WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross descriptions including

  1. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  2. An advanced digital image-capture computer system for gross specimens: a substitute for gross description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, A S; Visinoni, F; Visinoni, C; Milios, J

    2000-05-01

    The description of macroscopic appearances of surgically excised specimens together with the sites of specimen sampling form an important component in the documentation of a histopathology specimen. Unfortunately, accuracy of description depends on the vocabulary and descriptive prowess of the pathologist which means that the result can be variable. Transcription of the dictated word also takes time and involves typists. We developed a user-friendly, high-resolution image capture system that will supplement word description of macroscopic specimens and has the potential to replace it completely. It also provides the opportunity of revisiting traditional methods of documenting specimens with words, allowing the production of more relevant and user-friendly reports containing information relevant to clinical management and supplemented by high-resolution digital images. The accompanying Windows-based software has capabilities of generating the entire histopathology report and allows rapid retrospective searches through any one of several common search parameters. The stored images form a powerful database for teaching and research. Connection to remote transmission facilities allows teleconferencing and telepathology consultations.

  3. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  4. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery? 10.712 Section 10.712 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... gross recovery? (a) When a settlement or judgment is paid to, or for, one individual, the entire amount... recovery. If a settlement or judgment is paid to or for more than one individual or in more than...

  5. Cut-and-join description of generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten model

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brezin-Gross-Witten model, a tau-function of the KdV hierarchy, and its natural one-parameter deformation, the generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten tau-function. In particular, we derive the Virasoro constraints, which completely specify the partition function. We solve them in terms of the cut-and-join operator. The Virasoro constraints lead to the loop equations, which we solve in terms of the correlation functions. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of the tau-function and the free energy are derived, and a compact formula for the genus zero contribution is conjectured. A family of polynomial solutions of the KdV hierarchy, given by the Schur functions, is obtained for the half-integer values of the parameter. The quantum spectral curve and its classical limit are discussed.

  6. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  7. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  8. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  9. Workplace aggression, including bullying in nursing and midwifery: a descriptive survey (the SWAB study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran

    2012-11-01

    Workplace aggression remains an important source of distress among nurses and midwives and has negative effects on staff health, patient care and organisations' reputation and fiscal health. To report on the nature and extent of workplace aggression, including bullying experienced by nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive study design was chosen. The Nurses Board of Victoria posted 5000 surveys to the randomly selected registered nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The participants were asked about their experiences of violence (from clients) and bullying (from colleagues) within their most recent four working weeks. In addition, the study investigated staff actions following incidents, staff training and safety at work, and what staff believe contribute to incidents. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Chi square tests and P value were used to assess differences in categorical data. 1495 returned questionnaires were included in the study (30% response rate). Over half of the participants (52%) experienced some form of workplace aggression. Thirty-six percent experienced violence mostly from patients or their visitors/relatives and 32% experienced bullying mostly from colleagues or from their managers/supervisors. Significant differences were found between those who experienced aggression from patients and those who were bullied in respect to handling of incidents; factors thought to contribute to incidents; and organisations' handling of incidents. The study suggests that staff are less worried by patient initiated aggression compared to bullying from colleagues. For all types of aggression, respondents clearly wanted better/more realistic training, as well as enforcement of policies and support when incidents arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of including observational studies in systematic reviews was unclear: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Jennifer; Dryden, Donna M; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate (1) how often observational studies are included in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs); (2) the rationale for including observational studies; (3) how data from observational studies are appraised, analyzed, and graded; and (4) the impact of observational studies on strength of evidence (SOE) and conclusions. Descriptive study of 23 CERs published through the Effective Health Care Program of the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Authors searched for observational studies in 20 CERs, of which 18 included a median of 11 (interquartile range, 2-31) studies. Sixteen CERs incorporated the observational studies in their SOE assessments. Seventy-eight comparisons from 12 CERs included evidence from both trials and observational studies; observational studies had an impact on SOE and conclusions for 19 (24%) comparisons. There was diversity across the CERs regarding decisions to include observational studies; study designs considered; and approaches used to appraise, synthesize, and grade SOE. Reporting and methods guidance are needed to ensure clarity and consistency in how observational studies are incorporated in CERs. It was not always clear that observational studies added value in light of the additional resources needed to search for, select, appraise, and analyze such studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinert, Stephan; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2015-01-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the ro...

  12. Theoretical description of depth pulse sequences, on and off resonance, including improvements and extensions thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, M R; Pegg, D T

    1985-04-01

    A general mathematical description of depth pulse sequences in terms of rotation matrices permits a single matrix, known as a cycle matrix, to be written down for each phase-cycled pulse in the overall sequence, such that the result for the total phase-cycled sequence is the product of the individual cycle matrices. It is straightforward to include the effect of the tilted rf axis off resonance and obtain exact solutions. The two types of phase-cycled pulse used in a depth pulse scheme are 2 theta [+/- x] and 2 theta [+/- x, +/- y] and for the general off-resonance case, four of the off-diagonal elements in the 2 theta [+/- x] cycle matrix, and all of the off-diagonal elements in the 2 theta [+/- x, +/- y] cycle matrix, are zero. These simplifications enable important improvements of depth pulse schemes for the elimination of high-flux signals, the reduction of signals from sample regions experiencing pulse angles differing from 90 degrees, and the avoidance of deleterious off-resonance effects such as the production of dispersion signals. In all cases, the dependence of signal intensity off resonance can be easily and exactly calculated. There are important applications in in vivo spectroscopy.

  13. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.kleinert@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Texas A& M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  14. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  15. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  16. Eimeria involved in a case of coccidiosis in farmed red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in France: oocyst isolation and gross lesion description after experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, M; Repérant, J M; Fort, G; Crespin, J; Duperray, J; Benzoni, G

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present work was, after a coccidiosis outbreak in a farm rearing red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Brittany (France), to identify the Eimeria species and describe gross lesions induced by three of them (Eimeria kofoidi, Eimeria caucasica and Eimeria legionensis) after experimental infection. E. kofoidi oocysts measured 19.3 µm × 16.3 µm on average; neither micropyle nor oocyst residuum were present, but one, two or more small polar granules were visible. After inoculation of 300,000 oocysts per partridge, severe gross lesions were observed in the duodenum and jejunum, characterized by thickened oedematous mucosa and lumen filled with thick mucus, gas and sometimes false-membrane due to sloughed epithelium. E. caucasica oocysts were on average 29.8 µm × 19.5 µm in size; no oocyst residuum was observed, but a large granule was well visible. E. caucasica also invaded both the duodenum and jejunum, causing haemorrhagic points on the serosal surface, as well as mucoid duodenitis and catarrhal enteritis when 30,000 oocysts were inoculated per bird. E. legionensis oocysts measured 22.6 µm × 14.9 µm on average; they presented a clear micropyle beneath which one or two granulations were present. E. legionensis mainly invaded the caeca; low mortality was observed at the dosage of 200,000 oocysts per bird. Caecal walls were thickened and caseous material was condensed into off-white cheesy cores. For each species, oocyst shedding started 5 days post inoculation, peaked at 9, 8 and 6 days post inoculation for E. kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis, respectively, then decreased and persisted until 15 days post inoculation (end of examinations).

  17. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  18. Description of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including overground gait training for a child with cerebral palsy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth; Naber, Erin; Geigle, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This case describes the outcomes of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including body weight-supported overground gait training (BWSOGT) in a nonambulatory child with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of this treatment on the child's functional mobility. The patient is a nonambulatory 10-year-old female with CP who during an inpatient rehabilitation stay participated in direct, physical therapy 6 days per week for 5 weeks. Physical therapy interventions included stretching of her bilateral lower extremities, transfer training, bed mobility training, balance training, kinesiotaping, supported standing in a prone stander, two trials of partial weight-supported treadmill training, and for 4 weeks, three to five times per week, engaged in 30 minutes of BWSOGT using the Up n' go gait trainer, Lite Gait Walkable, and Rifton Pacer gait trainer. Following the multifaceted rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated increased step initiation, increased weight bearing through bilateral lower extremities, improved bed mobility, and increased participation in transfers. The child's Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM) scores increased across four dimensions and her Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) increased significantly. This case report illustrates that a multifaceted rehabilitation program including BWSOGT was an effective intervention strategy to improve functional mobility in this nonambulatory child with CP.

  19. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-01-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures. PMID:28767982

  20. a Better Description of Liquid Jet Breakup Using a Spatial Model Including Viscous Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, William Brian

    Theoretical models describing the operation and disintegration of a liquid jet are often based on an approximate solution of an inviscid jet in the temporal frame of reference. These models provide only a fair first order prediction of growth rate and breakoff length, and are based solely on a surface tension induced instability. A spatial model yielding jet growth rate and including both jet and surrounding atmosphere viscosity and density is now developed. This model is seen to reproduce all the features and limitations of the Weber viscous jet theory. When tested against experiments of water, water and glycerol mixes and binary eutectic tin/lead solder, only fair agreement is observed.

  1. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: Description of 8 cases including a novel radiological and histopathological presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-López, Roberto; de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on imaging, but the histopathological study of the resected tissue revealed a grade I meningothelial cystic meningioma. There were no differences in outcome associated with tumor grade and surgical treatment (6/8). Cystic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal cystic lesions, and biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24155414

  2. A mechanistic description of the global COS cycle consistent with atmospheric measurements and its potential to evaluate gross primary production of vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Thomas; Peylin, Philippe; Belviso, Sauveur; Bopp, Laurent; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Cuntz, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the gross carbon fluxes - photosynthesis and respiration - are essential to predict the ecosystem carbon fluxes and stocks and their evolution in a changing climate. The gross primary productivity (GPP) in the current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), however, shows large differences in terms of mean values, phase and amplitude. As large scale measurements of the GPP are not possible, their estimates are usually based on indirect tracers. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer of GPP since COS and CO2 are dominantly taken up by plants via the same enzyme during photosynthesis. Thus leaf uptakes of COS and CO2 are often found to be proportional, with a coefficient of proportionality (LRU) that is species-dependant according to laboratory measurements. However contrarily to CO2, atmospheric records of COS over the last decades show a strong seasonal cycle but with no significant trend, which implies roughly equilibrated sources and sinks of COS at the global scale. Most recent estimates of COS uptake by plants using this LRU concept led to larger sinks over land than initially estimated. In order to maintain a closed atmospheric budget, a compensatory COS source had to be found, with the ocean being suggested as the most likely candidate. In this work, we propose a new mechanistically-based parameterization of the major sources and sinks of COS, allowing to close the global atmospheric budget. For the ocean, we used the ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model NEMO-PISCES to assess the marine source of COS. Using the simulated organic compounds at the surface, we derived a direct source of COS through the COS photo-production as well as an indirect source through the emissions of sulfur compounds (DMS). The resulting simulated global fluxes correspond to a net source of COS of around 800 GgS yr-1, spatially and temporally consistent with the suggested missing source. For the land, we considered most anoxic soils

  3. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  5. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  6. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  7. The family Histriobdellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) including descriptions of two new species from Brazil and a new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menchini Steiner, Tatiana; Amaral, A. Cecilia Z.

    1999-01-01

    We review the family Histriobdellidae and provide species descriptions and notes on geographical distribution based on data from the literature. The morphological structures used in the systematics of this family are defined. A new genus, Dayus, is proposed and two new species from Brazil,

  8. Gross Premium Actuarial Models Include Inflation and Surrender Situation%考虑通货膨胀和退保情形的总保费精算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明田; 王传玉; 安琪

    2011-01-01

    为使寿险公司能根据实际情况及时合理地调整保费价格,在改进的传统总保费精算方法的基础上,给出了在随机利率模型和随机死亡率模型上定价净保费的方法,同时在考虑通货膨胀和退保情形的前提下尽可能地把寿险公司所涉及的费用都作独立的随机变量纳入寿险总保费的计算中,并给出了计算总保费的公式.数值算例表明了该法的可行性.%In order to enable the life insurance company to act in accordance with to the actual situation prompt reasonable adjustment insurance premium price,based on the improved traditional gross premium calculation method foundation,the article presents a method of net premium pricing under mortality and interest rates,both of which are stochastic,in gross premium calculation,inflation and surrender factors are considered as independent random variables.This paper gives a formula to calculate the gross premium.

  9. Biodiversity of marine scuticociliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from China: Description of seven morphotypes including a new species, Philaster sinensis spec. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Yi, Zhenzhen; Li, Jiqiu; Ma, Honggang; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2015-04-01

    Seven marine scuticociliates, Philaster sinensis spec. nov., Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans and Thompson, 1964. J. Protozool. 11, 344, Parauronema virginianum Thompson, 1967. J. Protozool. 14, 731, Uronemella filificum (Kahl, 1931. Tierwelt. Dtl. 21, 181) Song and Wilbert, 2002. Zool. Anz. 241, 317, Cohnilembus verminus Kahl, 1931, Parauronema longum Song, 1995. J. Ocean Univ. China. 25, 461 and Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. J. Protozool. 13, 393, collected from Chinese coastal waters, were investigated using live observations, silver impregnation methods, and, in the case of the new species, SSU rDNA sequencing. Philaster sinensis spec. nov. can be recognized by the combination of the following characters: body cylindrical, approximately 130-150 × 35-55 μm in vivo; apical end slightly to distinctly pointed, posterior generally rounded; 19-22 somatic kineties; M1 triangular, consisting of 13 or 14 transverse rows of kinetosomes; M2 comprising 10-12 longitudinal rows; CVP positioned at end of SK1; marine habitat. We also provide improved diagnoses for Pseudocohnilembus hargisi, Parauronema virginianum, Uronemella filificum and Parauronema longum based on their original descriptions as well as the present work. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genus Philaster.

  10. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  11. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  12. On the freshwater dinoflagellates presently included in the genus Amphidinium, with a description of Prosoaulax gen. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calado, A.; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2005-01-01

    Amphidinium is a genus of naked dinoflagellates, characterized by a small epicone and a larger hypocone. Presently about 120 species from both freshwater and marine biotopes have been described. The genus has long been known to be poly-phyletic, however, and the recent rediscovery of the type......) , and related species. Based on ultrastructural features, notably the very unusual type of eyespot, Prosoaulax is considered to be related to a recently recognized, but poorly understood group of dinoflagellates, comprising the marine species Gymnodinium simplex, G. natalense, Polarella antarctica, and some...... symbionts of marine invertebrates, G. bei and G. linucheae. It also includes the symbionts of corals (‘zooxanthellae') belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, a genus believed to contain the modern representatives of the Suessiales, an order of dinoflagellates extending back into the Mesozoic...

  13. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  14. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.;

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...... should be revised to include by. sputorum for catalase-negative strains; by. fecalis for catalase-positive strains; and by. paraureolyticus for urease-positive strains. Strains classified previously as by. bubulus should be reclassified as by. sputorum. The species description of C. sputorum is revised...

  15. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  18. Eutetrarhynchid trypanorhynchs (Cestoda) from elasmobranchs off Argentina, including the description of Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. and Parachristianella damiani sp. n., and amended description of Dollfusiella vooremi (São Clemente et Gomes, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2014-10-01

    During a parasitological survey of teleosts and elasmobranchs in the Argentine Sea, 3 species of eutetrarhynchids were collected from the batoids Myliobatis goodei Garman and Psammobatis bergi Marini, and the shark Mustelus schmitti Springer. The specimens collected from Mu. schmitti were identified as Dollfusiela vooremi (Sπo Clemente et Gomes, 1989), whereas the specimens from My. goodei and Ps. bergi resulted in new species of Dollfusiella Campbell et Beveridge, 1994 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946, respectively. Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. from Ps. bergi is characterised by a distinct basal armature with basal swelling and a heteroacanthous homeomorphous metabasal armature with 7-9 falcate hooks per principal row. Parachristianella damiani sp. n. from My. goodei lacks a distinct basal armature, having 2-3 initial rows of uncinate hooks, a heteroacanthous heteromorphous metabasal armature with the first principal row of small hooks, followed by rows with 10-14 large hooks. This is the first record of Parachristianella in the southwestern Atlantic. The amended description of D. vooremi includes the detailed description of the tentacular armature, including SEM micrographs of all tentacular surfaces. This species is characterised by a basal armature consisting of rows of uncinate and falcate hooks, a basal swelling and a metabasal armature with billhooks on the antibothrial surface and uncinate hooks on the bothrial surface. The scolex peduncle of D. vooremi is covered with enlarged spinitriches. This species is restricted to carcharhiniform sharks, since the report of D. vooremi in Sympterygia bonapartii Müller et Henle off Bahia Blanca (Argentina) is dubious.

  19. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  20. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  1. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  2. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  3. Three dimensional model for particle saltation close to stream beds, including a detailed description of the particle interaction with turbulence and inter-particle collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno, Pablo M.

    2011-05-19

    We present in this paper a new three-dimensional (3-D) model for bed-load sediment transport, based on a Lagrangian description. We analyze generalized sub-models for the velocities after collision and the representation of the bed-roughness. The free-flight sub-model includes the effect of several forces, such as buoyancy, drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset and Magnus, and also addresses the particle rotation. A recent methodology for saving computational time in the Basset force is also employed. The sub-models for the post-collision velocity and rotation are based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during the collision with the bed. We develop a new 3-D representation for the bed roughness by using geometric considerations. In order to address the interaction of particles with the turbulent flow, we tracked the particles through a computed turbulent velocity field for a smooth flat plate. This velocity field was used as a surrogate of the 3-D turbulent conditions close to the bed in streams. We first checked that the basic turbulence statistics for this velocity field could be used to approximate those in an open-channel flow. We then analyzed the interaction of the sediment and the turbulence for a single and multiple particles. We compared numerical results with experimental data obtained by Niño and García (1998b). We show that model predictions are in good agreement with existing data, in the sand size range. © 2011 ASCE.

  4. Die grosse Lamentei

    CERN Multimedia

    Weisskopf, Gertrude

    1964-01-01

    Because English and French are the official languages of CERN, and because the translation of every item in CERN COURIER from one language into the other already leads to sufficient trouble, many readers have unfortunately to be content with a journal that is not of their own tongue. As a very slight recompense for some of them, the following contribution, alluding to the litteral translation of the word ' antiparticle ', is included in its original German form ; others may like to amuse themselves by producing their own English or French versions.

  5. A review of the genera and species of the Bomolochidae (Crustacea, Copepoda), including the description of some old and new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoolt, W.

    1962-01-01

    During a recent survey of Pacific psammophilous and phycophilous copepods an isolated female Bomolochus was found, the identification of which, in absence of its host, proved to be particularly troublesome. It became necessary to check the descriptions of all species of the genus Bomolochus Von Nord

  6. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  7. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The HER2 amplicon includes several genes required for the growth and survival of HER2 positive breast cancer cells — A data description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Hongisto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of breast cancers are characterized by amplification and overexpression of the chromosome segment surrounding the HER2 (ERBB2 oncogene. As the HER2 amplicon at 17q12 contains multiple genes, we have systematically explored the role of the HER2 co-amplified genes in breast cancer cell growth and their relation to trastuzumab resistance. We integrated array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH data of the HER2 amplicon from 71 HER2 positive breast tumors and 10 cell lines with systematic functional RNA interference analysis of 23 core amplicon genes with several phenotypic endpoints in a panel of trastuzumab responding and non-responding HER2 positive breast cancer cells. In this Data in Brief we give a detailed description of the experimental procedures and the data analysis methods used in the study (1.

  15. TD-S-HF single determinantal reaction theory and the description of many-body processes, including fission. [Schroedinger equation, constructive analysis S matrix, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J. J.; Lichtner, P. C.; Dworzecka, M.; Kan, K. K.

    1979-01-01

    The restrictions implied for the time dependent many-body reaction theory by the (TDHF) single determinantal assumption are explored by constructive analysis. A restructured TD-S-HF reaction theory is modelled, not after the initial-value form of the Schroedinger reaction theory, but after the (fully equivalent) S-matrix form, under the conditions that only self-consistent TDHF solutions occur in the theory, every wave function obeys the fundamental statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the theory reduces to the exact Schroedinger theory for exact solutions which are single determinantal. All of these conditions can be accomodated provided that the theory is interpreted on a time-averaged basis, i.e., physical constants of the Schroedinger theory which are time-dependent in the TDHF theory, are interpreted in TD-S-HF in terms of their time averaged values. The resulting reaction theory, although formulated heuristically, prescribes a well defined and unambiguous calculational program which, although somewhat more demanding technically than the conventional initial-value TDHF method, is nevertheless more consonant with first principles, structurally and mechanistically. For its physical predictions do not depend upon the precise location of the distant measuring apparatus, and are in no way influenced by the spurious cross channel correlations which arise whenever the description of many reaction channels is imposed upon one single-determinantal solution. For nuclear structure physics, the TDHF-eigenfunctions provide the first plausible description of exact eigenstates in the time-dependent framework; moreover, they are unencumbered by any restriction to small amplitudes. 14 references.

  16. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form.

  17. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  18. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  19. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further

  20. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  1. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-19

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera. 

  2. Redescription of the Jamaican orb-weaving spider Chrysometa pecki Levi, 1986 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae), including the first description of the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallal, Robert J; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-01-12

    The tetragnathid genus Chrysometa Simon, 1894 includes 138 species found in the Americas, ranging from the Caribbean to Chile (World Spider Catalog 2015). This genus was revised by Levi (1986), with more recent publications adding to the genus (Álvarez-Padilla 2007, Nogueira et al. 2011, Simó et al., in press). Following Álvarez-Padilla & Hormiga (2011), Chrysometa is differentially diagnosed from other American tetragnathids based on the male palp with a cymbial ectobasal process, cymbial ectomedian process, and embolic basal process, and a paracymbium articulated with a membrane. The epigynum is flat, with fertilization ducts present. Both sexes have guanine crystals in their abdomen and femora lacking trichobothria. Three Jamaican Chrysometa are known: C. pecki Levi, 1986, C. fuscolimbata (Archer, 1958) and C. linguiformis (Franganillo, 1930); all of them known from females only (Levi 1986).

  3. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  4. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-06-09

    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20

  5. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  6. Description of excited states in [Re(Imidazole)(CO)3 (Phen)](+) including solvent and spin-orbit coupling effects: Density functional theory versus multiconfigurational wavefunction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumanal, Maria; Daniel, Chantal

    2016-10-15

    The low-lying electronic excited states of [Re(imidazole)(CO)3 (phen)](+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) ranging between 420 nm and 330 nm have been calculated by means of relativistic spin-orbit time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and wavefunction approaches (state-average-CASSCF/CASPT2). A direct comparison between the theoretical absorption spectra obtained with different methods including SOC and solvent corrections for water points to the difficulties at describing on the same footing the bands generated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT), intraligand (IL) transition, and ligand-to-Ligand- charge transfer (LLCT). While TD-DFT and three-roots-state-average CASSCF (10,10) reproduce rather well the lowest broad MLCT band observed in the experimental spectrum between 420 nm and 330 nm, more flexible wavefunctions enlarged either by the number of roots or by the number of active orbitals and electrons destabilize the MLCT states by introducing IL and LLCT character in the lowest part of the absorption spectrum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. AMPHIDINIUM REVISITED. II. RESOLVING SPECIES BOUNDARIES IN THE AMPHIDINIUM OPERCULATUM SPECIES COMPLEX (DINOPHYCEAE), INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTIONS OF AMPHIDINIUM TRULLA SP. NOV. AND AMPHIDINIUM GIBBOSUM. COMB. NOV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Shauna; Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Daugbjerg, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    Amphidinium operculatum Claparède et Lachmann, the type species of the dinoflagellate genus Amphidinium, has long had an uncertain identity. It has been considered to be either difficult to distinguish from other similar species or a morphologically variable species itself. This has led to the hy......Amphidinium operculatum Claparède et Lachmann, the type species of the dinoflagellate genus Amphidinium, has long had an uncertain identity. It has been considered to be either difficult to distinguish from other similar species or a morphologically variable species itself. This has led...... to the hypothesis that A. operculatum represents a "species complex." Recently, the problem of distinguishing A. operculatum from similar species has become particularly acute, because several morphologically similar species have been found to produce bioactive compounds of potential interest to the pharmaceutical......, and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence data. Through morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses, six distinct species were identified, including Amphidinium trulla sp. nov. and Amphidinium gibbosum comb. nov. Amphidinium operculatum was redescribed based on four cultures. Genetic variability...

  8. A novel phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on five genes including the nuclear CesA, with descriptions of Orthogonacladia gen. nov. and Orthogonacladiaceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Ga Hun; Le Gall, Line; Miller, Kathy Ann; Freshwater, D Wilson; Wernberg, Thomas; Terada, Ryuta; Yoon, Kyung Ju; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-08-01

    Although the Gelidiales are economically important marine red algae producing agar and agarose, the phylogeny of this order remains poorly resolved. The present study provides a molecular phylogeny based on a novel marker, nuclear-encoded CesA, plus plastid-encoded psaA, psbA, rbcL, and mitochondria-encoded cox1 from subsets of 107 species from all ten genera within the Gelidiales. Analyses of individual and combined datasets support the monophyly of three currently recognized families, and reveal a new clade. On the basis of these results, the new family Orthogonacladiaceae is described to accommodate Aphanta and a new genus Orthogonacladia that includes species previously classified as Gelidium madagascariense and Pterocladia rectangularis. Acanthopeltis is merged with Gelidium, which has nomenclatural priority. Nuclear-encoded CesA was found to be useful for improving the resolution of phylogenetic relationships within the Gelidiales and is likely to be valuable for the inference of phylogenetic relationship among other red algal taxa.

  9. A classical description of relaxation of interacting pairs of unlike spins: Extension to T1 ϱ, T2, and T1 ϱoff, including contact interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Seymour H.

    A novel derivation of the equations that describe the spin-lattice magnetic relaxation of nuclear spin moments, in liquids, resulting from magnetic dipolar interactions with neighboring paramagnetic ions, the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan equations was previously presented (S. H. Koenig, J. Magn. Reson.31, 1 (1978)). The derivation involves a computation of the dissipative energy flow from the nuclear spins to the lattice rather than a computation of the lattice-produced fluctuations of the local field at the nuclear spins. Two advantages accrue: (1) the spectral densities that enter into the relaxation expressions can be directly related to well-defined absorption transitions and relaxation processes of the paramagnetic ions, clarifying the physical processes that produce relaxation, and (2) the derivation can be readily generalized to paramagnetic ions with arbitrary spin Hamiltonian, and to deviations of their susceptibility from Curie law behavior. The derivation is extended to include relaxation in liquids in the rotating frame: the on resonance T1 ϱ which reduces to T2 for small amplitude radiofrequency fields; and the off resonance T1 ϱoff, which reduces to T1. The results, which are given for contact as well as dipolar interactions, also describe relaxation of 13C and 15N nuclei by protons under conditions of proton-decoupling, a situation becoming increasingly important in the study of biological macromolecules by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  10. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  11. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  12. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  13. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  14. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... of music therapy with a specific population (Gold, Voracek & Wigram, Wigram, 2002). The collection of such evidence, through surveys of the literature and documentation of music therapy studies that show effect with a specified population are becoming increasingly important in order to underpin music...

  16. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  17. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  18. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  19. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  20. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  1. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  2. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  3. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  4. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  7. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  8. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  9. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  10. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  11. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  13. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  14. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  15. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  16. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  18. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  19. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  20. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  1. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-1T Section 1.132-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as...

  2. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  3. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  4. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  5. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  6. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305(T)), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Mwirichia, Romano; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448(T), were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  8. A new feeding group within larval Drusinae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae): the alpinus-group sensu Schmid, 1956, including larval descriptions of Drusus franzi Schmid, 1956 and Drusus alpinus (Meyer-Dür, 1875)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAF, W.; WARINGER, J.; PAULS, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the hitherto unknown larvae of Drusus franzi Schmid 1956, and Drusus alpinus (Meyer-Dür 1875). Information on the morphological and genetic identification of both species is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. Their systematic position within the genus Drusus is affirmed and zoogeographical and ecological notes are added. PMID:27069350

  9. Differentiation of three common deep-water hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Parapaguridae from the South African demersal abundance surveys, including the description of a new species of Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannes Landschoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883. Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S. dimorphus, but in fact belonging to a different genus. This new species, Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is the 25th in the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996, and has been found only in a small region on the West Coast shelf of South Africa, at depths of 199–277 m. The species is herein fully described and illustrated, including colour images, µCT scans of selected body parts, and CO1 barcode data. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. ventilatus Lemaitre, 2004, a species associated with hydrothermal vents, but differs in armature of the fourth antennal segment (armed with a spine on the dorsolateral distal angle vs. unarmed in P. ventilatus; setation of the antennal flagella (nearly naked vs. with dense setae in P. ventilatus; plumose setation on the third maxillipeds and basal segments of chelipeds (absent vs. present in P. ventilatus; number of rows of scales on the propodal rasp of pereopod 4 (two or three rows vs. one row in P. ventilatus; and degree of telson asymmetry (weakly asymmetrical vs. strongly asymmetrical in P. ventilatus. Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is superficially similar to S. dimorphus, with males of the two species showing the same extreme degree of sexual dimorphism on the right cheliped, general light orange colouration, and frequent use of colonial zoanthid carcinoecia for pleonal protection. To aid in future identifications and to facilitate data gathering

  10. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  11. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  12. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  13. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  14. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  15. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1385-1 - Amounts includible in patron's gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... straight-line method at the rate of $900 per year. On July 1, 1965, the cooperative association pays a... allowance for depreciation provided in section 167; and (ii) Any amount (to the extent treated as ordinary... the trade or business of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided...

  17. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  18. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  19. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  20. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  1. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  2. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  3. Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    The ENVISION Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

  4. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  5. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  6. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  7. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  8. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  9. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  10. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  11. A description of the global land-surface precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre with sample applications including centennial (trend analysis from 1901–present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Becker

    2013-02-01

    , two (1.0°, 2.5° for MP or one (1.0° for FG resolution is provided, and for each product a DOI reference is provided allowing for public user access to the products. A preliminary description of the scope of a fifth product – the Homogenized Precipitation Analysis (HOMPRA – is also provided. Its comprehensive description will be submitted later in an extra paper upon completion of this data product. DOIs of the gridded data sets examined are as follows: doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_025, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_050, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_100, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_250, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_050, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_100, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_250, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/MP_M_V4_100, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/MP_M_V4_250, doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_M_100.

  12. A description of the global land-surface precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre with sample applications including centennial (trend analysis from 1901–present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Becker

    2012-09-01

    , three (0.5°, 1.0°, 2.5°, for FD, two (1.0°, 2.5° for MP or one (1.0° for FG resolutions are provided, and for each product a DOI reference is provided allowing for public user access to the products. A preliminary description of the scope of a fifth product – the Homogenized Precipitation Analysis (HOMPRA – is also provided. Its comprehensive description will be handed later in an extra paper upon completion of this data product. DOIs of the gridded datasets examined:

    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_025,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_050,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_100,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/CLIM_M_V2011_250,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_050,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_100,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_250,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/MP_M_V4_100,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/MP_M_V4_250,
    doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_M_100

  13. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  14. SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF TRAINEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THIS REPORT GIVES A SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL POPULATION FROM WHICH TRAINEES FOR THE MODESTO MULTI-OCCUPATIONAL PROJECT WERE SELECTED. IT INCLUDES AN EXTENSIVE STUDY OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF A GROUP OF WHITE MIGRANTS WHO MOVED FROM THE EASTERN UNITES STATES TO CALIFORNIA. THE AUTHOR ALSO INCLUDED REFERENCES TO THE CHANGING…

  15. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    -DNA hybridizations between strains of P. multocida, biovar 2 variants of P. avium and P. canis, and P. multocida subsp. septica confirmed similarity at the species level. It is proposed, on the basis of genotypic similarity, that P. multocida be reclassified to include the biovar 2 variants of P. avium and P. canis...... as essential for identification to the species level. A format reclassification of the species is not possible, however, since too few strains have been found to vary in these key characters. Considering the phenotypic diversity of P. multocida, identification will have to depend partly on genotypic methods...

  16. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  17. Taxonomic revision of Phascogale tapoatafa (Meyer, 1793) (Dasyuridae; Marsupialia), including descriptions of two new subspecies and confirmation of P. pirata Thomas, 1904 as a ‘Top End’ endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, K. P.; Rhind, S. G.; Ten Have, J.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Brush-tailed Phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa sensu lato) has a broad but highly fragmented distribution around the periphery of the Australian continent and all populations are under significant ongoing threat to survival. A new appraisal of morphological and molecular diversity within the group reveals that the population in the ‘Top End’ of the Northern Territory is specifically distinct from all others, including those in the Kimberley region of Western Australia to the west and on Cape York of Queensland to the east. The name P. pirata Thomas, 1904 is available for the ‘Top End’ taxon. Three geographically disjunct populations are distinguished at subspecies level within P. tapoatafa on a suite of external and cranio-dental features; these are found in southeast Australia from South Australia to mid-coastal Queensland (nominotypical tapoatafa), southwest Western Australia (wambenger subsp. nov.), and the Kimberley region of Western Australia (kimberleyensis subsp. nov.). A potential fourth subspecies occurs on Cape York but remains too poorly represented in collections for adequate characterization. Molecular divergence estimates based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the range disjunction across southern Australia probably dates from the Late Pliocene, with the multiple disjunctions across northern Australia being more recent though almost certainly exceeding 400,000 years. An argument is made for the continued use of the subspecies rank in Australian mammalogy, despite a general lack of consistency in its current application.

  18. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  19. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  20. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  1. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  3. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  4. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  5. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  7. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  8. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-01-01

    The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110) They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without an...

  9. CRAC2 model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  10. Reliability of semiology description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  11. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  12. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  13. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  14. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  15. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  16. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  17. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  18. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  20. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  2. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  3. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  4. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  5. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  6. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  7. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  8. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  9. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  10. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  11. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  12. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  13. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  14. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  15. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  16. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  17. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  18. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  19. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  20. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  1. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  2. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  3. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  4. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  5. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  6. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  7. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  8. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  9. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  10. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  11. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  12. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  13. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  14. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  15. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  16. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  17. 14 CFR 437.23 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... photographs of the reusable suborbital rocket; and (2) Gross liftoff weight and thrust profile of the reusable suborbital rocket. (b) An applicant must describe— (1) All reusable suborbital rocket systems, including any structural, flight control, thermal, pneumatic, hydraulic, propulsion, electrical, environmental...

  18. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  19. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P blended version in 2015 resulted in more balanced comments about online content but higher perceived workload (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Description of dose response curve

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai, Firas

    2011-01-01

    The book included several methods to estimate LD50, in addition to explain how to use several programs to estimate LD50. Moreover the book illustrate the description of the dose response curves. Firas Al-Samarai

  1. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural

  2. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and

  3. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  4. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  5. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  6. New exact solutions of nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation with weak bias magnetic and time-dependent laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua-Mei

    2005-01-01

    By using the mapping method and an appropriate transformation, we find new exact solutions of nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation with weak bias magnetic and time-dependent laser fields. The solutions obtained in this paper include Jacobian elliptic function solutions, combined Jacobian elliptic function solutions , triangular function solutions, bright and dark solitons, and soliton-like solutions.

  7. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  8. From gross anatomy to the nanomorphome: stereological tools provide a paradigm for advancing research in quantitative morphomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Terry M; Lucocq, John M

    2015-01-01

    The terms morphome and morphomics are not new but, recently, a group of morphologists and cell biologists has given them clear definitions and emphasised their integral importance in systems biology. By analogy to other ‘-omes’, the morphome refers to the distribution of matter within 3-dimensional (3D) space. It equates to the totality of morphological features within a biological system (virus, single cell, multicellular organism or populations thereof) and morphomics is the systematic study of those structures. Morphomics research has the potential to generate ‘big data’ because it includes all imaging techniques at all levels of achievable resolution and all structural scales from gross anatomy and medical imaging, via optical and electron microscopy, to molecular characterisation. As with other ‘-omics’, quantification is an important part of morphomics and, because biological systems exist and operate in 3D space, precise descriptions of form, content and spatial relationships require the quantification of structure in 3D. Revealing and quantifying structural detail inside the specimen is achieved currently in two main ways: (i) by some form of reconstruction from serial physical or tomographic slices or (ii) by using randomly-sampled sections and simple test probes (points, lines, areas, volumes) to derive stereological estimates of global and/or individual quantities. The latter include volumes, surfaces, lengths and numbers of interesting features and spatial relationships between them. This article emphasises the value of stereological design, sampling principles and estimation tools as a template for combining with alternative imaging techniques to tackle the ‘big data’ issue and advance knowledge and understanding of the morphome. The combination of stereology, TEM and immunogold cytochemistry provides a practical illustration of how this has been achieved in the sub-field of nanomorphomics. Applying these quantitative tools

  9. Light, Soil Temperature, and VPD as controls of flux-tower NEE partitioning into gross photosynthesis and respiration in grassland and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, T. G.

    2010-12-01

    Partitioning of the flux-tower net CO2 exchange measurements (NEE) into gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem respiration (Re) components is an essential step in post-processing flux tower data for analysis and modeling. We have developed a method of NEE = Pg - Re partitioning using photosynthetically active radiation (Q), soil temperature at 5 cm depth (Ts), and vapor pressure deficit at 2 m height (VPD) as factors in a nonrectangular hyperbolic model of net CO2 exchange in terrestrial ecosystems (Gilmanov et al. 2003, Bas. Appl. Ecol. 4: 167-183) modified to include the effect of vapor pressure deficit. In contrast to other VPD-based methods of NEE partitioning suggested in the literature, our method (i) describes combined effect of VPD on photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and apparent quantum yield (ALPHA) due to the special functional properties of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation; (ii) delivers less biased estimates of light-response parameters due to explicit description of the convexity of the light-response compared to rectangular hyperbolic model, and (iii) generates more numerically robust and statistically significant estimates than methods using highly correlated predictors such as incoming radiation, air temperature and VPD. We demonstrate application of the method to flux-tower NEE data sets from grassland and agro-ecosystems of North America as a tool to estimate numerical values and uncertainty characteristics of productivity, respiration, and ecophysiological parameters (apparent quantum yield ALPHA, photosynthetic capacity Amax, gross ecological light-use efficiency LUE, carbon use efficiency CUE, and others). On a representative statistical material our results confirm earlier findings that gross photosynthesis estimates derived through partitioning of flux-tower NEE are significantly closer related to remote sensing indices (e.g., eMODIS NDVI) than variables directly provided by tower measurements such as day-time net CO2 flux totals. We

  10. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  11. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  12. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  13. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  14. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  15. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  16. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  17. Management control system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Detector Description Framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

  19. 61-year-old man with sudden onset of gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander; Aitchison, Robert; Lees, Dania S; Landoli, Ciro Louis; Dayrit, Kristoffer; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with a medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with complaints of gross hematuria for 2 days and occasional epistaxis for 1 week. The medication list included only ranitidine. Laboratory data showed significantly elevated prothrombin time and international normalized ratio. The liver panel was normal. On inspection, the patient's bottle of ranitidine, which was refilled 20 days before, contained 5-mg tablets of warfarin. The international normalized ratio and prothrombin time were reversed with FFP, vitamin K, and Novoseven.

  20. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  2. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  3. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  4. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  5. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  6. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  7. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  8. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  10. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  11. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  12. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  13. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  14. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  15. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  16. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  17. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  18. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  19. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  20. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

  1. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  2. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  3. An unusual cause of gross hematuria and renal dysfunction in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD is an uncommon disease with a peak incidence between the 5 th and 6 th decades of life. It is characterized by non-fibrillar, Congo red negative deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins in various organs, including in the kidneys. MIDD can be of three types depending on the composition of the deposits, and includes light chain deposition disease (LCDD, heavy chain deposition disease and light and heavy chain deposition disease, of which LCDD is the most common. Renal involvement is a universal finding in MIDD, and is in the form of renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria. Gross hematuria is a rare occurrence. Renal biopsy usually shows nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy on light microscopy and diffuse linear staining of glomerular and tubular basement membrane on immunofluorescence microscopy. We report a young male who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure and gross hematuria and was diagnosed as LCDD with nodular glomerulopathy and crescents on renal biopsy.

  4. Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.

  5. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  6. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  7. Fascia: a morphological description and classification system based on a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumka, Myroslava; Bonar, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Fascia is virtually inseparable from all structures in the body and acts to create continuity amongst tissues to enhance function and support. In the past fascia has been difficult to study leading to ambiguities in nomenclature, which have only recently been addressed. Through review of the available literature, advances in fascia research were compiled, and issues related to terminology, descriptions, and clinical relevance of fascia were addressed. Our multimodal search strategy was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, with other targeted searches in Google Scholar and by hand, utilizing reference lists and conference proceedings. In an effort to organize nomenclature for fascial structures provided by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FICAT), we developed a functional classification system which includes four categories of fascia: i) linking, ii) fascicular, iii) compression, and iv) separating fasciae. Each category was developed from descriptions in the literature on gross anatomy, histology, and biomechanics; the category names reflect the function of the fascia. An up-to-date definition of fascia is provided, as well as descriptions of its function and clinical features. Our classification demonstrates the use of internationally accepted terminology in an ontology which can improve understanding of major terms in each category of fascia. PMID:22997468

  8. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  9. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible.

  10. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  11. Gross hematuria as the presentation of an inguinoscrotal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Kayvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several complications have been reported with inguinal hernias. Although hematuria and flank pain, either as the presentation or as a complication of inguinal hernia, are infrequent, this condition may lead to the development of obstructive uropathy, which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation A 71-year-old Iranian man with Persian ethnicity presented with new onset episodes of gross hematuria and left-sided flank pain. A physical examination revealed a large and non-tender inguinal hernia on his left side. An initial workup included an abdominal ultrasound, an intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy, which showed left hydronephrosis and a bulging on the left-side of his bladder wall. On further evaluation, computed tomography confirmed that his sigmoid colon was the source of the pressure effect on his bladder, resulting in hydroureteronephrosis and hematuria. No tumoral lesion was evident. Herniorrhaphy led to the resolution of his signs and symptoms. Conclusion Our case illustrates a rare presentation of inguinal hernia responsible for gross hematuria and unilateral hydronephrosis. Urologic signs and symptoms can be caused by the content of inguinal hernias. They can also present as complications of inguinal hernias.

  12. Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Daniel David

    2012-09-27

    In this thesis, we investigate the 3-dimensional, chirally symmetric Gross-Neveu model with functional renormalization group methods. This low-dimensional quantum field theory describes the continuum limit of the low-energy sector in certain lattice systems. The functional renormalization group allows to study in a nonperturbative way the physical properties of many-body systems and quantum field theories. The starting point is a formally exact flow equation with 1-loop structure for the generating functional of 1-particle irreducible vertices. Within a gradient expansion - tailor-made for extracting the infrared asymptotics of the momentum and frequency dependent vertices of the theory - we study the strong-coupling fixed point of the Gross-Neveu model even beyond the formal limit of infinite flavor number. This fixed point controls a 2nd order quantum phase transition from a massless phase to a phase with massive Dirac fermions. After a first analysis of the purely fermionic theory, a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to partially bosonize the theory. Within this bosonized description, we find universal critical exponents that are in excellent quantitative agreement with available results from 1/N{sub f}-expansions and Monte Carlo simulations and are expected to improve upon earlier results. The renormalization group flow allows us to gain insights into the global and local structure of the critical manifold within given truncations and better understanding of the relevant directions in the space of couplings, which in general do not coincide with the Gaussian classification. Within the framework of the so-called ''asymptotic safety''-scenario relevant for the construction of proper field theories, the fixed-point theory could be determined exactly in the limit of infinite flavor number. Here, the Gross-Neveu model yields a simple and intuitive example for how to define a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. Going

  13. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  14. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  15. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  16. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  17. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  18. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  19. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  20. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  1. Facilitating appreciation of anatomical variation and development of teamwork skills in the gross anatomy laboratory using a cadaver reassignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunger, Leslie K

    2008-01-01

    Developing a mental map of the body in three dimensions incorporating normal anatomical variations is a challenge for students of gross anatomy. Acquisition of this ability is facilitated by frequently reassigning students to work on different specimens in gross anatomy laboratories, a significant departure from traditional teaching strategies. This article analyzes student and faculty experiences with a reassignment system over a six-year period, including effects on early professional development and students' attitudes toward the cadavers. Students were strongly supportive of the method, noting that specimen reassignments facilitated learning, encouraged dissection skill building, and fostered collaborative interactions. Students' perception of the value of the contribution of each cadaver to their education was preserved and, for many, enhanced. Frequent specimen reassignments offer an opportunity to model public accountability for work and some aspects of the relationships between multiple health care teams caring for a patient.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  3. The Correlation Between Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment in Romania Starting with 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia - Maria Gibescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that until the late 1980s, in Romania, the term “unemployed” was practically unused, the centralized economy having as major goal the complete occupancy. Starting with 1990, this phenomenon was manifested itself in our country as well, as a result of the imbalance of the labor market. To understand and represent the macroeconomic phenomena better, the paper presents the analysis of the relationship between the Gross domestic product and the unemployment, as well as the current influences. The conclusions show the fact that beginning with 1995, their dynamics included a relationship, broken by the effects of the world economic crisis present in our country as well.

  4. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianghong; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Gross photosynthesis is a key term and concept in carbon cycle science. It however turns out that this term has been and is used with different meanings by different communities - either with (historically referred to as apparent photosynthesis) or without (historically referred to as true photosynthesis) including photorespiration - which has been and still is causing confusion. Here we review the history of these terms and the underlying theory to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms. We further show that eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning, due to an overestimation of daytime mitochondrial respiration and our inability to estimate photorespiration, yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation only) despite aiming at estimating apparent photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation minus photorespiration). The implications of this finding are discussed.

  5. Job descriptions made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  6. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  7. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  8. Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Gross Prenatal Central Nervous System Anomalies after the Eighteenth Week of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahmasebi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Ultrasound (US detection of prenatal central nervous system (CNS anatomic anomalies is very important in making decision about therapeutic termination. In the present study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross prenatal CNS anatomic anomalies has been investigated."nPatients and Methods: 3012 pregnant women were scanned after 18 weeks of gestation by an expert operator in a referring center. All delivered fetuses were followed after birth through clinical examination and sonography."nResults: In this study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross CNS anatomic anomalies of fetuses after 18 weeks gestation was found to be 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of US were 100%. In sonographic examination of these 3012 pregnant women, 36 fetuses were detected with CNS anomalies, some of whom had more than one anomaly. Gross CNS anomalies observed included microcephaly, hydrocephaly, anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, ventriculomegaly, meningocele, encephalocele, lissencephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, bilateral choroid plexus cysts and hypoplastic cerebellum."nConclusion: US is highly operator dependent and operator experience may be the most determinant affecting the results. Sonographic scanning after 18 weeks of gestation is associated with the best results.

  9. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  10. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  11. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  12. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  13. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  14. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  15. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  17. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  18. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  19. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  20. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  1. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a

  2. HOLISTIC APPROACH OF TEACHING OF GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMEN FOR 2ND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of pathological specimen is necessary for the students towards their practical (including viva as well as theoretical examinations. Past experiences show that most of the students of 2nd Professional MBBS cannot answer properly the questions related to the pathological specimen, especially the histopathological portion when asked by the examiners. This is due to the conventional method of teaching where students are given only didactic lectures on histopathological features, which is not convenient for students to understand the histopathology and related questions. AIMS To assess the impact of new teaching method of gross pathological specimen using visual aids (PowerPoint to show histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 41 students present in 2nd Prof. MBBS were divided into 4 groups under the leadership of class assistants or demonstrators. 20 practical classes were arranged for 4 months of study period. In the first one hour, each group was shown power-point presentation of histopathological features, related questions and answers of the gross specimen to be studied. All the aspects were discussed simultaneously. In the next one hour, there was a joint teaching session consisting of all four groups, moderated by the concerned professor with PowerPoint projection. Assessment was done by three mock tests comprising of Viva, Multiple Choice Questions and Short Assay type Questions and a routine internal assessment in the last week of the study period. Then a comparison was made with regards to presence of students and results of successive three mock tests. Result of internal assessment was compared with that of previous two batches in which students were taught with only routine lectures on the same gross pathological specimen. RESULTS The use of new method increased the average attendance of students significantly. The percentage of passing students in the mock tests was very good. There was notable increase of passing

  3. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  4. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  5. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  6. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  7. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  8. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  9. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  11. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  12. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  13. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  16. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  17. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  19. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  1. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  2. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  3. [Molluscum contagiosum: descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; Acevedo, A; de Las Heras, C; Pérez-Pérez, L; Suárez-Amor, O; Ginarte, M

    2010-02-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection that often requires assistance. The aim of our study is to review the cases admitted in our clinic, evaluate the epidemiological features and the treatment prescribed. We conducted a descriptive survey of the patients diagnosed of molluscum contagiosum in our clinic (Complexo Hospitalario Arquitecto Marcide-Novoa Santos, Ferrol, Spain) between June 16th 2008 and January 15th 2009. The following dates were recorded in all cases: age, sex, personal history of atopy, swimming pool attendance, number of lesions and treatment prescribed. 140 cases of molluscum contagiosum were included in the study. Average age was 10.7 years. 51.43% of patients had a personal history of atopy and 72.1% used to attendance swimming-pool. Average number of lesions was 13.3, with a higher number of them in males, atopic and swimming-pool attendants. Curettage was the treatment performed in 86.4% of cases. Atopic dermatitis and swimming-pool attendance were associated in our study with a higher frequency and number of molluscum contagiosum. Although different therapeutic options must be evaluated depending on the patient and clinical skills, curettage is the most frequent treatment performed by dermatologists.

  4. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  5. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  6. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  7. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  8. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  9. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  10. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  11. E-education in pathology including certification of e-institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Ogilvie, Robert; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Kayser, Gian

    2011-03-30

    E-education or electronically transferred continuous education in pathology is one major application of virtual microscopy. The basic conditions and properties of acoustic and visual information transfer, of teaching and learning processes, as well as of knowledge and competence, influence its implementation to a high degree. Educational programs and structures can be judged by access to the basic conditions, by description of the teaching resources, methods, and its program, as well as by identification of competences, and development of an appropriate evaluation system. Classic teaching and learning methods present a constant, usually non-reversible information flow. They are subject to personal circumstances of both teacher and student. The methods of information presentation need to be distinguished between static and dynamic, between acoustic and visual ones. Electronic tools in education include local manually assisted tools (language assistants, computer-assisted design, etc.), local passive tools (slides, movies, sounds, music), open access tools (internet), and specific tools such as Webinars. From the medical point of view information content can be divided into constant (gross and microscopic anatomy) and variable (disease related) items. Most open access available medical courses teach constant information such as anatomy or physiology. Mandatory teaching resources are image archives with user-controlled navigation and labelling, student-oriented user manuals, discussion forums, and expert consultation. A classic undergraduate electronic educational system is WebMic which presents with histology lectures. An example designed for postgraduate teaching is the digital lung pathology system. It includes a description of diagnostic and therapeutic features of 60 rare and common lung diseases, partly in multimedia presentation. Combining multimedia features with the organization structures of a virtual pathology institution will result in a virtual pathology

  12. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya. B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo calves procured from the local slaughter house and department of Veterinary Anatomy were studied in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati irrespective of breed, sex and nutritional status. The gross morphology of joints and relations were studied. The round ligament of buffalo was stronger compared to cattle. A thick fibrous stratum of articular capsule was present. A few arched and semi-circular fibers were seen in the articular capsule but zona orbicularis was absent. The best developed periarticular ligament in the buffalo hip was the iliofemoral ligament. It was a thick cord of connective tissue extending from a nodule below and behind the ischiatic spine and spreaded over the capsula articularis and finally attached to the trochanter major and trochanteric ridge. The pubocapsular ligament was located on the ventral surface of the joint capsule and blended with it. Compared to the most of other quadripeds the periarticular ligaments were well developed in buffalo. The iliofemoral ligament was mostly helpful in preventing the hip from excessive extension and adduction. The relative development of the periarticular ligaments in the biped and quadrupeds were probably in accordance with comparative weight that this articulation must support. Potential implications: An understanding of the basic anatomy of the hip helps in understanding pathology and can greatly assist the surgeon in appropriately diagnosing and treating the

  13. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  14. Radiation protection in the geothermal energy facility of the German genetic research center (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg); Strahlenschutz in der Geothermieanlage des Deutschen Geoforschungszentrums (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, Joerg; Doering, Joachim; Ebert, Monika; Mielcarek, Juergen [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Regenspurg, Simona [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    About 70% of the geothermal energy originates from radioactive decay. For the utilization of geothermal energy water is used as working fluid. The efficiency of a geothermal energy facility is correlated to the water temperature. In the geothermal energy facility of Gross Schoenebeck the thermal water has a temperature of 150 C. The salty water (265 g/l) contains a complex mixture of dissolved components that might precipitate during cooling (scale formation). The deposits can include radioactive materials (isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series and K-40). The thermal water from the production bore holes is filtered on the surface.

  15. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  16. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, pfunctional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, pfunctional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  17. College Readiness -- A Simple Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Dancis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material previously studied. Arithmetic means Arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, percents, measurement and multi-step Arithmetic word problems, along with “generalized” Arithmetic, better known as Algebra.

  18. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  19. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  20. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  1. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  2. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  3. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  5. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  6. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  7. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  8. Generation of Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements by a Single Engineered DNA Double Strand Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhijun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Roschke, Anna; Varga, Tamas; Aplan, Peter D.

    2017-01-01

    Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), including translocations, inversions amplifications, and deletions, can be causal events leading to malignant transformation. GCRs are thought to be triggered by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which in turn can be spontaneous or induced by external agents (eg. cytotoxic chemotherapy, ionizing radiation). It has been shown that induction of DNA DSBs at two defined loci can produce stable balanced chromosomal translocations, however, a single engineered DNA DSB could not. Herein, we report that although a single engineered DNA DSB in H2AX “knockdown” cells did not generate GCRs, repair of a single engineered DNA DSB in fibroblasts that had ablated H2ax did produce clonal, stable GCRs, including balanced translocations and megabase-pair inversions. Upon correction of the H2ax deficiency, cells no longer generated GCRs following a single engineered DNA DSB. These findings demonstrate that clonal, stable GCRs can be produced by a single engineered DNA DSB in H2ax knockout cells, and that the production of these GCRs is ameliorated by H2ax expression. PMID:28225067

  9. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  10. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  11. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 27 CFR 19.168 - Description of plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of plant. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.168 Description of plant. (a) The application for registration shall include a description of...

  13. 48 CFR 811.104-71 - Purchase description clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase description... Documents 811.104-71 Purchase description clauses. (a) When a solicitation uses “brand name or equal” purchase descriptions, the contracting officer must include in the solicitation the clause at...

  14. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  15. A Description Logic Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.

  16. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  17. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...

  18. Use of High-Definition Audiovisual Technology in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Effect on Dental Students' Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Sleiman, Naama H; Thomas, Maureen; Kashani, Nahid; Ditmyer, Marcia M

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory cadaver dissection is essential for three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and variability, but there are many challenges to teaching gross anatomy in medical and dental schools, including a lack of available space and qualified anatomy faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of high-definition audiovisual educational technology in the gross anatomy laboratory in improving dental students' learning outcomes and satisfaction. Exam scores were compared for two classes of first-year students at one U.S. dental school: 2012-13 (no audiovisual technology) and 2013-14 (audiovisual technology), and section exams were used to compare differences between semesters. Additionally, an online survey was used to assess the satisfaction of students who used the technology. All 284 first-year students in the two years (2012-13 N=144; 2013-14 N=140) participated in the exams. Of the 140 students in the 2013-14 class, 63 completed the survey (45% response rate). The results showed that those students who used the technology had higher scores on the laboratory exams than those who did not use it, and students in the winter semester scored higher (90.17±0.56) than in the fall semester (82.10±0.68). More than 87% of those surveyed strongly agreed or agreed that the audiovisual devices represented anatomical structures clearly in the gross anatomy laboratory. These students reported an improved experience in learning and understanding anatomical structures, found the laboratory to be less overwhelming, and said they were better able to follow dissection instructions and understand details of anatomical structures with the new technology. Based on these results, the study concluded that the ability to provide the students a clear view of anatomical structures and high-quality imaging had improved their learning experience.

  19. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  20. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>1023 m-2 s-1), typical for the divertor region. In this work, a realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li/D layer is developed that incorporates first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of D diffusion in liquid Li. Predictions of Li erosion from a mixed Li/D material are also developed that include formation of lithium deuteride (LiD). The erosion rate of Li from LiD is predicted to be significantly lower than from pure Li. This prediction is tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures  ⩽800 °C. Li/LiD coatings ranging in thickness from 0.2 to 500 μm are studied. The dynamic D/Li concentrations are inferred via diffusion simulations. The pure Li erosion rate remains greater than Langmuir Law evaporation, as expected. For mixed-material Li/LiD surfaces, the erosion rates are reduced, in good agreement with modelling in almost all cases. These results imply that the temperature limit for a Li-coated PFC may be significantly higher than previously imagined.

  1. A vortex filament tracking method for the Gross-Pitaevskii model of a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villois, Alberto; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Proment, Davide; Salman, Hayder

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and robust numerical method to track quantised vortex lines in a superfluid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By utilising the pseudo-vorticity field of the associated complex scalar order parameter of the superfluid, we are able to track the topological defects of the superfluid and reconstruct the vortex lines which correspond to zeros of the field. Throughout, we assume our field is periodic to allow us to make extensive use of the Fourier representation of the field and its derivatives in order to retain spectral accuracy. We present several case studies to test the precision of the method which include the evaluation of the curvature and torsion of a torus vortex knot, and the measurement of the Kelvin wave spectrum of a vortex line and a vortex ring. The method we present makes no a priori assumptions on the geometry of the vortices and is therefore applicable to a wide range of systems such as a superfluid in a turbulent state that is characterised by many vortex rings coexisting with sound waves. This allows us to track the positions of the vortex filaments in a dense turbulent vortex tangle and extract statistical information about the distribution of the size of the vortex rings and the inter-vortex separations. In principle, the method can be extended to track similar topological defects arising in other physical systems.

  2. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  3. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  5. Do collaborative practical tests encourage student-centered active learning of gross anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-05-06

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and then worked as a team to complete the same test again immediately afterwards. The relationship between mean individual, team, and difference (between team and individual) test scores to overall performance on the final examination (representing overall learning in the course) was examined using regression analysis. The overall mark in the course increased by 9% with a decreased failure rate. There was a strong relationship between individual score and final examination mark (P learning occurring during the collaborative testing and that weaker students gained the benefit from team marks without significant active learning taking place. This negative outcome may be due to insufficient encouragement of the active learning strategies that were expected to occur during the collaborative testing process. An improved understanding of the efficacy of collaborative assessment could be achieved through the inclusion of questionnaire based data to allow a better interpretation of learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 9: 231-237. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Penetrance and clinical consequences of a gross SDHB deletion in a large family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, D C; Burnichon, N; Timmers, H J L M; Raygada, M J; Kozupa, A; Merino, M J; Makey, D; Adams, K T; Venisse, A; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A-P; Pacak, K

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and are associated with hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma. The phenotype of patients with SDHB point mutations has been previously described. However, the phenotype and penetrance of gross SDHB deletions have not been well characterized as they are rarely described. The objective was to describe the phenotype and estimate the penetrance of an exon 1 large SDHB deletion in one kindred. A retrospective and prospective study of 41 relatives across five generations was carried out. The main outcome measures were genetic testing, clinical presentations, plasma catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites. Of the 41 mutation carriers identified, 11 were diagnosed with PGL, 12 were found to be healthy carriers after evaluation, and 18 were reportedly healthy based on family history accounts. The penetrance of PGL related to the exon 1 large SDHB deletion in this family was estimated to be 35% by age 40. Variable expressivity of the phenotype associated with a large exon 1 SDHB deletion was observed, including low penetrance, diverse primary PGL tumor locations, and malignant potential.

  7. Gross and histologic features of gastritis due to Ophidascaris arndti in tropical rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É.M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus is a snake of great importance for biomedical industry since its poison is used for the production of antiophidic serum and researches. Several conditions related to animal health, such as diseases and parasites, which can promote the reduction of poison production by these snakes should be investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gross and microscopic lesions related to the presence of Ophidascaris arndti in stomachs of tropical rattlesnakes. The gastrointestinal tract of thirty-five South American rattlesnakes captured in Southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed and nineteen animals showed infestation by the parasites, found in the small intestine and, especially, in the stomach of the hosts. Grossly, lesions were characterized by mucosal ulcers occasionally associated with hemorrhage. Microscopic alterations included histiocytic granulomas, fibrosis, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of a parasitic granulomatous disease was made. The lesions may be related to the cause of death in captivity snakes, since the lesions can promote secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria. Moreover, the intense inflammatory response accompanied by fibrosis may be related to poor functioning of the gastric snakes, which it may exhibit frequent regurgitation of the food.

  8. Uncertainties in the land-use flux resulting from land-use change reconstructions and gross land transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Anthoni, Peter M.; Fuchs, Richard; Arneth, Almut

    2017-02-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LUC) changes are a key uncertainty when attributing changes in measured atmospheric CO2 concentration to its sinks and sources and must also be much better understood to determine the possibilities for land-based climate change mitigation, especially in the light of human demand on other land-based resources. On the spatial scale typically used in terrestrial ecosystem models (0.5 or 1°) changes in LUC over time periods of a few years or more can include bidirectional changes on the sub-grid level, such as the parallel expansion and abandonment of agricultural land (e.g. in shifting cultivation) or cropland-grassland conversion (and vice versa). These complex changes between classes within a grid cell have often been neglected in previous studies, and only net changes of land between natural vegetation cover, cropland and pastures accounted for, mainly because of a lack of reliable high-resolution historical information on gross land transitions, in combination with technical limitations within the models themselves. In the present study we applied a state-of-the-art dynamic global vegetation model with a detailed representation of croplands and carbon-nitrogen dynamics to quantify the uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes arising from the choice between net and gross representations of LUC. We used three frequently applied global, one recent global and one recent European LUC datasets, two of which resolve gross land transitions, either in Europe or in certain tropical regions. When considering only net changes, land-use-transition uncertainties (expressed as 1 standard deviation around decadal means of four models) in global carbon emissions from LUC (ELUC) are ±0.19, ±0.66 and ±0.47 Pg C a-1 in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively, or between 14 and 39 % of mean ELUC. Carbon stocks at the end of the 20th century vary by ±11 Pg C for vegetation and ±37 Pg C for soil C due to the choice of LUC

  9. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  10. C programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a fully anisotropic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudragović, Dušan; Vidanović, Ivana; Balaž, Antun; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2012-09-01

    . Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 180 583. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 188 688. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: C and C/OpenMP. Computer: Any modern computer with C language compiler installed. Operating system: Linux, Unix, Mac OS, Windows. RAM: Memory used with the supplied input files: 2-4 MB (i, iv, ix, x, xiii, xvi, xvii, xviii), 8 MB (xi, xii), 32 MB (vii, viii), 80 MB (ii, iii), 700 MB (xiv, xv), 1.2 GB (v, vi). Number of processors used: For threaded (OpenMP parallelized) programs, all available CPU cores on the computer. Classification: 2.9, 4.3, 4.12. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEDU_v1_0. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 (2009) 1888. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No. Nature of problem: These programs are designed to solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) nonlinear partial differential equation in one-, two- or three-space dimensions with a harmonic, circularly-symmetric, spherically-symmetric, axially-symmetric or fully anisotropic trap. The GP equation describes the properties of a dilute trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Solution method: The time-dependent GP equation is solved by the split-step Crank-Nicolson method by discretizing in space and time. The discretized equation is then solved by propagation, in either imaginary or real time, over small time steps. The method yields solutions of stationary and/or non-stationary problems. Reasons for the new version: Previous Fortran programs [1] are used within the ultra-cold atoms [2-11] and nonlinear optics [12,13] communities, as well as in various other fields [14-16]. This new version represents translation of all programs to the C programming language, which will make

  11. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  12. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  13. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  14. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  15. DETERMINATE NONPERIODIC VARIATION OF THE GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Korshunov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical problem of product supply and demand, which was first defined by А. Marshall, is reduced to Lorentz model in a nonlinear statement and it describes sustainable circular processes of commodity market, including price range increment in the context of crisis forthcoming (inflation; destabilization due to nonmanufacturing costs; the main stages of crisis development, including a stage of chaotic behavior of residence time at each attractor (equilibrium point; possibility of surmounting the crisis by means of modification of certain parameters. The given approach is used for the purpose of construction of a qualitative model of commodity price readjustment during precrisis and crisis periods, and finding reliable prognostication time.

  16. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  17. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  18. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  19. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  1. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  2. Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Surender, S.; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Sanjay, K. S.; G V Basavaraja; Naveen Benakappa; Asha Benakappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In children, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) includes parental impact and family functioning along with concepts of illness, functional status, mental health, and comfort. We are focusing on the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on children's HRQOL and their families, and its relationship with gross motor dysfunction. Subjects and Methods: CP children aged 3–10 years under regular neurology follow-up were enrolled. The HRQOL and motor severity were prospectively assessed usin...

  3. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... increase due to adjustments in book value of capital assets. The underwriting and investment exhibit is... incurred” the determination of unpaid losses at the close of each year must represent actual unpaid losses... cash), real or personal, tangible or intangible, except that which may not be included by reason of...

  4. A New Algorithm for Secne Description without a priori Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYuning

    2003-01-01

    Scene description plays a major role in the interpretation of images.In this paper a novel data-and rule-driven system for three dimensional(3D)segmentation and scene description in an unknown environment is presented.This system generates hierarchies of features that correspond to structural elements such as boundaries and shape classes of individual object as well as relationships between objects.It is implemented as an added highlevel component to an existing low-level binocular vision system(described in a separate paper).Based on a pair of matched stereo images produced by that system,3D segmentation is first performed to group object bundary data into several edge-sets each of which is believed belonging to one particular object.Then gross features of each object is extracted and stored in an object record.The final structural description of the scene is accomplished with the information of object record,a set of rules and a rule implementer.The system is designed to handle partially occluded objects of different shape and size on the 2D images.Experimental results have shown its success in computing boty object and structural level descriptions of common man-made objects.

  5. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. METHODS: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST-RA) cohort includes clinical......-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 "high GDP" countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24,000 and 11 "low GDP" countries with GDP per capita less than US$11,000. RESULTS: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly...... associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents...

  6. Guidance on Monitoring of Gross Changes in Forest Area

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frederic; DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Mollicone, Danilo; Pandey, Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of the art for data and approaches to be used for monitoring forest area changes at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. It includes approaches and data for monitoring both deforestation and forest degradation and for establishing historical reference scenarios. The chapter presents the minimum requirements to develop first order national deforestation databases, using typical and internationally accepted methods. There are ...

  7. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  8. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... politico-cultural antagonisms in Northern Ireland. However, the terms ‘consociationalism’ or ‘consociational democracy’ are wholly absent from political discourses: they are never used in any of the governmental and constitutional documents between 1969 and 2006. As such, juxtaposing academic literature...... to integration, eventually converged in authoritative academic and political discourses....

  9. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  10. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  11. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  12. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  13. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  14. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  15. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  16. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  17. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  18. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  19. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  20. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  1. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger

  2. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

  3. An Evaluation of the MOD17 Gross Primary Production Algorithm in a Mangrove Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Though coastal wetlands occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, they are extremely active ecosystems and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. However, coastal wetlands are still poorly understood, especially when compared to open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. This is partly due to the limited in situ observations in these areas. One of the ways around the limited in situ data is to use remote sensing products. Here we present the first evaluation of the MOD17 remote sensing algorithm of gross primary productivity (GPP) in a mangrove forest using data from a flux tower in the Florida Everglades. MOD17 utilizes remote sensing products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and meteorological fields from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2. MOD17 is found to capture the long-term mean and seasonal amplitude of GPP but has significant errors describing the interannual variability, intramonthly variability, and the phasing of the annual cycle in GPP. Regarding the latter, MOD17 overestimates GPP when salinity is high and underestimates it when it is low, consistent with the fact that MOD17 ignores salinity and salinity tends to decrease GPP. Including salinity in the algorithm would then most likely improve its accuracy. MOD17 also assumes that GPP is linear with respect to PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which does not hold true in the mangroves. Finally, the estimated PAR and air temperature inputs to MOD17 were found to be significantly lower than observed. In summary, while MOD17 captures some aspects of GPP variability at this mangrove site, it appears to be doing so for the wrong reasons.

  4. NPM1 deletion is associated with gross chromosomal rearrangements in leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta La Starza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NPM1 gene at chromosome 5q35 is involved in recurrent translocations in leukemia and lymphoma. It also undergoes mutations in 60% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML cases with normal karyotype. The incidence and significance of NPM1 deletion in human leukemia have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bone marrow samples from 145 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and AML were included in this study. Cytogenetically 43 cases had isolated 5q-, 84 cases had 5q- plus other changes and 18 cases had complex karyotype without 5q deletion. FISH and direct sequencing investigated the NPM1 gene. NPM1 deletion was an uncommon event in the "5q- syndrome" but occurred in over 40% of cases with high risk MDS/AML with complex karyotypes and 5q loss. It originated from large 5q chromosome deletions. Simultaneous exon 12 mutations were never found. NPM1 gene status was related to the pattern of complex cytogenetic aberrations. NPM1 haploinsufficiency was significantly associated with monosomies (p<0.001 and gross chromosomal rearrangements, i.e., markers, rings, and double minutes (p<0.001, while NPM1 disomy was associated with structural changes (p=0.013. Interestingly, in complex karyotypes with 5q- TP53 deletion and/or mutations are not specifically associated with NPM1 deletion. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: NPM1/5q35 deletion is a consistent event in MDS/AML with a 5q-/-5 in complex karyotypes. NPM1 deletion and NPM1 exon 12 mutations appear to be mutually exclusive and are associated with two distinct cytogenetic subsets of MDS and AML.

  5. Interplay of drought and tropical cyclone activity in SE U.S. gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Lauren E. L.; Barros, Ana P.

    2016-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), often associated with massive flooding and landslides in the Southeast U.S. (SE U.S.), provide a significant input of freshwater to the hydrologic system, and their timing and trajectory significantly impact drought severity and persistence. This manuscript investigates the sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP) in the SE U.S. to TC activity using the 1-D column implementation of the Duke Coupled Hydrology Model with Vegetation (DCHM-V) including coupled water and energy cycles and a biochemical representation of photosynthesis. Decadal-scale simulations of water, energy, and carbon fluxes were conducted at high temporal (30 min) and spatial (4 km) resolution over the period 2002-2012. At local scales, model results without calibration compare well against AmeriFlux tower data. At regional scales, differences between the DCHM-V estimates and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer GPP product reflect the spatial organization of soil hydraulic properties and soil moisture dynamics by physiographic region, highlighting the links between the water and carbon cycles. To isolate the contribution of TC precipitation to SE U.S. productivity, control forcing simulations are contrasted with simulations where periods of TC activity in the atmospheric forcing data were replaced with climatology. During wet years, TC activity impacts productivity in 40-50% of the SE U.S. domain and explains a regional GPP increase of 3-5 Mg C/m2 that is 9% of the warm season total. In dry years, 23-34% of the domain exhibits a smaller positive response that corresponds to 4-8% of the seasonal carbon uptake, depending on TC timing and trajectory.

  6. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS.

  7. Direction and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  8. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    current prominent position within the academy. Structuring these interpretations alongside evolving constitutional policy, the paper will argue that although consociationalism has developed as an indeterminate research design, the inherent logic of managing diversity on the basis of equality as opposed......From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... by the Dutch political scientist Arend Lijphart in a World Politics article from 1969, it has since increased in importance, both as an authoritative explanatory framework for the institutional design inherent in political agreements and as a desirable approach to manage, balance and potentially dissolve...

  9. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  10. Gross hepatomegaly due to ‘minimal change’ liver disease in a young female alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Sisir K.; Shaw, G K; Aps, E. J.; Thomson, Allan D.; O Gorman, P.; Bugler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The case of a grossly enlarged liver due to alcohol excess in a woman of 21 is reported. This case further demonstrates that a chronic alcoholic can have gross hepatomegaly with normal histology and normal liver function tests. The possible pathogenetic basis of ethanol-induced hepatomegaly (‘minimal change’ liver disease) is discussed.

  11. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  12. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  13. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  14. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  15. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  16. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  18. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSp(2|2) gross neveu and sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleur, H.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular

  19. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax. 29.401-4 Section 29.401-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico...

  20. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables. Th

  1. Medical gross anatomy as a predictor of performance on the USMLE Step 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathryn A; Tucker, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Traditional predictors of medical school performance, such as Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and grade point averages, are often used during the admissions process to help identify the prospective students who are most likely to complete the basic science portion of the curriculum successfully. Here we analyzed the admissions files and student records of 285 first-year medical students who matriculated at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine between 1999 and 2001 to determine if performance in medical gross anatomy is a similar, if not better, predictor of performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 than traditional predictors used by medical school admissions committees. Though MCAT scores and grade point averages were correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1, only the score on the biological science section of the MCAT was significantly correlated with passing the licensing examination. In contrast, class rank in medical gross anatomy and the score on a gross anatomy comprehensive final examination were correlated both with scores on the USMLE Step 1 and passing the examination. Our results indicate that medical schools should consider performance in medical gross anatomy just as much, if not more, than traditional predictors of medical school performance when trying to identify students who may need more time or tutoring to pass the licensing examination.

  2. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  3. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  4. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  5. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  6. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  7. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  8. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  9. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  10. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  11. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  12. Remarks on the Blow-Up Solutions for the Critical Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the blow-up solutions of the critical Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate. The existence and qualitative properties of the minimal blow-up solutions are obtained.

  13. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  14. Hydrodynamical form for the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish a well-posedness result for the hydrodynamical form (HGP of the one dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GP via the classical form of this equation. The result established in this way proves that (HGP is locally well-posed since the solution of (GP can vanished at some $t\

  15. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  16. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  17. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  18. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  19. An Efficient Compact Finite Difference Method for the Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongpei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    matrices. The CFDM-AIF method is implemented to investigate the ground and first excited state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the CFDM-AIF method.

  20. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  1. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  2. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  3. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  4. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  5. A note on a proof of F. Hahn concerning the gross substitutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi, G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to investigate the assumptions and the proofs of some results by F. Hahn, which have been stated in several other classics of Economic Theory. The results deal with the relations between the gross substitutability and the weak axiom of revealed preference, in a pure exchange economy, ruled by the Walras law.

  6. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  7. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  8. The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  9. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  10. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  11. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  12. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  13. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  14. Artifacts in conventional computed tomography (CT) and free breathing four-dimensional CT induce uncertainty in gross tumor volume determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Artifacts impacting the imaged tumor volume can be seen in conventional three-dimensional CT (3DCT) scans for planning of lung cancer radiotherapy but can be reduced with the use of respiration-correlated imaging, i.e., 4DCT or breathhold CT (BHCT) scans. The aim of this study...... was to compare delineated gross tumor volume (GTV) sizes in 3DCT, 4DCT, and BHCT scans of patients with lung tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 36 patients with 46 tumors referred for stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors were included. All patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, 4DCT......, and BHCT scans. GTVs in all CT scans of individual patients were delineated during one session by a single physician to minimize systematic delineation uncertainty. The GTV size from the BHCT was considered the closest to true tumor volume and was chosen as the reference. The reference GTV size...

  15. Evaluating gross brain asymmetry: A potential biomarker for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-related neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs]|[Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Animal Science; Martin, J.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Best, D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, East Lansing, MI (United States). East Lansing Field Office; Cheng, K.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Animal Science; Elliott, J.E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Animal Science]|[Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia, CA (United States). Pacific Wildlife Research Centre; Rosenstein, D.; Sikarskie, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Veterinary Clinical Center

    1996-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that avian embryonic exposure to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and related compounds is associated with the development of a gross brain asymmetry which can be quantified. Three methods can be used to quantify the asymmetry, including external measurements of the intact brain, measurements of brain cross-sections and measurements of computer tomography (CT)-generated images of brain sections. All three methods produce reliable results. The whole brain measurements do not require specialized equipment, and are the most flexible. However, the possibility for unintentional bias is greatest for this technique. The CT scan technology is non-invasive, but requires access to specialized equipment and may be expensive. The cross-sectional measurements, which are similar to the CT scan measurements, require careful processing prior to measurement.

  16. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  17. CUDA programs for solving the time-dependent dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation in an anisotropic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Vladimir; Balaž, Antun; Bogojević, Aleksandar; Škrbić, Srdjan; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present new versions of previously published numerical programs for solving the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation including the contact interaction in two and three spatial dimensions in imaginary and in real time, yielding both stationary and non-stationary solutions. New versions of programs were developed using CUDA toolkit and can make use of Nvidia GPU devices. The algorithm used is the same split-step semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson method as in the previous version (Kishor Kumar et al., 2015), which is here implemented as a series of CUDA kernels that compute the solution on the GPU. In addition, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) library used in the previous version is replaced by cuFFT library, which works on CUDA-enabled GPUs. We present speedup test results obtained using new versions of programs and demonstrate an average speedup of 12-25, depending on the program and input size.

  18. Negativity and descriptive extremity in impression formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    With a 2-trait impression task in which all traits denoted risk-related behavior and both evaluative and descriptive ratings were included as dependent variables, it was hypothesized that (1) negative traits receive a higher weight than positive traits in the formation of an overall judgment, (2) ne

  19. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well

  20. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  1. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  2. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  3. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  4. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  5. Gross and microscopic pathology of lesions in Pocillopora spp. from the subtropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by a variety of factors including diseases that have caused significant damage in some regions such as in the Caribbean. At present, no data are available on coral diseases in the Mexican Pacific where Pocillopora spp. is a dominant component of coral communities. Here, we describe gross and microscopic morphology of lesions found in pocilloporids at four sites in the Mexican Pacific. Corals were identified and their lesions photographed and quantified in the field. Tissue samples were collected from healthy and affected colonies for histopathology. We recorded seven species of pocilloporids at the study sites with Isla Isabel being the location with the highest coral diversity (H′ = 1.27). Lesions were present in 42% of the colonies and included discoloration (32%), predation-induced tissue loss (30%), unexplained tissue loss (3%) and overgrowth by sponges or algae (35%). The most affected species, P. damicornis (50%), was also one of the most common in the region. No species was more prone to a particular lesion, but there was a significant association between location and the presence of lesions. Northern Islas Marietas (61%) and Isla Isabel (41%) had the highest prevalence of lesions, followed by Manzanillo (37%) and Bahías de Huatulco (23%). Histological changes included atrophy of the surface body wall with depletion of zooxanthellae (91%) in corals with discoloration (bleaching). Ablation of tissue from mesoglea (18%) was also observed. Colonies with unexplained tissue loss showed atrophy and thinning of the epidermis (89%), characterized by cuboidal instead of pseudocolumnar cells normally found in healthy pseudocolumnar ciliated epithelium. Bacterial aggregates between the mesoglea and gastrodermis (11%) were very conspicuous in healthy and diseased corals. Lesions produced by fish bites and gastropods were associated with tissue atrophy (40%) and, in some cases, algal overgrowth near the lesion (20%). No infectious agents

  6. Measurements of gross energy consumption in new buildings meeting Danish building Regulations 2005. Project summary; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Projektresume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    During the heating season of 2003/2004, gross energy measurements have been made on a number of single-family houses that represent ordinary building systems in Denmark and meet future stricter energy requirements in new energy regulations of the building regulations. All the houses have floor heating and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. When new energy regulations are introduced in the building regulations, the primary energy requirements on buildings will be based on the gross energy consumption, corresponding to the total energy consumption except electricity consumption for appliances. In relation to this, the object of the project has been to document and analyse the test result that have come to light and to compare with future requirements on the gross energy consumption. The electricity consumption of appliances is interesting too, however, as this has an effect on the heat demand. The object of the project has therefore also been to gather operation experience for the electricity consuming equipment in general with a view to throwing light on its influence on the heat demand, including to investigate how large a part of the electricity consumption proves of use in the heating of the house, and more overriding how the electricity consumption influences the heat consumption. (au)

  7. A Sample-Based Forest Monitoring Strategy Using Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS Data to Estimate Gross Forest Cover Loss in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asia is a hotspot of humid tropical forest cover loss. A sample-based monitoring approach quantifying forest cover loss from Landsat imagery was implemented to estimate gross forest cover loss for two eras, 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. For each time interval, a probability sample of 18.5 km × 18.5 km blocks was selected, and pairs of Landsat images acquired per sample block were interpreted to quantify forest cover area and gross forest cover loss. Stratified random sampling was implemented for 2000–2005 with MODIS-derived forest cover loss used to define the strata. A probability proportional to x (πpx design was implemented for 1990–2000 with AVHRR-derived forest cover loss used as the x variable to increase the likelihood of including forest loss area in the sample. The estimated annual gross forest cover loss for Malaysia was 0.43 Mha/yr (SE = 0.04 during 1990–2000 and 0.64 Mha/yr (SE = 0.055 during 2000–2005. Our use of the πpx sampling design represents a first practical trial of this design for sampling satellite imagery. Although the design performed adequately in this study, a thorough comparative investigation of the πpx design relative to other sampling strategies is needed before general design recommendations can be put forth.

  8. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a framework for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measurable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  9. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  10. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts

  11. CONDOR-CITVAP-MCNP calculation line description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal [INVAP S.E., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    A general description of the CONDOR-CITVAP-MCNP calculation line is given. This calculation line starts at cross section library and allows burnup dependent detailed calculation using MCNP. This calculation line is divided in two main methodologies: CONDOR-CITVAP that allows the 3-Dimensional core burnup calculation and MCNP that performs detailed transport calculations, both methodologies are coupled using the NDDUMP code. A short description of the used codes are given: CONDOR code performs the cell calculation, generating burnup dependent macroscopic cross section and burnup dependent numerical densities per material. CITVAP codes perform the burnup dependent core calculation, including the fuel management and calculates the burnup distribution per material. NDDUMP code generates materials burnup dependent numerical densities to be used by MCNP code. This paper presents a detailed description of the CONDOR-CITVAP-MCNP calculation line and a numerical comparison of the proposed methodology. (author)

  12. A New Topological Description Method of Kinematic Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Huafeng; Huang Zhen; Cao Yi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the description of kinematic chains, namely the canonical description of kinematic chains including the synthetic degree-sequences and the canonical adjacency matrices sets of kinematic chains. The most important characteristic of this new description method is its uniqueness. Based on the new principle the isomorphism identification becomes easy and the structures of all kinds of kinematic chains can be stored in computer for the benefits of the realization of automation and intelligence of machine design.

  13. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  14. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  15. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  16. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  17. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  18. Graphical User Interface Software for Gross Defect Detection at the Atucha-I Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, A C; Sitaraman, S; Ham, Y S; Peixoto, O

    2012-05-10

    At the Atucha-I pressurized heavy water reactor in Argentina, fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools are stored by suspending them in two vertically stacked layers. This introduces the unique problem of verifying the presence of fuel in either layer without physically moving the fuel assemblies. Movement of fuel, especially from the lower layer, would involve a major effort on the part of the operator. Given that the facility uses both natural uranium and slightly enriched uranium at 0.85 w% {sup 235}U, and has been in operation since 1974, a wide range of burnups and cooling times can exist in any given pool. Additionally, while fuel assemblies are grouped together in a uniform fashion, the packing density from group to group can vary within a single pool. A tool called the Spent Fuel Neutron Counter (SFNC) was developed and successfully tested at the site to verify, in an in-situ condition, the presence of fuel up to burnups of 8,000 MWd/t. Since the neutron source term becomes a nonlinear function of burnup beyond this burnup, a new algorithm was developed to predict expected response from the SFNC at measurement locations covering the entire range of burnups, cooling times, and initial enrichments. With the aid of a static database of parameters including intrinsic sources and energy group-wise detector response functions, as well as explicit spent fuel information including burnups, cooling times, enrichment types, and spacing between fuel assemblies, an expected response for any given location can be calculated by summing the contributions from the relevant neighboring fuel assemblies. Thus, the new algorithm maps the expected responses across the various pools providing inspectors with a visual aid in verifying the presence of the spent fuel assemblies. This algorithm has been fully integrated into a standalone application built in LabVIEW. The GUI uses a step-by-step approach to allow the end-user to first calibrate the predicted database against a set of

  19. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  20. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae (We

  1. A description of the Omo I postcranial skeleton, including newly discovered fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Osbjorn M; Royer, Danielle F; Grine, Frederick E; Fleagle, John G

    2008-09-01

    Recent fieldwork in the Kibish Formation has expanded our knowledge of the geological, archaeological, and faunal context of the Omo I skeleton, the earliest known anatomically modern human. In the course of this fieldwork, several additional fragments of the skeleton were recovered: a middle manual phalanx, a distal manual phalanx, a right talus, a large and a small fragment of the left os coxae, a portion of the distal diaphysis of the right femur that conjoins with the distal epiphysis recovered in 1967, and a costal fragment. Some researchers have described the original postcranial fragments of Omo I as anatomically modern but have noted that a variety of aspects of the specimen's morphology depart from the usual anatomy of many recent populations. Reanalysis confirms this conclusion. Some of the unusual features in Omo I--a medially facing radial tuberosity, a laterally flaring facet on the talus for the lateral malleolus, and reduced dorsovolar curvature of the base of metacarpal I--are shared with Neandertals, some early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh, and some individuals from the European Gravettian, raising the possibility that Eurasian early modern humans inherited these features from an African predecessor rather than Neandertals. The fragment of the os coxae does not unambiguously diagnose Omo I's sex: the greater sciatic notch is intermediate in form, the acetabulum is large (male?), and a preauricular sulcus is present (female?). The preserved portion of the left humerus suggests that Omo I was quite tall, perhaps 178-182 cm, but the first metatarsal suggests a shorter stature of 162-173 cm. The morphology of the auricular surface of the os coxae suggests a young adult age.

  2. Taxonomic review of Physconelloides (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (aves), including descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R D; Clayton, D H; Hellenthal, R A

    1999-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive taxonomic review of Physconelloides, a genus of ischnoceran chewing lice found on pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Thirteen previously known Physconelloides species are redescribed and 16 new synonymies are designated: P. rubripes Carriker, P. rubripes longulus Tendeiro, P. piotrowskii Tendeiro and P. auritae Tendeiro are synonyms of P. zenaidurae (McGregor); P. recurvatus Eichler, P. chocoensis Carriker and P. montana Carriker are synonyms of P. ceratoceps Ewing; P. silvestris Tendeiro is a synonym of P. perijae Carriker; P. keleri Kaddou and P. branderi Kaddou are synonyms of P. spenceri Emerson and Ward; P. wolfdietrichi Kaddou is a synonym of P. anolaimae Carriker; and Goniocotacanthus mattogrossensis Guimaraes, P. passerinae Emerson, P. eurysema pretiosa Carriker, P. talpacoti Carriker and P. picuii Tendeiro are synonyms of P. eurysema (Carriker). Three new species are also described: P. moyeri (type host Geotrygon linearis), P. johnsoni (type host Columbina passerina bahamensis), and P. robbinsi (type host Metriopelia ceciliae). A key is provided for identification of the 16 recognized species.

  3. Description and Application of A Model of Seepage under A Weir Including Mechanical Clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses seepage flow under a damming structure (a weir in view of mechanical clogging in a thin layer at the upstream site. It was assumed that in this layer flow may be treated as one-dimensional (perpendicular to the layer, while elsewhere flow was modelled as two-dimensional. The solution in both zones was obtained in the discrete form using the finite element method and the Euler method. The effect of the clogging layer on seepage flow was modelled using the third kind boundary condition. Seepage parameters in the clogging layer were estimated based on laboratory tests conducted by Skolasińska [2006]. Typical problem was taken to provide simulation and indicate how clogging affects the seepage rate and other parameters of the flow. Results showed that clogging at the upstream site has a significant effect on the distribution of seepage velocity and hydraulic gradients. The flow underneath the structure decreases with time, but these changes are relatively slow.

  4. Recharacterization of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 (Serpentes: Uropeltidae), including description of new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, David J; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2016-08-29

    The Sri Lankan uropeltid (shieldtail) snake Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 was described originally from two specimens that were subsequently lost. The small amount of previously published data and lack of published colour photographs made this one of South Asia's most poorly known snake species, and this resulted in at least one instance of taxonomic misidentification. An additional 10 specimens from a historical collection from the vicinity of the type locality recently came to light. This material is reviewed and documented and the species recharacterized. An additional locality for the species is reported. The newly reported material helps to corroborate the taxonomic validity and distinctiveness of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus. The species is readily distinguished from congeners by having 227 or more ventral scales; a large, dorsally carinate rostral shield; posterior margins of paired anals that are largely separated by the posteriormost ventral scale; and a distinctive colour pattern with bilaterally asymmetrical dark blotches within a broad, pale middorsal stripe and regularly punctate flanks.

  5. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  6. Hürthle cell neoplasm: correlation of gray-scale and power Doppler sonographic findings with gross pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Rho, Byung Hak; Woo, Seong-Ku

    2010-05-01

    To describe gray-scale and power Doppler (PD) sonographic (US) findings of Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) of the thyroid gland, and to determine if there is any correlation between US and gross pathologic features. This retrospective study included 30 pathologically proven HCNs in 30 subjects who underwent preoperative gray-scale and PD US examinations. The size, shape, margin, echogenicity, echotexture, presence or absence of cystic change, calcifications and halo sign, and vascularity at PD US were evaluated. The longest diameter of HCNs ranged from 12 mm to 63 mm. The shape and margins of the mass were ovoid and smooth, respectively, in all cases. The echogenicity was hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed in 43.3%, 33.3%, 10.0%, and 13.3%, respectively. The echotexture was heterogeneous in 73.3% and homogeneous in 26.7%. Cystic change was present in 56.7% and involved less than 25% of the volume of the mass in 50.0% and 26-50% of the volume in 6.7%. Coarse calcifications were present in 20.0%. Halo sign was present in all cases. The vascularity was combined peri- and intranodular in all cases: predominantly intranodular in 50.0%, predominantly perinodular in 46.7%, and of the "inferno" type in 3.3%. All HCNs were encapsulated on gross pathologic examination. Although many of the US features we observed were nonspecific, HCNs tend to have a halo sign and combined peri- and intranodular vascularity on US, which raises the possibility of an association. The US halo sign corresponds to tumor capsule ongross pathologic examination.

  7. Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moghanlo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Different types of practises are known for improving motor skills in intellectually disabled boys. The purpose of this study was to compar e the impact of spark motor program and basketball on improving of gross motor skills in this people.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study , from 98 educable intellectually disabled students who studied in special school in Urmia, 30 children ( age range of 9 to 13 years and IQ mean 64.4 were selected objectively and divided in three groups (2 experimental and 1 control based on pre - test. BOTMP was used as a measurement of motor ability. Selected motor program (Spark motor program including strengthening training, games, sports and basketball techniques was performed for 24 sessions. T-tests (dependent and co-variance were used to comparison of results.   Results: In Spark group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects on balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p=0.000 and strength (p=0.001. There was no significant effect in agility and speed (p= 0.343 in basketball techniques group after 24 sessions, there were significant effects in agility and speed (p= 0.001, balance (p= 0.000, bilateral coordination (p= 0.013 and strength (p= 0.007.   Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that the Spark program and basketball techniques improve gross motor skills in educable intellectually disabled students. We also found a significant difference between the Spark program and basketball techniques efficacy on the improved skills. Furthermore, the efficacy of Spark program was significantly higher than basketball techniques (p<0.05.

  8. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  9. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  10. Validation and improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Productivity in typical forest ecosystems of East Asia based on eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; He, M.; Ju, W.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle plays an important role in global climate change. As a key component of terrestrial carbon cycle, gross primary productivity (GPP) is a major determinant of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the large spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystems, it is a challenge to estimate GPP at global or regional scales. 8-day MODIS GPP product provides a real time estimate of global GPP. However, many previous studies indicated that MODIS GPP has large uncertainties, which was partly caused by biases in maximum light use efficiency and meteorological data inputs, including VPD, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, MODIS GPP of six typical forest ecosystems in East Asia was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements. The validation indicated that MODIS GPP was significantly underestimated in the forest ecosystems of East Asia. The underestimation is generally more serious in growing seasons than in non-growing seasons and becomes more obvious from the south to the north. By using observed meteorological data, smoothed fPAR and optimized maximum light use efficiency (ɛmax), predicted GPP with MOD17 algorithm consistently matched well with measured GPP. Smoothed fPAR definitely reduced underestimation of annual GPP, and the optimized ɛmax improved annual GPP more significantly, indicating that the errors in MODIS GPP of forest ecosystems in East Asia can be mainly attributed to the uncertainties of ɛmax. Optimized ɛmax are generally higher than that used for producing MODIS GPP product. The optimized ɛmax changes significantly with forest types. It even exhibits distinct seasonal variations for a specific forest. Key words: Gross Primary Productivity, MODIS, Maximum light use efficiency, East Asia, Forest ecosystem Correspondence author:Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  11. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea M. Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66. METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP, ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99, and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98. The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99; the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97 to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV.

  12. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  13. 26 CFR 1.6049-4 - Return of information as to interest paid and original issue discount includible in gross income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sentence. If the exempt recipient terminates its relationship with the payor prior to the time that the... relationship with the payor, the person must, prior to receiving a reportable payment from such relationship...) The record owner is required to file a fiduciary return on Form 1041 disclosing the name, address, and...

  14. Content of system design descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  15. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  16. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  17. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark......Sustainability management in industries is often defined by measuring the performance against the trippel bottom-line, People, Planet and Profit in business decisions. The product chain perspective inherent in LCA is very suitable for sustainability management but LCA methodology only considers...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  18. Context-descriptive Prototypes and Their Application to Medicine Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2004-01-01

    A context-descriptive prototype is an interactive graphical animation, driven by a formal, executable engine, implemented in some programming or modelling language. The two main properties of a context-descriptive prototype are: (1) it is an integrated description that describes system, work...... processes, and context of use; (2) it is a formal description. Because of (1), designers, including users, are provided with a means to investigate the system in the context of the envisioned work processes. Because of (2), investigations into questions of formalisation and automation, not only...

  19. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical cartridge respirators including all completely assembled respirators which are designed for use as...

  20. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all completely assembled respirators designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and escape...

  1. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  2. "Library Trends" Past and Present: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Lawrence W. S.

    1988-01-01

    This analysis of "Library Trends" from 1952-86 provides an overall description of authorship and subject content, general comparison of early and late volumes, and more detailed descriptions--including citation analysis--of the three pairs of issues bearing identical titles. Tables present data on authorship, subjects, and citations. (1 reference)…

  3. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim;

    2010-01-01

    and furthermore are able to refine each other. In this paper, we form descriptions using convex optimization with l1-norm minimization and Euclidean distortion constraints on the reconstructions and show that with this method we can obtain non-trivial descriptions. We give an algorithm based on recently developed...

  4. Software Architecture Description and UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Guelfi, Nicolas; Medvidovic, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    The description of software architectures has always been concerned with the definition of the appropriate languages for designing the various architectural artifacts. Over the past ten years, formal or less formal Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) and supporting methods and tools have been

  5. Combine harvester : threshing process description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Denis Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism.......The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism....

  6. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  7. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  8. Detection of gross errors using mixed integer optimization approach in process industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Cong-li; SU Hong-ye; CHU Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed integer linear programming (NMILP) model for detection of gross errors is presented in this paper.Yamamura et al.(1988) designed a model for detection of gross errors and data reconciliation based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). But much computational cost is needed due to its combinational nature. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP)approach was performed to reduce the computational cost and enhance the robustness. But it loses the super performance of maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the computational cost and have the merit of maximum likelihood estimation, the simultaneous data reconciliation method in an MILP framework is decomposed and replaced by an NMILP subproblem and a quadratic programming (QP) or a least squares estimation (LSE) subproblem. Simulation result of an industrial case shows the high efficiency of the method.

  9. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  10. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively. Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5?? latitude by 0.6?? longitude during the years 2000-2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed GPP

  11. Increased Subventricular Zone Radiation Dose Correlates With Survival in Glioblastoma Patients After Gross Total Resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linda [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ye, Xiaobu [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); McNutt, Todd; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lim, Michael; Chaichana, Kaisorn [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo, E-mail: aquinon2@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Redmond, Kristin, E-mail: kjanson3@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) have a controversial role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as potential tumor-initiating cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between radiation dose to the SVZ and survival in GBM patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 116 patients with primary GBM treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2006 and 2009. All patients underwent surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) and concomitant temozolomide. Ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral SVZs were contoured on treatment plans by use of coregistered magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Multivariate Cox regression was used to examine the relationship between mean SVZ dose and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as overall survival (OS). Age, Karnofsky Performance Status score, and extent of resection were used as covariates. The median age was 58 years (range, 29-80 years). Results: Of the patients, 12% underwent biopsy, 53% had subtotal resection (STR), and 35% had gross total resection (GTR). The Karnofsky Performance Status score was less than 90 in 54 patients and was 90 or greater in 62 patients. The median ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral mean SVZ doses were 48.7 Gy, 34.4 Gy, and 41.5 Gy, respectively. Among patients who underwent GTR, a mean ipsilateral SVZ dose of 40 Gy or greater was associated with a significantly improved PFS compared with patients who received less than 40 Gy (15.1 months vs 10.3 months; P=.028; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.901]) but not in patients undergoing STR or biopsy. The subgroup of GTR patients who received an ipsilateral dose of 40 Gy or greater also had a significantly improved OS (17.5 months vs 15.6 months; P=.027; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.895]). No association was found between SVZ radiation dose and PFS

  12. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  13. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  14. Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C

    1993-01-01

    We construct the Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model up to two loops. We show that the c-function interpolates between the two known critical points of the theory, it is stationary at them and it decreases with the running coupling constant. In particular one can infer the non-existence of additional critical points in the region under investigation.

  15. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  16. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives ...

  17. Efficient and accurate methods for solving the time-dependent spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Symes, L M

    2016-01-01

    We develop numerical methods for solving the spin-2 Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The basis of our work is a two-way splitting of this evolution equation that leads to two exactly solvable subsystems. Utilizing second-order and fourth-order composition schemes we realize two fully symplectic integration algorithms, the first such algorithms for evolving spin-2 condensates. We demonstrate the accuracy of these algorithms against other methods on application to an exact continuous wave solution that we derive.

  18. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From non-degenerate conducting polymers to dense matter in the massive Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Using results from the theory of non-degenerate conducting polymers like cis-polyacetylene, we generalize our previous work on baryonic matter in the massless Gross-Neveu model to finite bare fermion mass. In the large N limit, the exact ground state is constructed analytically, in close analogy to the bipolaron lattice in polymers. These findings are contrasted to the standard scenario with a first order phase transition as a function of density.

  20. Analytical solution of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical calculations have shown that the ground state of the Gross-Neveu model at finite density is a crystal. Guided by these results, we can now present the analytical solution to this problem in terms of elliptic functions. The scalar potential is the superpotential of the non-relativistic Lame Hamiltonian. This model can also serve as analytically solvable toy model for a relativistic superconductor in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase.