed by an LCA treatment (1.9%, 50 to 51.7°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2), 10 s). In the in vitro study, surrogate and pathogen bacteria did not differ in their response to the tested LCA treatments. Treatment with LCA reduced (P < 0.05) inoculated populations by 0.9 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2), irrespective of inoculum type. The hot water and LCA sequential treatments evaluated in the commercial facility reduced (P < 0.05) the inoculated nonpathogenic E. coli surrogates on carcasses by 3.7 log CFU/cm(2). This study therefore provides the meat industry with data for this sequential multiple hurdle system for the

  19. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4{+-}2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  1. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients.

  2. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyejeong [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lacroix, Monique [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Science Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Qebec (Canada); Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10{sup 6} CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: > Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. > Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. > The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  3. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  4. Effects of Irradiation Dose and O2 and CO2 Concentrations in Packages on Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Quality of Ready-to-Cook Seasoned Ground Beef Product (Meatball during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbuz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of gamma irradiation and concentrations of O2 (0, 5, 21% and CO2 (0, 50% on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, lipid oxidation, and color changes in ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef (meatball during refrigerated storage were investigated. Ground beef seasoned with mixed spices was packaged in varying O2 and CO2 levels and irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiation (4 kGy caused about 6 Log inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Inactivation of Salmonella was 0.9- and 0.4-Log lower in 0 and 5% O2, respectively, compared to 21% O2. Irradiation at 2 and 4 kGy increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in meatballs by 0.12 and 0.28 mg malondialdehyde kg−1, respectively, compared to control. In reduced-O2 packages, radiation-induced oxidation was lower, and the initial color of an irradiated sample was maintained. Packaging with 0% + 50% CO2 or 5% O2 + 50% CO2 maintained the oxidative and the color quality of irradiated meatballs during 14-day refrigerated storage. MAP with 5%O2 + 50% CO2 combined with irradiation up to 4 kGy is suggested for refrigerated meatballs to reduce the foodborne pathogen risk and to maintain the quality.

  5. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  6. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Leandro Coutinho de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. essential oils (EOs against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  7. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  8. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  9. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Dias-Morse, P N; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-05-01

    Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear force were measured to evaluate the impact of the treatments on the quality attributes. The NMS and PAA patties were redder (a(∗), P0.05) off odor to CON on days 0-3. The NMS and PAA treated patties had lower (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than the CON at days 0, 3, and 7. Therefore, KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC treatments on beef trimmings can potentially improve or maintain quality attributes of beef patties.

  10. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  11. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  12. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  13. Modeling the inactivatin of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E. coli in ground beef by high pressure processing and citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in ground beef using High Pressure Processing...

  14. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  15. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  16. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.

  17. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  18. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  19. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  20. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  1. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  2. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Llorente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1% samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57; stx2, 86.0% (49/57; stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57; ehxA, 61.4% (35/57; eae, 26.3% (15/57; saa, 24.6% (14/57. Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54; stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54; stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54; stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54; stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54; stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54. Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  3. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  4. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  6. Elimination of Pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef by a Newly Isolated Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus during Storage at 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Constant use of limited number of lactic acid bacteria species in biopreservation can cause genetic degradation and or rising resistance against food pathogens or antimicrobial substances they produce. For this objective, a newly isolated strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possessing high antimicrobial activity was evaluated as a candidate for use in biopreservation.Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. Hydrogen peroxide amount was measured by Merckoquant Peroxide test strips. Microbiological analysis of the ground beef infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and treated by Lactobacillus acidophilus GH 201was done by plating of serial dilution in physiological saline on Tryptose agar.Results and Conclusion: The cells (109 CFU ml-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus produced significant amount of antibacterial substances mainly hydrogen peroxide (28 and 30 μg ml-1 in sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.5 and LAPTg at 5°C during submerged cultivation with no growth, respectively. Submerged co-cultivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with lactobacilli in LAPTg broth at 5°C reduced the total number of the pathogen more than 2 log for 5 days. In case of solid state cultivation on agar-based medium, the maximum inhibitory zones on Escherichia coli O157:H7 lawn around the disks soaked by different amounts of washed Lactobacillus acidophilus cells appear for one-day cold exposition. The size of inhibition zone depends on the concentration of lactic acid bacteria cells. The cell suspension intended for treatment must contain 108-9CFU ml-1 of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the initial amount (2×105 CFU ml-1 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef up to 2 log for 5 days of solid-state co-cultivation. The application of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria expanded the shelf-life of ground beef due to inhibition of

  7. Profile and activity of the bacterial biota of ground beef held from freshness to spoilage at 5-7 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J M; Vilai, J P; Hughes, M E

    2003-03-15

    Four samples of fresh ground beef were stored aerobically and held at 5-7 degrees C for up to 28 days. Although one sample initially yielded 21 different genera of bacteria while two others yielded only seven, all four spoiled essentially in the same way as assessed by aerobic, psychrotrophic, and Gram-negative counts, and by extract-release volume (ERV) and pH values. Pseudomonas spp. was dominant in the spoilage of all samples. As to why this group is so consistently associated with the low-temperature aerobic spoilage of fresh meats, it is hypothesized that they possess the capacity to form a biofilm and that quorum sensing is involved in the overall biofilm forming and functioning processes.

  8. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  9. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  10. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pphosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (pphosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (pphosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  11. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  12. Effects of packaging systems and fat concentrations on microbiology, sensory and physical properties of ground beef stored at 4±1°C for 25 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, N; Williams, S K

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of modified atmosphere (MAP, 0.4% carbon monoxide [CO], 30% carbon dioxide, and 69.6% nitrogen), vacuum (VP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging systems and fat levels (10, 20 and 30% fat) on ground beef stored at 4 ± 1°C for 25 days for microbiology, sensory, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), objective color, headspace and residual CO. As storage time increased, pH decreased (P< 0.05) for MAP and VP and increased (P < 0.05) for PVC. TBARS varied (P < 0.05) among MAP and VP treatments. Except for day 1, CO headspace concentrations were similar among fat concentrations, and residual CO absorption in meat increased (P < 0.05) for all MAP treatments. In all treatments, degree of lightness was similar, redness decreased and brown discoloration increased during storage. As psychrotrophic bacteria counts increased, panelists detected color and off-odor deterioration in all systems. The CO treatment had no effect on maintaining the carboxymyoglobin "cherry red" fresh meat color during meat spoilage.

  13. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  14. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Caracterización de aislamientos de Listeria monocytogenes obtenidos de ganado y de carne molida de vacuno por electroforesis de campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Foerster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250 and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40 were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 % but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %. An important part of the ground beef strains (80 % had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la presencia de Listeria monocytogenes en el ganado y en la carne molida de vacuno comercializada en Chile, caracterizar los aislados mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y compararlos con los obtenidos en tres cepas que han producido listeriosis en humanos, en ese país. Se tomaron muestras de heces de bovinos (n = 250 y de carne molida obtenida en supermercados (n = 40. Se encontró una baja incidencia de este patógeno en las heces de bovinos (0,4 %; un solo animal, pero mayores porcentajes en la carne molida (37 %. Gran parte de las cepas encontradas en la carne molida (80 % mostraron una similitud mayor del 95 % con un caso esporádico de listeriosis y con la cepa de referencia ATCC 19115. La cepa aislada de bovino tuvo un 93 % de similitud con el clon 009, responsable de un brote asociado al consumo de queso, ocurrido en 2008. Se concluye que el ganado y la carne molida pueden albergar cepas virulentas de L. monocytogenes. Se necesita un mayor número de estudios en animales y en los productos que se

  15. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  16. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  17. Attachment and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 at different temperatures, on various food-contact surfaces encountered in beef processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourou, Dimitra; Beauchamp, Catherine Simpson; Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Nychas, George-John E; Sofos, John N

    2011-10-03

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to beef-contact surfaces found in beef fabrication facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. This study evaluated E. coli O157:H7 attachment, survival and growth on food-contact surfaces under simulated beef processing conditions. Stainless steel and high-density polyethylene surfaces (2×5cm) were individually suspended into each of three substrates inoculated (6log CFU/ml or g) with E. coli O157:H7 (rifampicin-resistant, six-strain composite) and then incubated (168h) statically at 4 or 15°C. The three tested soiling substrates included sterile tryptic soy broth (TSB), unsterilized beef fat-lean tissue (1:1 [wt/wt]) homogenate (10% [wt/wt] with sterile distilled water) and unsterilized ground beef. Initial adherence/attachment of E. coli O157:H7 (0.9 to 2.9log CFU/cm(2)) on stainless steel and high-density polyethylene was not affected by the type of food-contact surface but was greater (ptemperature. Notably, attachment occurred not only at a temperature representative of beef fabrication areas during non-production hours (15°C), but also during cold storage (4°C) temperatures, thus, rendering the design of more effective sanitation programs necessary.

  18. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  19. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  20. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 μL/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 μL/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature.

  1. Application of a novel antimicrobial coating on roast beef for inactivation and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antilisterial efficacy of novel coating solutions made with organic acids, lauric arginate ester, and chitosan was evaluated in a three-stage study on inoculated roast beef for the first time. Ready-to-eat roast beef was specially ordered from the manufacturer. The meat surface was inoculated wi...

  2. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  3. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  4. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  5. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  7. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  8. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  9. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  10. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  11. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; McMahon, C M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S; Harrington, D

    2000-04-01

    D-values were obtained for Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C in vacuum-packed minced beef samples heated in a laboratory water-bath. The experiment was repeated using vacutainers, which allowed heating of the beef to the desired temperature before inoculation. D-values of between 0.15 and 36.1 min were obtained for L. monocytogenes. Pre-heating the beef samples significantly affected (P < 0.05) the D60 value only. D-values for Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.55 to 21.2 min and all the D-values were significantly different (P < 0.05) after pre-heating. In general, the D-values obtained for core inoculated solid beef samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those generated in minced beef when heated in a Barriquand Steriflow commercial retort.

  12. Outbreaks of Salmonella infections attributed to beef --United States, 1973-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, A S; Grass, J; Holt, K; Whichard, J M; Griffin, P M; Gould, L H

    2015-07-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is estimated to be the most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing an estimated one million domestically acquired foodborne illnesses annually. Recent, large outbreaks have highlighted the importance of ground beef as an important source of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. We analysed the epidemiology of salmonellosis outbreaks that were attributed to beef in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1973 to 2011. During 1973-2011, of the 1965 outbreaks of Salmonella where a food vehicle was implicated, 96 were attributed to beef, accounting for 3684 illnesses. We observed a shift in the type of beef implicated in salmonellosis outbreaks, from roast to ground beef. Delicatessen-style roast beef cooked in commercial processing establishments was the predominant type during the 1970s and early 1980s; regulations on cooking and processing essentially eliminated this problem by 1987. Ground beef emerged as an important vehicle in the 2000s; it was implicated in 17 (45%) of the 38 beef-attributed outbreaks reported during 2002-2011. Although this emergence was likely due in part to increased participation in CDC's PulseNet, which was established in 1996, and proactive decisions by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, stronger measures are needed to decrease contamination of ground beef with Salmonella.

  13. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  14. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  15. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  16. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Reduced Fat Fermented Functional Beef Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Faleeha Hasan Hussein; Seyed Hadi Razavi; zahra Emam Djomeh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Semi-dry fermented sausages were manufactured from beef meat in three types: without starter culture (control), inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei. Probiotic fermented sausages are safe and healthy meat products, which receive high commercial interest and growing market shares.Material and Methods: The physico–chemical characteristics (Protein, Moisture, Fat, Ash, Lactic acid value and pH), microbiological features (total ...

  17. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage.

  18. [Design of SCM inoculation device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingli; Xie, Haiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of bacilli culture is inoculation bacteria on culture medium. Designing a device to increase efficiency of inoculation is significative. The new device is controlled by SCM. The stepper motor can drive the culture medium rotating, accelerating, decelerating, overturn and suspending. The device is high practicability and efficient, let inoculation easy for operator.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen.

  20. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  1. Spoilage of vacuum-packed beef by the yeast Kazachstania psychrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Jan; Erl-Höning, Constanze; Wenning, Mareike; Böhnlein, Christina; Gareis, Manfred; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the psychrotolerant yeast microbiota of vacuum-packed beef was conducted between 2010 and 2012. Chilled vacuum-packed beef (n = 50) sampled from 15 different producers was found to have a mean psychrotolerant yeast count of 3.76 log cfu per cm(2). During this assessment, a recently described yeast named Kazachstania psychrophila was shown to be associated with this product. In order to gain basic knowledge about the spoilage potential of K. psychrophila in vacuum-packed beef, challenge studies were performed and the survival of three different K. psychrophila strains was analyzed during storage of artificially contaminated beef. Beef samples were inoculated with the yeasts at a contamination level of 2 log cfu per cm(2). Survival and growth of K. psychrophila strains was monitored on malt extract agar at regular intervals over 84 days. Kazachstania levels rapidly increased about 5 log units within 16 days under chill conditions (4 °C). Gas bubbles were observed after 16 days, while discoloration and production of off-flavors became evident after 42 days in inoculated samples. This study demonstrates for the first time, that the psychrotolerant yeast K. psychrophila is a dominant spoilage microorganism of vacuum-packed beef products stored at low temperatures, causing sensory defects which result in reduced shelf life, and consequently in considerable economic losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  5. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  6. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  7. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  8. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  9. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Since around 1990, Indonesia had been importing about 40% of its entire beef consumption. To reduce its reliance on imports, Indonesia launched the beef selfsufficiency programme (BSSP), which operated between 2005 and 2014, with the aim being to reduce imports of beef cattle to 10% of national...... focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...

  10. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  11. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  12. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  13. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  14. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  15. Survival and Metabolic Activity of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Roast Beef Stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broady, Johnathan W; Han, Dong; Yuan, Jing; Liao, Chao; Bratcher, Christy L; Lilies, Mark R; Schwartz, Elizabeth H; Wang, Luxin

    2016-07-01

    Three brands of commercial roast beef were purchased and artificially inoculated with a 5-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail at 2 inoculation levels (approximately 3 and 6 Log CFU/g). Although all 3 brands contained sodium diacetate and sodium lactate, inoculated Listeria cocktail survived for 16 d in all 3 brands; significant increases in L. monocytogenes numbers were seen on inoculated Brand B roast beef on days 12 and 16. Numbers of L. monocytogenes increased to 4.14 Log CFU/g for the 3 Log CFU/g inoculation level and increased to 7.99 Log CFU/g for the 6 Log CFU/g inoculation level by day 16, with the pH values being 5.4 and 5.8 respectively. To measure the cell viability in potential biofilms formed, an Alamar blue assay was conducted. Brand B meat homogenate had the highest metabolic activities (P monocytogenes in ready-to-eat roast beef. Native microflora (both diversity and abundance), together with product formula, pH, antimicrobial concentrations, and storage conditions may all impact the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  17. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  18. Survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 co-cultured with different levels of pseudomonas fluorescens and lactobacillus plantarum on fresh beef

    OpenAIRE

    Tshabalala, P. A.; de Kock, H. L.; Buys, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of Pseudomonas fluorescens (102 and 106 log10 cfu/ml) and Lactobacillus plantarum (102 and 104 log10 cfu/ml) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef loins. Beef loins inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and P. fluorescens were aerobically stored for 7 days at 4 ºC, while those inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum were vacuum packaged and stored for 8 weeks at 4 ºC. Aerobic Plate Counts (APC), E. coli...

  19. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  20. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  1. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  2. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  3. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  4. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  5. Acidified sodium chlorite treatment for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth on the surface of cooked roast beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Richelle L; Janes, Marlene E; Oliver, Grady

    2006-02-01

    The effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef were investigated. L. monocytogenes, strain V7, serotype 1/2a, was inoculated at numbers of 6.0 log CFU/g onto 5-g cubes of cooked regular or spicy roast beef. The samples were allowed to air dry for 1 h. The cooked roast beef samples were dipped into ASC or sprayed with ASC solutions of 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm, then placed in bags with or without a vacuum and refrigerated at 4 degrees C. L. monocytogenes counts were determined after 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage by spread plating roast beef samples onto Oxford agar plates that were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. At day 28, the number of L. monocytogenes on the > or = 500 ppm ASC-treated spicy roast beef samples had count reductions that were >4.0 log CFU/g, whereas the same concentrations of ASC-treated regular roast beef samples had approximately a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes counts when compared with the untreated samples. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in L. monocytogenes counts between the vacuum- or nonvacuum-packaged ASC-treated cooked roast beef samples. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between ASC-treated and untreated roast beef. ASC can be used as a processing aid in the form of a dip or spray treatment to control L. monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beef.

  6. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  7. Effect of Morphology of Instantaneous Inoculant on Inoculated Result of Melted Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Da

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of some elements in inoculant were analyzed. The effect of the morphology of instantaneous inoculant on its melting velocity was studied. When the inoculants pass through the same sieve number, the volume and the ratio of surface area to volume are different. It is evident from the theoretical analysis and experiment under some conditions that the melting velocity of inoculant depends on the morphology of inoculant. The morphology of inoculant during production should be controlled carefully.

  8. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  9. Physiological adaptation of Escherichia coli after transfer onto refrigerated ground meat and other solid matrices: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernec, Anthony; Robichaud-Rincon, Philippe; Saucier, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Bacteria on meat are subjected to specific living conditions that differ drastically from typical laboratory procedures in synthetic media. This study was undertaken to determine the behavior of bacteria when transferred from a rich-liquid medium to solid matrices, as is the case during microbial process validation. Escherichia coli cultured in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth to different growth phases were inoculated in ground beef (GB) and stored at 5°C for 12 days or spread onto BHI agar and cooked meat medium (CMM), and incubated at 37°C for several hours. We monitored cell densities and the expression of σ factors and genes under their control over time. The initial growth phase of the inoculum influenced growth resumption after transfer onto BHI agar and CMM. Whatever the solid matrix, bacteria adapted to their new environment and did not perceive stress immediately after inoculation. During this period, the σ(E) and σ(H) regulons were not activated and rpoD mRNA levels adjusted quickly. The rpoS and gadA mRNA levels did not increase after inoculation on solid surfaces and displayed normal growth-dependent modifications. After transfer onto GB, dnaK and groEL gene expression was affected more by the low temperature than by the composition of a meat environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  11. Quantitative analysis of vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef meat was investigated using a restaurant-style meat tenderizer, which was first used to tenderize a surface-inoculated sample, and then additional 4 uninoculated sa...

  12. Inoculation effects on root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities spread beyond directly inoculated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Krak, Karol; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules. We addressed this topic in a greenhouse experiment based on the soil and native AMF community of a post-mining site. Plants were cultivated in compartmented pots with substrate containing the native AMF community, where AMF extraradical mycelium radiating from directly inoculated plants was allowed to inoculate neighboring plants. The abundances of the inoculated isolate and of native AMF taxa were monitored in the roots of the directly inoculated plants and the neighboring plants by quantitative real-time PCR. As expected, inoculation suppressed root colonization of the directly inoculated plants by other AMF taxa of the native AMF community and also by native genotypes of the same species as used for inoculation. In the neighboring plants, high abundance of the inoculant and the suppression of native AMF were maintained. Thus, we demonstrate that inoculation effects on native AMF propagate into plants that were not in direct contact with the introduced inoculum, and are therefore likely to persist at the site of inoculation.

  13. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  14. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10(8)  log10  CFU ml(-1) ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P < 0·0001) and buffered vinegar (2%; P < 0·0001) reduced surface populations of Salm. Typhimurium on inoculated beef sirloin flaps prior to vacuum marination. However, lactic acid treated sirloin flaps had greater reductions (~2 log10  CFU cm(-2) ) than buffered vinegar when compared with control prior to vacuum marination. However, the translocation of Salm. Typhimurium following vacuum marination was not influenced (P < 0·333) by the application of a surface organic acid spray prior to marination.

  16. Application of an Antimicrobial Protein Film in Beef Patties Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to apply a protein film containing a natural antimicrobial compound to meat packaging and determine quality change of meat during storage. Proteins obtained from the by-products of food processing have been utilized as biodegradable film sources. Porcine meat and bone meal (MBM) is obtained during meat processing, and proteins from the MBM can be extracted and used as a film base material. Previously, an antimicrobial MBM film containing coriander oil (CO) was prepared and its physical properties and antimicrobial activity were characterized. In this study, the antimicrobial MBM-CO film was applied to beef patties packaging, and the microbial population and the degree of lipid oxidation were determined during storage at 4℃ for 15 d. The population of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 in the samples wrapped with the MBM-CO film was 6.78 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g after 15 d of storage, whereas the control had 8.05 Log CFU/g, thus reducing the microbial population by 1.29 Log CFU/g. In addition, retardation of lipid oxidation in the patties was observed during storage for the samples packaged by the MBM-CO film, compared with the control samples. These results suggest that the MBM-CO film can be useful for enhancing the quality of beef patties during storage.

  17. Decarboxylase gene expression and cadaverine and putrescine production by Serratia proteamaculans in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pennacchia, Carmela; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the molecular basis of microbial metabolic activities that are important for the changes in food quality are valuable in order to help in understanding the behavior of spoiling bacteria in food. The growth of a psychrotrophic Serratia proteamaculans strain was monitored in vitro and in artificially inoculated raw beef. Two growth temperatures (25°C and 4°C) were tested in vitro, while growth at 15°C and 4°C was monitored in beef. During growth, the expression of inducible lysine and ornithine-decarboxylase genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the presence of cadaverine and putrescine was quantified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The expression of the decarboxylase genes, and the consequent production of cadaverine and putrescine were shown to be influenced by the temperature, as well as by the complexity of the growth medium. Generally, the maximum gene expression and amine production took place during the exponential and early stationary phase, respectively. In addition, lower temperatures caused slower growth and gene downregulation. Higher amounts of cadaverine compared to putrescine were found during growth in beef with the highest concentrations corresponding to microbial loads of ca. 9CFU/g. The differences found in gene expression evaluated in vitro and in beef suggested that such activities are more reliably investigated in situ in specific food matrices.

  18. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  19. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.

  20. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  1. An investigation of the effect of rapid slurry chilling on blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P; Kerry, J; Bolton, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days. The onset and progress of BPS was monitored using the following scale; 0-no gas bubbles in drip; 1-gas bubbles in drip; 2-loss of vacuum; 3-'blown'; 4-presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and 5-tightly stretched, 'overblown' packs/packs leaking. Rapid slurry chilling (as compared to conventional chilling) did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the time to the onset or progress of BPS. It was therefore concluded that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals, using an ice slurry system, may not be used as a control intervention to prevent or retard blown pack spoilage. This study adds to our growing understanding of blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals and suggests that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals is not a control option for the beef industry. The results suggest that neither eliminating the heat shrinkage step nor rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef retard the time to blown pack spoilage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  4. Changes in rumen bacterial community composition following feeding of silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants yield an increase in milk production without increasing fiber digestibility, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that silage treated with a commercial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, LP) would improve milk production and would alter rumen bacter...

  5. Survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 co-cultured with different levels of pseudomonas fluorescens and lactobacillus plantarum on fresh beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Tshabalala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of Pseudomonas fluorescens (10² and 10(6log10 cfu/mland Lactobacillus plantarum (10² and 10(4log10 cfu/mlon the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef loins. Beef loins inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and P. fluorescens were aerobically stored for 7 days at 4 ºC, while those inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum were vacuum packaged and stored for 8 weeks at 4 ºC. Aerobic Plate Counts (APC, E. coli O157:H7 and either P. fluorescens or L. plantarum counts were determined at different storage intervals. For the aerobically packaged beef loins, E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the 7 day storage period regardless of the P. fluorescens level in the inoculum. For the vacuum packaged beef loins, similar inoculum levels of E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum allowed E. coli O157:H7 to survive until week 5 of storage, while a higher inoculum level of L. plantarum inhibited E. coli O157:H7 from week 3. Once fresh beef has been contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, the level of P. fluorescens in the background flora does not inhibit its survival and growth. However, under vacuum storage, the application of L. plantarum as a biopreservative inhibits the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on beef. The higher the level of L. plantarum in the system, the earlier the onset of the inhibition. Farmers and abattoirs have to strengthen preventive strategies to eliminate contamination of beef carcasses with E. coli O157:H7.

  6. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  7. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  8. Contaminación de carne molida con cepas de Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC provenientes de comercios minoristas de San Martín, Buenos Aires, categorizados según nivel socioeconómico Contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in fresh ground beef from butcher shops in San Martin, Buenos Aires Province, among different socioeconomic strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Miccio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC produce enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, desde diarreas leves a Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico, enfermedad de impacto en Argentina. Dentro de los alimentos implicados se destaca la carne bovina insuficientemente cocida. La contaminación de la carne molida y su relación con los estratos socioeconómicos no ha sido estudiada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar en muestras de carne cepas STEC y establecer su perfil de virulencia, considerando la zona socioeconómica de procedencia y la persistencia de la contaminación en el local de venta. Se seleccionó el 30% de las bocas de expendio habilitadas en cada nivel socioeconómico. Se analizaron 72 muestras provenientes de 36 carnicerías de San Martín, Buenos Aires, en dos muestreos independientes utilizando PCR múltiple para stx1/stx2 e inmunocaptura para O157 al tamizaje. Se obtuvieron 11 cepas de 26 muestras sospechosas, 7% de los aislamientos fueron STEC O157. La proporción en la contaminación ponderada fue mayor en las zonas media y baja. No se comprobó persistencia. El grado de contaminación por STEC en carne para el área estudiada fue elevado y las cepas aisladas fueron altamente virulentas. En consideración a ello es necesario implementar programas de capacitación y control para reducir los riesgos para la salud pública.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes foodborne diseases, from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome which impact in Argentina. Many human infections were acquired from eating undercooked contaminated beef. The contamination of ground beef and their relation to socio-economic strata has not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify STEC in meat samples and establish virulence profile, considering the socio-economic area of origin and persistence of contamination in local sales. It was selected 30% of the butcher shop of each socioeconomic level. It was analyzed 72 samples from 36

  9. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  10. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  11. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  13. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  14. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  15. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  16. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  17. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  18. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  19. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  20. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  1. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  4. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  5. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  6. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  7. 乳酸菌替代亚硝酸盐在风干牛肉干中发色的研究%Study on coloring of lactobacillus instead of nitrite in air dried beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞; 石晶红; 朱效兵

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at improving the color and safety of air dried beef,the coloring effects of lactoba⁃cillus in air dried beef was studied. Through sensory evaluation,the optimum technology was determined. The beef was cured at 4℃ for 15h,0. 2% lactobacillus of the weight of beef was inoculated,and 0. 1%vitamin C was added to color the beef at 21℃ for 8h. After coloring was finished,the beef was roasted at 45~55℃ for 7h. In the end the beef was deep fried for 4~5min at 145℃.%以提高风干牛肉干的色泽和安全性为目标,对乳酸菌在风干牛肉干中的发色效果进行研究,通过感官评分确定其最佳工艺为:先将牛肉4℃低温腌制15h,然后按照牛肉重量的0.2%接种,并添加0.1%的Vc,21℃发色8h,发色结束后将牛肉在45~55℃烘烤7h,最后145℃高温油炸4~5min。

  8. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  9. Automatic surface inoculation of agar trays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.; Boykin, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a machine and technique for the automatic inoculation of a plastic tray containing agar media with a culture, using either a conventional inoculation loop or a cotton swab. The design of the machine is simple, it is easy to use, and it relieves the operator from the manual task of streaking cultures. The described technique makes possible the visualization of the overall qualitative and, to some extent, quantitative relationships of various bacterial types in a sample tested.

  10. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  11. PCR detection and microbiological isolation of Salmonella spp. from fresh beef and cantaloupes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Robles, M A; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Osuna-García, J A; Martínez, I O; Morales-Ramos, L H; Fratamico, P

    2009-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Salmonella are an important cause of enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and septicemia, and the pathogens are commonly transmitted through contaminated food. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 287-bp region of the invA gene was compared to a microbiological technique to determine the presence of Salmonella in retail beef and in cantaloupe rinse samples. Both methods showed the same level of sensitivity, detecting 1 CFU/25 g of meat after enrichment for 24 h at 42 degrees C. The presence of Salmonella was determined in 50 commercial top sirloin beef samples that were not artificially inoculated. Three samples were positive by the microbiological method, and these samples and an additional sample were positive by the PCR. Both methods were also used to test surface rinses of cantaloupes collected from 4 farms in Nayarit, Mexico. Salmonella was detected by the microbiological method in 9 of 20 samples (45%), whereas the pathogen was detected by the PCR in 11 samples (55%). This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR targeting the invA gene to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in beef and cantaloupe samples.

  12. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  13. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  14. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  15. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  16. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  17. The Effect of Social Desirability Bias on Willingness-To-Pay for Organic Beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Researchers regularly conduct willingness-to-pay or valuation studies for product marketing or public policy purposes. However, a large volume of research suggests valuation tools such as conjoint analysis may be subject to social desirability bias, where subjects misrepresent their true preferences to create a favorable impression. The objective of this study is to measure the effects of social desirability bias on conjoint survey responses. Consumers were asked to rank organic ground beef r...

  18. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  19. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Reduced Fat Fermented Functional Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleeha Hasan Hussein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Semi-dry fermented sausages were manufactured from beef meat in three types: without starter culture (control, inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei. Probiotic fermented sausages are safe and healthy meat products, which receive high commercial interest and growing market shares.Material and Methods: The physico–chemical characteristics (Protein, Moisture, Fat, Ash, Lactic acid value and pH, microbiological features (total aerobic, total mold and yeast andlactic acid bacteria count and sensory evaluation (color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability were analyzed after 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: There was a significant difference (p≤0.05 in moisture content, which decreased in all samples during the period of refrigerated storage. However, all other parameters such as protein, fat and ash increased. The lactic acid produced during the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria resulted in a decrease in the pH value of all samples, and improved sensory evaluation of the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei during the storage period. The best results were obtained in the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Also we could preserve the product at 4°C for 45 days.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  20. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  1. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  2. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  3. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  4. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  5. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  6. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  7. Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on sliced roast beef by cetylpyridinium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

    2007-02-01

    The effects of 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and a mix of equal volume of the two (0.25% CPC-0.06% ASC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated on inoculated sliced roast beef. The antimicrobial agents were, respectively, sprayed on the beef surfaces and tray absorbent pads, and samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days (d). At 0 d, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were reduced to undetectable levels in 2 h after spraying with CPC. CPC-ASC treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus by 4.07, 6.37 and 4.32 log cfu/cm2, respectively, at 0 d. ASC treatment reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 by 6.09 log cfu/cm2 at 10 d. CPC treatment caused a slight discoloration and ASC-treated beef surfaces demonstrated the lowest redness and highest lightness. The grey colour and off-odour were significant in the ASC-treated beef samples, while CPC-treated samples demonstrated less off-odor and brown colour from 0 to 4 d. Based on our results, it appears that the application of CPC on sliced roast beef can extend the shelf-life of the product without impairing its quality.

  8. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  9. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  10. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  13. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  14. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Gemell; Elizabeth Hartley; Rosalind Deaker

    2012-01-01

    Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival...

  15. Reduction of Surrogates for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella during the Production of Nonintact Beef Products by Chemical Antimicrobial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Carson J; Lucia, Lisa M; Arnold, Ashley N; Taylor, T Matthew; Savell, Jeffrey W; Gehring, Kerri B

    2015-05-01

    The efficacy of chemical antimicrobials for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella during production of marinated nonintact beef products was evaluated using nonpathogenic surrogates. Boneless beef strip loins were inoculated with either approximately 5.8 or 1.9 log CFU/cm(2) (high and low inoculation levels, respectively) of nonpathogenic rifampin-resistant E. coli. Inoculated strip loins were chilled at 2°C for 24 h, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7 to 24 days at 2°C. After aging, strip loins received no treatment (control) or one of five antimicrobial spray treatments: 2.5% L-lactic acid (pH 2.6), 5.0% L-lactic acid (pH 2.4), 1,050 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (pH 2.8), 205 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (pH 5.2), or tap water (pH 8.6). Mean application temperatures were 53, 26, 20, and 18°C for lactic acid, water, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite treatments, respectively. Treated and control strip loins were vacuum tumbled in a commercial marinade. Samples were collected throughout the experiment to track the effects of antimicrobial treatment and processing on inoculated surrogates. For high-inoculation strip loins, the 5.0% L-lactic acid treatment was most effective for reducing surrogates on meat surfaces before marination, producing a 2.6-log mean reduction. Peroxyacetic acid treatment resulted in the greatest reduction of surface-located surrogate microorganisms in marinated product. Water treatment resulted in greater internalization of surrogate microorganisms compared with the control, as determined by enumeration of surrogates from cored samples. Producers of nonintact beef products should focus on use of validated antimicrobial sprays that maximize microbial reduction and minimize internalization of surface bacteria into the finished product.

  16. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  17. [Influence of below-freezing temperatures on the rate of post-mortem metabolism and the water-holding capacity in prerigor frozen beef muscles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Honikel, K O; Hamm, R

    1980-09-01

    Prerigor beef is very suitable for the production of "bruehwurst" (frankfurter and bologna type sausages) because of its high waterholding capacity (WHC). This high WHC can be preserved for several months by rapid freezing of prerigor beef either unsalted or salted. In order to elucidate the optimum conditions of frozen storage for the preservation of high WHC, intact beef muscle, ground beef and ground, salted (2% NaC1) beef (neck muscles) were frozen at - 18 degrees or --40 degrees C in a thin layer (0.5-1 cm) 30--60 min after slaugther and stored at various temperatures between --5 degrees and --40 degrees C. The changes of biochemical parameters (content of glycogen and lactate, R-value [it corresponds to ATP concentration] and pH) in the tissue and the WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates, prepared from the frozen material and containing 2% NaC1, were measured and related to time and temperature of frozen storage. At storage temperature of --18 degrees and --40 degrees C no appreciable biochemical changes occur in intact and ground, unsalted tissue over a period of 10 months. Above 18 degrees C, however, rising temperature causes an increased rate of ATP turnover and glycolysis. In ground muscle higher rates of postmortem metabolism are generally found than in the intact tissue. In prerigor salted and frozen beef a faster drug of ATP concentration (increase of R-value) occurs whereas the breakdown of glycogen to lactate is inhibited. The WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates depends on time and temperature of frozen storage. As soon as the ATP concentration in unsalted beef falls to a level, at which the onset of rigor mortis occurs, the WHC of homogenates decreases markedly. With beef, ground and salted in the prerigor state and than frozen muscle homogenates are obtained which show always a high WHC even after complete breakdown at ATP during frozen storage. These results have practical consequences with regard to processing of hot-deboned beef.

  18. Comparison of artificial inoculation methods for studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divya

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Establishment of disease by artificial inoculation is essential for studies of various aspects of plant pathology. Keeping this in mind .... three to four days under cool white fluorescent light (2,000 lux) followed by 2 days ... and placed in growth chambers at 25°C and 70% relative humidity. The Petri plates were ...

  19. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  20. Effect of salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, meat quality, and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; Bowers, Jordan W J; Bauermeister, Laura J; Singh, Manpreet; Huang, Tung-Shi; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-listerial efficacy of salts of organic acids, and their impact on the quality of frankfurters. Beef frankfurters were manufactured by incorporating organic acids in 5 different combinations: (1) control (no marinade addition; C); (2) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt; SL); (3) potassium lactate (2% wt/wt; PL); (4) sodium citrate (0.75% wt/wt; SC); and (5) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt)/sodium diacetate (0.25% wt/wt; SL/SD). Cooked frankfurters were inoculated with streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) L. monocytogenes (7 log₁₀ CFU/frank). Inoculated and noninoculated frankfurters were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken weekly up to 10 wk for estimation of L. monocytogenes as well as aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophs (PSY), respectively. Total of 2 independent trials of the entire experiment were conducted. Noninoculated beef frankfurters were evaluated weekly by untrained sensory panelists for 7 wk. SL, PL, and SC treatments did not (P > 0.05) adversely affect consumer acceptability through 8 wk although, SL/SD treatment was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less preferred across all sensory attributes. SL/SD treatment negatively affected product quality, but was able to control APC, PSY, and L. monocytogenes levels. SC performed similar to the control throughout the 8, 9, and 10 wk storage periods, providing no benefit for inhibiting L. monocytogenes (increasing from 7 logs CFU/frank to 10 logs CFU/frank throughout storage) or extending shelf life of the beef frankfurters. In conclusion, 2% SL and PL, and 2% SL/0.25% SD may be effective L. monocytogenes inhibitors (maintaining inoculation levels of 7 logs CFU/frank during storage), but changes in SL/SD treatment formulation should be studied to improve product quality.

  1. Acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence leads to depletion and redistribution of WC1(+) γδ T cells in lymphoid tissues of beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (P<0.05). In conclusion, acute infection with HV or LV BVDV resulted in depletion of WC1(+) γδ T cells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.

  2. Fornecimento de grão de milheto, inteiro ou triturado, em duas frequências de suplementação para bovinos de corte Supply of whole or ground millet grain at two frequencies of supplementation for beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2012-04-01

    the grain of millet in supplements given daily or three times a week to grazing beef cattle on productive performance, economic and diurnal intake behavior during the drought period. Twenty-five non-castrated Nelore cattle with initial body weight of 350.92±31.7 kg were kept in five paddocks with unit area of 1.45 ha formed by B. brizantha cv. Marandu. The animals were distributed in a completely radomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two physical forms of the grain of millet (whole or ground, two frequencies of supplementation (daily or three times a week and the control treatment (mineral mix. It was found that the concentrate supplementation promoted weight gains, while sole mineral supplementation resulted in weight loss of 0.16 kg/animal/day. Grinding the millet grain promoted higher gains (0.36 and 0.38 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively when compared with the whole grain (0.22 and 0.24 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively, with no differences between the frequencies of supplementation. Significant effect of the day × treatment interaction was found for time in the trough, grazing and drinking water. For the resting time difference was found between the control treatment and the others. Greater economic return was achieved when ground millet was supplied at lower supplementation frequency (R$ 22,70/animal. The use of multiple supplements, as well as the processing of millet grain, enabled greater weight gain, regardless of the supplementation frequency studied. Providing supplement 3 times a week reduces the costs with supplementation.

  3. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  4. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BUSINESS IN AGARWOOD INOCULATION AT DIFFERENT STEM DIAMETERS AND INOCULATION PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suharti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia signifies as the biggest agarwood producer country in the world. Its demand and price tend to increase and have brought about over exploitation of agarwood. Consequently, its population in nature has decreased significantly. To overcome the situation, since 1995, agarwood has been included in the CITES Appendix II. However, illegal exploitation remains persistent and reaches an excessive level. In order to deal with it, agarwood cultivation and its artificial production have been undertaken at several provinces in Indonesia. Some supporting factors for agarwood cultivation and artificial production are the availability of potential land for extensive cultivation, appropriate agro climate condition, simple cultivation technique and already being well adopted by farmers, the availability of necessary pathogen for agarwood inoculation, and the increasing demand with relatively high price. The research aims to analyze the feasibility study of agarwood inoculation business at several stem diameters (15 - 25 cm; 26 -35 cm and 36 - 40 cm and periods of inoculation (1 - 5 years. Data were collected through field observation and literature study. The results showed that inoculation on agarwood producer tree stands at 12.5% interest rate afforded positive net present value (NPV,  internal rate of return (IRR is much higher than market interest and benefit cost (B/C ratio >2 for those three diameter classes. Furthermore, if agarwood harvesting is delayed until five years after inoculation, NPV,  IRR and B/C ratio would be much higher. It can be concluded that inoculation on agarwood producer tree stands (at appropriate age for inoculation is feasible to be developed.

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  7. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  8. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... The essential amino acid (EAA) content were ranked in the descending order of ST >. SV ≥ LD ... corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement ..... effects of lactic acid on Qin-chuan beef at different ages.

  10. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  11. Characterization and virulence potential of serogroup O113 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef and cattle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and be...

  12. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the new

  13. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  14. Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, acidified sodium chlorite, and potassium sorbate on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

    2004-02-01

    The effects of selected food-grade antimicrobial agents at decreasing the number of pathogenic bacteria on fresh beef were determined. Beef cubes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Staphylococcus aureus were sprayed with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 0.1% potassium sorbate (PS), or an equal mix of any two solutions. The beef samples were placed on absorbent tray pads sprayed with each single or mixed solution, wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, heat sealed, and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks. Surface sanitization using CPC, ASC, or an equal mix of these two agents effectively reduced microbial numbers on the beef during storage. At day 0, ASC and the CPC-ASC mix reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 by 2.50 and 1.58 log CFU/cm2, respectively. CPC demonstrated a 3.25-log reduction of L. monocytogenes and a 4.70-log reduction of S. aureus at 14 days. The CPC-PS mix reduced E. coli O157:H7 numbers by 1.46, L. monocytogenes by 2.95, and S. aureus by 4.41 log CFU/cm2 at 14 days. PS alone and the mixed solutions, CPC-ASC, CPC-PS, or ASC-PS, were not as effective as ASC or CPC alone. To effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, or S. aureus numbers, higher (> 0.1%) concentrations of PS were necessary. Loss of redness and light color of beef surfaces consistently coincided with decreases in pH for ASC-treated beef samples.

  15. Review of Microbial Inoculation Agent Used in Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yaxi; FENG Shuqing; XU Xiuhong; MAO Zhicheng; WANG Mingyue; LIU Yanfang; HUANG Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microbial inoculation agent has been widely used in waste disposal and waste recycling. In this paper, the principle of fermentation in the composting of agricultural waste and the impact of microbial inoculation agent on composting were reviewed.The research and the application of microbial inoculation agent were also introduced. Based on the trend of the research, the promising prospect of microbial inoculation agent was discussed.

  16. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    FUKAMI,J.; M. A. Nogueira; ARAUJO, R. S.; Hungria, M.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense...

  17. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment.

  18. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  19. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  20. A DECISION SUPPORT AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT USING EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Falconer; Long, Charles R.; McGrann, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The beef cattle investment decision provides an excellent opportunity to increase the economic efficiency of beef cattle production. The investment questions that face beef cattle producers are of interest to beef cattle producers, educators, and financial institutions involved in lending to beef cattle producing firms. This study develops a decision support aid utilizing expert system technology to assist beef cattle producers in making well-founded investment decisions with respect to the f...

  1. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  2. Use of ensiled straw and beef cattle manure for feeding fattening young bulls. 2. Toxicological and microbiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, V.; De Michelis, F.; Fontanelli, G.; Molossini, F.

    1980-06-01

    A mixture of straw 38%, beef cattle manure 52% and ground corn 10% was ensiled in about 15 cubic meters plastic bag silos. Biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) were determined in fresh faces and in the silage: the total content was respectively 37.0 and 33.3 mg/100 g D.M. Microbial population decreased after ensiling; pathogenic staphylococci, Cl. perfringens and salmonellae were not detected before nor after ensiling.

  3. The inoculation method affects colonization and performance of bacterial inoculant strains in the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Sohail; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Sessitsch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Plants in combination with microorganisms can remediate soils, which are contaminated with organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Inoculation of plants with degrading bacteria is one approach to improve remediation processes, but is often not successful due to the competition with resident microorganisms. It is therefore of high importance to address the persistence and colonization behavior of inoculant strains. The objective of this study was to determine whether the inoculation method (seed imbibement and soil inoculation) influences bacterial colonization, plant growth promotion and hydrocarbon degradation. Italian ryegrass was grown in non-sterilized soil polluted with diesel and inoculated with different alkane-degrading strains Pantoea sp. ITSI10, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Pseudomonas sp. MixRI75 individually as well as in combination. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation, however, strains inoculated in soil performed better than applied by seed imbibement. Performance correlated with the colonization efficiency of the inoculated strains. The highest hydrocarbon degradation was observed in the treatment, in which all three strains were inoculated in combination into soil. Our study revealed that besides the degradation potential and competitive ability of inoculant strains the inoculation method plays an important role in determining the success of microbial inoculation.

  4. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  6. Prediction of the fatty acid composition of beef by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, V; Aldai, N; Castro, P; Osoro, K; Coto-Montes, A; Oliván, M

    2008-03-01

    The intramuscular fat content and composition influence consumer selection of meat products. A study predicting the fatty acid (FA) profile of ground beef from the Longissimus thoracis of yearling bulls (n=100) using near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT) was conducted. The samples were scanned using an Infratec 1265 Meat Analyzer which operates in transmittance mode from 850 to 1050nm. NIT technology was able to accurately predict (R(CV)(2) over 0.76) some prominent FAs such as C14:0, C16:0, C16:1cis9, C17:0, C18:1cis9 and C18:1cis11, and minor FAs like C13:0, C15:0, C17:1cis9 and C18:1cis13. When studying FA groups, NIT spectra were able to accurately predict saturated (R(CV)(2)=0.837), branched (R(CV)(2)=0.701) and monounsaturated (R(CV)(2)=0.852) FAs. In addition, NIT spectra provided useful information on the contents of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in beef. These results show the potential of NIT technique as a rapid and easy tool to predict the major FAs in beef, especially those located in triglycerides.

  7. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  8. Beef production in Romania (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the statistics is to show changes in the size and value of total production of animals for slaughtering and meat analyzed by use. Due to the interest of breeders and specialists from our country in specialized breeds of cattle meat production is increasing, the purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of beef production over the last three years. The number of animals slaughtered decreased steadily from 2010 to 2012. Most slaughter, were done in the second half of the years in which research was made. The largest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2010, and the fewest (with 62.32% less in January 2012. Total slaughter is declining, but a higher number of animals are slaughtered in official slaughterhouses, at a higher weight. As a consequence, beef production is forecast to remain relatively stagnant.

  9. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  10. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...... positive samples to produce isolates for further characterization. The choice of a rapid method will always depend on the requested information and be influenced by the relevant matrix and the expected level of contamination....

  11. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  12. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  13. Culture medium for selective isolation and enumeration of Gram-negative bacteria from ground meats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cyzeska, F J; Seiter, J A; Marks, S N; Jay, J M

    1981-01-01

    We developed a new medium, designated peptone bile amphotericin cycloheximide (PBAC) agar, which contains (per liter) 10 g of peptone, 300 mg of bile salts, 1 mg of amphotericin B, 1 g of cycloheximide, and 15 g of agar. When 21 samples of fresh ground beef were studied and plate count agar counts were used as references, we obtained a mean recovery of 28% of total counts with violet red bile agar overlay, whereas we obtained 48% recovery with PBAC agar. With 12 samples of frozen ground beef,...

  14. Fading of inoculation effects in ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In work i t has bccn shown rcsults or invcsligations of influcncc of rime Iapsed form inoculation proccss on graphitc nucleation potentialrcprcscntcd by: numbcr of graphitc nodulcs N and N,, maximum undercooling AT,, during solidification of gmphile eutcct ic. abmlutcchilling tcndcncy CT and critical casting diametct dh. undcr which cementite euteclic occur (so-callcd chills. Morcovcr it has hccncstima~cd raic of changc of N and N, AT,,,. CT and dk,. Also, it has bccn provcd that altcr onc minutc sincc rhc momcnt of inocuIationproccss nhout 35% of prnphttc nucIeation potenrial is tost. by 40% chitking tendency, by 70% incrcascs maximum undcrcmling forgraphitc ci~tccrica nd by nearly 40% caging diameter has to bc incrcascd in ordcr to avoid chills.

  15. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  16. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  17. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  18. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... of the fresh beef weight. Transglutaminase enzyme at levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a...

  19. Beef-cattle producers benefit from Extension-managed process verification programs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The most recent data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture shows that Virginia's beef producers face a myriad of challenges. Virginia Cooperative Extension is working with the beef-cattle industry to boost profits and add value to Virginia's beef products by training and educating producers about process verification programs that certify the age and source of beef cattle.

  20. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  2. Research on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal enterotoxin in the Processing of Fermented Beef%金黄色葡萄球菌及其肠毒素等指标在发酵牛肉加工过程中变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红亮; 衣文正; 罗红霞; 张松山; 李海鹏; 孙宝忠

    2012-01-01

    Changes of Staphylococcus aureus, its enterotoxin and other characteristics in fermented beef of natural growth, fermented beef inoculated Staphylococcus aureus, fermented beef inoculated Staphylococcus aureus, and starter culture (L. Plantarumand P. Pentosaceus) were studied. The results showed that in the natural fermented beef there was no Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin; in fermented beef inoculated starter culture and Staphylococcus aureus increased progressively and then decreased rapidly, staphylococcal enterotoxin was negative. Staphylococcus aureus and its enterotoxin in fermented beef inoculated Staphylococcus aureus were significantly higher than the fermented beef inoculated starter culture (P<0. 05). The results showed that starter culture of L. Plantarum and P. Pentosaceus had high antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus.%作者对自然状态发酵牛肉、接种金黄色葡萄球菌的发酵牛肉和接种发酵剂(植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌)与金黄色葡萄球菌的发酵牛肉中金黄色葡萄球菌及其肠毒素等指标在加工过程中的变化规律做了研究.研究结果表明,自然发酵牛肉中没有金黄色葡萄球菌及其肠毒素;接种发酵剂和金黄色葡萄球菌的发酵牛肉中金黄色葡萄球菌先是上升然后快速下降,且金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素为阴性;接种金黄色葡萄球菌的发酵牛肉中金黄色葡萄球菌及其肠毒素都显著高于接种发酵剂的发酵牛肉(P<0.05).由试验结果可知,发酵剂植物乳杆菌和戊糖片球菌对金黄色葡萄球菌有很强的抑制作用.

  3. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  4. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  5. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  6. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  7. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...... the data, using the software program Transana. The study showed that the farmers were mostly unaware of the existing government policies on beef-cattle farming, i.e., regarding the BSSP, including the overall aim of these policies. Furthermore, the activities they did know about they viewed as individual...... activities run in isolation, rather than parts of a grander plan or overall larger targeted programme—note, in this paper, we refer to these individual activities as ‘fragments’. The farmers who took part in the interviews outlined the challenges they faced in increasing the quantity and quality...

  8. Effects of inoculation of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 on plant growth and cadmium uptake in a cadmium-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiafang; He, Linyan; Wang, Qingya; Ye, Hesong; Jiang, Chunyu

    2008-06-30

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils was investigated for its effects on the plant growth-promoting characteristics and heavy metal and antibiotic resistance. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain Bacillus sp. J119 to promote the plant growth and cadmium uptake of rape, maize, sudangrass and tomato in soil artificially contaminated with different levels of cadmium (Cd) (0 and 50mgkg(-1)). The strain was found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) and antibiotic (kanamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, tetracycline and rifampin) resistance characteristics. The strain had the capacity to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores. Cd treatment did not significantly decreased growth of tomato, maize and rape plants, but Cd treatment significantly decreased growth of sudangrass (p<0.05). In the Cd-added soil, above-ground biomass and root dry weights of tomatoes were increased by 24 and 59%, respectively, in live bacterial inoculation compared to dead bacterial inoculation control. There were no obvious differences in the above-ground tissue and root dry weight of maize and sudangrass between live bacterial inoculation and dead bacterial inoculation. In the soil treated with 50 mg Cdkg(-1), increase in above-ground tissue Cd content varied from 39 to 70% in live bacterium-inoculated plants compared to dead bacterium-inoculated control. In addition, among the inoculated plants, tomato was the greatest Cd accumulator. The bacterial strain was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soils after root inoculation.

  9. Effects of inoculation of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 on plant growth and cadmium uptake in a cadmium-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: xfsheng604@sohu.com; He Linyan; Wang Qingya; Ye Hesong; Jiang Chunyu [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2008-06-30

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils was investigated for its effects on the plant growth-promoting characteristics and heavy metal and antibiotic resistance. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain Bacillus sp. J119 to promote the plant growth and cadmium uptake of rape, maize, sudangrass and tomato in soil artificially contaminated with different levels of cadmium (Cd) (0 and 50 mg kg{sup -1}). The strain was found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) and antibiotic (kanamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, tetracycline and rifampin) resistance characteristics. The strain had the capacity to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores. Cd treatment did not significantly decreased growth of tomato, maize and rape plants, but Cd treatment significantly decreased growth of sudangrass (p < 0.05). In the Cd-added soil, above-ground biomass and root dry weights of tomatoes were increased by 24 and 59%, respectively, in live bacterial inoculation compared to dead bacterial inoculation control. There were no obvious differences in the above-ground tissue and root dry weight of maize and sudangrass between live bacterial inoculation and dead bacterial inoculation. In the soil treated with 50 mg Cd kg{sup -1}, increase in above-ground tissue Cd content varied from 39 to 70% in live bacterium-inoculated plants compared to dead bacterium-inoculated control. In addition, among the inoculated plants, tomato was the greatest Cd accumulator. The bacterial strain was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soils after root inoculation.

  10. Validation of a method for simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, and O145 from minced beef by an international ring-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Karen; De Zutter, Lieven; Robyn, Joris; Daube, Georges; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; De Reu, Koen

    2012-05-01

    An isolation method described by Possé et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008;282:124-131) was satisfactorily validated in an international ring-trial using artificially contaminated minced beef samples. Until now, no validated method existed for the simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in food. Twelve laboratories from five European countries participated and received 16 inoculated beef samples contaminated with cold-stressed cells of the four serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in two levels (approximately 30 and 300 CFU 25 g⁻¹) in duplicate. In addition, they received four non-inoculated samples. The isolation protocol comprised a selective enrichment step, a selective isolation step on a non-O157 agar plate differentiating the serogroups by color, followed by confirmation by plating on confirmation agar media and agglutination. All laboratories were able to isolate the inoculated serogroups from the samples, both for the high and the low inoculation level. Results did not differ whether in-house-prepared or ready-to-use non-O157 agar plates were used, demonstrating that by following the instructions laboratories managed to perform the complete protocol with success.

  11. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  12. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  13. Effects of bacterial silage inoculants on whole crop maize silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dnkosi

    produced by mixing the whole-crop maize silage with lucerne hay (90 : 10) on an “as fed” ..... of moulds which have the potential to produce mycotoxins, that can pose ..... intake and performance of beef cattle and studies on its mode of action.

  14. Effects of genotype x bradyrhizobium inoculation or x fertilizer n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype x inoculation interaction was significant only for protein and oil content in one year. ... seed composition, or other agronoi:nic traits including plant .... used to compare expected genetic of inoculation on maturity, p;ant height, a;:d yick!

  15. Silage Inoculant Effects on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four inoculants, B (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium), C (Lactobacillus plantarum), D (Lactobacillus pentosus), E (Lactococcus lactis), were compared with an uninoculated treatment (A) on alfalfa (38% DM, AS), corn (36% DM, CS), and brown midrib corn (33% DM, BMR) silages. All inocul...

  16. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  17. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  18. Mycoflora And Mycotoxins Of Corned Beef

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; Zohri, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty species and 5 varieties belonging to 21 genera of fungi were collected from 20 corned beef samples . The average total counts of fungi ranged from 56 -236,47-275 and 39-202 colonies /g on glucose - 10% NAC1 - glucose - and 15% NAC1 - glucose - Czapek's agar media , respectively . Aspergillus niger, A. flavus , and Pencillium chrysogenum were the most common species on the three tested media . A. fumigatus and A. sydowii were common on glucose -Czapek's medium only while A. speluneus and...

  19. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...

  20. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  1. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  2. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  3. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  4. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  5. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  7. Experimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K R; Fitzgerald, S D; Hattey, J A; Bolin, C A; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M

    2006-03-01

    Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.

  8. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  9. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  10. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  11. Modification of the BAX System PCR assay for detecting Salmonella in beef, produce, and soy protein isolate. Performance Tested Method 100201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linda X; Wallace, Morgan; Andaloro, Bridget; Fallon, Dawn; Fleck, Lois; Delduco, Dan; Tice, George

    2011-01-01

    The BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella detection in foods was previously validated as AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Method (PTM) 100201. New studies were conducted on beef and produce using the same media and protocol currently approved for the BAX System PCR assay for E. coli O157:H7 multiplex (MP). Additionally, soy protein isolate was tested for matrix extension using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) enrichment protocols. The studies compared the BAX System method to the U.S. Department of Agriculture culture method for detecting Salmonella in beef and the FDA-BAM culture method for detecting Salmonella in produce and soy protein isolate. Method comparison studies on low-level inoculates showed that the BAX System assay for Salmonella performed as well as or better than the reference method for detecting Salmonella in beef and produce in 8-24 h enrichment when the BAX System E. coli O157:H7 MP media was used, and soy protein isolate in 20 h enrichment with lactose broth followed by 3 h regrowth in brain heart infusion broth. An inclusivity panel of 104 Salmonella strains with diverse serotypes was tested by the BAX System using the proprietary BAX System media and returned all positive results. Ruggedness factors involved in the enrichment phase were also evaluated by testing outside the specified parameters, and none of the factors examined affected the performance of the assay.

  12. Spoilage of value-added, high-oxygen modified-atmosphere packaged raw beef steaks by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum and Leuconostoc gelidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihavainen, Elina J; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2007-11-01

    Moisture-enhancing and marinating of meats are commonly used by the meat industry to add value to raw, retail products. Recently in Finland, certain value-added beef steak products have proven to be unusually susceptible to microbial spoilage leading to untoward quality deteriorations during producer-defined shelf-life. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the premature spoilage of value-added beef packaged under high-oxygen modified atmospheres. Spoilage was characterised by green discolouration and a buttery off-odour. The predominant LAB in eight packages of spoiled, marinated or moisture-enhanced beef steaks were identified by reference to a 16 and 23S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (ribotype) database. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, Leuconostoc gelidum, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei and Carnobacterium divergens were found to predominate in the LAB populations at numbers above 10(8) CFU/g. Inoculation of moisture-enhanced steaks with LAB strains and strain mixtures originating from the spoiled products demonstrated the spoilage potential of L. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum isolates. These two species produced green surface discolouration and buttery off-odours similar to these found in the spoiled, commercial products.

  13. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinue to provide the bulk of the forage demands for beef cattle. various ... While the summer day temperatures are rnoderate (max ... one another to achieve the desired effect. The most sig- ... Wherever possible legumes should be established.

  14. High School Beef Farm is Career Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Ray

    1976-01-01

    The beef farm at Gaylesville High School, Gaylesville, Alabama, has provided an opportunity for students to gain work experience in a variety of areas including construction, animal care, and packing plant procedures. (LH)

  15. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy production ... decomposition of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part ... Keywords: Cow-calf production, methane, pasture production, production levels, total ...

  16. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. A REML procedure ... complex, CD and AFC (because of its high heritability) may be considered as selection criteria for ..... Marshall, D.M., Minqiang, W. & Freking, B.A., 1990.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEEF OF YOUNG SPECIAL MEAT AND HOLSTAIN SPECIES GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchukina I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author has examined peculiarities of meat productivity of animals of the most common breeds: Charolais, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Kuban type of Red Steppe. As a result of the slaughter carried out for younger group achieved 15 months age, the Charolais breed bulls exceeded peers of Kuban type on slaughter weight to 60.9 kg (20.9 %, Aberdeen Angus – 53.8 kg (18.5 %, Hereford and Simmental respectively – to 35.1 and 24.8 kg (8,5-12,0 %. By the age of 18 months their superiority increased respectively by 56.9; 57.5; 55.8 and 29.9 kg (16.8; 16.9; 16.5 and 8.82%. Halves of bodies of the Kuban breed (considering the specific type of boneless beef output aged 15 months gave way to all the groups: Charolais and Angus – by 1.1- 1.5%, Simmental and Hereford – by 0.4-0.6%. The yield of premium beef exceeds the standards in all genotypes: Kuban – by 9.5%, beef breeds – by 11.2% (Charolais and 19% (Simmental. The balance beetween dry matter and moisture is in the optimal range (0.43: 1-0,73: 1. At 15 months of age, in the number of dry matter, Charolais bulls outnumbered Aberdeen-Angus and Red steppe at 5.1-5.2%, Simmental and Hereford - on 3,0-4,9%. With age, in the meat of calves of beef breeds the level of fat increased, for example, in Hereford and Simmental 0.3-0.5%, Aberdeen Angus and Simmental – 0.7-0.8%. In the middle of a sample of ground beef of carcasses of the calves of Charolais breed at the age of 18 months it contained more protein than in the meat of the calves of Red steppe (1.2%, Hereford (1.1%, Angus (1.4%, Simmental (1,3%. All the meat of the carcasses of the calves of specialized beef breeds was of high quality and diet: one part of the protein had 0.59 parts of fat (Aberdeen Angus and 0.45 parts (Hereford

  18. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Alicia FERNÁNDEZ; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  19. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  20. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Mart?n; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Fern?ndez, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  1. Evaluation of observed parameters of a beef herd.

    OpenAIRE

    CIMBURKOVÁ, Pavla

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed beef breed herd of Aberdeen Angus cattle in the foothills area of Novohradské mountains in 1992 - 2007. The base of herd was consisted of 117 dams and 814 pieces of calves in total. The parameters of beef production of calves and the reproduction of dams were monitored. For the parameters of growth of calves were found significant effects of the year, the month of birth, sex, the order of calving, the method of reproduction and the sire.

  2. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the contr...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  3. Evaluation of novel micronized encapsulated essential oil-containing phosphate and lactate blends for growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella on poultry bologna, pork ham, and roast beef ready-to-eat deli loaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, G; Taylor, T M; Alvarado, C

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils and their constituents are reported to possess potent antimicrobial activity, but their use in food processing is limited because of low solubility in aqueous systems and volatilization during processing. Two proprietary noncommercial essential oil-containing phosphate blends were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica cocktail (SC)-and Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-inoculated deli meat products made from pork, poultry, or beef. Four treatments were tested on restructured cured pork ham, emulsified chicken bologna, and restructured beef loaf: nonencapsulated essential oil with phosphate version 1 at 0.45% of final batch (EOV145; chicken and pork, or EEOV245 beef), micronized encapsulated essential oil with phosphate version 2 at 0.60% of final batch (EEOV260), a 2.0% potassium lactate (PL) control, and a negative control (CN) with no applied antimicrobial agent. Compared with the CN, none of the antimicrobial agents (EEOV260, EOV145, PL) successfully limited Lm or SC growth to deli loaves, the EEOV260 inhibited growth of SC at days 21 and 28 to the same level of efficacy as PL (0.5 log cycle). In roast beef samples, on day 35, the SC growth was inhibited ca. 0.5 log CFU/g by EEOV260 when compared with the CN. In conclusion the EEOV260 can function to replace PL to limit Salmonella and Lm growth in ready-to-eat deli products. Further testing is needed to ensure consumer acceptability.

  4. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  5. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium on beef carcass surfaces using acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Kemp, G K; Acuff, G R

    1999-06-01

    The efficacy of a phosphoric acid-activated acidified sodium chloride (PASC) spray and a citric acid-activated acidified sodium chlorite (CASC) spray applied at room temperature (22.4 to 24.7 degrees C) in combination with a water wash was compared with that of a water wash only treatment for reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated onto various hot-boned individual beef carcass surface regions (inside round, outside round, brisket, flank, and clod). Initial counts of 5.5 and 5.4 log CFU/cm2 were obtained after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. Initial numbers for both pathogens were reduced by 3.8 to 3.9 log cycles by water wash followed by PASC spray and by 4.5 to 4.6 log cycles by water wash followed by CASC spray. The sprays consisted of applying 140 ml of the appropriate sanitizing solution for 10 s at 69 kPa. Corresponding reduction values obtained by water wash alone were 2.3 log. The performance of CASC appeared to be consistently better than that of PASC. In general, no effect of the carcass surface region was observed on the log reductions for either pathogen, except for the inside round, which consistently had lower reductions. Both PASC and CASC were capable of effectively reducing pathogens spread to areas beyond the initial contaminated area of the cuts to levels close to or below the counting method detection limit (0.5 log CFU/cm2). However, 30 to 50% of the carcasses treated by these antimicrobial solutions still yielded countable colonies. Results of this study indicate that acidified sodium chlorite sprays are effective for decontaminating beef carcass surfaces.

  6. Evaluation of beef eating quality by Irish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S N; Henchion, M; White, A; Brandon, K; Allen, P

    2017-10-01

    A consumer's decision to purchase beef is strongly linked to its sensory properties and consistent eating quality is one of the most important attributes. Consumer taste panels were held according to the Meat Standards Australia guidelines and consumers scored beef according to its palatability attributes and completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Consumers were able to distinguish between beef quality on a scale from unsatisfactory to premium with high accuracy. Premium cuts of beef scored significantly higher on all of the scales compared to poorer quality cuts. Men rated grilled beef higher on juiciness and flavour scales compared to women. Being the main purchaser of beef had no impact on rating scores. Overall the results show that consumers can judge eating quality with high accuracy. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate inherent benefits that are not visible into extrinsic eating quality indicators, to provide the consumer with consistent indications of quality at the point of purchase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inoculation of maize with Azospirillum brasilense in the seed furrow

    OpenAIRE

    Tâmara Prado de Morais; Césio Humberto de Brito; Afonso Maria Brandão; Wender Santos Rezende

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies addressing the inoculation of cereals with diazotrophic microorganisms can be found in the literature. However, in many experiments, investigators have overlooked the feasibility of applying these microorganisms to the furrow together with the seed, and the effect of bacterial concentration on phytostimulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, applied to the seed furrow when planting maize, comb...

  8. Albendazole inhibits Pneumocystis carinii proliferation in inoculated immunosuppressed mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, M S; Edlind, T D; Lee, C. H.; Dean, R; Queener, S F; Shaw, M M; Smith, J W.

    1994-01-01

    Albendazole, a benzimidazole derivative widely used for treating helminth infections, was successfully used to treat and prevent development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in transtracheally inoculated immunosuppressed mice. For treatment, 3 weeks postinoculation, albendazole at 300 and 600 mg/kg of body weight per day was administered in food for 3 weeks. For prophylaxis, albendazole was begun on the same day as inoculation at 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then the dose was reduced to 150...

  9. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...... attribute cut-off values. Also, highly involved consumers are less likely of violating their cut-off values. At the same, the lower the involvement the lower the probability to have cut-off values developed....

  10. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  11. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  12. Factors influencing the purchase and consumers’ willingness to pay for ground bison

    OpenAIRE

    Qasmi, Bashir; Fausti, Scott; Underwood, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A consumer preference study that included willingness to pay and consumer sensory experiments was conducted for ground bison versus ground beef. A total of 82 subjects completed the study. The initial statistical analysis suggest that there is consistent consumer behavior with respect to consumer preference and frequency of consumption within species consumption options, but consistent consumer behavior appears to weaken when across species consumption preferences is compared to across specie...

  13. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  14. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  15. Effect of inoculating addition on machinability of gray cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fengzhang; LI Fengjun; LIU Weiming; MA Zhanhong; TIAN Baohong

    2009-01-01

    Gray cast irons were inoculated with FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants. The changes of apex angle of the drills before and af-ter being used were used to evaluate machinability of gray cast irons. Effect of FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants on mechanical proper-ties, machinability and sensibility of gray cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. Experimental results showed that gray cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40% RE inoculants exhibited tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and im-proved metallurgical quality. While gray cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80% Sr inoculants exhibited the best machinability, the low-est cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The tool flank wear of the drill increased correspondingly with the in-crease of the microhardness difference of the matrix, indicating the great effect of homogeneity of the matrix on the machinability of gray cast iron.

  16. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  17. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed......Various meats differing in fat contents were pan-fried in margarine or oil under various conditions to determine how much fat was gained or lost in absolute terms based on an initial 100 g of product. Beefsteaks and pork leg schnitzel having about, respectively, 6% and 2% fat initially gained...... no more than 2 g fat/100 g raw meat, even when pan-fried in a relatively large amount of margarine. Slight differences were observed depending on the frying time, slice thickness, frying fat type (oil or margarine), quantity of frying fat, or "resting" on the pan. Breaded pork schnitzel gained up to 8 g...

  18. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  19. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  20. Order of inoculation affects the success of co-invading entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, E J; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Pell, J K; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Suarez-Espinoza, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of order of inoculation of Pandora blunckii and Zoophthora radicans co-infecting Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was investigated. After co-inoculation, the proportion of larvae infected by either species was greatly reduced compared to when they were inoculated singly. The order of inoculation influenced the final outcome; the isolate inoculated last always killed more larvae than the isolate inoculated first.

  1. Inactivation by lemon juice of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes in beef marinating for the ethnic food kelaguen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Lee, Delores; Afaisen, Shayna; Gadi, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Lemon juice, a major source of acidulant citric acid, is frequently used in the preparation of ethnic foods. Raw or partially cooked meats are marinated with lemon juice in the preparation of a popular Chamorro dish called kelaguen, which is, unfortunately, strongly associated with foodborne illness outbreaks in Guam. We investigated the efficacy of lemon juice in reducing numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at stationary phase during marination. Beef inoculated with a three-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7, S. Enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes at 10(6)CFU/mL was marinated with lemon juice from 0.2 to 10mL/g for 48h at 28°C. The decline of the pathogens during marination exhibited various degrees of deviation from first-order kinetics. Based on calculations with both linear regression and Weibull models, the decimal reduction time (4-D values) over the range of lemon concentrations was 366-5.1h for E. coli O157:H7, 282-2.4h for S. Enteritidis, and 104-2.4h for L. monocytogenes, indicating that E. coli O157:H7 was the most lemon-juice-resistant of the three. The pathogen reduction time (log 4-D values) plotted against undissociated titratable citric acid exhibited a biphasic pattern. The pathogen reduction time (log 4-D or δ values) was linearly correlated with the pH of the marinating beef (R(2)=0.92 to 0.98). The Z(pH) values (pH dependence of death rate) with beef marination were 1.03 for E. coli O157:H7, 0.92 for S. Enteritidis, and 1.29 for L. monocytogenes, indicating that L. monocytogenes was the most pH resistant of the three. L. monocytogenes exhibited less resistance to lemon juice than S. Enteritidis at pH of 3.5-4.4 but more resistance at pH of 2.6-2.8. In addition, at 4°C, all three pathogens exhibited 4-D values 1.7-4.1 times greater than those at 24°C at 5mL lemon juice/g beef. In conclusion, the usual beef marinating practice for kelaguen preparation (lemon juice/g beef for 1-12h) did not

  2. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland.

  4. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reacti

  5. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swan, S.H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J.W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N.E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined mens' semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. METHODS...

  6. Genome-wide association studies of female reproduction in tropically adapted beef cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawken, R J; Zhang, Y D; Fortes, M R S; Collis, E; Barris, W C; Corbet, N J; Williams, P J; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G; Walkley, J R W; Barendse, W; Johnston, D J; Prayaga, K C; Tier, B; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A

    2012-01-01

    .... To elucidate the genetics underlying reproduction in beef cattle, we performed a genome-wide association study using the bovine SNP50 chip in 2 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds, Brahman and Tropical Composite...

  7. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  8. Does it pay to integrate irrigated forages in a beef cattle breeding operation in north Queensland?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The northern Australian beef industry accounts for approximately half of the national beef herd. It is currently challenged by a range of factors including decline in beef prices, limited live export trade, large farm debt levels, and low return on assets managed. Access to irrigation has been identified as one factor with potential to contribute to growth of the northern Australian beef industry. The development of irrigation for growing pasture and forage crops could extend the ability to s...

  9. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  10. The effect of stress inoculation training on self-reported stress, observer's rating of stress, heart rate and gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R D; Carroll, D

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen volunteer female subjects received preliminary instruction in a simple gymnastics bench sequence. They were then given a pre-intervention test on a bench at ground level. Self-reported distress, an independent observer's ratings of distress and heart rates were monitored immediately prior to performance of the sequence. Performances were also videotaped and formally scored by a qualified gymnastics judge. Subjects were then randomly assigned to a stress inoculation training group or a 'no stress management' training control group. Stress inoculation group subjects then received seven sessions of training in relaxation, imagery and making self-statements in order to develop a set of coping skills. Control group subjects also received seven training sessions during which they practised a series of coordination exercises, but no psychological stress management training was given to this group. All subjects were then re-tested on the bench sequence but this time at a height of 1.52 m. Self-reported stress, observer's ratings of distress and heart rate were recorded as before. Performance was again videotaped for scoring. The stress inoculation group reported significantly less stress prior to the test on the elevated beam than the control group. However, the groups did not differ in terms of heart rate. Further, the stress inoculation group performed reliably better than the control group on the elevated bench.

  11. Comportamento ingestivo e digestão de nutrientes em bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de capim = Intake behavior and nutrient digestion of beef cattle fed with grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do teor de matéria seca, uso de inoculante bacteriano e a redução do tamanho de partículas da silagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, sobre os parâmetros digestivos. Utilizaram-se sete novilhos da raça Nelore, em delineamentoexperimental Quadrado Latino 7 x 7. Os tratamentos foram: T1: Umidade original, partícula menor, sem inoculante bacteriano; T2: Umidade original, partícula menor, com inoculante bacteriano; T3: Emurchecido, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T4:Emurchecido, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T5: Umidade original, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T6: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T7: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano, com milheto.Os tratamentos não influenciaram as taxas de passagem de sólidos (2,4% hora-1 e de líquidos (3,2% hora-1, o consumo de matéria seca (1,1% do PV e nem o comportamento ingestivo. Observaram-se os seguintes tempos (minutos dia-1 e taxas (min kg MS-1 de ingestão de MS (293 e 68; de ruminação (432 e 102 e de mastigação (725 e 170,respectivamente. Os valores médios de digestibilidade da MS (61,4%, FDA (59,7%, PB (43,9% e FDN (60,3% não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os procedimentos adotados na ensilagem não resultaram em alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados.The main objective was to study the effect of dry matter content, the addition of bacterial inoculant and particle size reduction on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum silage on digestive parameters. Seven ruminally cannulated Nellore beef steers were randomly assigned to a 7 x 7 Latin Square design. Treatments were described as follows: T1: wet forage + small particle; T2: T1 + inoculant; T4: wilting + large particle; T3: T4 + inoculant; T6: wet forage + large particle; T5: T6 + inoculant; T7: T6 + ground pearl millet grain. The ruminal passage rate of solid (2.35% h-1 and liquid (3.17% h-1 phases

  12. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  13. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales. 59.104... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.104 Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales... time, and once by 2 p.m. central time) the following information on total boxed beef domestic...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.312 - Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State Beef Council. 1260.312 Section 1260.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.312 Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council. Each person responsible for the collection and...

  15. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  16. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  17. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, whole cuts of boneless beef derived from cattle that were born, raised,...

  18. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  19. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production;…

  20. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  1. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  2. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  3. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheli de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  4. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  6. Inoculation of soil native cyanobacteria to restore arid degraded soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raúl Román Fernández, José; Roncero Ramos, Beatriz; Chamizo de la Piedra, Sonia; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Ángeles Muñoz Martín, M.; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón Castilla, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Restoration projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, low soil fertility, and poor soil structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. Under these conditions, a previous stage that improves edaphic conditions would turn out to a successful plant restoration. By successfully colonizing arid soils, cyanobacteria naturally provide suitable edaphic conditions, enhancing water availability, soil fertility and soil stability. Furthermore, cyanobacteria can be easily isolated and cultured ex-situ to produce high quantities of biomass, representing a potential tool to restore large areas efficiently. The objective of this study was to test the effect of inoculated cyanobacteria on degraded soils at three different semiarid areas from southeast Spain: Tabernas badlands, a limestone quarry located in Gádor, and grazed grassland in Las Amoladeras (Cabo de Gata). Soil native cyanobacteria belonging to three representative N-fixing genera (Nostoc, Scytonema and Tolypothrix) were isolated from such soils and cultured in BG110 medium. Each strain was inoculated (6 g m-2), separately and mixed (all in the same proportion), on Petri dishes with 80 g of each soil. Biocrust development was monitored during 3 months in these soils under laboratory conditions, at a constant temperature of 25oC. During the experiment, two irrigation treatments were applied simulating a dry (180 mm) and a wet (360 mm) rainfall year (average recorded in the study sites). After 3 months, net CO2 flux, spectral response and soil surface microtopography (1 mm spatial resolution) of inoculated and control soils was measured under wet conditions, all of them as a surrogate of biocrust development. Samples of the surface crust were collected in order to determine total soil organic carbon (SOC) content. The inoculated soils showed positive values of net CO2 flux, thus indicating a net CO2 uptake, whereas control soils showed CO2 fluxes closed to

  7. Experimental inoculation of juvenile rhesus macaques with primate enteric caliciviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue culture-adapted Tulane virus (TV, a GI.1 rhesus enteric calicivirus (ReCV, and a mixture of GII.2 and GII.4 human norovirus (NoV-containing stool sample were used to intrastomacheally inoculate juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in order to evaluate infection caused by these viruses. METHODOLOGY & FINDINGS: Two of the three TV-inoculated macaques developed diarrhea, fever, virus-shedding in stools, inflammation of duodenum and 16-fold increase of TV-neutralizing (VN serum antibodies but no vomiting or viremia. No VN-antibody responses could be detected against a GI.2 ReCV strain FT285, suggesting that TV and FT285 represent different ReCV serotypes. Both NoV-inoculated macaques remained asymptomatic but with demonstrable virus shedding in one animal. Examination of duodenum biopsies of the TV-inoculated macaques showed lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria and villous blunting. TV antigen-positive (TV+ cells were detected in the lamina propria. In most of the TV+ cells TV co-localized perinuclearly with calnexin--an endoplasmic reticulum protein. A few CD20+TV+ double-positive B cells were also identified in duodenum. To corroborate the authenticity of CD20+TV+ B cells, in vitro cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy macaques were inoculated with TV. Multicolor flow cytometry confirmed the presence of TV antigen-containing B cells of predominantly CD20+HLA-DR+ phenotype. A 2-log increase of viral RNA by 6 days post inoculation (p<0.05 suggested active TV replication in cultured lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that ReCVs represent an alternative cell culture and animal model to study enteric calicivirus replication, pathogenesis and immunity.

  8. Inducing Resistance to Conspiracy Theory Propaganda: Testing Inoculation and Metainoculation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, John A.; Miller, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the boundaries of inoculation theory by examining how inoculation can be applied to conspiracy theory propaganda as well as inoculation itself (called metainoculation). A 3-phase experiment with 312 participants compared 3 main groups: no-treatment control, inoculation, and metainoculation. Research questions explored…

  9. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Migliorini; Keilor da Rosa Dorneles; Gustavo Fonseca Rodrigues; Gabriele de Paula; Lilian Vanussa Madruga de Tunes

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p37 Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on...

  10. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  11. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  12. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  13. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations.

  14. Competitiveness of the EU Beef Sector – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Smeets Kristková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elements of competitiveness of the EU beef sector are assessed using the value chain approach. Consequently, the impact of the external factors represented by domestic policy and foreign trade policy is discussed, with the aim of deriving recommendations for policy makers. It is shown that investing in collaborative supply chains can improve the disadvantaged position of beef producers, which have the least power in the supply chain. Furthermore, the domains of science and innovation provide several opportunities that could be further explored, namely improving the logistics of the supply chain and developing more tailored quality systems. The main threats stem from potential free trade agreements, climate change and the internal competition between other agricultural crops. Better targeting of the CAP and environmental aspects are suggested to maintain the competitiveness of European beef producers.

  15. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation.

  16. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... of each one of them. The obtained data was consecutively transcribed, coded and analysed by using the software package NVivo 7. The results reveal a dependency between the acceptance of novel beef products and how consumers perceive the characteristics of the innovation itself. Excess manipulation...

  17. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in the Muscles of Chicken, Pig and Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Raj Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Though antibiotic drugs are known to improve the health and welfare of food animals , there is parallel risk due to the development of resistant microorganisms in the body of target animals. Seven meat samples were procured from wet market in Old Town,Petaling Jaya, Malaysia and assessed for the presence of antibiotic residues. The samples chosen were chicken parts (skin, muscle and liver , pig parts (liver, muscle and intestine and beef muscle. The results indicated that chicken skin had high level of antibioticresidues which positively resisted the presence of gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidisand B. cereus as known by the zone of inhibition.The beef muscle also held residue which resisted S. aureusChosenbacteriaalong with the extracts of chicken skin, pig intestine and beef muscle were observed to be resistant totetracycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate and their combinations when tested at a concentration of 1 percent

  19. Effect of actinobacteria agent inoculation methods on cellulose degradation during composting based on redundancy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Lu, Qian; Wei, Yuquan; Cui, Hongyang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xueqin; Shan, Si; Wei, Zimin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, actinobacteria agent including Streptomyces sp. and Micromonospora sp. were inoculated during chicken manure composting by different inoculation methods. The effect of different treatments on cellulose degradation and the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria were investigated during composting. The results showed that inoculation in different stages of composting all improved the actinobacteria community diversity particularly in the cooling stage of composting (M3). Moreover, inoculation could distinctly accelerate the degradation of organic matters (OM) especially celluloses. Redundancy analysis indicated that the correlation between indigenous actinobacteria and degradation of OM and cellulose were regulated by inoculants and there were significant differences between different inoculation methods. Furthermore, synergy between indigenous actinobacteria and inoculants for degradation of OM and cellulose in M3 was better than other treatments. Conclusively, we suggested an inoculation method to regulate the indigenous actinobacteria based on the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria and degradation content.

  20. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  1. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  2. Impact of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and on the survival of E. coli and E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xianqin

    2017-03-06

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of naturally occurring Escherichia coli on beef carcasses, and to examine whether two populations of E. coli recovered from carcasses during chilling and E. coli O157 differed in their response to desiccation. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from beef carcasses during a 67h dry chilling process and were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Ten E. coli genotypes found only at 0h (group A) and found more than once (group B), as well as five strains of E. coli O157 (group C) were inoculated on stainless steel coupons and their survival was examined after exposure to 75 and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 0 or 35°C for 67h. A total of 450 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 254, 49, 49, 51, 23, 20, and 4 from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h of chilling, respectively. No E. coli were recovered at 67h. MLVA of the isolates revealed 173 distinct genotypes. Genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, defined as ratio of the number of isolates to the number of genotypes, remained between 2.3 and 1.3 during the 24h of chilling. All strains inoculated on stainless steel coupons and exposed to 75% RH at 35°C were completely inactivated, irrespective of their groups. Inactivation of E. coli of the three groups was not significantly (P>0.05) different by exposure to 75% RH at 0°C. The findings indicate that the genetic diversity of E. coli on beef carcasses was not affected by dry chilling. In addition, inactivation of E. coli genotypes and E. coli O157 by desiccation on stainless steel simulating dry chilling conditions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Thus, dry chilling may be used as an effective antimicrobial intervention for beef carcasses. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal.

  4. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  5. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...

  6. Validation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Escherichia coli O157:H7 Real-Time PCR Assay for Raw Beef and Produce Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Bastin, Ben; Flannery, Jonathan; Agin, James; Goins, David; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Escherichia coli O157:H7 Assay is a new real-time PCR assay which has been validated through the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw beef and produce matrixes. This validation study specifically validated the assay with 375 g 1:4 and 1:5 ratios of raw ground beef and raw beef trim in comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDS-FSIS/MLG) reference method and 25 g bagged spinach and fresh apple juice at a ratio of 1:10, in comparison to the reference method detailed in the International Organization for Standardization 16654:2001 reference method. For raw beef matrixes, the validation of both 1:4 and 1:5 allows user flexibility with the enrichment protocol, although which of these two ratios chosen by the laboratory should be based on specific test requirements. All matrixes were analyzed by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Vantaa, Finland, and Q Laboratories Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the method developer study. Two of the matrixes (raw ground beef at both 1:4 and 1:5 ratios) and bagged spinach were additionally analyzed in the AOAC-RI controlled independent laboratory study, which was conducted by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, Wisconsin. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, no significant difference was demonstrated by the SureTect kit in comparison to the USDA FSIS reference method for raw beef matrixes, or with the ISO reference method for matrixes of bagged spinach and apple juice. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 58 E. coli O157:H7 and 54 non-E. coli O157:H7 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect assay was able to detect all isolates of E. coli O157:H7 analyzed. In addition, all but one of the nontarget isolates were correctly interpreted as negative by the SureTect Software. The single isolate giving a positive result was an E

  7. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  8. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  9. The Effect of a Silage Inoculant on Silage Quality, Aerobic Stability, and Meat Production on Farm Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Aragón, Y.; Jatkauskas, J.; Vrotniakienė, V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%. PMID:23738122

  10. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  11. Mycorrhizal inoculation of pecan seedlings with some marketable truffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian M. Benucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pecan is the common name of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, an ectomycorrhizal tree native to North America, also frequently known as hickory. Mycorrhizal inoculations of pecan seedlings with: Tuber aestivum Vittad., T. borchii Vittad., T. indicum Cooke & Massee, and T. lyonii Butters are described and discussed.

  12. Erythema at BCG Inoculation Site in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

    2014-08-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limiting childhood systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. Because there is no diagnostic test for Kawasaki disease, the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. An important clinical sign that is not included in the classical clinical criteria for Kawasaki disease is a reaction at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site that are present in about 30-50% of Kawasaki disease patients. of this review was to highlight the usefulness of the inflammation at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, we conducted a literature review on Medline in PubMed area, Google scholar, Magiran and Scientific Information Database using the search terms "Kawasaki disease, Erythema, BCG, inoculation site, children, cardiac complications, coronary artery lesion, aneurysm, incomplete Kawasaki in 2013. A total of 15 articles had been found. Erythema at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site was found in 49.87% of Kawasaki disease patients. Coronary artery abnormalities were found in 10.3% of cases. According to this review, BCGitis is more prevalent than cervical lymphadenopathy and rash and it can be a useful criterion in the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in cases not fulfills the classic criteria of at least four of the five findings.

  13. Effects of bacterial inoculation on the fermentation characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and CO2, pH, hours for temperature to rise above 2 ºC, yeasts and moulds were ... Further work is needed to determine the effects of soybean silage on growth ... Keywords: Cultivars, forages, inoculants, legumes, nutrients, silage, soybean ...

  14. The effect of rhizobacterial inoculation on growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malysia, ... was conducted to observe the effect of plant growth promoting ... Key words: Banana, rhizobacteria, root stimulation, growth, nutrient uptake. ... Biofertilizer, inoculants of microorganisms, an alter- ... ensure a sustainable banana production.

  15. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  16. New Inoculants Containing Lactic Bacteria Applied in Forage Ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In a first study, the capacity of lactic bacteria to accumulate biomass in different culture media and temperatures was tested and the biosynthesis parameters were established. In the second study, the strains producing the highest quantity of biomass and determining the most rapid pH drop in culture medium were conditioned in solid supports. The obtained solid products containing lactic bacteria were used to inoculate different types of forages. Ensilage was carried out in laboratory silos made from O2-impermeable plastic flasks, vacuumed using a vacuum pump. The experiment was 2 x 2 factorial with two types of forage (alfalfa and sorghum, each of them inoculated and not inoculated with lactic bacteria. The evolution of lactic bacteria, pH value, and the concentration in volatile acids was verified. In the third experiment, lactic bacteria were used to inoculate silages in farm conditions. The obtained results recommend the tested strain for the improvement of preserving conditions and nutritive value in ensiled forages.

  17. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  18. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Migliorini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on the emergence and early development of seedlings. Seeds of BRS Expedito were inoculated by spore suspension, contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium, and with PDA discs containing mycelium and spores of the fungus. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight repetitions. Emergence, shoot length and dry mass, and incidence of symptoms of the disease on the hypocotyl and leaf were evaluated. The inoculation methods were effective at causing the infection of the pathogen in the bean seedlings, without affecting emergence, and contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium was the most effective method.

  19. Inoculation methods of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Migliorini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p37 Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus Scrib. is one of the most serious diseases of bean crops. Inoculation techniques are important to evaluate the resistance of genotypes and control methods at early stages of seedling development. Due to the need for infected seedlings, the objective of the present study was to test different inoculation methods of C. lindemuthianum on bean seeds to verify the the impact on the emergence and early development of seedlings. Seeds of BRS Expedito were inoculated by spore suspension, contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium, and with PDA discs containing mycelium and spores of the fungus. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight repetitions. Emergence, shoot length and dry mass, and incidence of symptoms of the disease on the hypocotyl and leaf were evaluated. The inoculation methods were effective at causing the infection of the pathogen in the bean seedlings, without affecting emergence, and contact with the pathogen in a water restricted medium was the most effective method.

  20. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In Kenya, wide-scale adoption of this innovation among the smallholder ... Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... Rhizobia may pose a barrier to infection and subsequent ... small-scale farmers in western Kenya. .... on soybean production. Gross margin is ...

  1. Suppressive properties of composts may be improved by microbial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of suppressive composts instead of traditional fertilizers and pesticides is becoming more commonplace in modern agricultural biotechnology. In this study, we investigated the possibility of obtaining composts with suppressive properties from widespread agricultural wastes produced in tatarstan (russia. Straw and corn wastes, as well as chicken, cattle and swine manure were used to prepare 11 two- and three-component mixtures for further composting. It was found that mesophilic phase of composting lasted for 1 to 3 days for all the waste mixtures; the thermophilic phase lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. From 27°с to 59°с. In the initial mixture, the dissolved organic carbon (doc content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1 ; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg со2-сg -1 . After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (sw+sm to 100% (cw+chm+sm, cw+chm; however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic, and the others were slightly toxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (trichoderma asperellum t203, pseudomonas putida pcl1760, pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 and streptomyces spp., and the other part was not inoculated. Both parts were composted under equivalent conditions for 60 days. Inoculation led to a slightly shorter period of increasing doc and respiration activity. However, after 3-10 days, no differences were observed between the mixtures. Inoculation did not influence the temperature profile or phytotoxicity of

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Escherichia coli on Beef Trimmings Obtained from a Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Wang, Hui; Youssef, Mohamed K; Devos, Julia; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top. The samples were enriched for E. coli in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with 20 mg/liter novobiocin. The positive enrichment cultures, as determined by PCR, were plated on E. coli/coliform count plates for recovery of E. coli. Selected E. coli isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 200 enrichment cultures, 43 were positive by PCR for E. coli, and 32 of these cultures yielded E. coli isolates. Two bins did not yield any positive enrichment cultures, and three PCR-positive bins did not yield any E. coli isolates. MLVA of 165 E. coli isolates (30, 62, 56, 5, and 12 from B6 through B10, respectively) revealed nine distinct genotypes. MLVA types 263 and 89 were most prevalent overall and on individual days, accounting for 49.1 and 37.6% of the total isolates, respectively. These two genotypes were also found at multiple locations within a bin. All nine genotypes belonged to the phylogenetic group A0 of E. coli, suggesting an animal origin. The finding that the trimmings carried very few E. coli indicates an overall effective control over contamination of beef with E. coli at this processing plant. The lack of strain diversity of the E. coli on trimmings suggests that most E. coli isolates may have come from common sources, most likely equipment used in the fabrication process.

  3. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-11-10

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  4. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  5. Influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Bajc, Marko; Robek, Robert; Humar, Miha; Sinjur, Iztok; Kadunc, Aleš; Oven, Primož; Rep, Gregor; Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kraigher, Hojka; Jurc, Dušan; Pohleven, Franc

    2011-11-01

    The influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and on fungal community structure was studied. The experiments were performed on an organically poor fly ash deposit covered with a 10 cm layer of beech wood chips inoculated with P. ostreatus isolate ZIM76. Compared to non-inoculated wood chips, inoculation increased the temperatures and relative humidities and, in the first 6 months, accelerated Klason lignin degradation by 9% and also, after 17 months, increased iron translocation into wood chips by 30%. After 6 months, PCR-DGGE showed 22-28 and 13-21 fungal taxa in non-inoculated and P. ostreatus-inoculated beech chips, respectively. The differences in number of taxa and in the fungal community structure (based on Dice coefficient) between non-inoculated and inoculated wood chips diminished with time. The results indicate that the naturally occurring processes of wood degradation are as efficient as those occurring in sites inoculated with P. ostreatus.

  6. Cast Iron Inoculation Enhanced by Supplementary Oxy-sulfides Forming Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Uta, Valentin; Stefan, Ion

    2017-08-01

    Inoculation is one of the most important metallurgical treatments applied to the molten cast iron immediately prior to casting, to promote solidification without excessive eutectic undercooling, which favors carbides formation usually with undesirable graphite morphologies. The paper focused on the separate addition of an inoculant enhancer alloy [S, O, oxy-sulfides forming elements] with a conventional Ca-FeSi alloy, in the production of gray and ductile cast irons. Carbides formation tendency decreased with improved graphite characteristics as an effect of the [Ca-FeSi + Enhancer] inoculation combination, when compared to other Ca/Ca, Ba/Ca, RE-FeSi alloy treatments. Adding an inoculant enhancer greatly enhances inoculation, lowers inoculant consumption up to 50% or more and avoids the need to use more costly inoculants, such as a rare earth bearing alloy. The Inoculation Specific Factor [ISF] was developed as a means to more realistically measure inoculant treatment efficiency. It compares the ratio between the improved characteristic level and total inoculant consumption for this effect. Addition of any of the commercial inoculants plus the inoculant enhancer offered outstanding inoculation power [increased ISF] even at higher solidification cooling rates, even though the total enhancer addition was at a small fraction of the amount of commercial inoculant used.

  7. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  8. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  9. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...

  10. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  11. Where's the Beef? Adding Rigor to Student Digital Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Bernajean

    2010-01-01

    Effective communication skills start with content that is worthy of sharing. Students exploring and using various technologies, unfortunately, easily become enamoured by media novelties, such as flying words or spinning images, and produce digital products with no beef. Using digital tools does not make their cutting and pasting of summary…

  12. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  13. Microbial pathogen control in the beef chain: recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncic, Sava; Nychas, George-John; Lee, Michael R F; Koutsoumanis, Kostas; Hébraud, Michel; Desvaux, Mickaël; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Bolton, Declan; Blagojevic, Bojan; Antic, Dragan

    2014-07-01

    Within a recent EU research project ("ProSafeBeef"), research on foodborne pathogens in the beef chain was conducted by using a longitudinally integrated (fork-to-farm) approach. There is not any "single intervention-single chain point" combination by which the pathogens would be reliably and entirely eliminated from the chain resulting in total prevention of pathogens in beef and products thereof at the consumption time. Rather, a range of control interventions have to be applied at multiple points of the chain, so to achieve an acceptable, ultimate risk reduction. Various novel interventions were developed and evaluated during the project, and are briefly summarized in this paper. They include on-farm measures, risk categorisation of cattle presented for slaughter, hygiene-based measures and antimicrobial treatments applied on hides and/or carcasses during cattle slaughter, those applied during beef processing-storage-distribution, use of Time Temperature Integrator-based indicators of safety, and effective sanitation of surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  15. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4. Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  16. THE DESCRIPTION OF GROWTH IN BEEF BULLS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal orul Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 1675. (Key words: ...... animals with high fattening capacity (small frame. Hereford) in ... Rate of protein deposition in beef cattle as a function of mature size and weight and ...

  17. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  18. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  19. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  20. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... second day after heating produced in beef suya 3.3 x 103/g. Shigella ... However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of ... Growth in peptone water was used for .... vendor to re-heat the suya before purchasing.

  1. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breeds managed in a relatively intensive but high stocking rate environment, were .... crossbreeding effects, using the CBE3 package of Wolf (1996) and fitting Kinghorn's Model 7 (Kinghorn 1987; ... predicted value of the genetic group G under consideration m. = ...... preweaning growth rate and type score of beef calves.

  2. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    capital investment and gross margin per animal unit. The need for more ... Figure 1 Relationship between average weighted beef price at urban markets and cost of all ... updated every year using market-related information. Al- though the size ..... be profitable to improve calving rates by additional short-term feeding during ...

  3. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Boettcher, P.; Bozzi, R.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies to include lon

  4. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.

  5. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  6. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif Bilek, A; Turhan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    Flaxseed flour was used as a functional ingredient in the production of beef patties. Beef patties were produced with five different formulations; the addition of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% flaxseed flour. Control samples were formulated with 10% and 20% fat addition. Raw and cooked beef patties were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, pH, color parameters and fatty acid profiles. Beef patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory properties. Fat and ash content of raw patties increased, while moisture and protein content decreased with increased flaxseed flour. The same trend (except fat content) was also observed after cooking. The addition of flaxseed flour did not affect pH values of raw and cooked beef patties. The addition of flaxseed flour improved the cooking loss but, increased the energy value (as kcal/100g). L and a values of raw beef patties containing flaxseed flour were close to controls with 10% fat. α-linolenic acid content of raw and cooked beef patties increased as the level of flaxseed flour increased. The PUFA/SFA ratio increased from 0.04 in the control with 10% fat to 0.62 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 5.76 in the control with 10% fat to 0.36 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The nutritional status of beef patties was enhanced with minimal composition and sensory changes with 3% or 6% flaxseed flour addition.

  7. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBrusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxing-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine and manipulator hands (n= 450 obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin, rfbO157 (O157 lipopolysaccharide, fliCH7 (H7 flagellin, eae (intimin, ehxA (enterohemolysin and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin, were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5% beef samples and 16 (4.4% environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2% and 182 (50.5%, respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%, and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%; stx2 (29.7%; and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%. None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19 and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  9. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  10. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  11. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  12. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  13. 卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产技术%Joint production technology of stewed beef and beef broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓钟; 张蕾

    2015-01-01

    The joint production processing of stewed beef and beef broth was discussed. The pro⁃duction economic benefits were analyzed.%主要阐述卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产工艺,分析了产生的经济效益。

  14. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  15. Pneumonia in mice inoculated experimentally with Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate whether Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM) was pathogenic (i.e., induces histological evidence of inflammation or tissue destruction or both) in mammalian host, we inoculated adult BALB/c (n=6) and C57BL/6 (n=6) mice with APM via intracardiac route. C57BL/6 mice developed histopathological features of pneumonia by post-inoculation day (PID) 3 and BALB/c mice, by PID7. The histopathological features of pneumonia, characterized by the presence of thickened alveolar walls with cellular infiltrates comprising mononuclear leukocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes, diffuse alveolar damages with the formation of hyaline membrane and erythrocytes in the alveolar lumen, were most marked by PID 7. We conclude that APM is pathogenic in mice in experimental conditions.

  16. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  17. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  18. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  19. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiwen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.

  20. Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen fixation is an alternative to supply the nitrogen needed for maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of maize in response to inoculation with Azospirillum associated with nitrogen fertilization. We conducted two field experiments in the summer harvest, the first in the 2000/2001 crop year in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon, under conventional tillage, and second in the 2002/2003 agricultural year in the region of Cascavel, under no tillage. The experimental design in both experiments was a randomized complete block, with four replications, 2x2x2 factorial, with two levels of nitrogen at sowing (zero and 20 kg ha-1, two levels of inoculum (zero and 200 g ha-1 and two levels of nitrogen in topdressing (zero and 100 kg ha-1. There was evaluated the height of ear insertion, total plant height, leaf N content, shoot dry biomass and grain yield. The height of ear insertion and total plant height were not influenced by the factors under study. Nitrogen fertilization at sowing increased the leaf N content, causing the opposite effect when combined with inoculation. Inoculation with Azospirillum in the absence of nitrogen, provide productivity increases of 15.4% and 7.4% for 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 crops, respectively. The inoculation provided productivity similar to that obtained with 100 kg ha-1 in topdressing in crop 2000/2001, while in association with the topdressing, reduced productivity and shoot dry biomass in crop 2002/2003.

  1. Stress inoculation training: a case study in gymnastics.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, R; Eastman, C.; Carroll, D.

    1986-01-01

    A young female gymnast of regional squad potential had ceased to make progress when she resumed training after a series of injuries and was given stress inoculation training to help her to regain her form. Preliminary interviews revealed that she had developed a number of negative self-statements and images which, it was hypothesised, may have been contributing towards her lack of progress. In order to replace these with positive self-statements and images a treatment programme of eight train...

  2. Two stages kinetics of municipal solid waste inoculation composting processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Bei-dou1; HUANG Guo-he; QIN Xiao-sheng; LIU Hong-liang

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the key mechanisms of the composting processes, the municipal solid waste(MSW) composting processes were divided into two stages, and the characteristics of typical experimental scenarios from the viewpoint of microbial kinetics was analyzed. Through experimentation with advanced composting reactor under controlled composting conditions, several equations were worked out to simulate the degradation rate of the substrate. The equations showed that the degradation rate was controlled by concentration of microbes in the first stage. The degradation rates of substrates of inoculation Run A, B, C and Control composting systems were 13.61 g/(kg·h), 13.08 g/(kg·h), 15.671 g/(kg·h), and 10.5 g/(kg·h), respectively. The value of Run C is around 1.5 times higher than that of Control system. The decomposition rate of the second stage is controlled by concentration of substrate. Although the organic matter decomposition rates were similar to all Runs, inoculation could reduce the values of the half velocity coefficient and could be more efficient to make the composting stable. Particularly. For Run C, the decomposition rate is high in the first stage, and is low in the second stage. The results indicated that the inoculation was efficient for the composting processes.

  3. Successive site translocating inoculation potentiates DNA/recombinant vaccinia vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Na; Hu, Weiguo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Wan, Yanmin

    2015-12-15

    DNA vaccines have advantages over traditional vaccine modalities; however the relatively low immunogenicity restrains its translation into clinical use. Further optimizations are needed to get the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine closer to the level required for human use. Here we show that intramuscularly inoculating into a different limb each time significantly improves the immunogenicities of both DNA and recombinant vaccinia vaccines during multiple vaccinations, compared to repeated vaccination on the same limb. We term this strategy successive site translocating inoculation (SSTI). SSTI could work in synergy with genetic adjuvant and DNA prime-recombinant vaccinia boost regimen. By comparing in vivo antigen expression, we found that SSTI avoided the specific inhibition of in vivo antigen expression, which was observed in the limbs being repeatedly inoculated. Employing in vivo T cell depletion and passive IgG transfer, we delineated that the inhibition was not mediated by CD8(+) T cells but by specific antibodies. Finally, by using C3(-/-) mouse model and in vivo NK cells depletion, we identified that specific antibodies negatively regulated the in vivo antigen expression primarily in a complement depended way.

  4. Inoculation of maize with Azospirillum brasilense in the seed furrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies addressing the inoculation of cereals with diazotrophic microorganisms can be found in the literature. However, in many experiments, investigators have overlooked the feasibility of applying these microorganisms to the furrow together with the seed, and the effect of bacterial concentration on phytostimulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, applied to the seed furrow when planting maize, combined with different doses of nitrogen fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in the field, in soil of the cerrado region of Brazil. An experimental design of randomised blocks in bands was adopted, comprising nitrogen (40, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 and doses of an A. brasilense-based liquid inoculant applied to the seed furrow (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mL ha-1. The dose of 200 mL ha-1Azospirillum was noteworthy for grain production. This is the first report of the effective application of Azospirillum in the seed furrow when planting maize in the cerrado region of Brazil.

  5. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  7. Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Kemp, Robert; Samuelsson, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate different dry-aging regimes and their impacts on quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Thirty loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from 15 beef carcasses at 2 days post-mortem were obtained. Each loin was cut in half yielding 60 sections, which were randomly assigned to six treatments including 4 dry-aging (2 temperatures (1 or 3°C) × 2 air-velocities (0.2 or 0.5 m/s)) and 2 wet-aging regimes for 3 weeks; n=10/treatment. The sensory panel found that dry-aged loins had better flavour and overall liking (Pdry-aged beef compared to the wet-aged beef, which may contribute to the enhanced flavours of the dry-aged beef. Overall, dry-aging loins at 3°C with 0.2m/s resulted in the greatest improvement in beef palatability.

  8. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain......While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  9. Growth of Brazilian beef production: effect of shocks of supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Alcântara da Silva Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the considerable growth of beef production in Brazil and the growth in beef exports as a backdrop, the main objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the excellent performance of this agribusiness sector. Conducting this study required the construction of a theoretical model that was capable of supporting the specification of the adjusted econometric model using vector autoregression with identification by the Bernanke process. The findings show that the main determinant of beef cattle growth and Brazilian beef exports is increased animal stock. Furthermore, productivity has a positive, albeit more modest, effect on beef production and exports. The results show that the increase of the number of cattle reduces costs to the farmer and retail beef prices.

  10. Water, sodium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on beef briskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajmeer, M N; Marsden, J L; Fung, D Y C; Kemp, G K

    2004-10-01

    Effectiveness of spray application of potable water wash (WW), 25% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl), and 0.1% (v/v) acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated onto beef briskets. The purpose was to identify antimicrobial treatments which may be applied to beef carcasses and more specifically in kosher meat facilities. Treatments were applied for 10-60 s at pressure of 419 kPa. Water wash, NaCl, and ASC significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 as compared with the control, although, only ASC resulted in improved removal with increased exposure time. Water wash did not significantly reduce S. aureus counts throughout exposure and NaCl was only effective after 60 s of exposure, while ASC reduced counts throughout exposure. E. coli O157:H7 was twice as sensitive to WW and NaCl as S. aureus in terms of percent reduction in cell count.

  11. Benefits of inoculation with azotobacter in the growth and production of tomato and peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarak Mirjana N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum in tomato and pepper growth and production by using two types of inoculation - seed inoculation and seedling inoculation. The effect of inoculation was observed thirty days after sowing, thirty days after transplanting, and in the phase of technological maturity. The following were measured: height of the plants, dry matter of the plants and number and the weight of the fruits. Inoculation had a positive effect on these in both plants. With tomato, better results were achieved when seedlings were inoculated. With pepper, the length of the plant and the dry matter were greater with seedling inoculation, whereas the number and the weight of the fruits were greater with seed inoculation.

  12. An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the suppl...

  13. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  14. Channels, Margin and Proft Beef Cattle Marketing Agencies from Bone District To Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hastang; Asnawi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the channel marketing types, margin and proft of beef cattle marketing agency from Bone Regency to Makassar. The population of the study covered all beef cattle marketing agencies of Bone Regency to Makassar. Determination of the samples was done by snowball sampling method. Data were collected through direct observation and interviews. Data were then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that there were two forms of beef cattle marketing cha...

  15. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No significant reductions in bacterial growth or cell adhesion were observed in resistant strains. Taken together, our results provide additional support for the use of phage to control E. coli O157:H7 in food products; however, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could limit the efficacy of phage products. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop resistance mitigation strategies to optimize phage-based technologies.

  16. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  17. From the Plains to the plate : can the beef industry regain market share?

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Russell L.; Michelle Beshear

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the beef industry has seen a sharp drop in its share of the retail meat market. While per capita meat consumption has grown, per capita beef consumption has plunged. Explaining the drop in beef's market share has become a favorite pastime of industry analysts. In fact, a family feud of sorts has broken out in the industry between those who think the decline largely reflects increases in beef's price relative to competing meats and those who stress nonprice facto...

  18. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...

  19. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  20. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry.

  1. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  2. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  3. Control of Clostridium perfringens spores by plant-derived antimicrobials during cooling of cooked ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, oregano oil and two green tea extracts with low (green tea leaf powder (GTL); 141 mg of total catechins/g of green tea extract) and high (green tea leaf extract (GTE); 697 mg of total catechin...

  4. Electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay of ricin in ground beef: Biotinylated capture antibodies and matrix effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of castor (Ricinus communis), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because of the past use of ricin for intentional poisoning, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food m...

  5. Detection of ricin contamination in ground beef by electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for ana...

  6. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  7. Beef Supply Response Under Uncertainty: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi; Coyle, Barry T.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first econometric study of dynamic beef supply response to incorporate risk aversion or, more specifically, price variance. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models are estimated for cow-calf and feedlot operations using aggregate data for Alberta. In all cases, output price variance has a negative impact on output supply and investment. Moreover, the impacts of expected price on supply response are greater in magnitude and significance than in risk-neutral models.

  8. Study on Five Microsatellite Markers in Beef Cattle Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Five microsatellites, IDVGA-2, IDVGA-27, IDVGA-46, IDVGA-55 and TGLA-44,were analyzed for polymorphisms in beef cattle. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 12/0. 82, 5/0. 58, 8/0. 70, 6/0. 57 and 11/0. 86 respectively. Each microstellite was typed on a half-sib family in order to verify the segregation of the alleles.

  9. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  10. A survey of beef muscle color and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J K; Wulf, D M; Schwotzer, T R

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to define a beef carcass population in terms of muscle color, ultimate pH, and electrical impedance; to determine the relationships among color, pH, and impedance and with other carcasses characteristics; and to determine the effect of packing plant, breed type, and sex class on these variables. One thousand beef carcasses were selected at three packing plants to match the breed type, sex class, marbling score, dark-cutting discount, overall maturity, carcass weight, and yield grade distributions reported for the U.S. beef carcass population by the 1995 National Beef Quality Audit. Data collected on these carcasses included USDA quality and yield grade data and measurements of muscle color (L*, a*, b*), muscle pH, and electrical impedance of the longissimus muscle. About one-half (53.1%) of the carcasses fell within a muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.49, and 81.3% of the carcasses fell within a longissimus muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.59. A longissimus muscle pH of 5.87 was the approximate cut-off between normal and dark-cutting carcasses. Frequency distributions indicated that L* values were normally distributed, whereas a* and b* values were abnormally distributed (skewed because of a longer tail for lower values, a tail corresponding with dark-cutting carcasses). Electrical impedance was highly variable among carcasses but was not highly related to any other variable measured. Color measurements (L*, a*, b*) were correlated (P Brahman-type (pH = 5.46, L* = 39.75, a* = 25.17, and b* = 11.05) carcasses (P < 0.05).

  11. Preliminary results on mineral content of some beef muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cignetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the growing interest of consumers for nutritional aspect of food, little data are available on meat mineral content. Among the factors influencing minerals, muscle appears interesting: Doornenbal and Murray (1981 found that the concentrations of several minerals were influenced by muscle and sometimes by age, whereas sex and breed differences were less important. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral content in beef muscles.

  12. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2009-01-01

    the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality....

  13. "DIFERENTIAION OF LEISHMANIA TROPICA MAJOR FROM LEISHMANIA TROPICA MINOR BY INOCULATION TO LABORATORY ANIMALS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nadim

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available The subcutaneous inoculation of 16 white mice and 10 golden hamsters with L.tropica major resulted in the development of leishmanial lesions in all, becoming generalized in some.Two of 10 hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally with this parasite developed generalized lesions. On the other hand, the inoculation of L. tropica minor to 128 mice subcutaneously and 170 mice intraperitoneally did not cause any leishmanial lesions , while 22 out of 47 hamsters inoculated with this parasite showed lesions at the site of inoculation.

  14. Effects of Homofermentative Lactic Acid Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability Characteristics of Low Dry Matter Corn Silages

    OpenAIRE

    SUCU, Ekin; FİLYA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter corn silages. Corn was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1188 (Pioneer®, USA; Inoculant A) and Maize-All (Alltech, UK; Inoculant B) were used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants. Inoculants were applied to silages 1.5 x 106 colony forming units/g levels. Silages with no additive served as co...

  15. Beef assessments using functional magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Davis, T H; Paniukov, D; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M; Miller, M F

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to unveil how some foods and basic rewards are processed in the human brain. This study evaluated how resting state functional connectivity in regions of the human brain changed after differing qualities of beef steaks were consumed. Functional images of participants (n=8) were collected after eating high or low quality beef steaks on separate days, after consumption a sensory ballot was administered to evaluate consumers' perceptions of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Imaging data showed that high quality steak samples resulted in greater functional connectivity to the striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex at various stages after consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, high quality steaks elicited higher sensory ballot scores for each palatability trait (P≤0.01). Together, these results suggest that resting state fMRI may be a useful tool for evaluating the neural process that follows positive sensory experiences such as the enjoyment of high quality beef steaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Circulating placental lactogen levels in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, F F; Ulberg, L C; Fellows, R E

    1976-11-01

    Levels of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) have been measured in the serum of dairy and beef cattle and in the milk and amniotic fluid of pregnant animals with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. In both dairy and beef cows, serum bPL levels remain low (less than 50 ng/ml) during the first two trimesters and then rise rapidly between 160 and 200 days of gestation to a plateau. The bPL levels do not decline prior to parturition. During the last trimester, serum levels in dairy cows, 1103+/-342 ng/ml, are significantly higher than those in beef cattle, 650+/-37 ng/ml (P less than 0.01); furthermore, dairy cows having a high milk production also tend to have high bPL levels. Serum levels are almost twice as high in twin pregnancies and are not correlated with fetal sex or birth weight. bPL levels in milk and amniotic fluid from dairy cattle during the last trimester are approximately 86% and 25% of the serum values, respectively, suggesting that bPL enters these fluids by passive diffusion.

  17. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rós, Patrícia C M Da; Castro, Heizir F de; Carvalho, Ana K F; Soares, Cleide M F; Moraes, Flavio F de; Zanin, Gisella M

    2012-04-01

    Optimal conditions for the microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel have been developed by a full 2² factorial design leading to a set of seven runs with different combinations of molar ratio and temperature. The main goal was to reduce the reaction time preliminarily established by a process of conventional heating. Reactions yielding biodiesel, in which beef tallow and ethanol used as raw materials were catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on silica-PVA and microwave irradiations within the range of 8-15 W were performed to reach the reaction temperature. Under optimized conditions (1:6 molar ratio of beef tallow to ethanol molar ratio at 50°C) almost total conversion of the fatty acid presented in the original beef tallow was converted into ethyl esters in a reaction that required 8 h, i.e., a productivity of about 92 mg ethyl esters g⁻¹ h⁻¹. This represents an increase of sixfold for the process carried out under conventional heating. In general, the process promises low energy demand and higher biodiesel productivity. The microwave assistance speeds up the enzyme catalyzed reactions, decreases the destructive effects on the enzyme of the operational conditions such as, higher temperature, stability, and specificity to its substrate, and allows the entire reaction medium to be heated uniformly.

  18. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  19. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  1. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  2. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  3. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  4. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  5. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  6. Comportamento ingestivo e digestão de nutrientes em bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de capim - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5782 Intake behavior and nutrient digestion of beef cattle fed with grass silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Zopollatto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do teor de matéria seca, uso de inoculante bacteriano e a redução do tamanho de partículas da silagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, sobre os parâmetros digestivos. Utilizaram-se sete novilhos da raça Nelore, em delineamento experimental Quadrado Latino 7 x 7. Os tratamentos foram: T1: Umidade original, partícula menor, sem inoculante bacteriano; T2: Umidade original, partícula menor, com inoculante bacteriano; T3: Emurchecido, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T4: Emurchecido, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T5: Umidade original, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T6: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T7: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano, com milheto. Os tratamentos não influenciaram as taxas de passagem de sólidos (2,4% hora-1 e de líquidos (3,2% hora-1, o consumo de matéria seca (1,1% do PV e nem o comportamento ingestivo. Observaram-se os seguintes tempos (minutos dia-1 e taxas (min kg MS-1 de ingestão de MS (293 e 68; de ruminação (432 e 102 e de mastigação (725 e 170, respectivamente. Os valores médios de digestibilidade da MS (61,4%, FDA (59,7%, PB (43,9% e FDN (60,3% não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os procedimentos adotados na ensilagem não resultaram em alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados.The main objective was to study the effect of dry matter content, the addition of bacterial inoculant and particle size reduction on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum silage on digestive parameters. Seven ruminally cannulated Nellore beef steers were randomly assigned to a 7 x 7 Latin Square design. Treatments were described as follows: T1: wet forage + small particle; T2: T1 + inoculant; T4: wilting + large particle; T3: T4 + inoculant; T6: wet forage + large particle; T5: T6 + inoculant; T7: T6 + ground pearl millet grain. The ruminal passage rate of solid (2.35% h-1 and liquid (3.17% h-1 phases

  7. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  8. 76 FR 30987 - Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef... the EU's failure to comply with the recommendations and rulings of the DSB in the EC-Beef Hormones...) in the EC-Beef Hormones dispute. The MOU provides for the EU to make phased increases in...

  9. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  10. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  11. Use of inoculated lactic acid bacteria in fermenting sour cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PETÄJÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of sour vegetables has to date occurred through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB naturally present in vegetables. The present article deals with preliminary studies on the effects of some LAB inocula (Lactobacillus alimentarius or Pediococcus pentosaceus on fermenting sour cabbage. The effect of LAB on yeast growth, a problem in sour vegetables, was also studied through the use of dual yeast and LAB inocula. The pH of cabbage juice decreased to levels under pH 4 during the first 10 days of fermentation, which is near the final values, pediococci decreasing the pH to the lowest values. The LAB count in inoculated cabbages increased by 0.5-2.0 log cfu (colony forming unit /g during the first 10 days of fermentation and thereafter decreased. Pediococci formed predominant part of microbial flora almost in all experimental batches. In cabbage challenged with yeasts, yeast counts rose only when the pH was < 3.5. Yeasts appeared almost regularly also in cabbages inoculated only with LAB. Pediococci fermented cabbage effectively decreasing the pH to lower levels than lactobacilli or natural LAB. However, too strong a decrease in pH may result in a decrease of LAB count which may subsequently lead to yeast growth. The yeast problem could not be solved with the LAB inocula used in our study.;

  12. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O2), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10(1)-10(6)CFU/cm(2)). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10(4)CFU/cm(2) inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO2 mixtures.

  14. Dependency and Response of Apuleia leiocarpa to Inoculation with Different Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Quintino de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF is a strategy to improve the efficiency of forest plantations, reducing costs and increasing the survival of plant species. The objective of this study was to assess the response and mycorrhizal dependency of seedlings of the forest species Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J.F. Macbr to inoculation with AMF. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design using a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement with six replications. The treatments consisted of combinations of five P rates (0, 24, 71, 213, and 650 mg kg-1 with five types of inoculations with AMF (inoculation with the fungi Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora margarita, Dentiscutata heterogama, inoculation with an AMF mix of these three species, and a treatment without inoculation. The A. leiocarpa showed the highest biomass accumulations in inoculation with D. hetorogama combined with the P rates of 213 and 650 mg kg-1, and in the AMF mix combined with the P rates of 71, 213, and 650 kg-1. Biomass accumulation showed a linear, positive response to inoculation with D. heterogama combined with the different P rates, and a positive square root fit to inoculation with the AMF mix. The plants inoculated with G. margarita had no significant biomass accumulation. The plant species had a positive response to inoculation with R. clarus combined with the lowest P rates; however, it had a negative response to combination with the highest P rate (650 mg kg-1. The relative benefit of inoculation with these fungi was more than 100 % in most treatments, showing the high mycorrhizal dependency of A. leiocarpa and the nutritional benefit of AMF inoculation for this species. However, this response is dependent on the fungus species that colonize the plant roots. The best combination between fungus and P rate was inoculation with the AMF mix combined with the P rate of 71 mg kg-1.

  15. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  16. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  17. Epistatic interactions associated with fatty acid concentrations of beef from angus sired beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, L M; Ghaffar, M A Abdel; Koltes, J E; Fritz-Waters, E R; Mayes, M S; Sewell, A D; Weeks, N T; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Ma, L; Reecy, J M

    2016-11-08

    Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content. Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with EpiSNPmpi. False discovery rate (FDR) was controlled at 5 % and was limited to well-represented genotypic combinations. Epistatic interactions were detected for 37 triacylglyceride (TAG), 36 phospholipid (PL) fatty acid traits, and three weight traits. A total of 6,181, 7,168, and 0 significant epistatic interactions (FDR < 0.05, 50-animals per genotype combination) were associated with Triacylglyceride fatty acids, Phospholipid fatty acids, and weight traits respectively and most were additive-by-additive interactions. A large number of interactions occurred in potential regions of regulatory control along the chromosomes where genes related to fatty acid metabolism reside. Many fatty acids were associated with epistatic interactions. Despite a large number of significant interactions, there are a limited number of genomic locations that harbored these interactions. While larger population sizes are needed to accurately validate and quantify these epistatic interactions, the current findings point towards additional genetic variance that can be accounted for within these fatty acid traits.

  18. 75 FR 81632 - Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic Certification System (eCERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic... certification requirement for imports of beef from Australia subject to quantitative restraints will be... made at the request of Australia's Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries and with the...

  19. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  20. Effects of organic acid-surfactant mixtures on levels of bacteria and beef quality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...

  1. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  2. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  3. 19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...

  4. Beef Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Student Reference. AGDEX 420/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on beef production. Together, the student reference and instructor's guide form part of the Animal Science I core curriculum. This unit on beef production is divided into five lessons in these areas: selection of breeding stock, breeding…

  5. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  6. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  7. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10(-5) for home consumption and 1.74 × 10(-5) for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  8. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  9. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  10. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of beef in the United States is being conducted to provide benchmarks and identify opportunities for improvement of the beef value chain. Region-specific data are being collected to accurately characterize cattle production practices. This study reports pr...

  11. Genomic prediction of continuous and binary fertility traits of females in a composite beef cattle breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproduction efficiency is a major factor in the profitability of the beef cattle industry. Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool that may improve the predictive accuracy and genetic gain of fertility traits. There is a wide range of traits used to measure fertility in dairy and beef cattle inc...

  12. The effect of follicular wave on fertility characteristics in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate fertility of beef cattle in the US is a major economic concern. The use of luminogenic substrates to ascertain steroid metabolism in beef females bred to the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave versus the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave in this study further provi...

  13. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate.

  14. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however, mig

  15. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were deri

  16. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  17. Fatty acids in beef from grain- and grass-fed cattle: the unique South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Keywords: grain fed, grass fed, cattle, fatty acids, red meat. Fatty acids in beef ... of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets.5. When dietary ..... fat-soluble vitamins. They also play ..... of South African dairy and beef cattle. SAJAS. 2013 ...

  18. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.;

    2013-01-01

    . This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...

  20. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at