WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross behavioral study

  1. Study of behavior: science or pseudoscience (with comments of Bogdan Dreher, Giacomo Rizzolatti and Charles Gross).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The manuscript printed below has been written by Professor Jerzy Konorski around 1970, a few years before his death in 1973. The manuscript has not been published before. It was recently discovered in Konorski's papers deposed in the Library of the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology. In his critical review Konorski debates advantages and shortcomings of the physiological approach of Pavlov and purely behavioristic approaches advocated by Hull and Skinner. He supports close cooperation o behaviorists with neurophysiologists and neuroanatomists, with focus on the investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying behavior. Konorski's ideas concerning the integration of the study of behavior and neurophysiology anticipated contemporary path of neuroscience. Indeed, his approach, which at that time appeared somewhat controversial, is universally accepted by contemporary neuroscientists. By contrast, physiological theories of higher mental functions formulated by Pavlov as well as deliberately anti-physiological approaches of Skinner and Hull have all but disappeared from serious scientific discourse. However, the same problems such as strongly promoted self-importance of some branches of neuroscience, the lack of inter-communication between different branches and resulting lack of integrating ideas appear to emerge anew in each new generation of scientists. (Editors of Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis).

  2. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  3. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  4. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  5. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  6. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  7. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  8. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anudeep; Min, Aung Ko Ko

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the level of students' learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  9. A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit

    2017-01-01

    Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as "rapid ethnography" and "conversation with materials". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations

  10. gross behavioral effects of acute doses of artesunate in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doses, and two test animals were administered with one of the doses following which they were observed ... significant. Behavioral excitatory effects were observed at lower doses of artesunate in mainly ... aged and old mice and female rats has been .... stimulation of dopamine transmission. ... parasite in continuous culture.

  11. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anudeep Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  12. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the level of students’ learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. Methods The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Results The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. Conclusion The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning. PMID:28264551

  13. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  15. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  16. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  17. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTA IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimla Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The beginning reason for preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia starts to lessen with the conveyance of the placenta and can happen without a baby, however, with the nearness of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In perspective of this, investigation of the placenta ought to give knowledge into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation, we look at placental pathological and anatomical changes with preeclampsia and Foetal Development Limitation (FGR. No doubt, this examination ought to enlighten as both conditions are associated with comparably unusual placentation yet just in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological disorder. Comparative bits of knowledge about ahead of schedule and late onset preeclampsia ought to likewise be given by such information. METHODS A prospective study was led in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Bettiah. 250 instances of pregnancy actuated hypertension were concentrated on. The cases with systolic circulatory strain more prominent than 130 mmHg, diastolic pulse more noteworthy than 90 mmHg on two estimations dismantled 6 hours in relationship with histological finding were incorporated into the study. These cases were further separated as mild preeclampsia if the diastolic circulatory strain was ≤100 mmHg and as moderate preeclampsia if the diastolic pulse was 110 mmHg. Extreme cases were characterised if the systolic pulse - ≥160 mmHg, diastolic circulatory strain ≥110 mmHg. Maternal and foetal result was considered and post conveyance placenta was sent for histopathologic examination. Gross anatomical and microscopic examination was done and discoveries were connected with the seriousness of PIH. RESULTS Out of 250 cases, there were 156 instances of mild PIH, 53 moderate and 41 were of severe PIH. On gross examination (Table 1, the mean weight of placenta was 429.9 gm in gentle instances of PIH, 364 gm in moderate

  18. Multidisciplinary collaborative gross tumour volume definition for lung cancer radiotherapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Abigail E; Roques, Tom W; Curtin, John; Martin, W M Craig; Horan, Gail; Barrett, Ann

    2011-12-07

    Variability in gross tumour volume (GTV) definition is a major source of systematic error in conformal radiotherapy. This prospective study assesses the role of multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and radiologists in defining lung cancer volumes. Twenty patients with non-small cell lung cancer due to receive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy formed the study population. GTVs were defined by a radiologist (GTVrad) and an oncologist (GTVonc) using available clinical information and imaging. A collaborative meeting was then held to agree on a final, common GTV (GTVfin) to be used for treatment planning, and differences analysed. The collaboration changed the GTV in 19/20 patients with a total of 50 regions being edited. Changes made were categorized as (a) differentiation of tumour from atelectasis or ground glass shadowing, (b) separation of tumour from vasculature, and (c) defining mediastinal extent of tumour. Oncologists were more confident in the GTVfin than the GTVonc. The radiologist took longer to define the GTV than the oncologist. Real-time collaborative GTV definition by a radiologist and oncologist is practical and feasible. This approach allows specific areas of uncertainty to be categorized and focussed on, reducing systematic error in GTV definition. The physician's approach to risk and decision making for each patient may also play a role.

  19. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  20. Age-dependent effects of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment: Gross motor behavior and body weight in aged, adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Mittleman, Guy

    2017-09-14

    The proportion of people in the population who are elderly is rapidly increasing. In addition, dangerous alcohol consumption in this demographic is rising. Approximately 33% of all people with an alcohol use disorder are diagnosed with late onset alcoholism. However, few suitable animal models for late onset alcoholism exist, making it difficult to investigate the impact of alcoholism later in life. The current study investigated if chronic intermittent ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal injections every other day for 20days in aged, adult and adolescent male rats differentially alters body weight and impairs gross motor behavior as measured by the aerial righting reflex. The body weight of aged and adult rats were significantly decreased by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure while the body weight of adolescent rats was not impacted. In addition, the aerial righting reflex of aged rats was significantly more impaired by alcohol exposure than the aerial righting reflex of adult or adolescent animals. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure did not produce tolerance in the aerial righting reflex for any of the three age groups. The differential age sensitivity in the aerial righting reflex was not due to differential blood ethanol concentrations. The current work demonstrates the risk factors of chronic alcohol use in the elderly and highlights the need for additional study in this vulnerable demographic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  2. Potential Predictors of Changes in Gross Motor Function during Various Tasks for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Liu, Wen-yu; Shen, I-hsuan; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated predictors of change in various gross motor outcomes in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors for change in gross motor outcomes measured during various tasks in children with CP. A group of 45 children (age, 6-15 years) with CP and 7 potential…

  3. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  4. Morphological studies of Gross virus-induced lymphoblasts by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa,Hiroyuki

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Gross virus-induced murine lymphoblasts and C-type virus particles budding from these cells were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cells appeared spindle-shaped or roughly-rounded with extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs and ruffled membranes. C-type virus particles were detected on the cell membrane as small spherical particles, distinguishable from the microvilli. Clustered virions were observed in some cases. However, the distribution of virions appeared to be random. The surface of the virion was smooth and had no globular units at high magnification. These morphological observations were confirmed in ultrathin sections.

  5. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  6. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger

  8. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

  9. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  10. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Association between Sleep Duration and Self-Reported Health Status: Findings from the Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithey, Gyambo; Wen, Li Ming; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Mu

    2017-01-15

    Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas. The study included 6476 participants aged 15-98 y. The main outcome variable of interest was self-reported health status. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, and ≥ 11 h. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status. The mean sleep duration was 8.5 (± 1.65) h. Only 9% of the respondents slept for 7 h; 6% were short sleepers (≤ 6 h) and 84% were long sleepers (21%, 8 h; 28%, 9 h; 22%, 10 h; 13%, ≥ 11 h). We found that both short (≤ 6 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 11 h) were independently associated with poor self-reported health status. This study found that people with shorter and longer sleep durations were more likely to report poorer health status.

  12. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  13. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  14. GROSS AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF CORONARY SINUS AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coronary sinus is important in many electrophysiological procedures including arrhythmia ablation, biventricular pacing and for deployment of an array of cardiac devices. The advent of advanced invasive and interventional cardiac treatment and management tools for common disorders like heart failure has made understanding of CS anatomy necessary. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study has been conducted in fifty normal hearts available. Length of CS was measured. CS ostium and the Thebesian valve were exposed and measurements taken. Histological study of CS was done. RESULT AND CONCLUSION The presence of myocardial fibres in the wall of CS and their arrangement in the form of circular, longitudinal and tangentially arranged fibres may have regulating function on the flow of blood in the CS. The connection of the muscle fasciculi with the left and the right atrium may have selective role in the conduction and act as an accessory pathway. In the present study the average length of the CS was 30 mm; in the majority (96.0% the CS ostium was oval. In most of the cases (84.0% CS ostium was guarded by thebesian valve, which was semilunar in shape (74%. The valve covered variable area of the ostium.

  15. Association between gross motor function and postural control in sitting in children with Cerebral Palsy: a correlational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Mendoza, Sergio; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores

    2015-09-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the causes of physical disability in children. Sitting abilities can be described using the Level of Sitting Scale (LSS) and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). There is growing interest in the sitting posture of children with CP owing to a stable sitting position allows for the development of eye-hand coordination, functions of the upper extremities and functional skills. Besides, in recent years researchers have tried to develop a new terminology to classify the CP as performed by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE), in order to improve the monitoring of the frequency of the PC, providing a framework for research and service planning. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between GMFCS and LSS. The second purpose was to describe how the SCPE relates to sitting abilities with the GMFCS and LSS. The study involved 139 children with CP (range 3-18 years) from 24 educational centres. Age, gender, CP classification according to SCPE, GMFCS and LSS levels were recorded by an experienced physiotherapist. A significant inverse relationship between GMFCS and LSS score levels was found (rs = -0.86, p = 0.00). 45.3% of the children capable of leaning in any direction and of re-erecting the trunk (level VIII on the LSS) could walk without limitation (level I on the GMFCS). There were differences in the distribution of the GMFCS (χ(2)(4):50.78) and LSS (χ(2)(7): 37.15) levels and CP according to the distribution of the spasticity (p correlation between both scales and a relation between sitting ability and the capacity to walk with or without technical devices. GMFCS and the LSS are useful tools for describing the functional abilities and limitations of children with CP, specially sitting and mobility. Classification based on the distribution of spasticity and the gross motor function provides clinical information on the prognosis and development of children with CP.

  16. Microencephaly in children congenitally infected with human immunodeficiency virus--a gross-anatomical morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P B; Brudkowska, J; Kraszpulski, M; Sersen, E A; Wrzolek, M A; Anzil, A P; Rao, C; Wisniewski, H M

    1997-02-01

    A quantitative technique involving serial sectioning and semiautomatic morphometric analysis was used to assess the severity of the reduction in size of the major brain structures in cerebral hemispheres of children congenitally infected with HIV-1. Cerebral hemispheres from 12 children (18-48 months of age) who died of AIDS were sectioned into 5-mm-thick serial slabs and photographed. The cross-sectional areas of grossly recognizable brain structures were digitized, and the volumes were calculated according to Cavalieri's principle. The results were compared with those of an identically processed group of control brains from non-AIDS children. Analysis of the brain weight showed that there was a significant reduction in supratentorial and infratentorial weight in the AIDS group. The results of the morphometric study revealed that the loss in brain mass was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the total volume of both hemispheres, the entire cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia. Detailed analysis of individual brain structures also showed a significant reduction in volume of all cortical regions and most of the subcortical gray matter (e.g., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, and thalamus). It appears that in the microencephaly observed as a frequent sequel in pediatric AIDS, the loss of brain tissue is global and includes an almost proportional loss of cortex, subcortical gray matter and white matter.

  17. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  18. A Mid-IR Multivariate Analysis Study on the Gross Calorific Value in Longleaf Pine: Impact on Correlations with Lignin and Extractive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 70-year-old longleaf pine trees from a spacing, thinning, and pruning study were harvested, from which samples were analyzed for gross calorific value (GCV). A strong correlation was found between GCV and extractive contents for the unextracted wood samples. Although lignin content should impact GCV, no correlation was found between the variation in GCV with...

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  1. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  2. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  3. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  4. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L.; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S. W.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutri...

  5. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  6. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  7. Investigating the Effect of Variations in Irrigation Water Price on Cropping Pattern and Gross Margin under Uncertainty (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage crisis is an issue that has led to drastic changes in different agricultural policies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Uncertainty in the amount of resources, e.g. water, used for agricultural production entails risk for farmers' income and cropping pattern changes. In the present study, the robust optimization model was used for optimal allocation of arable lands of Khorasan Razavi Province under uncertainty. During the allocation, the effect of water input price variations on total gross margin and cropping pattern was considered. It was found that under certain data, both parameters of total gross margin and total acreage are more than uncertain data. Given that water price variations resulted in tangible changes in wheat acreage, it is recommended to adopt appropriate policies to reduce its production risk.

  8. Interobserver variability in gross tumor volume delineation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of Korean Radiation Oncology Group 1207 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won Sup [Korea University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Center for Liver Cancer, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Chul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok; Kay, Chul Seung [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Min [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There has been increasing use of external beam radiotherapy for localized treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with both palliative and curative intent. Quality control of target delineation in primary HCC is essential to deliver adequate doses of radiation to the primary tumor while preserving adjacent healthy organs. We analyzed interobserver variability in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for HCC. Twelve radiation oncologists specializing in liver malignancy participated in a multi-institutional contouring dummy-run study of nine HCC cases and independently delineated GTV on the same set of provided computed tomography images. Quantitative analysis was performed using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) with kappa statistics calculating agreement between physicians. To quantify the interobserver variability of GTV delineations, the ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume (STAPLE), the ratio of the common and encompassing volumes, and the coefficient of variation were calculated. The median kappa agreement level was 0.71 (range 0.28-0.86). The ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume ranged from 0.19 to 1.93 (median 0.94) for all cases. The ratio of the common and encompassing volumes ranged from 0.001 to 0.56 (median 0.25). The coefficient of variation for GTV delineation ranged from 8 to 57 % (median 26 %). The interobserver variability in target delineation of HCC GTV in this study is noteworthy. Multi-institution studies involving radiotherapy for HCC require appropriate quality assurance programs for target delineation. (orig.) [German] Die externe kurative Strahlentherapie ist zunehmend bei der lokalisierten Behandlung hepatozellulaerer Karzinome (HCC) in palliativer und kurativer Absicht in Gebrauch. Eine Qualitaetskontrolle der Zielabgrenzung beim primaeren HCC ist entscheidend, um die passende Dosis fuer die

  9. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  10. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  11. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  12. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  13. Gross and microanatomical studies on the moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in the heart of mature Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ghonimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work was carried out to investigate the gross and microanatomical features of moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in camel heart. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the moderator bands were present in both right and left ventricles. In right ventricle, the walls had one muscular moderator band which was extended from the interventricular septum to the opposite ventricular wall especially to the papillary muscle. In left ventricle, there were two bands; one extended from the interventricular septum to the papillary muscles, and the other one was present in various places especially in the apex running as a thin thread-like band across the left ventricular wall. Histological examination revealed that the moderator band consisted of two major layers; the central (core myocardium and the peripheral endocardium, acting as band capsule. The myocardium had two bundles; the contractile cardiac muscle bundles and the Purkinje fiber bundles. The endocardium consisted of three layers; the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium, the subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue and the subendocardial layer, connecting the endocardium with the myocardium.

  14. Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R P; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Cook, A J C; Edwards, S A

    2011-03-05

    Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was determined through meat juice ELISA (MJE), and the health conditions were assessed by postmortem inspection. The final dataset contained 873 slapmarks, with an average of 215 samples tested by MJE, and 355 pigs that were assessed for health conditions, per slapmark. Each of the health assessment conditions was individually analysed by regression models to investigate associations with the MJE results, accounting for clustering at the slapmark level and also for seasonality. A multivariable model was also used to estimate the strength of association with MJE results when all the health conditions were entered into the model. The results showed positive associations between Salmonella and enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, milk spots, peritonitis and pericarditis.

  15. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  17. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  18. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  19. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  20. An eight-year study of online lecture use in a medical gross anatomy and embryology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L; Borges, Nicole J

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs. Total views per page of lecture material increased over the first six years, then decreased markedly between years seven and eight, possibly due to the recent availability of alternate forms of lecture audio. Lecture use peaked in midafternoon and again in the evening, although some use was seen at all hours. Usage was highest at midweek and lowest on Fridays as might be expected. Individual student's use varied widely from rates equivalent to less than one viewing/page to more than three viewings per page. Overall use by male students was greater than that of females and gender-specific differences in the daily pattern were seen. Lecture use was correlated to the Medical College Admission Test(®) (MCAT(®)) Verbal Reasoning and Physical Sciences scores but not to composite MCAT scores or undergraduate grade point average. Overall use appeared to be driven by scheduled team-based learning (TBL) sessions and major examinations. Specific subsets of lecture material were most often viewed before related TBL sessions and again during review for examinations. A small but significant correlation between lecture use and examination and course performance was seen, specifically in the male student population. These findings, along with earlier observations, suggest that varied use of online lectures is attributable to multiple factors. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  2. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on gross motor function measure scores of children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hongbin; Hua, Rongrong; Yang, Jing; Dai, Guanghui; Zhang, Zan; Wang, Renzhi; Qin, Chuan; An, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates that autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) transplantation improves motor function in patients with central nervous system disorders. After providing informed consent, 52 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who met the study criteria received BM-MSC transplantation. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 and GMFM-66 scales at baseline (before transplantation) and at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation. The participants completed the trial without visible side effects. The GMFM-66 percentile (motor growth curves) was used as the control index of motor function to exclude the interference of improvement with age. The score domains A, B, C and D and the total GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 scores in participants increased at 1 month, 6 months and 18 months post-transplantation compared with the baseline value (P cell transplantation. Autologous BM-MSC transplantation appears to be a feasible, safe and effective therapy for patients with CP. The treatment improved the development of children with CP with regard to motor function. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  4. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  6. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  7. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  8. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  9. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  10. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  11. Estimation of Gross Domestic Product Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exists a spatial mismatch between socioeconomic data, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP, and physical and environmental datasets. This study provides a dasymetric approach for GDP estimation at a fine scale by combining the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land cover data. Despite the advantages of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery in estimating human activities, its drawbacks, including coarse resolution, overglow, and saturation effects, limit its application. Hence, high-resolution EVI data were integrated with DMSP/OLS in this study to create a Human Settlement Index (HSI for estimating the GDP of secondary and tertiary industries. The GDP of the primary industry was then estimated on the basis of land cover data, and the area with the GDP of the primary industry was classified by a threshold technique (DN ≤ 8. The regression model for GDP distribution estimation was implemented in Zhejiang Province in southeast China, and a GDP density map was generated at a resolution of 250 m × 250 m. Compared with the outcome of taking DMSP/OLS as a unique parameter, estimation errors obviously decreased. This study offers a low-cost and accurate approach for rapidly estimating high-resolution GDP distribution to construct an important database for the government when formulating developmental strategies.

  12. Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P0.05, their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05. The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05 and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P0.05. The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication

  13. Evidence of sympathetic fibers in the male rat pelvic nerve by gross anatomy, retrograde labeling and high resolution autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, F; Facchinetti, P; Bernabé, J; Benoit, G; Calas, A; Rampin, O

    1997-12-01

    Several arguments exist in various animal species and man for the presence of a sympathetic component in the pelvic nerve, classically regarded as parasympathetic. We tested this hypothesis in the male rat. Nerve bundles issued from the sacral region of the paravertebral sympathetic chain and reaching the S1 spinal nerve were identified. Neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of the L6-S1 spinal cord and in the L2-S1 paravertebral sympathetic chain were retrogradely labeled from the pelvic nerve. Radioautography evidenced labeling of unmyelinated fibers in the pelvic nerve following in vitro incubation with 3H-noradrenaline. A population of sympathetic fibers issued from the lumbosacral sympathetic chain exists in the pelvic nerve of the male rat. This qualitative study provides a morphological basis to uncover the role of the sympathetic outflow present in the pelvic nerve.

  14. Atrioventricular node and input pathways: a correlated gross anatomical and histological study of the canine atrioventricular junctional region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racker, D K

    1989-07-01

    To determine the architecture of the atrioventricular (AV) junctional region, structures in atrial preparations were correlated to those in serial sections made either parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the AV node (AVN)/AV bundle complex. The results demonstrated the following for the first time: 1) A right medial atrial wall (MAW) extends anteriorly from the interatrial septum, superior to the interventricular septum (IVS). 2) An atrial interventricular septum (A-IVS) groove is located between the base of the MAW and the crest of the IVS. 3) Three atrionodal bundles converge to form a proximal AV bundle (PAVB), which in turn is contiguous with the AVN. The atrionodal bundles are associated with the MAW or the superomedial and inferolateral margins of the coronory sinus. Terminal portions of the atrionodal bundles and the PAVB reside within the A-IVS groove. The AV bundle was termed distal (DAVB) to avoid confusion. 4) The location of the AVN/DAVB complex topographically is deep to the apex of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve subjacent to the MAW. Intracardially, the AVN/DAVB complex is within the central fibrous body. Significantly, this study resulted in the first unequivocal demonstration of discrete bundles of myocardial fibers associated with the atrial end of the AV node. Moreover, it appears likely that the atrionodal AV bundles are continuous with the sinoatrial nodal extensions, thereby forming internodal tracts.

  15. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  16. The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gross nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a permanent grassland: A field pulse-labeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gerald; Gorenflo, André; Keidel, Lisa; Brenzinger, Kristof; Elias, Dafydd; McNamara, Niall; Maček, Irena; Vodnik, Dominik; Braker, Gesche; Schimmelpfennig, Sonja; Gerstner, Judith; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    To predict ecosystem reactions to elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) it is essential to understand the interactions between plant carbon input, microbial community composition and activity and associated nutrient dynamics. Long-term observations (> 14 years) within the Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (Giessen FACE) study on permanent grassland showed next to an enhanced biomass production an unexpected strong positive feedback effect on ecosystem respiration and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. The overall goal of this study is to understand the long-term effects of eCO2 and carbon input on microbial community composition and activity as well as the associated nitrogen dynamics, N2O production and plant N uptake in the Giessen FACE study on permanent grassland. A combination of 13CO2 pulse labelling with 15N tracing of 15NH4+ and 15NO3- was carried out in situ. Different fractions of soil organic matter (recalcitrant, labile SOM) and the various mineral N pools in the soil (NH4+, NO3-), gross N transformation rates, pool size dependent N2O and N2 emissions as well as N species dependent plant N uptake rates and the origin of the CO2 respiration have been quantified. Microbial analyses include exploring changes in the composition of microbial communities involved in the turnover of NH4+, NO3-, N2O and N2, i.e. ammonia oxidizing, denitrifying, and microbial communities involved in dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA). mRNA based analyses will be employed to comparably evaluate the long-term effects of eCO2 on the structure and abundance of these communities, while transcripts of these genes will be used to target the fractions of the communities which actively contribute to N transformations. We quantified the contribution of mycorrhizae on N2O emissions and observed the phenological development of the mycorrhizae after the labeling.

  17. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  18. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  19. A study of the anatomy and injection techniques of the ovine stifle by positive contrast arthrography, computed tomography arthrography and gross anatomical dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Muylkens, Benoit; Depiereux, Eric; Clegg, Peter; Herteman, Nicolas; Lamberts, Matthieu; Bonnet, Pierre; Nisolle, Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Although ovine stifle models are commonly used to study osteoarthritis, meniscal pathology and cruciate ligament injuries and repair, there is little information about the anatomy of the joint or techniques for synovial injections. The objectives of this study were to improve anatomical knowledge of the synovial cavities of the ovine knee and to compare intra-articular injection techniques. Synovial cavities of 24 cadaver hind limbs from 12 adult sheep were investigated by intra-articular resin, positive-contrast arthrography, computed tomography (CT) arthrography and gross anatomical dissection. Communication between femoro-patellar, medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments occurred in all cases. The knee joint should be considered as one synovial structure with three communicating compartments. Several unreported features were observed, including a communication between the medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments and a latero-caudal recess of the lateral femoro-tibial compartment. No intermeniscal ligament was identified. CT was able to define many anatomical features of the stifle, including the anatomy of the tendinous synovial recess on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia under the combined tendon of the peroneus tertius, extensor longus digitorum and extensor digiti III proprius. An approach for intra-articular injection into this recess (the subtendinous technique) was assessed and compared with the retropatellar and paraligamentous techniques. All three injection procedures were equally successful, but the subtendinous technique appeared to be most appropriate for synoviocentesis and for injections in therapeutic research protocols with less risk of damaging the articular cartilage.

  20. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  1. Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Surender, S.; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Sanjay, K. S.; G V Basavaraja; Naveen Benakappa; Asha Benakappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In children, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) includes parental impact and family functioning along with concepts of illness, functional status, mental health, and comfort. We are focusing on the impact of cerebral palsy (CP) on children's HRQOL and their families, and its relationship with gross motor dysfunction. Subjects and Methods: CP children aged 3–10 years under regular neurology follow-up were enrolled. The HRQOL and motor severity were prospectively assessed usin...

  2. A comparison study between gross tumor volumes defined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, postoperative specimens, and tumor bed for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; Mu, Dianbin; Chen, Zhaoqiu; Shao, Qian; Li, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The identification and contouring of target volume is important for breast-conserving therapy. The aim of the study was to compare preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative pathology, excised specimens’ (ES) size, and tumor bed (TB) delineation as methods for determining the gross tumor volume (GTV) for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods: Thirty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radiotherapy after BCS were enrolled. The GTVs determined by MRI, pathology, and the ES were defined as GTVMRI, GTVPAT, and GTVES, respectively. GTVMRI+1 was defined as a 1.0-cm margin around the GTVMRI. The radiation oncologist delineated GTV of the TB (GTVTB) using planning computed tomography according to ≥5 surgical clips placed in the lumpectomy cavity (LC). Results: The median GTVMRI, GTVMRI+1, GTVPAT, GTVES, and GTVTB were 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.88), 12.58 cm3 (range, 3.90–34.13), 0.97 cm3 (range, 0.01–6.36), 15.46 cm3 (range, 1.15–70.69), and 19.24 cm3 (range, 4.72–54.33), respectively. There were no significant differences between GTVMRI and GTVPAT, GTVMRI+1 and GTVES, GTVES and GTVTB (P = 0.188, 0.070, and 0.264, respectively). GTVMRI is positively related with GTVPAT. However, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI (P = 0.071 and 0.378, respectively). Furthermore, neither GTVES nor GTVTB correlated with GTVMRI+1 (P = 0.068 and 0.375, respectively). Conclusion: When ≥5 surgical clips were placed in the LC for BCS, the volume of TB was consistent with the volume of ES. Neither the volume of TB nor the volume of ES correlated significantly with the volume of tumor defined by preoperative MRI. PMID:28079816

  3. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  4. 伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者临床特点分析%Study on clinical features of idiopathic IgA nephropathy with gross hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玺; 沈明静; 缪蕙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features of idiopathic IgA nephropathy with gross hematuria. Methods Seventy six patients with IgA nephropathy diagnosed by renal biopsy were divided into study group and control group according to whether with gross hematuria or not. Twenty two patients with gross hematuria were allocated in study group; and 54 patients without gross hematuria were allocated in control group. Katafuchi semi - quantitative analysis had been applied for determination of the severity of renal lesions in patients, and it combined with clinical features had been applied to analyze the characteristics of pathological changes and clinical characteristics of patients. Results ①Patients in study group were significantly higher in precursory infection rate, incidence of hypertension was lower than that of control group, serum level of creatinine was lower than that of control group, and mean duration of disease was shorter than that of control group ( P 0. 05 ). ② Scores of renal pathology, vascular scores, and scores of glomerular sclerosis and thickening of vessel wall were lower than those of control group ( P 0.05).②研究组患者肾脏病理积分、血管积分、球硬化积分及血管壁增厚积分低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者发病期多伴有前驱感染,病程中高血压发生率、血肌酐水平较不伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者低.病理改变较不伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病轻,预后相对较好.

  5. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  6. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  7. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  8. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  9. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. A quantitative evaluation of gross versus histologic neuroma formation in a rabbit forelimb amputation model: potential implications for the operative treatment and study of neuromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiken Todd A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment of neuromas involves excision of neuromas proximally to the level of grossly "normal" fascicles; however, proximal changes at the axonal level may have both functional and therapeutic implications with regard to amputated nerves. In order to better understand the retrograde "zone of injury" that occurs after nerve transection, we investigated the gross and histologic changes in transected nerves using a rabbit forelimb amputation model. Methods Four New Zealand White rabbits underwent a forelimb amputation with transection and preservation of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves. After 8 weeks, serial sections of the amputated nerves were then obtained in a distal-to-proximal direction toward the brachial plexus. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis was performed on all nerve specimens. Results All nerves demonstrated statistically significant increases in nerve cross-sectional area between treatment and control limbs at the distal nerve end, but these differences were not observed 10 mm more proximal to the neuroma bulb. At the axonal level, an increased number of myelinated fibers were seen at the distal end of all amputated nerves. The number of myelinated fibers progressively decreased in proximal sections, normalizing at 15 mm proximally, or the level of the brachial plexus. The cross-sectional area of myelinated fibers was significantly decreased in all sections of the treatment nerves, indicating that atrophic axonal changes proceed proximally at least to the level of the brachial plexus. Conclusions Morphologic changes at the axonal level extend beyond the region of gross neuroma formation in a distal-to-proximal fashion after nerve transection. This discrepancy between gross and histologic neuromas signifies the need for improved standardization among neuroma models, while also providing a fresh perspective on how we should view neuromas during peripheral nerve surgery.

  16. 城市工业用水总量核算方法探讨%Study on city gross industrial water consumption accounting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依古丽·艾科拜尔; 束龙仓; 鲁程鹏; 张刚; 李伟

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems which is found during the water consumption account assess under the strictest Chinese water resource management standard, we explored suitable ways of gross industrial water comsumption accounting method, based on analyzing industrial water consumption of Jining City.We took typical enterprises, which are selected according to the result of cluster analysis, as the example to reckon the gross industrial water consumption.By comparing the accounting data with measured data, we evaluated the applicability of the accounting method.The result shows that the relative error between the acconnting value and the actual value of the gross industrial water consumption of Jining City is 4.66%, and using typical enterprise as an example to account industrial gross water consumption is reasonable.%针对我国最严格水资源管理制度下用水总量考核中存在的问题,在分析济宁市工业用水规律的基础上,探索核算工业用水总量的方法。针对大样本工业用水户的情况,基于聚类分析的结果选取典型样本企业,以典型样本企业的用水指标推算工业用水总量。通过核算数据与实测数据的对比,给出核算结果,评价核算方法的适用性。结果表明:2011年济宁市工业用水总量核算值与实际值相对误差为4.66%,以典型样本企业核算工业用水总量的过程更符合实际情况。

  17. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Differences between radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist in the study of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments: magnetic resonance imaging and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  20. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  1. Behavioral corporate governance : four empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis consists of studies of corporate governance from a behavioral perspective. The chapters are about trust between chief executive officers (CEOs) and board chairpersons, asymmetric effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance, compliance with corporate

  2. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  3. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  4. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  5. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  6. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  7. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  8. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  9. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Symmetry Nonrestoration in a Gross-Neveu Model with Random Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, S I; Hong, Seok-In; Kogut, John B.

    2001-01-01

    We study the symmetry behavior of the Gross-Neveu model in three and two dimensions with random chemical potential. This is equivalent to a four-fermion model with charge conjugation symmetry as well as Z_2 chiral symmetry. At high temperature the Z_2 chiral symmetry is always restored. In three dimensions the initially broken charge conjugation symmetry is not restored at high temperature, irrespective of the value of the disorder strength. In two dimensions and at zero temperature the charge conjugation symmetry undergoes a quantum phase transition from a symmetric state (for weak disorder) to a broken state (for strong disorder) as the disorder strength is varied. For any given value of disorder strength, the high-temperature behavior of the charge conjugation symmetry is the same as its zero-temperature behavior. Therefore, in two dimensions and for strong disorder strength the charge conjugation symmetry is not restored at high temperature.

  11. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  12. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  13. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  14. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  15. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  16. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  18. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  19. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  20. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  1. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  2. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  3. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  5. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents’ risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 ad...

  6. Biomechanical behavior study of dog's small intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏; 周银生; 穆晓枫

    2002-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of dog's duodenum and jejunum were studied and a formulation of the stress-strain relation is presented in this paper. The results obtained indicated that the exponential coefficient α and the incremental duodenum of the elastic modulus are both larger than those of the jejunum. It means that the duodenum is more deformable than the jejunum. The experimental results of this work provide basal data for kinematics study of a robotic endoscope.

  7. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  8. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  9. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  10. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  11. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  12. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  13. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  14. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  15. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  16. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  17. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  19. Critical endpoint behavior: A Wang Landau study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D. P.; Wang, Fugao; Tsai, Shan-Ho

    2008-07-01

    We study the critical endpoint behavior using an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. The simulation method we use is Wang-Landau sampling in a two-dimensional parameter space. We observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the magnetization coexistence diameter derivative at the critical endpoint, and the exponents for both divergences agree well with previous theoretical predictions.

  20. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  1. STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang

    2004-01-01

    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  2. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  3. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior.

  4. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  5. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  6. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb (n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  7. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  8. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  9. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  10. Gross anatomical study on the human myocardial bridges with special reference to the spatial relationship among coronary arteries, cardiac veins, and autonomic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kageyama, Ikuo; Aizawa, Yukio; Kumaki, Katsuji; Miki, Akinori; Terashima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries are frequently covered by cardiac muscles. This arrangement is termed a myocardial bridge. Previous studies have shown that myocardial bridges can cause myocardial ischemic diseases or cardiac arrhythmia, but the relevant pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We examined 60 hearts from Japanese cadavers macroscopically to clarify the spatial relationships among coronary arteries, cardiac veins and autonomic nerves. We found 86 myocardial bridges in 47 hearts from the 60 cadavers examined (78.3%). Next, we dissected out nine hearts with myocardial bridges in detail under the operating microscope. We found no additional branches of coronary arteries on the myocardial bridge surfaces. However, the cardiac veins, which usually accompany the coronary arteries, ran independently on the myocardial bridge surfaces in the same region. Cardiac autonomic nerves comprised two rami: one was associated with the coronary artery under the myocardial bridge and the other ran on the surface of the bridge. Such spatial relationships among the coronary arteries, cardiac veins and cardiac autonomic nerves at the myocardial bridges are quite similar to those in mouse embryo hearts.

  11. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  12. Personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: A real world empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some gambling companies around the world have started to utilize responsible gambling tools to support their clientele gamble more responsibly (e.g., limit-setting tools, pop-up messages, personalized feedback. However, relatively few studies have evaluated whether such tools actually work. The present study examined whether the use of three types of information (i.e., personalized feedback, normative feedback, and/or a recommendation could enable players to gamble more responsibly as assessed using three measures of behavior, i.e., theoretical loss (TL, amount of money wagered, and gross gaming revenue (GGR. By manipulating the three forms of information, data from six different groups of players were analyzed. The participant sample drawn from the population were those that had played at least one game for money on the Norsk Tipping online platform (Intaspill during April 2015. A total of 17,452 players were randomly selected from 69,631 players that fulfilled the selection criteria. Gambling activity among the control group (who received no personalized feedback, normative feedback or no recommendation was also compared with the other five groups that received information of some kind (personalized feedback, normative feedback and/or a recommendation. Results clearly showed that overall gambling behavior (as assessed by the three measures was significantly higher in the control group than the other five groups. Players that received both personalized feedback and a recommendation decreased gambling behavior the most. It is concluded that personalized behavioral feedback can enable behavioral change in gambling but that normative feedback does not appear change behavior significantly more than personalized feedback.

  13. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  14. gross morphological study of placenta in preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... demand of the embryo as early as the third week of intrauterine life (Huppertz, ... After getting an ethical clearance from department of .... Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research, 5; 293-299. 4. Huppertz B. 2008.

  15. Methylphenidate (Ritalin): behavioral studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Erik P; Taber, Katherine H; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with an onset in childhood characterized by an inability to remain focused or to concentrate for prolonged periods of time. Children suffering from this disease are many times described as either inattentive or as hyperactive-impulsive depending on what form of the disease they manifest. Methylphenidate is the preferred treatment for this behavioral disorder and is used for long term disease management. Much still remains unknown concerning this stimulant and its effects on behavior and future abuse potential are pertinent questions. Since animal models are used to study the mechanism of drug action and rats are used often in drug studies, the objective of this review is to summarize the research reports that mainly have used rats as the model to investigate the action of methylphenidate. Topics discussed in this review include: (1) What effect does a single dose of methylphenidate have on locomotion activity; (2) Does repeated administration of methylphenidate result in tolerance or sensitization; and (3) Does methylphenidate have rewarding properties as measured by the self-administration and condition placed preference paradigms.

  16. Behavioral study with Erythrina velutina fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natlia Martins Lima; Lucas Siqueira de Lucena; Edilberto Rocha Silveira; Carlos Clayton Torres Aguiar; Paula Matias Soares; Francisca Cla Floreno de Sousa; Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the behavioral effects of semi purified fraction prepared from the stem bark of Erythrina ve-lutina on mice.Methods:Three chloroformic fractions (CA)at 50 or 100 mg/kg (CA1,CA2 and CA3)were tested in two behavioral tests:plus maze and open field.Results:In the plus maze test,it was observed a de-crease in the number of entries in the closed arms (NECA)CA2 at both doses as compared to the control group.In the open field test,CA2 and CA3 fractions decreased the number of squares crossed and the time of permanence on the bar,increased the number of falls at both doses in the rota rod test.The CA2 fraction de-creased the NECA,but this data did not characterize an anxiolytic effect.It was the consequence from de-crease of locomotor activity (LA)observed in the open field test,that the decrease of LA and rearing,the number of falls and the decrease in time of permanence on the bar in rota rod test were observed after treatment with CA2 and CA3 at both doses,suggesting sedative effect.Conclusion:The present work demonstrated that CA2 and CA3 fractions have impairing effect on LA and motor coordination.

  17. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  18. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  19. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  20. Expectations are more predictive of behavior than behavioral intentions: evidence from two prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J; Norman, Paul; Alganem, Soud; Conner, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the gap between people's behavioral intentions and their subsequent behavior is a key problem for behavioral scientists, but little attention has been paid to how behavioral intentions are operationalized. Test the distinction between asking people what they intend to do, as opposed to what they expect they will do. Two studies were conducted in the domains of alcohol consumption (N = 152) and weight loss (N = 141). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their behavioral intentions, expectations, and self-efficacy at baseline; alcohol consumption/weight were assessed at both baseline and follow-up. In study 1, expectations were more predictive of alcohol consumption than behavioral intentions, controlling for baseline alcohol consumption and self-efficacy. In study 2, changes in expectations were more predictive of weight loss than changes in behavioral intentions, controlling for baseline weight and self-efficacy. The findings support a potentially important distinction between behavioral intentions and expectations.

  1. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  2. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  6. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social relati

  7. Study of thermal behavior of phytic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in galenic cosmetic emulsions. However, we have observed experimentally that phytic acid, when heated to 150 ºC for around one hour, shows evidence of thermal decomposition. Few studies investigating this substance alone with regard to its stability are available in the literature. This fact prompted the present study to characterize this species and its thermal behavior using thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DSC and to associate the results of these techniques with those obtained by elemental analysis (EA and absorption spectroscopy in the infrared region. The TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of the sample of phytic acid and enabled use of the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method to study the kinetics of the three main mass-loss events: dehydration I, dehydration II and thermal decomposition. The combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques allowed evaluation of the intermediate products of the thermal decomposition of phytic acid. The infrared spectra of samples taken during the heating process revealed a reduction in the intensity of the absorption band related to O-H stretching as a result of the dehydration process. Furthermore, elemental analysis results showed an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen content at temperatures of 95, 150, 263 and 380 °C. Visually, darkening of the material was observed at 150 °C, indicating that the thermal decomposition of the material started at this temperature. At a temperature of 380 °C, thermal decomposition progressed, leading to a decrease in carbon and hydrogen. The results of thermogravimetry coupled with those of elemental analysis allow us to conclude that there was agreement between the percentages of phytic acid found in aqueous solution. The kinetic study by the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method showed that the dehydration

  8. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  9. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  10. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  11. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  12. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  13. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  14. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  15. 中国国内生产总值及其相关因素分析%The Study of the Gross Domestic Product of China and the Analysis of Various Determining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪跃芝; 邓波; 董小刚; 赵雅玲

    2011-01-01

    自1978年改革开放以来,中国国内生产总值连续高速增长.基于对1978-2008年共31年来中国国内生产总值、固定资产投资、能源消费总量、进出口贸易总额、居民消费、人口数、财政收入等因素的关系研究,提出一个更为合适的对数线性模型,同时给出了该模型中参数的估计方法.研究表明:截止至2008年,中国国内生产总值的增长是不均衡的,而是分阶段的,而且在不同阶段,影响国内生产总值的因素有所不同,并且从经济学角度对所建立的模型给出了合理的解释,结论符合中国实际.%Since the Economic Reform in 1978, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of China grows continuously and rapidly. This article studies the relationship among factors such as GDP, fixed assets investment, the total energy expense, total import and export trade, consumer, population, financial income etc in the past 31 years, brings out a more reasonable log-linear model and provides the analysis of the modes in the model. The research shows that till 2008, the growth of GDP is not even but depends on different stages, in different stages; the factors that affect the GDP are different. Moreover, the article provides a reasonable explanation on the built model from an economic perspective and the conclusion matches the real situation in China.

  16. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  17. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  18. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  19. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  20. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  1. Behavior modification with culturally deprived school children: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, B H; Senn, K; Welch, R H; Cooper, B R

    1969-01-01

    Techniques of behavior modification were employed with two second-grade Negro girls in a demonstration school for culturally deprived children to increase the girls' appropriate classroom behaviors. A classification system that provided for continuous categorization of behavior was used to code the children's behavior in two classroom situations. Data were also taken on the type, duration, and frequency of the teachers' verbal interactions. The study included four conditions: Baseline, Modification I, Postmodification, and Modification II. The treatment variable was positive social reinforcement-attention and approval contingent upon desirable classroom behaviors-which was presented, withheld, or withdrawn (timeout from social reinforcement). Withholding of social reinforcement was contingent upon inappropriate attention-getting behaviors. Timeout from social reinforcement was contingent upon behaviors classified as aggressive and resistive. After 25 days of Modification I, desirable behavior increased markedly for each girl. The teachers were then asked to return to their Baseline level of performance. The resultant behaviors demonstrated that for one girl, behavior was still primarily under the control of the treatment contingencies. For the second child, many desirable behaviors that had increased in frequency during Modification I remained high, but inappropriate behaviors increased. When treatment was reinstated, the amount of time spent in desirable behaviors increased and remained high for both girls. Three checks during the three months following data collection showed that these behaviors continued to remain high.

  2. A Study of Taiwanese Teens' Traditional and Cyberbullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Chia-Ying; Chen, An-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study examined several types of teen behaviors, specifically bullying, being bullied, and witnessing bullying, and analyzed teens' judgments of the seriousness of the bullying. A Bullying Behaviors Scale (BBS) was designed to investigate both traditional bullying (TB) and cyberbullying (CB) behaviors among teens in grades 5 through 11. The…

  3. Method for studies of behavior and physiology of sea mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, V B; Siniutin, S A; Siniutin, E S; Kavtsevich, N N; Zotov, A S

    2008-03-01

    The potentialities of an original programmed complex for long-term monitoring of oxygen supply and behavior of sea mammals under conditions of free behavior were evaluated. Results of pilot studies of behavioral activity and body systems of seals are presented.

  4. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  5. Neurogenetics of Aggressive BehaviorStudies in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models...

  6. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  7. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Torii, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Mizuki; Negi, Atsushi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Narumoto, Jin; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Background Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan. Methods Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4) participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID) and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Results The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention. Conclusion The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of patients with dementia. In the future, a well designed study to develop the behavioral management program more fully is needed. PMID:23293522

  8. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  9. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  10. Strategies for the study of flightcrew behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of any flightcrew at any given time is determined by multiple factors ranging from characteristics of individual crewmembers to the regulations governing flight operations. Attention is given to microcoding of communications, survey data on crewmember attitudes as indicators of culture and crew resource management (CRM) training effects, and systematic observation of crew behavior. Consideration is given to advanced CRM training of evaluators, analyses of crew behavior by aircraft type and characteristics, and survey data on crew reactions to line oriented flight training.

  11. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  13. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  14. Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

  15. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  16. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  17. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  18. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  19. Nursing instructors' perception of students' uncivil behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumpoor, Anahita; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rassouli, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Uncivil behavior is a serious issue in nursing education around the world, and is frequently faced by instructors and students. There is no study in relation to explain the concept and dimensions of uncivil behavior in nursing education of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of nursing educators about student incivility behavior. This was a qualitative study. Data from 11 semi-structured interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants and research context: In all, 11 nursing educators of 5 various nursing schools in Tehran, capital of Iran, participated. Ethical considerations: Organizational approval by the Universities, and informed consent were ensured before conducting the research. The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were respected during the research process. Three themes were found: disruptive behavior affecting communication climate, disruptive behavior affecting ethical climate, and disruptive behavior affecting learning climate. Discussion and final considerations: The results of this study demonstrated that uncivil behavior affects every ethical, communicational, and learning climate and threaten peace of the instructors, students, and the academic community. With the consideration of mutuality in incivility behaviors, the authors propose to examine students' perceptions and identify dimensions of uncivil behavior of instructors for formulating strategies to minimize such behaviors in nursing educational society.

  20. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  1. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  2. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  3. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Junko Sato,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Katsuyoshi Torii,1 Mizuki Oka,2 Atsushi Negi,1 Hiroshi Tatsumi,3 Jin Narumoto,4 Toshi A Furukawa,5 Masaru Mimura21Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Department of Health Science, Faculty of Psychological and Physical Science, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 5Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan.Methods: Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4 participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI.Results: The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention.Conclusion: The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of

  4. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  5. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  6. STUDY CONCERNING THE SPECTATOR BEHAVIOR ON HANDBALL GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor BOGDAN; Lăcrămioara Cosmina Lazăr; Maria MACRA-OȘORHEAN

    2011-01-01

    specialists in recent years. Modern approaches to study the reasons and frequency aspects of the show audienceparticipation sport, the level of affiliation to the team, the aggressive behavior of spectators, most fitting that conductconsumer behavior.Aims - highlighting the structure and behavior of the general features of the audience to play handballSubjects and methods - I applied to a game of handball viewers a non-standardized questionnaire of 15 items, with themajor content themes devel...

  7. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  8. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  9. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  10. An observational study of sexual behavior in demented male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, A M; Davies, H D; Tinklenberg, J R

    1996-11-01

    Concerns have been expressed that patients with dementia will display disinhibited, inappropriate sexual behavior. Retrospective research suggests that this is rare, but no observational research has been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an observational study. Subjects were 40 patients with a dementia diagnosis who were living in institutional settings; subjects ranged in age from 60 to 98. Coders observed subjects on nine separate occasions, three in the morning, three in the afternoon, and three in the evening. Subjects were observed in multiple situations; coding included appropriate, ambiguous, and inappropriate sexual behaviors. Reliability coding was obtained for 42% of the patients on 11% of coded episodes. Behaviors could be coded with high reliability (94% to 100% across categories of behavior). On average, patients displayed 43 appropriate sexual behaviors, 1.48 ambiguous behaviors, and .83 inappropriate behaviors across the nine observation periods. This was not evenly distributed across patients, however; only 18% of patients ever displayed a sexually inappropriate behavior, and these were usually brief and minor. Inappropriate sexual behavior was observed in only 1.6% of the observed one-minute time segments. Observational research documents what had been previously suggested by retrospective reports: inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommon in dementia patients and brief and minor even when it occurs. Ambiguous behaviors, such as appearing in public incompletely dressed, which could suggest exhibitionism but more likely reflects self-care deficits, were more common. Misinterpretation of these events may be the source for some of the persistent lore regarding sexually disinhibited behavior in dementia patients.

  11. Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: two case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a multidisciplinary group treatment for patients with fibromyalgia (FM) tailored to the patient's cognitive-behavioral pattern. METHOD: In a case-study design the tailored treatment approaches of two FM patients were described. One patient characterized by avoidance behavior

  12. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  13. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  14. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  15. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  16. Depreciative Behavior in Forest Campgrounds: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    "Vandalism, theft, littering, rule violation, and nuisance behaviors were studied in 3 campgrounds during 1968 using participant observation techniques. Information was gathered on the extent and character of such behaviors and factors associated with their occurrence." Nuisance acts were most common (50%) followed by legal violations…

  17. Characterizing International Travel Behavior from Geotagged Photos: A Case Study of Flickr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihong Yuan

    Full Text Available Recent advances in multimedia and mobile technologies have facilitated large volumes of travel photos to be created and shared online. Although previous studies have utilized geotagged photos to model travel patterns at individual locations, there is limited research on how these datasets can model international travel behavior and inter-country travel flows-a crucial indicator to quantify the interactions between countries in tourism economics. Realizing the necessity to investigate the potential of geotagged photos in tourism geography, this research investigates international travel patterns from two perspectives: 1 We apply a series of indicators (radius of gyration (ROG, number of countries visited, and entropy to measure the descriptive characteristics of international travel in different countries; 2 By constructing a gravity model of trade, we investigate how distance decay influences the magnitude of international travel flow between geographic entities, and whether (or how much the popularity of a given destination (defined as the percentage of tourist income in national gross domestic product (GDP affects travel choices in different countries. The results provide valuable input to various commercial applications such as individual travel planning and destination suggestions.

  18. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  19. Long time dynamics near the symmetry breaking bifurcation for nonlinear Schr\\"odinger/Gross-Pitaevskii Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Marzuola, Jeremy L

    2009-01-01

    We consider a class nonlinear Schr\\"odinger / Gross-Pitaevskii equations (NLS/GP) with a focusing (attractive) nonlinear potential and symmetric double well linear potential. NLS/GP plays a central role in the modeling of nonlinear optical and mean-field quantum many-body phenomena. It is known that there is a critical $L^2$ norm (optical power / particle number) at which there is a symmetry breaking bifurcation of the ground state. We study the rich dynamical behavior near the symmetry breaking point. The source of this behavior in the full Hamiltonian PDE is related to the dynamics of a finite-dimensional Hamiltonian reduction. We derive this reduction, analyze a part of its phase space and prove a {\\it shadowing theorem} on the persistence of solutions, with oscillating mass-transport between wells, on very long, but finite, time scales within the full NLS/GP. The infinite time dynamics for NLS/GP are expected to depart, from the finite dimensional reduction, due to resonant coupling of discrete and contin...

  20. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  1. Big Data, the perfect instrument to study today's consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STOICESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior study is a new, interdisciplinary and emerging science, developed in the 1960s. Its main sources of information come from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology and artificial intelligence. If a century ago, most people were living in small towns, with limited possibilities to leave their community, and few ways to satisfy their needs, now, due to the accelerated evolution of technology and the radical change of life style, consumers begin to have increasingly diverse needs. At the same time the instruments used to study their behavior have evolved, and today databases are included in consumer behavior research. Throughout time many models were developed, first in order to analyze, and later in order to predict the consumer behavior. As a result, the concept of Big Data developed, and by applying it now, companies are trying to understand and predict the behavior of their consumers.

  2. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  3. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocato Pamela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED. However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis

  4. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2011-11-15

    Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed

  5. Adolescent risk behaviors and religion: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jill W; Cnaan, Ram A; Gelles, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities from a parent or caretaker. Based on a national random sample of 2004 teens (ages 11-18), this study indicates that youth perceive religion as important, are active in religious worship and activities, and further shows that perceived importance of religion as well as participation in religious activities are associated with decreased risk behaviors. Looking at ten risk behaviors, religiosity variables were consistently associated with reduced risk behaviors in the areas of: smoking, alcohol use, truancy, sexual activity, marijuana use, and depression. In the case of these six risk variables, religiosity variables were significantly associated with reduced risk behaviors when controlling for family background variables and self-esteem. The study highlights the importance of further understanding the relationship between religious variables, background variables, self-esteem, and youth risk behaviors.

  6. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  8. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  9. Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Fitness-The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, J.H. van der; Koster, A.; Berg, J.D. van der; Sep, S.J.; Kallen, C.J. van der; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schram, M.T.; Henry, R.M.; Eussen, S.J.; Dongen, M.C. van; Stehouwer, C.D.; Schaper, N.C.; Savelberg, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF).

  10. QCM-D studies on polymer behavior at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    QCM-D Studies on Polymer Behavior at Interfaces reviews the applications of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in polymer research, including the conformational change of grafted polymer chains, the grafting kinetics of polymer chains, the growth mechanism of polyelectrolyte multilayers, and the interactions between polymers and phospholipid membranes. It focuses on how QCM-D can be applied to the study of polymer behavior at various solid-liquid interfaces. Moreover, it clearly reveals the physical significance of the changes in frequency and dissipation associated with the different polymer behaviors at the interfaces.

  11. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  15. Dysfunctional Audit Behaviors: An Exploratory Study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to draw attention of auditing researchers and practitioners in Pakistan towards occurrences of dysfunctional audit behaviors among auditors. This is a timely and important accounting text; first, it provides comprehensible explanation of when, how and why auditors resort dysfunctional audit behavior. Second, the organizational behavior and industrial psychology literatures provide the basis for developing and testing a model that may identifies emotional intelligence as moderator in the relationship between professional skepticism, under reporting of time and premature sign off behaviors. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM will be used to analyze data. Findings will bring practical implications to researchers and audit practitioners wanting to obtain a broader understanding of the underlying determinants of dysfunctional audit behaviors.

  16. Study on destination image, satisfaction, trust and behavioral intention

    OpenAIRE

    PUJIASTUTI ENY ENDAH; NIMRAN UMAR; SUHARYONO S.; KUSUMAWATI ANDRIANI

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop understanding about the influence of Destination image, and satisfaction towards pada trust and behavioral intention in the tourist village in Sleman, Yogyakarta. The sampes of the study were the domestic tourists whose ages were between 18 and 35 years old. The method of analysis was Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA) in order to analyze the correlation between Destination image as well as satisfaction and trust as well as behavioral inte...

  17. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  18. Transitions in Body and Behavior : A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal t...

  19. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  20. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  1. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  2. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  4. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  5. Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Berg (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of the

  6. Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Berg (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of the

  7. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  8. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  9. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  10. Study on Dyeing Behavior of Modified Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lai-jiu; LI Hong; LIU Jian-yu

    2004-01-01

    The study of dyeability of the modified flax that uses dye-uptake to reflect its modifying effect is reported in this paper. The optimal technological condition is that the concentration of the modifying agent is 4g/l, and NaOH is 6g/l at liquor ratio of 1:30 for 60 min. at 85℃.Dyeability include uptake rate and color fastness. Dye-uptake of the modified flax is twice more than that of the unmodified. And their color fastness doesn't fall and some of them raise 0.5-1 level.

  11. A retrospective study on management of gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients%常染色体显性多囊肾病患者并发肉眼血尿治疗方法的回顾研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马熠熠; 陈冬平; 梅长林; 郁胜强; 戎殳; 张彤; 李林

    2012-01-01

    目的 寻找治疗常染色体显性多囊肾病(ADPKD)并发肉眼血尿的理想疗法.方法 1993年以来曾在我科住院治疗以及目前在我科多囊肾病专科门诊定期就诊随访的ADPKD患者为对象.收集ADPKD患者出现肉眼血尿时的平均年龄、性别构成、肾功能水平、诱发因素、治疗方案、症状持续时间、血小板计数、凝血参数、肾脏囊肿大小等资料,分别以不同的肉眼血尿诱发因素及治疗方案进行分组,比较其各指标间的差异.结果 共筛选出ADPKD患者905例.279例(男150例,女129例)曾有肉眼血尿病史,其中146例能提供完整的病史和治疗经过,而只有101例能提供相关的实验室检查结果.在这101例中,肉眼血尿可出现在慢性肾脏病(CKD)任何一期;GFR为(56.4±44.1)ml·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1;症状持续时间(8.8±8.0)d;男、女患者症状持续时间差异无统计学意义[(8.2±7.3)d比(9.5±8.8)d,P=0.426);凝血参数均在正常参考范围内,其中91例患者血小板计数正常.不同诱发因素导致的肉眼血尿持续时间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).卧床休息组症状持续时间显著短于其他组患者(P<0.05).各组间血小板计数、凝血酶时间和国际标准化比值等差异无统计学意义.结论 对出现肉眼血尿的ADPKD患者应首先明确其诱因.卧床休息应作为核心治疗措施.在考虑使用止血药物时建议使用抗纤维蛋白溶解类药物,不需要预防性使用抗生索.%Objective To seauch the ideal management for gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).Methods ADPKD patients who were ever hospitalized and followed up in our department since 1993 were enrolled in the study.Demographic and clinical data were colloected,such as gender,age of gross hematuria,level of renal function,causative factors,management strategies,duration of gross hematuria,blood platelet count,activated partial thromboplastin time,prothrombin time

  12. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  13. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  14. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  15. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dugué

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  16. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-07-20

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely unknown, partially owing to lack of animal model(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors. The mice were tested at 24 hours before and at 6, 9 and 24 hours after the Anesthesia/Surgery. Composite Z scores were calculated. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondria permeability transient pore, was used to determine potential mitochondria-associated mechanisms of these behavioral changes. Anesthesia/Surgery selectively impaired behaviors, including latency to eat food in buried food test, freezing time and time spent in the center in open field test, and entries and duration in the novel arm of Y maze test, with acute onset and various timecourse. The composite Z scores quantitatively demonstrated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced behavior impairment in mice. Cyclosporine A selectively ameliorated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced reduction in ATP levels, the increases in latency to eat food, and the decreases in entries in the novel arm. These findings suggest that we could use a battery of behavior tests to establish a mouse model to study postoperative delirium.

  17. Behavioral Processes in Long-Lag Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J

    2017-05-01

    We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.

  18. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  20. Refractive index of quark-gluon plasma: Kinetic theory with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisional kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-10-01

    We derive the electric permittivity ɛ and magnetic permeability μM of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the kinetic theory associated with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collisional kernel. Based on them, we study the effect of collisions on the refractive index of QGP. Compared to the collisionless case, collisions change the ω -behavior of ɛ and μM dramatically, which is responsible for the fact that the real and imaginary parts of n2 and the Depine-Lakhtakia index nDL are smooth functions of ω . For a small collision rate ν , the Depine-Lakhtakia index nDL is negative in some frequency range. When the collision rate increases, the frequency range for nDLindex nDL is positive for all frequency regions, which indicates a normal refractive index. In contrast to the collisionless case, there exists some frequency range in which nDLnegative refractive index.

  1. Finite temperature and dissipative corrections to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation from $\\lambda\\Phi^4$ one loop contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, T

    2011-01-01

    Starting with a scalar field in a thermal bath and using the one loop quantum correction potential, we rewrite the Klein-Gordon equation in its thermodynamical representation and study the behavior of this scalar field due to temperature variations in the equations of motion. We find the generalization of a Gross-Pitaevskii like equation for a relativistic Bose gas with finite temperature, the corresponding thermodynamic and viscosity expressions, and an expression for the postulate of the first law of the thermodynamics for this BECs. We also propose that the equations obtained might help to explain at some level the phase transition of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in terms of quantum field theory in a simple way.

  2. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  3. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-06-24

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.

  4. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Alonso; Juan Marcos Mirande; Matías Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  5. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  6. Folkbiology meets microbiology: a study of conceptual and behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong; Chan, Carol K K; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Cheung, Mike W L; Ho, Johnson Y S; Ip, Grace W M

    2008-08-01

    Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children either a conventional cold/flu education program or an experimental "Think Biology" program that focused on a biological causal mechanism for cold/flu transmission. The "Think Biology" program led children to reason about cold/flu causation and prevention more scientifically than the conventional program, and their reasoning abilities dovetailed with their mastery of the causal mechanism. Study 3, a modified replication of Study 2, found useful behavioral change as well as conceptual change among children who received the "Think Biology" program and documented coherence among knowledge enrichment, conceptual change, and behavioral change.

  7. Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time.

  8. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  9. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  10. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  11. STUDY CONCERNING THE SPECTATOR BEHAVIOR ON HANDBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor BOGDAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available specialists in recent years. Modern approaches to study the reasons and frequency aspects of the show audienceparticipation sport, the level of affiliation to the team, the aggressive behavior of spectators, most fitting that conductconsumer behavior.Aims - highlighting the structure and behavior of the general features of the audience to play handballSubjects and methods - I applied to a game of handball viewers a non-standardized questionnaire of 15 items, with themajor content themes developed by the literatureResults and discussion - the raw data were processed with Excel and SPSS statistical packages, calculating descriptiveand inferential statistical indices, which were the basis for interpretation of results.Conclusions - The study highlighted a number of features of spectators at games of handball, information analyzedaccording to socio-demographic parameters studied: gender, age, education completed.

  12. Study on the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy%脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立苹; 王丹; 孙奇峰; 李雪梅; 杨本利; 李晓捷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe the effect of intelligence on the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.Methods:50 ca-ses of 4-6 years old, GMFCS II level, mild mental retardation children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy , according to the random number table method were randomly divided into treatment group (n=25) and control group (n=25).The two groups were treated with conventional rehabilitation method of rehabilitation treatment, the treatment group with brain function biofeedback treatment.After 3 months, the intelligence quotient and GMFM88 were assessed again.The motor and intelligence ability were contrasted of treatment and control group.The differences were observed between treatment and control group.Results:The score of China Binet Intelligence Scales increased in treatment group.The score of dimension D and E increased after treatment in both treatment and control group.The improve-ment in treatment group was larger than control group.Conclusion:The improvement of intelligence can promote the ability of the gross motor.%目的:判断脑瘫患儿智力改善对粗大运动功能的影响. 方法:4 ~6 岁轻度智力落后、GMFCS II级痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿50例,按随机数表法随机分为治疗组(n=25)和对照组(n=25). 2组均采用常规康复方法进行康复治疗,治疗组加脑功能生物反馈治疗,治疗前和治疗3个月后分别评定中国比内智力量表、粗大运动功能,观测2组患儿智力水平、粗大运动功能量表( GMFM-88)之 D 区 、E 区分值及粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度以比较观察疗效. 结果: 治疗组智力水平较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ). 治疗后2组GMFM-88之D区和E区评分较治疗前有改善( P<0 .05 ) ,治疗组上述指标均比对照组显著提高(P<0.05). 治疗组粗大运动功能评定分值改善程度明显优于对照组. 结论:脑瘫患儿智力改善会促进粗大运动功能发育.

  13. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  14. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Nooe, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female). Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03). Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  15. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  16. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  17. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  18. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  19. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  20. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  1. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  2. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  3. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  4. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  5. A Large-Scale Study of Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nalchigar, Soroosh; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    The continuous growth of electronic commerce has stimulated great interest in studying online consumer behavior. Given the significant growth in online shopping, better understanding of customers allows better marketing strategies to be designed. While studies of online shopping attitude are widespread in the literature, studies of browsing habits differences in relation to online shopping are scarce. This research performs a large scale study of the relationship between Internet browsing hab...

  6. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  7. Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E & R): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. R. Silva; Luzia I. Pfeifer; Carolina A. R. Funayama

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). OBJECTIVE:: To determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children...

  8. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  9. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  10. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up participated in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. Design :The study design is a cross-sectional survey done independently by four observers. Materials and Methods :A semi-structured proforma for demographic profile has been used. The behavioral abnormalities are assessed by using DASH II (Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped second modified version scale. Statistical Analysis :Demographic comparison has been done by analysis of variance. Correlation matrix has been run to identify correlation between individual items. Principal component analysis has been used for grouping the behavioral pattern. Results :Behavioral abnormalities as expected are more common in people having intellectual disability than the normal population. The Down syndrome group unlike other causes of intellectual disability shows higher scores in Stereotypy. Impulse control and Mania subscales. Factor analysis yields five characteristic factor structures, namely, hyperactive-impulsive, biological functions, affective, neurotic and organic-pervasive developmental disorder clusters. Conclusions :Contrary to the conventional belief of docile-fun and music loving prototype, individuals diagnosed with Down syndrome show clusters of behavioral abnormalities and management can vary depending on these target symptoms.

  11. Social Determinants of Smoking Behavior: The Healthy Twin Study, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youn Sik; Ko, Hansoo; Yoon, Changgyo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Sung, Joohon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify any influence of socioeconomic status on smoking and smoking cessation in a situation where genetic factors are controlled. Methods The sample for this study was 2502 members of the twins and families cohort who participated in the Korean Healthy Twins Study from 2005 to 2009. Groups of brothers or sisters, including twins and fraternal twins, were compared in terms of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors according to differences in soci...

  12. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. The study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital and research institute catering mainly to a population of low socioeconomic status. The study was a cross-sectional study involving 50 multi-transfused thalassemic children of age 5-10 years. Fifty multi-transfused thalassemic children, aged 5-10 years, not suffering from any other major medical illness, were included. Child Behavior Check List (Achenbach) (CBCL) was used to collect data from each parent regarding the child's behavior. Parental Attitude Scale (Rangaswamy 1989) was applied. Descriptive statistical analysis was used with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test to find the significance of data. The CBCL total scores were high in 32% patients, indicating the presence of behavioral problems. Higher CBCL scores were found in children of older age group, those with poor school performance, whose mothers' education was more than eighth standard, had history of death of thalassemic relative in family, greater duration of diagnosed illness, poor pre-transfusion hemoglobin level, and who had longer periods of school absenteeism. Behavioral problems are common in multi-transfused thalassemic children. Early diagnosis and intervention of behavioral problems in these children would make them cope with thalassemia better.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Principles within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jent, Jason F.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group…

  14. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  15. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the clas

  16. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  17. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  18. Pathways to Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Three-Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, based on Family Interactional Theory (FIT), the authors tested a longitudinal model of the intergenerational effects of the grandmothers' parent-child relationships and the grandparents' smoking on the grandchildren's externalizing behavior via parents' psychological symptoms, tobacco use, and child rearing. Using Mplus, the authors…

  19. Thermal behavior of polytriazole films: a thermal analysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, B.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal behavior of poly(1,3-phenyl-1,4-phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole has been investigated using different scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Processes are studied for this thermally stable polymer that take place between 200 and 500°C. While the polycondensation reaction

  20. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This num

  1. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  2. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  3. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  4. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  5. Smart Travel Based on Space-Time Behavior Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai; Yanwei; Shen; Yue; Ta; Na; Qian; Fang

    2015-01-01

    In view of the significant demands and development trends of urbanization during the 12 th Five-Year Plan period, "smart city" has attracted wide attention as an advanced city development concept in China. Under the circumstance of rapid urbanization, traffic congestion and accessibility defi ciency become major challenges to many Chinese cities, as transportation and travel are closely related to the effi ciency of a city’s operation and the quality of people’s life. As essential part of smart city planning and management, smart travel offers an effective behavior planning countermeasure to reduce the amount of urban traffi c and optimize the space-time distribution of travels and provides an effective technology to enrich the theories and methodologies of urban and transportation planning. Orienting at the practical demand of citizens and focusing on their travel behavior, this paper carries out a discussion on the smart travel framework based on space-time behavior study and analyzes smart travel planning and its policy route from multiple perspectives, including a prediction on travel demand, transportation planning, public policy-making, and urban planning. What’s more, the paper suggests travel services for citizens based on space-time behavior analysis, such as providing personalized information, smart decision-making support, and individual behavior planning.

  6. Study of Thermal Analysis Behavior of Fenbendazole and Rafoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Saad, Ahmed Sayed; Alaraki, Manal Sami; Elzanfaly, Eman Saad

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis techniques have been applied to study the thermal behavior of fenbendazole (Fen) and rafoxanide (Raf). Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations were used to confirm these results. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Results: Thermal behavior of Fen and Raf were augmented using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.17% and 99.60% for Fen and Raf, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis techniques gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point and degree of purity at low cost, furthermore, its simplicity and sensitivity justifies its application in quality control laboratories.

  7. [An epidemiological study of health behavior and health consciousness in smoking behavior modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, T; Yoshida, K; Shimada, N; Muto, T

    1990-05-01

    Among health enhancement activities which have been promoted at various worksites smoking cessation is the most common but is seldom very successful. Smoking cessation programs have almost always neglected individual background factors. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors critical to behavior modification with respect to smoking cessation at worksites. Five hundred and sixty-five chemical factory workers responded to questionnaires on their smoking behavior lifestyle, drinking habits, opinions on smoking, opinions on quitting smoking, knowledge about the effects of smoking on health, and type A behavior pattern. Two hundred thirty two male smokers (age 20-58) were chosen for the smoking cessation program, which was administered during the periodical health examinations. One year after receiving the anti-smoking education their smoking behaviors were again surveyed. Fifteen employees had quit smoking and 79 had reduced consumption by more than 10 cigarettes per day. A principal component analysis was performed in order to extract factors from the numerous items on the questionnaire. Principal component scores were compared between the group that had stopped smoking or had cut back by more than 10 cigarettes per day (Responsive Group) and the rest of the smokers (Unresponsive Group). Principal component scores, which appear to be related to levels of individual health consciousness and levels of regular exercise, were significantly higher in the responsive group than in the unresponsive group. No significant differences were noted between the two groups for principal component scores for knowledge of effects of smoking on health, drinking habits, opinions on smoking, opinions on quitting smoking, and type A behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Studying the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvati Razavi Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior. In today's competitive world, where the consumer is faced with a broad range of products made in different countries, companies should further seek to identify the factors of customers' trends towards products to encourage customers to select and purchase the product. In the model proposed in this study, the relationship between brand equity and the dimensions of consumer behavior including the willingness to pay for extra cost, brand preference and purchase intention is investigated. The research method is a descriptive correlational. Structural equations and descriptive and inferential statistics and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. The statistical population of the study includes the owners of Grand Vitara, Sportage and Santafe from the companies of Iran Khodro, Kia and Hyundai. The population was unlimited including 384 people using Cochran formula; and cluster sampling and endemic questionnaire tool were used. In the marketing literature, the lack of empirical research that seeks to explore the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior is tangible. This research focuses on those reactions that provide more sales and the ability to grow. According to the results, it seems that there is a relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior including paying extra cost, brand preference and purchase intention.

  9. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  10. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  12. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  14. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil.

  15. The study of suicidal behavior in the schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, C Z

    1989-01-01

    The studies reviewed indicate that suicidal behavior is infrequent among school children (12%), but increases progressively among junior high (35%), high school (65%), and college students (50-65%). Though considerable, these values are lower than those of similar-age psychiatric populations. Estimates of the rate of actual attempts were 3% for elementary students, 11% for high school students, and 15-18% for college students. Most were low-lethality attempts for which medical or other attention was not sought. Accordingly, the vast majority of suicide attempts will not be uncovered by investigations dealing solely with clinical or medically identified populations. The most commonly identified correlates of suicidal behaviors included depressive symptoms, social problems, family disorganization and problems, life stress, and poor problem-solving skills. Academic problems were not as important. These findings must be interpreted in light of methodological constraints. Response rates have been low, samples have been small, minorities have been underrepresented, nonstudents have been ignored, and volunteers of unreported characteristics have predominated. The representativeness of such groups is questionable. The definition and categorization of behaviors have varied considerably, making between-study comparisons difficult. The differences among thoughts, threats, and attempts (the most frequently used categories) have often not been taken into account. Rather, in analyses, these behaviors have been treated as if they were homogeneous entities and grouped together. Where attempters have been separated from ideators, they too have been treated as a single entity. Many deliberately survived attempts are manipulative and oriented toward the benefits the individual survivors expect. Such attempts probably differ substantially in nature from those attempts where survival is not intended. Understanding of this phenomenon could be enhanced by a comparison of the

  16. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  17. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  18. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  19. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  20. Maternal literacy and health behavior: a Nepalese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Robert A; LeVine, Sarah E; Rowe, Meredith L; Schnell-Anzola, Beatrice

    2004-02-01

    This article addresses the question of whether literacy could be mediating the relationships of schooling to maternal health behavior in populations undergoing demographic transition. Recent studies in which literacy was directly assessed suggest a literacy pathway to demographic change. The literacy skills of 167 urban and rural mothers of school-aged children in Lalitpur District of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal were assessed by tests of reading comprehension, academic language proficiency, health media skills and health narrative skill, as part of studies in the urban and rural communities that included a maternal interview and ethnographic fieldwork on the contexts of family life, health care and female schooling. Regression analysis of the data indicates the retention of literacy skills in adulthood and their influence on health behavior; ethnographic evidence shows that selective bias in school attainment does not account for the results. Further direct assessment studies are recommended.

  1. THE STUDY OF COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR IN ONLINE SHOPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Cristache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of Internet in our everyday life, little is known about consumer buying behavior in on-line purchases. Moreover, consumer buying disorder (CBD, one of the new addictions of the era, is poorly researched in the Romanian literature. This study aimed at identifying whether this disorder is present among Romanian students that purchase on-line through a questionnaire applied to 100 students attending the University „Dunarea de Jos” of Galati. An analysis of the responses yields that a 13% of the studied sample indeed presents characteristics of this disorder and confirms previous global studies that the compulsive buyers are majoritarian women. This work increases our understanding of on-line consumer buying behavior and will contribute to future research on similar topics.

  2. Coping behaviors V.S Customer Complaint Behavior: A Study of Iranian Consumers 'Coping Behaviors with Service Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Charsetad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose–Consumer researchers have become increasingly interested in the study of coping. This research contributes to this novel paradigm by investigating structural theories of coping with service failure using a hierarchical structure.   Design/methodology/approach– For this purpose after an extensive review of related literature, the preliminary scale consist of 45 items was adopted and compiled from previous studies. The paper uses both exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analysis to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of these items. Findings– After a confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity tests, a hierarchal model with three higher order and nine lower order factor, was obtained. Originality/value– Despite the importance of coping strategies in service failure context, there isn't any considerable research in Iran to identify coping behaviors.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  3. Geography as a Behavioral Study in the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that geography can be made more relevant in today's social studies if it is presented as the study of the environmental impact of culture. This theme is illustrated by contrasting cultural influences which shaped the physically similar east and southeastern regions of China and the U.S. (JDH)

  4. Do behavioral scientists really understand HIV-related sexual risk behavior? A systematic review of longitudinal and experimental studies predicting sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.

  5. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Rafiq M

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  6. The role of Metacognition in eating behavior: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Quattropani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the occidental world, feeding is not only a physiological need but it may become a compulsive behavior. In fact, the tendency to instant gratification may represent a way to escape from unpleasant moods and may lead to addictive behaviors. In this process, Metacognitions, defined as internal cognitive factors that control, monitor and evaluate thinking processes, have a central role. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between eating behavior, psychological needs and metacognitive processes. We evaluated 44 adults using the following instruments: Eating Disorders Inventory III (EDI-III, Metacognition Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30 and Frontal Lobe Score. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We found that negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger were positive correlated with general psychological maladjustment composite (0.61 p<.01. In particular negative beliefs were positive correlated with specific subscales, such as personal alienation (0.57 p<.01 and emotional dysregulation (0.51 p<.01. Results confirmed the importance to explore metacognitive processes and to understand their role in emotional regulation, especially in overweight/obese subjects. Furthermore, we aim to examine the role of cognitive functions in eating behavior.

  7. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  8. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  9. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  10. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  11. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. Objective: To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. Setting: The study was conducted in a tertiary care ...

  12. Identification of a whitefly species by genomic and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, T.M.; Cooper, A.D.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Farrar, C.A.; Bellows, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    An introduced whitefly species, responsible for over a half billion dollars in damage to U.S. agricultural production in 1991, is morphologically indistinguishable from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). However, with the use of polymerase chain reaction-based DNA differentiation tests, allozymic frequency analyses, crossing experiments, and mating behavior studies, the introduced whitefly is found to be a distinct species. Recognition of this new species, the silverleaf whitefly, is critical in the search for management options.

  13. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  14. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  15. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  16. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  17. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  18. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  19. Web User Categorization and Behavior Study Based on Refreshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Kumar Jain

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As the information available on World Wide Web is growing the usage of the web sites is also growing. Since each access to the web pages are recorded in the web logs it is becoming a huge data repository which when mined properly can provide useful information for decision making. The designer of the web site, analyst and management executives are interested in extracting this hidden information from web logs for decision making. In this research paper we proposed a method to categorize the users into faithful, Partially Impatient and Completely Impatient user, page wise so that study of user behavior can be easier. To categorize the user we proposed one new information in the web log that represent each instance of refreshing. We used the markov chain model in which we treated the clicking of Refresh button as another state i.e. Refresh State. We derive some theorem to study each type of user behavior and show that how do users behavior differ.

  1. Using Linear Agarose Channels to Study Drosophila Larval Crawling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Heckscher, Ellie S

    2016-11-26

    Drosophila larval crawling is emerging as a powerful model to study neural control of sensorimotor behavior. However, larval crawling behavior on flat open surfaces is complex, including: pausing, turning, and meandering. This complexity in the repertoire of movement hinders detailed analysis of the events occurring during a single crawl stride cycle. To overcome this obstacle, linear agarose channels were made that constrain larval behavior to straight, sustained, rhythmic crawling. In principle, because agarose channels and the Drosophila larval body are both optically clear, the movement of larval structures labeled by genetically-encoded fluorescent probes can be monitored in intact, freely-moving larvae. In the past, larvae were placed in linear channels and crawling at the level of whole organism, segment, and muscle were analyzed(1). In the future, larvae crawling in channels can be used for calcium imaging to monitor neuronal activity. Moreover, these methods can be used with larvae of any genotype and with any researcher-designed channel. Thus the protocol presented below is widely applicable for studies using the Drosophila larva as a model to understand motor control.

  2. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992. The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001, the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.

  3. Candidate Endophenotypes for Genetic Studies of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Arango, Victoria A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Brent, David A.; Champagne, Frances A.; Clayton, Paula; Currier, Dianne; Dougherty, Donald M.; Haghighi, Fatemah; Hodge, Susan E.; Kleinman, Joel; Lehner, Thomas; McMahon, Francis; Mościcki, Eve K.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Pandey, Ganshayam N.; Pearson, Jane; Stanley, Barbara; Terwilliger, Joseph; Wenzel, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Twin, adoption, and family studies have established the heritability of suicide attempts and suicide. Identifying specific suicide diathesis-related genes has proven more difficult. As with psychiatric disorders in general, methodological difficulties include complexity of the phenotype for suicidal behavior and distinguishing suicide diathesis-related genes from genes associated with mood disorders and other suicide-associated psychiatric illness. Adopting an endophenotype approach involving identification of genes associated with heritable intermediate phenotypes, including biological and/or behavioral markers more proximal to genes, is an approach being used for other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a workshop convened by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University, and the National Institute of Mental Health sought to identify potential target endophenotypes for genetic studies of suicidal behavior. The most promising endophenotypes were trait aggression/impulsivity, early-onset major depression, neurocognitive function, and cortisol social stress response. Other candidate endophenotypes requiring further investigation include serotonergic neurotransmission, second messenger systems, and borderline personality disorder traits. PMID:19201395

  4. Entrepreneurial behavior among employees. Pilot study: Employees from Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Constantin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many objective or subjective factors influence the decision to open a business. The most important factors are: the existence of an adequate opportunity or a market, perception that starting a business could be difficult because of bureaucracy, financial barriers or the need to acquire new skills, a lack of money, etc. Also, entrepreneurial behavior is generally influenced by socio-economic status of the family of origin [1]. Thus, children from wealthy families have the “competitive advantage” to receive an education appropriate for managing a business and of course have the necessary financial resources and its start [2]. However, abilities of every individual can “correct’’ these benefits are completely eliminated/reduced exogenous barriers [3]. In this article I will present the results of a pilot study conducted in 2014 at Bucharest employees to observe their entrepreneurial behavior.

  5. Experimental Study on the Compressive Behavior of CFRP/ECCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wen-bin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, nine square concrete columns, including six CFRP/ECCs and three plain concrete control specimen columns, were prepared. The CFRP tubes with fibers oriented in the hoop direction were manufactured with 10, 20, or 40 mm rounded corner radii at vertical edges. A 100 mm overlap in the direction of fibers was provided to ensure a proper bond. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted to investigate the compressive behaviors including the axial strength, stress-strain response, and ductility. It is evident that the CFRP tube confinement can improve the compressive behavior of concrete core, in terms of axial compressive strength or axial deformability. Based on the experimental results and some existing test database attained by other researchers, a design-oriented model is developed. The predictions of the model for CFRP/ECCs show good agreement with test results.

  6. Transitions in Body and Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Dubas, J.S.; Overbeek, G.J.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2

  7. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  8. a Model Study of Complex Behavior in the Belousov - Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, David Mark

    1988-12-01

    We have studied the complex oscillatory behavior in a model of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction in a continuously-fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The model consisted of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from a reduced mechanism of the chemical system. These equations were integrated numerically on a computer, which yielded the concentrations of the constituent chemicals as functions of time. In addition, solutions were tracked as functions of a single parameter, the stability of the solutions was determined, and bifurcations of the solutions were located and studied. The intent of this study was to use this BZ model to explore further a region of complex oscillatory behavior found in experimental investigations, the most thorough of which revealed an alternating periodic-chaotic (P-C) sequence of states. A P-C sequence was discovered in the model which showed the same qualitative features as the experimental sequence. In order to better understand the P-C sequence, a detailed study was conducted in the vicinity of the P-C sequence, with two experimentally accessible parameters as control variables. This study mapped out the bifurcation sets, and included examination of the dynamics of the stable periodic, unstable periodic, and chaotic oscillatory motion. Observations made from the model results revealed a rough symmetry which suggests a new way of looking at the P-C sequence. Other nonlinear phenomena uncovered in the model were boundary and interior crises, several codimension-two bifurcations, and similarities in the shapes of areas of stability for periodic orbits in two-parameter space. Each earlier model study of this complex region involved only a limited one-parameter scan and had limited success in producing agreement with experiments. In contrast, for those regions of complex behavior that have been studied experimentally, the observations agree qualitatively with our model results. Several new predictions of the model

  9. Study of the rheological behavior of chocolate and margarine [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaste, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, the production process is often established in an empirical way, according to rules of good practice. These methods present gaps, in particular at the level of the production regularity. To model and optimize the processes, it is highly useful to determine the physico-chemical properties of the product. In this work, chocolate and margarine are studied, both aiming direct industrial application but also aiming a general enhancement of rheological mechanism understanding. Indeed, the chocolate is a suspension of solid particles in cocoa butter and the margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion. Rheological behavior of those fluids is therefore relying on different key phenomena. In this work the flow behavior of both products is characterized and a mathematical model describing the rheological behavior of chocolate is developed. For chocolate, the goal is to model the tempering process. To establish the rheological behavior of chocolate, viscosity measurements were realized in a SEARLE VT550 viscometer using a bob and cup geometry. To build the mathematical law, general tests following the International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery (IOCCC recommended method (Servais et al., 2004 were performed. The obtained rheogram shows that the chocolate has a slightly thixotropic behavior. More focus is set on a smaller range of shear rate important for the industrial application (Debaste et al., 2008. Measures for various temperatures and various quantities of cocoa butter were realized. The results show a classical shear-thinning behavior. Further, a statistical analysis of the results was made to determine the parameters of a power-law describing this behavior. It appears that temperature and cocoa butter fraction have no influence on the exponent but well on the consistency parameter. For margarine, the goal is to model the flow in resting tubes, the last step in the industrial production (Herman et al., 2008. To

  10. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  11. Correlational Study of the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joseph J.

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) were administered to the mothers of 40 preschoolers (23 females and 17 males) in a day care situation. The children ranged in age from 47 to 74 months. Mothers were interviewed to determine if any changes had taken place in the behavior of the children…

  12. Gross morphology of rhea oropharyngeal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rhea (Rhea americana americana is an american bird belonging to Ratite's family. Studies related to its morphology are still scarce. This study aims to describe the macroscopic structures of the oropharyngeal cavity. Five heads (2 to 6 months old formalin preserved were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The oropharynx of the rhea was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to grey coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched merely along the rostral portion of the regio interramalis. The floor was formed by the interramal region, (regio interramalis tongue and laryngeal mound containing glove-shaped glottis. This study confirmed the basic morphology of the oropharinx of the rhea. However, important morphological information not previously described is highlighted and contradictory information present in the literature is clarified.

  13. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  14. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  15. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  16. Self-control and academic performance: Two field studies on university citizenship behavior and counterproductive academic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....

  17. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  18. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  19. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  20. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  1. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  2. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  3. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  4. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  5. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  6. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  7. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  8. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  9. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  10. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  11. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  12. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  13. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  14. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  15. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  16. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  17. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  18. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  19. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  20. Study on Behavior Value Analysis and Decision Methodology of Grid Corporations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuanbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on grid corporations, business environment and value characteristics in China, the article analyzes its behavior value factors, and then divides its behavior into three categories: the behavior only affecting the current Economic Value Added(EVA, the behavior affecting both the current and future EVA, and the behavior only affecting future EVA. Finally, the article studies such corporations, behavior value decision making based upon analyses and classifications above.

  1. Superstitious Behavior in Multiple Schedules: a Study About Interaction Among Verbal Behavior and Behavior Maintained by Accidental Relationship with Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Benvenuti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between “superstitious” behavior and verbal behavior was evaluated in three experiments. The participants received different instructions suggesting that responses could score points. In experimental sessions, a rectangle’s color on the computer screen indicated a situation of point presentarion regardless of the participant’s responses or another situation in which the points could not be presented (mult VT 8 s EXT. At the end of each session, participants had to describe what they were doing. In three experiments, only a few participants developed “superstitious” behavior, regardless of the kind of instruction presented at the beginning of the session. At the end of the sessions, participants described their own behavior. The results indicate that the non verbal performance of the participants controlled their self-assessment and that the very contingencies of multiple schemes were responsible for the “superstitious” behavior, more than self-assessment or instructions.   Keywords:  "superstitious" behavior; contiguity; instructions; verbal behavior.

  2. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  3. Study on Optical Absorption Behavior of Dyestuff in Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-ying; ZHU Su-kang; ZUO Lei; ZHU Ping-ping; PAN Ning

    2008-01-01

    Fabric is a kind of turbid materials with strong light scattering,to which the Kubelka-Munk theory can be applied to describe it optical behavior.In this paper,the light absorption coefficients of dyestuff in fabrics are obtained by test and calculation thnmgh a special method proposed by the authors.Then the optical behaviours of dyestuff in fabric are studied.Results show that,the absorption coeffident of dye in fabric is non-scalable and exponential to dye concentrafion in fabric which is totally different from that of the dye in transparent medm like water.

  4. Epileptic EEG: a comprehensive study of nonlinear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshyari, Moayed; Kamkar, L Lily; Daneshyari, Matin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear properties of the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are investigated by comparing two sets of EEG, one set for epileptic and another set for healthy brain activities. Adopting measures of nonlinear theory such as Lyapunov exponent, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension, and Kolmogorov entropy, the chaotic behavior of these two sets is quantitatively computed. The statistics for the two groups of all measures demonstrate the differences between the normal healthy group and epileptic one. The statistical results along with phase-space diagram verify that brain under epileptic seizures possess limited trajectory in the state space than in healthy normal state, consequently behaves less chaotically compared to normal condition.

  5. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on t

  6. Information-Seeking Behavior and Use of Social Science Faculty Studying Stateless Nations: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The information-seeking behavior of social science faculty studying the Kurds was assessed using a questionnaire, citation analysis, and follow-up inquiry. Two specific questions were addressed: how these faculty locate relevant government information and what factors influence their seeking behavior and use of such information. Results show that besides using traditional methods for locating relevant government information, social science faculty studying the Kurds use the World Wide Web and...

  7. A microfluidic device with groove patterns for studying cellular behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Geun; Manbachi, Amir; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns for studying cellular behavior. This microfluidic platform consists of a top fluidic channel and a bottom microgrooved substrate. To fabricate the microgrooved channels, a top poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold containing the impression of the microfluidic channels was aligned and bonded to a microgrooved substrate. Using this device, mouse fibroblast cells were immobilized and patterned within microgrooved substrates (25, 50, 75, and 100 microm wide). To study apoptosis in a microfluidic device, media containing hydrogen peroxide, Annexin V, and propidium iodide was perfused into the fluidic channel for 2 hours. We found that cells exposed to the oxidative stress became apoptotic. These apoptotic cells were confirmed by Annexin V that bound to phosphatidylserine at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during the apoptosis process. Using this microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns, the apoptosis process was observed in real-time and analyzed by using an inverted microscope containing an incubation chamber (37 degrees C, 5% CO(2)). Therefore, this microfluidic device incorporated with microgrooved substrates could be useful for studying the cellular behavior and performing high-throughput drug screening.

  8. Political Activism Research: Studying the Evoution of Political Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Memoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of political activism has grown significantly within the last fifty years. Political participation was always the cornerstone of research in political science, but the advent of comparative political behavior studies and quantitative analysis has paved the way for data-driven investigations of who votes, why people participate and what types of political activities citizens prefer. This article is an introduction to the main scholarship in political participation studies, its evolution since the beginning, the shift in focus from conventional activism to unconventional engagement, up to the most recent innovation of digital participation. The political behavior field has showed how citizens are not necessarily prepared to be polit-ical animals, how political interest and opportunities play a role in the levels of participation recorded and how individuals may choose newer, confrontational modes of political expression that better fit their needs. In the end, the entire development of this field of research highlights once more the relevance of political action, especially with regards to how participation has changed in Europe, over time and across borders.

  9. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  10. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP.Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP.Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results.Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant.Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  11. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age.

  12. Study and Simulation of Traffic Behavior in Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhup, D. K.; Shrestha, C. L.; Sharma, R. K.

    2007-07-01

    Cellular radio systems accommodate a large number of users with a limited radio spectrum. The concept of trunking allows a large number of users to share the relatively small number of channels in a cell by providing access to each user, on demand, from a pool of available channels. Traffic engineering deals with provisioning of communication circuits in a given area for a number of subscribers with a required grade of service. Traffic in any cell depends upon the number of users, the average request rate and average call duration. Certain number of channels is required for the required GOS. To design an optimum capacity cellular system, traffic behavior on that system is important. The number of channel required can be estimated by using Erlang formula and Erlang table. Erlang table is not always useful to calculate the probability of blocking in various complex scenarios such as channel borrowing strategies. When the total number of channel available in a given cell are divided to serve partly for newly generated calls and partly for handover calls, and if they use dynamic channel assignment strategies like channel borrowing, then the probability of blocking can't be calculated from Erlang table. Simulation model of the behavior help us to determine the blocking and the channel utilization while using various channel assignment strategies. The title "Study and Simulation of Traffic Behavior in Cellular Network" entail the study of the blocking probability of traffic in cellular network for static channel assignment strategies and dynamic channel borrowing strategies through MATLAB programming language and graphic user interface (GUI). The result shows that the dynamic scheme can perform better than static maximizing the overall utilization of the circuits and minimizing the overall blocking.

  13. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  14. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  15. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  16. Free-riding behavior in vaccination decisions: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ibuka

    Full Text Available Individual decision-making regarding vaccination may be affected by the vaccination choices of others. As vaccination produces externalities reducing transmission of a disease, it can provide an incentive for individuals to be free-riders who benefit from the vaccination of others while avoiding the cost of vaccination. This study examined an individual's decision about vaccination in a group setting for a hypothetical disease that is called "influenza" using a computerized experimental game. In the game, interactions with others are allowed. We found that higher observed vaccination rate within the group during the previous round of the game decreased the likelihood of an individual's vaccination acceptance, indicating the existence of free-riding behavior. The free-riding behavior was observed regardless of parameter conditions on the characteristics of the influenza and vaccine. We also found that other predictors of vaccination uptake included an individual's own influenza exposure in previous rounds increasing the likelihood of vaccination acceptance, consistent with existing empirical studies. Influenza prevalence among other group members during the previous round did not have a statistically significant effect on vaccination acceptance in the current round once vaccination rate in the previous round was controlled for.

  17. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  19. Hygroscopic particle behavior studied by interdigitated array microelectrode impedance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelholz, Eric; Tsui, Lok-kun; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-01-09

    The hygroscopic behavior of soluble salts bears importance in many research fields including atmospheric sciences, corrosion, porous building materials, and pharmaceuticals. Several methods have been used to study deliquescence (solid to liquid) and efflorescence (liquid to solid) phase transitions of these salts. In this study, we measured the deliquescence and efflorescence RH values of single salt microparticles deposited on an interdigitated microelectrode sensor via electrical impedance. The salts examined were NaCl, LiCl, NaBr, KCl, and MgCl2. Measured values were in agreement with in situ optical microscopic observations and, with the exception of MgCl2, literature values. In the case of MgCl2, deliquescence occurred at 33% RH and 12-15% RH, with the latter range being previously unreported. The depressed deliquescence RH was hypothesized to be a result of the formation of a metastable MgCl2 hydrate. Incomplete efflorescence of MgCl2 was also observed after exposure to <1.5% RH for up to 22 h due to formation of solid shells which trapped fluid. The phenomena elucidated by these results provide an explanation for the anomalous water retention and uptake behavior of MgCl2 below 33% RH reported elsewhere in the literature. The results presented in this study validate the use of this method as an alternative or complementary method for study of bulk-phase transitions of substrate-deposited particles across a broad RH range. These findings also demonstrate the utility of this method for detection of fluid trapping which cannot be directly ascertained by gravimetric and line-of-sight techniques commonly used in the study of hygroscopic particles.

  20. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  1. Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, Cora

    1986-01-01

    Sought to determine how adolescents' (N=156) health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differ according to age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and religion. Findings confirmed gender as a differentiating variable for performance of information-seeking behavior and found positive health…

  2. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  3. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  4. Critical behavior of marginal aperiodic sequences: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nilton

    2007-03-01

    We study layered marginal aperiodic sequences for the Ising and q=8 Potts model on a square lattice. The phase transition is continuous for the former and first-order for the latter. Using the Wolff algorithm we calculate critical exponents and the critical temperature for the Potts model when the interaction constant can assume two values, according to an aperiodic sequence: the period-doubling one for the Ising model and the Fibonacci one for the Potts model. These sequences and models chracterize marginal critical behavior, according to the Luck criterion and, therefore, interaction-dependent exponents are expected for a continuous transition. For first-order phase transitions, no study so far has been done on the influence of marginal sequences.

  5. Phase behavior and interfacial tension studies of surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    Parallel studies of isomerically pure sodium P(1-heptylnonyl) benzene sulfoante, Texas No. 1, its mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the petroleum sulfonate TRS 10-80 were made. Phase behavior in water, in decane, and in water-decane mixtures was studied by spectroturbidimetry, polarizing light microscopy, ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, densitometry, conductimetry, low-frequency, 0.2 to 20 kHz, dielectric relaxation, isopiestic vapor pressure, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was deduced that ultralow tensions (less than 0.01 dyn/cm) arise from the dispersed microcrystallites which form a third, usually liquid crystalline, phase at the decane-brine interfacial region. It appears that neither molecular adsorption from solution for micelles have anything to do with ultralow tensions, which appear to be sensitive to the third phase microstructure. The implications of these results for the mechanism of ultralow tensions in surfactant flooding processes for enhanced petroleum recovery are discussed.

  6. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotion Acceptance Behavior Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Cheng, Yu; McCabe, Elizabeth B.; Gaskill, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of Emotion Acceptance Behavior Therapy (EABT), an outpatient psychotherapeutic intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN) based on a disorder-specific model of symptom maintenance that emphasizes emotion avoidance. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with evidence-supported strategies to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Method Twenty-four individuals aged ≥17 years with AN were treated using the EABT manual. EABT was delivered in 33–58 individual sessions provided over 38–53 weeks. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Thirteen patients (54.2%) completed EABT; 11 (45.8%) dropped out or were withdrawn. EABT was associated with significant improvements in weight, disordered eating symptoms, and emotion avoidance that were maintained over 6-month follow-up. The majority of EABT completers achieved a body mass index >18.5 (n=9/13) or had a normal Eating Disorder Examination Global score (n=10/13) at post-treatment. Discussion Preliminary data suggest that EABT may have utility for a subset of adults with AN. Future research will focus on improving outcomes in EABT non-responders and identifying of mechanisms that drive treatment response. PMID:24407934

  8. Travel Services Consumer Behavior Study at Meridian UTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Constantin Andronic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to study consumer behavior purchasing travel services offered byUTB Meridian. The main objectives of the research are: pre-purchase stage, the stage of purchase,post-purchase stage of the tourist product offered, having regardto the customer structure in terms ofsocio-professional category, age, income, gender. The collectivity investigated is represented byindividuals from which the information were obtained, that is the tourists military personnel who havepurchased services at UTB MERIDIAN-Eforie Nord. This collectivity is the population from whichthe sample will be drawn on which the investigation will be applied and the crowd on which theresults of research will be generalized. To obtain the information direct contact is used by aninvestigator for better control of conditions under which the investigation is conducted. Based on thisanalysis, it appears that the main components of the“mix”of marketing on which we can act toattract tourism consumers and to determine a certain purchase behavior are: product policy,promotional policy and human resources.

  9. Experimental study on dynamic mechanical behaviors of polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Ye, Nan; Huang, Wei; Li, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) is a widely used engineering material in aerospace field, since it has excellent mechanical and optical property. In present study, both compressive and tensile tests of PC were conducted at high strain rates by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar. The high-speed camera and 2D Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) were used to analyze the dynamic deformation behavior of PC. Meanwhile, the plate impact experiment was carried out to measure the equation of state of PC in a single-stage gas gun, which consists of asymmetric impact technology, manganin gauges, PVDF, electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The results indicate that the yield stress of PC increased with the strain rates in both dynamic compression and tension tests. The same phenomenon was similar to elasticity modulus at different strain rate. A constitutive model was used to describe the mechanical behaviors of PC accurately in different strain rates by contrast with the results of 2D-DIC. At last, The D-u Hugoniot curve of polycarbonate in high pressure was fitted by the least square method.

  10. Mechanical behavior study of laser welded joints for DP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2008-03-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining considerable market shares in the automotive industry. The development and application of Dual Phase (DP) steel is just a consistent step towards high-strength steel grades with improved mechanical behavior. Tailor welded blanks with DP steel are promoted in the application of Body-In-White (BIW) structure by the automotive industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that are laser welded together before stamping. Applied cases of tailor welded blanks of high strength steels on the automotive structural parts are investigated in this paper. The mechanical behavior of laser welded joints for DP steel is studied. Microstructure of laser welded joints for DP steel was observed by SEM. Martensite in the weld seam explains the higher strength of welded joints than the base metal. Results show that the strain safety tolerance of laser welded seam for high strength steel can meet the requirement of automobile parts for stamping if the location of laser welded seam is designed reasonably.

  11. Integrating timing and conditioning approaches to study behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafut, Kathryn L; Freestone, David M; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2014-10-01

    Skinner and Pavlov had innovative ways to measure both the times of their subject's responses, as well as the rate of their responses. Since then, different subfields within the study of animal behavior have prioritized either the rate or timing of responses, creating a divide in data and theory. Both timing and conditioning fields have proven fruitful, producing large bodies of empirical data and developing sophisticated models. Despite their individual successes, a unified view of simple behavior is still lacking. This may be caused, at least in part, by the differential emphasis on data collection and analysis techniques. The result is that these subfields produce models that fit their data well, but fail to translate to the other domain. This is startling given the fact that both subfields use nearly identical experimental procedures. To highlight similarities within the subfields, and provide empirical data in support of this integration, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on trace, delay, and backward conditioning procedures. Using these empirical data we discuss how traditional summary measures used by these subfields can be limiting, and suggest methods that may aid in the integration of these subfields toward common goals.

  12. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  13. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  14. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A; Onu, J E; Sonfada, M L; Umaru, M A; Hena, S A; Mahmuda, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  15. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  16. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danmaigoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum. Thirty male bats (adults n=17 and juveniles n=13 were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31±6.30 g, 12.14±0.19 cm and 69.54±7.68 g, 7.77±0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  17. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  18. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y

    2016-10-01

    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P blended version in 2015 resulted in more balanced comments about online content but higher perceived workload (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (pbody mass index and socio-economic status.

  20. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  2. Avaliação artroscópica e macroscópica do complexo da fibrocartilagem triangular do punho. Estudo em cadáveres Arthroscopic and gross evaluation of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist: a cadaver-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Inácio de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O complexo da fibrocartilagem triangular tem importante papel na biomecânica do punho. O diagnóstico preciso das lesões é fundamental para se obter sucesso no tratamento. Há controvérsias acerca da especificidade e sensibilidade dos métodos de imagem empregados atualmente. A artroscopia de punho é um método pouco empregado para o diagnóstico das lesões do CFCT em nosso meio, embora apresente grandes vantagens, como possibilidade de visão direta das lesões e tratamento no mesmo tempo cirúrgico. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o papel da artroscopia de punho na inspeção do CFCT, bem como na detecção de possíveis lesões, comparando os dados com a dissecção macroscópica. Foram avaliados 15 punhos de cadáveres sexo masculino, média de idade de 56,1 anos. A artroscopia demonstrou presença de lesões em 33,3% dos punhos avaliados. Estes achados foram coincidentes após estudo anatômico com ampla dissecção. Concluímos que houve absoluta correlação entre o exame artroscópico e a dissecção macroscópica na detecção de lesões do CFCT.The triangular fibrocartilage complex plays a key role on wrist biomechanics. An accurate injuries diagnosis is paramount for a successful treatment. There are controversies regarding specificity and sensitiveness of imaging methods employed today. Wrist arthroscopy is a method uncommonly used for diagnosing TFCC injuries in our environment, although it presents good advantages, such as the potential of direct viewing injuries, and treatment at the same surgical time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of wrist arthroscopy for inspecting TFCC, as well as for detecting potential injuries, comparing those data to gross dissection. Fifteen wrists of male cadavers (mean age: 56.1 years old were assessed. Arthroscopy showed the presence of injuries in 33.3% of the assessed wrists. Those findings showed consistency after an anatomical study with broad dissection. We

  3. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  4. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  5. The study of irresponsible behavior of organization on behavior and reaction of business’ customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Azarm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, irresponsible behavior of organizations in the marketing has become focus of attentions. It is possible that customers become involved in a citizenship behaviors that like employees, direct organization in a specific direction. Irresponsible behavior of organizations are influenced by various factors. Regarding the role and importance of customer in the survival of organization, managers necessarily need to understand the importance of these factors among customers. After literature review and development of conceptual model. A questionnaire was prepared and delivered to the customers of businesses in Shiraz and finally, data gathered from 503 questionnaires were analyzed by structural equations method (SME. Results of this research confirmed the presented conceptual model and showed that physical environment of organization has positive and significant effect on irresponsible behavior of organizations. In addition, irresponsible behavior of organization has positive and significant effect on satisfaction, loyalty and commitment of customers. On the other hand, satisfaction, loyalty and commitment of customers has positive and significant influence on citizenship behaviors. Perceived justice has no positive and significant effect on commitment and trust of customers and also trust of managers on citizenship behavior.

  6. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  7. A Study of Organizational Behavior of Colleges of Education of Maharashtra State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Geeta R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study Organizational Behavior of Colleges of Education of Maharashtra state in India. Organizational behavior was studied at three process level i.e. individual process level, team process level and organizational process level. The differences were found out if any, in the Organizational Behavior, in between the…

  8. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  9. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  10. Studies of Electron Avalanche Behavior in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J G; Jackson, K H; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Peskov, Vladimir; Wenzel, W A

    2002-01-01

    Electron avalanching in liquid argon is being studied as a function of voltage, pressure, radiation intensity, and the concentrations of certain additives, especially xenon. The avalanches produced in an intense electric field at the tip of a tungsten needle are initiated by ionization from a moveable americium (241Am) gamma ray source. Photons from xenon excimers are detected as photomultiplier signals in coincidence with the current pulse from the needle. In pure liquid argon the avalanche behavior is erratic, but the addition of even a small amount of xenon (>100ppm) stabilizes the performance. Similar attempts with neon (30%) as an additive to argon have been unsuccessful. Tests with higher energy gamma rays (57Co) yield spectra and other performance characteristics quite similar to those using the 241Am source. Two types of signal pulses are commonly observed: a set of pulses that are sensitive to ambient pressure, and a set of somewhat smaller pulses that are not pressure dependent.

  11. Studies on confined crystallization behavior of polycaprolactone thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Congde; JIANG Shichun; JI Xiangling; AN Lijia; JIANG Bingzheng

    2007-01-01

    The confined crystallization behavior ofpolycap-rolactone (PCL) in thin and ultrathin films was studied by AFM (atomic force microscopy). It was found that the crys-talline morphology of PCL depended on the film's thickness.When the thickness is d>2Rg (radius of gyration), the polymer can crystallize into spherulites; when Rg < d< 2 Rg,a dense-branch morphology and dendrites could be found;when d

  12. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P educational level (P educational level (P risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

  13. Discrete Element study of granular material - Bumpy wall interface behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Cheikh, Khadija; Rémond, Sébastien; Pizette, Patrick; Vanhove, Yannick; Djelal, Chafika

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a DEM study of a confined granular material sheared between two parallel bumpy walls. The granular material consists of packed dry spherical particles. The bumpiness is modeled by spheres of a given diameter glued on horizontal planes. Different bumpy surfaces are modeled by varying diameter or concentration of glued spheres. The material is sheared by moving the two bumpy walls at fixed velocity. During shear, the confining pressure applied on each bumpy wall is controlled. The effect of wall bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient and on the granular material behavior at the bumpy walls is reported for various shearing conditions. For given bumpiness and confining pressure that we have studied, it is found that the shear velocity does not affect the shear stress. However, the effective friction coefficient and the behavior of the granular material depend on the bumpiness. When the diameter of the glued spheres is larger than about the average grains diameter of the medium, the latter is uniformly sheared and the effective friction coefficient remains constant. For smaller diameters of the glued spheres, the effective friction coefficient increases with the diameter of glued spheres. The influence of glued spheres concentration is significant only for small glued spheres diameters, typically half of average particle diameter of the granular material. In this case, increasing the concentration of glued spheres leads to a decrease in effective friction coefficient and to shear localization at the interface. For different diameters and concentrations of glued spheres, we show that the effect of bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient can be characterized by the depth of interlocking.

  14. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  15. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  16. Influencing factors on hand hygiene behavior of nursing students based on theory of planned behavior: A descriptive survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risky Behaviors of University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarp Uner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle.   Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt

  18. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  19. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  20. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  1. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities.

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. Purpose. To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  3. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  4. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  5. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  6. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  7. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  8. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  10. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  11. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assis

  12. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro-and Antisocial Behaviors : A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, Inge B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/293037817; Dekovic, Maja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088030563; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288661834; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation,

  13. Affective mechanisms linking dysfunctional behavior to performance in work teams : a moderated mediation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, M.S.; Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the association between dysfunctional learn behavior and team performance. Data included measures of teams' dysfunctional behavior and negative affective tone as well as supervisors' ratings of teams' (nonverbal) negative emotional expressivity and performance. Utilizing a

  14. Effect of Spark Motor Program on the development of gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Faal Moganloo

    2013-11-01

    Results: Spark Program caused significant changes in all the variables of the study, except speed and agility, in the experimental group after 24 sessions. The changes included: agility and speed (P=0.731, balance (P=0, strength (P=0.002, and bilateral coordination (P=0. Conclusion: Spark Motor Program can improve gross motor skills in intellectually disabled educable students.

  15. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  16. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  17. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  18. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  19. The Digital Music Market: a study of Brazilian consumers’ behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Capelli Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The convergence between technology, the Internet and music brought about great challenges to the recording industry worldwide. Despite digital music’s revenue growth, the music industry has declined significantly over recent years. To attract new customers and compete with other ways of getting music on the network, record companies and on-line music providers must figure out who their potential customers are. The goal of this study was to explore and describe the characteristics and behavior of digital music users, as well as of those who are willing to pay or unwilling to use this service, in order to fully understand this market’s context. These are the study’s main findings: 1 88% of the sample of Brazilian Internet users are also digital music users; 2 their profile is significantly related to the profile of Internet usage (social networking and entertainment; 3 non-users fail to use digital music mainly due to lack of knowledge on how to do it; 4 66.4% intend to pay for digital music; 5 they share one characteristic: they frequently shop online; 6 people who are willing to pay for digital music receive the difference between legal and illegal music, and do not value the Internet much. We hope this study will promote efficient, customer-oriented marketing actions.

  20. Study of Lactic Acid Thermal Behavior Using Thermoanalytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Komesu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actually, there is a growing interest in the biotechnological production of lactic acid by fermentation aiming to substitute fossil fuel routes. The development of an efficient method for its separation and purification from fermentation broth is very important to assure the economic viability of production. Due to its high reactivity and tendency to decompose at high temperatures, the study of lactic acid thermal behavior is essential for its separation processes and potential application. In the present study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses showed endothermic peaks related to the process of evaporation. Data of thermogravimetry (TG/DTG were correlated to Arrhenius and Kissinger equations to provide the evaporation kinetic parameters and used to determine the vaporization enthalpy. Activation energies were 51.08 and 48.37 kJ·mol−1 and frequency values were 859.97 and 968.81 s−1 obtained by Arrhenius and Kissinger equations, respectively. Thermogravimetry, coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS, provided useful information about decomposition products when lactic acid was heated at 573 K for approximately 30 min.

  1. Gross-fragmentation of meteoroids and bulk density of Geminids from photographic fireball records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceplecha, Zdenek; Mccrosky, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    meteoroid by allowing for one or more points, where sudden gross fragmentation can occur. Using this generalized solution, the distances along the meteoroid trajectory can be computed for any choice of input parameters and compared with the observed distances flown by the meteoroid. For the most precise and long fireball trajectories, the least-squares solution can, thus, yield the initial velocities, the ablation coefficients, the dynamical masses, the positions of gross-fragmentation points, and the terminal mass. At a gross-fragmentation point, the ratio of the main mass to all the remaining fragments can be compared with the dynamic mass determined from our gross-fragmentation model and, thus, the meteoroid bulk density can be evaluated. We applied the gross-fragmentation model to sever PN fireballs showing time changes of residuals, and we recognized that, in all these cases, the new computed bulk densities of meteoroids resulted higher in comparison with the meteoroid densities determined with the non-gross-fragmentation model. Other aspects of the study are discussed.

  2. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  3. Analysis of the Complex Gross-Pitaevskii Equation for the Bose-Einstein Condensation of Exciton-Polaritons

    KAUST Repository

    Núñez, Jesus

    2011-08-01

    Considered as a fundamental step for the development of the atomic laser and quantum computing, as well as the theoretical explanation of super fluidity, the Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC) has emerged as one of the most important topics in modern physics. This project is devoted to the analysis of a condensate based on exciton-polaritons. This BEC is characterized by a high critical temperature of condensation (about 20 K) and non-equilibrium dynamics. A mathematical model called complex Gross- Pitaevskii equation (cGPE) is used to describe its behavior. The steady state solutions of the cGPE are studied and a numerical method based on a collocation method is proposed in order to find these solutions. Once the steady state solutions are found, a linear stability analysis is performed, demonstrating that the steady state solutions become unstable as the pumping spot radius increases. Finally, the manifestations of these instabilities are analyzed by direct simulation of the cGPE, using a second order time-splitting spectral method. As a result, it is possible to see the formation of quantum vortices, which increase in number as the pumping spot radius increases.

  4. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  5. Propagating and annihilating vortex dipoles in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Rorai, Cecilia; Fisher, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Quantum vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluid helium can be informatively described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Various approximate analytical formulae for a single stationary vortex are recalled and their shortcomings demonstrated. Significantly more accurate two-point [2/2] and [3/3] Pade' approximants for stationary vortex profiles are presented. Two straight, singly quantized, antiparallel vortices, located at a distance d apart, form a vortex dipole, which, in the GP model, can either annihilate or propagate indefinitely as a `solitary wave'. We show, through calculations performed in a periodic domain, that the details and types of behavior displayed by vortex dipoles depend strongly on the initial conditions rather than only on the separation distance (as has been previously claimed). It is found, indeed, that the choice of the initial two-vortex profile (i.e., the modulus of the `effective wave function'), strongly affects the vortex trajectories and the time scale of t...

  6. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  7. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  9. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocourkova J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Keywords: Asperger syndrome, suicidal behavior, adolescence

  10. Anomalous flow behavior in nanochannels: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Sohail; Luo, Lin; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-06-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of flow of water in nanochannels with a range of surface wettability characteristics (hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic) and driving forces (pressures). Our results show apparently anomalous behavior. At low pressures, the rate is higher in nanochannels with hydrophilic surfaces than that with hydrophobic surfaces; however, with high pressure driven flow we observe opposite trends. This apparently anomalous behavior can be explained on the basis of molecular thermodynamics and fluid mechanics considerations. Understanding such behavior is important in many nanofluidic devices such as nanoreactors, nanosensors, and nanochips that are increasingly being designed and used.

  11. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  12. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  13. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  14. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  15. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  16. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  17. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  18. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments.

  19. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  20. Fluorinated microemulsions: A study of the phase behavior and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoNostro, P. [Univ. of Florence, Firenze (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Choi, S.M.; Chen, S.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ku, C.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1999-06-24

    Fluorinated surfactants have been studied for their peculiar property to form micellar aggregates in water and oils (hydrocarbons or fluorocarbons) and to produce stable microemulsions. Because of their capacity to dissolve large amounts of gases (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide) and for their characteristic physicochemical properties, fluorocarbons have been tested for specific medical purposes, and their microemulsions are among the most promising candidates for the production of suitable blood substitutes and other biocompatible fluids. The authors have synthesized a new partially fluorinated nonionic surfactant, namely, F(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}-CO-(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 7.2}OCH{sub 3} (I), that forms stable microemulsions with water and perfluorocarbons such as perfluorooctane (PFO). In this paper the authors describe for the first time the phase behaviors of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water/PFH and in water/PFO, and that of ester I in water/PFO. Small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) experiments provide a detailed description of the microstructure of the H{sub 2}O/PFO/PFOA ternary system.

  1. Study of crystallization behavior of poly(phenylene sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B. Nohara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(phenylene sulfide (PPS is an engineering thermoplastic polymer that presents high temperature resistance (glass transition temperature around 85 ºC and melting point at 285 ºC. These properties combined with its mechanical properties and its high chemical resistance allows its use in technological applications such as molding resins and as matrix for structural thermoplastic composites. During the manufacture of thermoplastic composites, the polymer is exposed to repeated melting, quenching and crystallization processes. The properties of semicrystalline polymers, such as PPS, depend on its crystallization behavior. This work deals with the PPS crystallization kinetics under different thermal cycles. This study was performed under isothermal conditions in a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, coupled to Perkin Elmer crystallization software referred to as Pyris Kinetics - Crystallization. The results were correlated with microscopic analyses carried out in a polarized light microscope, equipped with a controlled heating and cooling accessory. In this case, the experimental conditions were the same adopted for the DSC analyses. From the results, parameters could be established to be used in the composite manufacture.

  2. Study on transfer behavior of radionuclides from soil to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Shigemitsu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Shinohara, Kunihiko [Environmental Protection Section, Environment and Safety Division, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99), Iodine-129 (I-129) and Neptunium-237 (Np-237) are important radionuclides for environmental assessment around nuclear fuel cycle facilities, because they have long half-lives and relatively high mobilities in the environment. Therefore, we have studied on the determination method, distribution and behavior of such long-lived radionuclides in surface soil environment. A new analytical technique using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MIP-MS) were applied to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples. The sensitivity of ICP-MS method was 10 to 100,000 times higher, and the counting time was 100 to 100,000 times shorter than the conventional radioanalytical methods. The depth profiles showed that more than 90% of Tc-99, I-129, Np-237 and Pu-239, 240 were retained in the surface layer, up to 10 cm in depth, which contained much amount of organic materials. The result suggests that the content of organic materials in soil is related to adsorption of these nuclides on soil. (author)

  3. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  4. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students' pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Preclinical medical students' study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success.

  5. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  6. Mobile information-seeking behavior: A comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jong-Moon; Song, Yoo-Seong

    2015-01-01

    .... While such a rapid adoption of mobile devices is a worldwide phenomenon, the authors sought to investigate similarities and differences of mobile information-seeking behavior of college students in diverse regions...

  7. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  8. The association between children’s behavior and parenting of caregivers: A longitudinal study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota eSuzuki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children’s behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. This data was collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children’s behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of their caregivers; and the parenting style of caregivers will affect their children’s behavior at 9 years. We evaluated children’s behavior and parenting behavior using a strength and difficulties questionnaire and a parenting scale. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM. The results of the SEM showed that children’s behavior at 7.5 years predicted their behavior at 9 years. Children’s problematic behavior at 7.5 years triggered overreactive parenting in their caregivers at 9 years, which increased problematic behavior and decreased prosocial behavior in the children at 9 years. These findings indicate the association between children’s behavior and the parenting style of caregivers in Japan.

  9. The Association between Children's Behavior and Parenting of Caregivers: A Longitudinal Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Takehara, Kenji; Misago, Chizuru; Inagaki, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between children's behavior (i.e., prosocial and problematic behavior) and the parenting style (i.e., laxness and overreactivity) of their caregivers by using longitudinal data in the Japanese population. These data were collected when the children were 7.5 and 9 years. We proposed three hypotheses: children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict their behavior at 9 years; children's behavior at 7.5 years will predict the parenting of their caregivers; and the parenting style of caregivers will affect their children's behavior at 9 years. We evaluated children's behavior and parenting behavior using a strength and difficulties questionnaire and a parenting scale. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the SEM showed that children's behavior at 7.5 years predicted their behavior at 9 years. Children's problematic behavior at 7.5 years triggered overreactive parenting in their caregivers at 9 years, which increased problematic behavior and decreased prosocial behavior in the children at 9 years. These findings indicate the association between children's behavior and the parenting style of caregivers in Japan.

  10. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  11. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer

  12. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  13. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer p

  14. CIRCLE OF WILLIS: VARIANT FORMS AND THEIR EMBRYOLOGY USING GROSS DISSECTION AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajeet Saikia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The circle of Willis is a large arterial anastomotic ring present at the base of the brain uniting the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar systems. Branches from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries anastomose to form an arterial circle in the basal cisterns and then distribute to supply the brain. The anatomy of the circle is known to vary significantly; the vessels may be absent or sufficiently narrowed altering the hemodynamics of the circle of Willis and affecting its role as a collateral route. These variant forms can be correlated to their phylogeny and embryology. Prior knowledge of these variant forms is important in pathologies and treatment (e.g. parent artery occlusion for carotid aneurysms resulting occlusion of carotid and vertebral arteries. Context and purpose: Our study was undertaken to observe and compare the morphology of circle of Willis using two entirely different methods; gross dissection (GD and Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and to correlate the variant patterns encountered with the possible underlying developmental events. Gross dissection was carried out in 70 human cadavers and equal numbers of MRA’s of healthy individuals were studied retrospectively. Results: Only 31 cases (22.14% presented with a complete circle of Willis, out of which 14 (20% were cadaveric specimen and 17 (24.18% were in MRA group. Unilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating artery was the most common variation observed in our study (19.28%. Conclusions: The wide variation in completeness of the circle of Willis in general population is similar to earlier observations. Review of phylogeny and embryology makes us familiar with variant forms which would be otherwise difficult to recognize and may be misinterpreted. MRA and gross dissection findings despite certain variations are comparable.

  15. Experimental study on behaviors of polypropylene fibrous concrete beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUJI D.; NATESAN S.C.; MURUGESAN R.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic fibers made from nylon or polypropylene have gained application when loose and woven into geo textile form although no information on the matrix's mechanical performance is obtained so that more understanding of their structural contribution to resist cracking can be determined. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to determine the performance characteristics of concrete reinforced with a polypropylene structural fiber. In this investigation "Fiber mesh" brand of fibers manufactured by SL Concrete System, Tennessee, USA and marketed by M/S Millennium Building System, Inc., Bangalore, India are used. The lengths of the fibers used were 24 mm. Fiber dosages used were 0.9, 1.8, 2.7 kg/m3. A total of three mixtures, one for each fiber dosage were made. A standard slump cone test was conducted on the fresh concrete mix with and without fibers to determine the workability of the mix. The test program included the evaluation of hardened concrete properties such as compressive, split tensile, modulus of rupture and flexural strengths. The increase in compressive strength is about 36.25%,26.20%, and 23.75% respectively that of plain concrete. This increase in strength was directly proportional to amount of fibers present in the mix. The increase in flexural strength for Mixes Ⅰ~Ⅲ is about 21%, 16.6%, and 23% respectively that of plain concrete specimens. An experimental investigation was also made to study the behaviors of reinforced fibers concrete beams (with longitudinal reinforcements) under two-point loading. The deflection and crack patterns were also studied. The improvements in strength and ductility characteristics were discussed.

  16. An Overview on Study of Identification of Driver Behavior Characteristics for Automotive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Na Lin; Changfu Zong; Masayoshi Tomizuka; Pan Song; Zexing Zhang; Gang Li

    2014-01-01

    Driver characteristics have been the research focus for automotive control. Study on identification of driver characteristics is provided in this paper in terms of its relevant research directions and key technologies involved. This paper discusses the driver characteristics based on driver’s operation behavior, or the driver behavior characteristics. Following the presentation of the fundamental of the driver behavior characteristics, the key technologies of the driver behavior characteristi...

  17. Circadian Behavioral Study: LED vs Cool White Fluorescent - 0.1, 1, 10, 40, 80 lux. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Syrkin, N.; Mele, G.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the light source most commonly used in animal habitat lighting is cool white fluorescent (CWF) light. It was the objective of this study to evaluate a novel LED light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to CWF light in producing and maintaining a normal circadian entrainment. The LED and CWF lights had similar spectral power distributions. Sprague-Dawley rats (175-350 g) were kept individually in metabolic cages, under a strict lighting control: 4 days of acclimation at 12:12 LD, 14 days of 12:12 LD, 14 days of 24:0 LD (free-run), and finally 12:12 LD. Food and water were provided ad libitum. Three behavioral parameters were monitored continuously: gross locomotor activity, drinking, and feeding. Combined mean free run periods (tau) were (mean +/- SEM): 24.6 +/- 0.1 and 24.7 +/- 0.2 at 0.1 lux, 25.5 +/- 0.1 and 25.7 +/- 0.1 at 1.0 lux, 25.3 +/- 0.2 and 25.4 +/- 0.2 at 10 lux, 25.8 +/- 0.1 and 25.9 +/- 0.1 at 40 lux, and 25.9 +/- 0.1 and 25.9 +/- 0.1 at 80 lux, CWF and LED respectively. ANOVA found a significant effect (p lux). LED light sources may be a suitable replacement for conventional light sources used in animal habitat lighting while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  18. Scaling analysis of paces of fetal breathing, gross-body and extremity movements

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Russel, W.A.; Lowery, C L

    2007-01-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we studied the scaling properties of the time instances (occurrence) of the fetal breathing, gross-body, and extremity movements scored on a second by second basis from the recorded ultrasound measurements of 49 fetuses. The DFA exponent α of all the three movements of the fetuses varied between 0.63 and 1.1. We found an increase in α obtained for the movement due to breathing as a function of the gestational age while this trend was not observed fo...

  19. Using interactive videodiscs to teach gross anatomy to undergraduates at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J F; Frisby, A J

    1992-02-01

    To determine whether interactive-videodisc lessons can effectively replace some of the labor-intensive laboratories in human gross anatomy, pre-nursing and allied-medical-professions undergraduates at The Ohio State University were randomly assigned to either a traditional cadaver-demonstration lab or an interactive-videodisc computer lab covering the same material. In a one-unit pilot study in the autumn quarter of 1989 (involving 190 students) and a full-quarter course in the spring quarter of 1991 (283 students), the performances of the computer-lab students were not significantly different from those of the students in the traditional cadaver-demonstration-lab groups.

  20. Adolescents' media exposure may increase their cyberbullying behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hamer, Anouk H; Konijn, Elly A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adolescents' exposure to media portraying antisocial and risk behavior on cyberbullying behavior over time. Previous research established relatively high prevalence of cyberbullying behavior among adolescents, although not much is known about the possible predictors of cyberbullying behavior. This study examines the long-term effects of media exposure herein. Furthermore, we examined whether boys and girls differ in this respect. The long-term effects were tested in a longitudinal design with three waves (N = 1,005; age range, 11-17 years; 49% boys). Measured variables: cyberbullying behavior and exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content. Results of mixed-model analyses showed that higher levels of exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content significantly contributed to higher initial rates of cyberbullying behavior. Moreover, an increase in exposure to antisocial media content was significantly related to an increase in cyberbullying behavior over time. For both boys and girls, higher exposure to antisocial and risk behavior media content increases cyberbullying behavior over time though more clearly for boys than for girls. This study provided empirical support for the amplifying effect of exposure to antisocial media content on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior over time. Results are discussed in view of adolescents' media use and the larger theoretical framework. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.